Samara Journal of Science

Samara Journal of Science was established in 2012.

The authors of the journal are university academic staff, researchers, postgraduates, candidates for a doctor’s degree, senior students.

By the decision of Supreme Attestation Commission dated of 29.12.2015, the journal is listed in the Catalogue of peer-reviewed scientific publications, where the core scientific results of the candidate and doctoral theses must be published (link).

The journal is registered in the system “Russian Index Science Citation” (RISC – eLIBRARY.RU).

The journal is registered in the system “CyberLeninka”.

The journal has professional, highly qualified editorial staff consisted of leading scientists (doctors of science, professors, academicians, correspondent members of Russian Academy of Sciences) – representatives of national and foreign institutions of higher education and scientific organizations.

Samara Journal of Science is an open scientific platform for all interested individuals and organizations, which enables authors to publish the results of their research in education as well as biological sciences, historical sciences. The journal promotes an exchange of views on various issues of biology, history and pedagogy between researchers from different regions and countries.


Scientific fields of Samara Journal of Science:
1.5 Biological sciences
1.5.12 Zoology
1.5.14 Entomology
1.5.15 Ecology (biological sciences)
5.6 Historical sciences
5.6.1 Domestic history
5.6.2 Universal history
5.6.3 Archeology
5.6.4 Ethnology, anthropology and ethnography
5.6.5 Historiography, source studies, methods of historical research
5.8 Pedagogy
5.8.1 General pedagogy, history of pedagogy and education
5.8.2 Theory and methodology of training and upbringing
5.8.7 Methodology and technology of professional education


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Current Issue

Vol 11, No 4 (2022)

Biological Sciences

The dynamics of pyrogenic succession of pine plantations in Togliatti and Volzhsky District of the Samara Region
Bystrova E.D., Korchikov E.S.

In this paper, for the first time, taxonomic, biomorphological, ecomorphic analyses have been carried out at different stages of secondary pyrogenic successions of pine plantations on the territory of Togliatti and Volzhsky District of the Samara Region. The study sites belong to the conditions of the forest-steppe zone. Indicator plant species have been identified for the initial and for the transition to the shrubby stage of secondary pyrogenic succession in the forest-steppe zone. The study examines the damage to territories by fire of varying intensity (a steady grass-roots fire of moderate and strong intensity, a runaway riding fire of strong intensity). An assessment of the state of forest communities, a description of plant groupings, and general patterns between plant communities of different growth patterns have been found. Phytocoenotypes of forest communities have been analyzed and a detailed annotated list of vascular plants distributed in the study area has been compiled. In the course of the study, the authors have revealed that pyrogenic successions follow a syngenesis scheme and tolerance model with a change of elements of pioneer communities by forest-steppe and typical forest vegetation. The sequence of settlement of burning species is determined by their life strategies (explorers, patients, violents). Each site under study is characterized by the presence of certain plant communities in the vegetation cover, which are gradually replaced by plant species with certain life cycles, strategies and ecology that are more characteristic of that forest environment.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):10-17
pages 10-17 views
The ecological and epidemiological situation of tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme borreliosis in the Republic of Tatarstan for the period of 2017–2021
Gubeidullina A.K.

Of the huge order of parasitoform mites in the circulatory chain of the occurrence of existing pathogens and new pathogens of infections joining them, a significant role belongs to ixodic mites (I. persulcatus Sch., I. ricinus Lin.). These blood-sucking parasites are the main carriers of more than 10 nosological forms of zoonotic infections identified in the Republic of Tatarstan. Of these, a special place in the regional pathology is occupied by Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Despite the relative duration of monitoring of natural focal infections in Tatarstan, the problem of this group of diseases has not disappeared and requires close attention and analysis of the current epidemiological and epizootological state. Based on our own research and stock materials of sanitary and epidemiological services, the ranking of enzootic territories representing a certain degree of risk of infection of the population in the Republic of Tatarstan by tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme borreliosis in the context of administrative territories was carried out. In the region, for the period of 2017–2021, there was a decrease in the intensity of infection of the tick-borne encephalitis population (5 cases in 5 years). At the same time, a high degree of risk of infection of the population with Lyme borreliosis was revealed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):18-21
pages 18-21 views
A distance study of seasonal dynamics of the vegetation index (NVDI) of the Mongun-Taiga massif vegetation cover
Dongak D.A., Mongush A.V., Mongush C.B., Chuldum S.O.

This paper analyzes seasonal dynamics of the Mongun-Taiga massif vegetation cover from February to October 2022 based on the application of the NDVI vegetation index using Sentinel-2 satellite imagery data. To analyze the seasonal dynamics of the vegetation index of the Mongun-Taiga massif, 15 points on the valleys of five rivers were selected – they are the Tolaity River (south side), the Holash River (west side), the Balyktyg River (north side), the Right-Mugur River (north-east side) and the Shara-Khoragai river (east side). The graphs of the vegetation cover of different exposures of the massif slopes show that the highest values are represented at the western side of the massif (the Holash River), then on the southern side (the Tolaity River) and then on the northern side of the massif (the Balyktyg River). The valleys of the Shara-Khoragai River (east side) and the Right-Mugur River (north-east side) have the lowest indicators of vegetation cover. Different curves of the vegetation cover graphs for different exposures of the massif explain that the climate in this area is very complex. Terrain, slope exposures, humidity, strength and direction of winds, sunlight, temperature, slopes of selected points, as well as watercourses affect vegetation cover differently. For a more thorough study, it is necessary to obtain higher-resolution images and conduct ground-based measurement work to assess the state of the vegetation cover of the massif and obtain accurate meteorological data.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):22-29
pages 22-29 views
Ontogenetic tactics of morphological characteristics of the Betula pendula Roth leaf in the gradient of technogenic soil transformation under changing weather conditions
Zhuikova T.V., Popova A.S.

The variety of types of otnogenetic tactics is shown on the example of the structural features of the leaf of Betula pendula Roth growing under conditions of technogenic soil transformation in the Tagil zone of the Middle Urals (Sverdlovsk oblast). It has been established that the leaf structure of this species contains features that are characterized by various types of ontogenetic tactics, both pure and combined. The most represented are convergent-divergent and convergent tactics. The signs that are characterized by different types of tactics in the lower, middle and upper parts of the leaf are revealed. Conducting research during the growing seasons (2016–2019) with different degrees of favorable weather made it possible to establish that the type of ontogenetic tactics characteristic of individual leaf traits on the technogenic stress gradient can change depending on weather conditions. Such characters include the length of the lateral vein, the angle between the main and lateral veins of the first order, the distance from the tip to the widest part of the leaf, the length of the leaf blade and petiole, the leaf blade index and the leaf index. Along with this, signs were revealed that, in the gradient of technogenic transformation of soils, regardless of the degree of favorable weather, retain the type of tactics: the distance between the ends and bases of the lateral veins, the width of the leaf blade and the width of half of the leaf blade, the distance from the widest part of the leaf to the base.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):30-38
pages 30-38 views
Fungi of the Russulaceae family in the conditions of natural monuments of the Penza region and the influence of environmental factors on their distribution
Ivanov A.I., Mironova A.A., Novikova L.A., Ermolaeva A.A.

The relevance of the study of fungi of the Russulaceae family is determined by the fact that they play an important role in the life of temperate forest ecosystems as mycorrhizal symbionts of the main forest-forming tree species. In addition, this group of fungi is of great practical importance, as they are edible fungi. Despite this, they are one of the little studied groups of Agaricomycetes. The information about the fungi of the studied family in the conditions of the Russian Federation is limited, and therefore the data on their ecology are contained mainly in foreign literature. The purpose of this work is to study the species composition of fungi of the Russulaceae family and to establish the influence of the main environmental factors on the distribution of this group of fungi on the territory of some forest natural monuments of regional significance («Burchikhinsky slopes», «Zasursky blueberry forest», «Kichkleysky pine forest with oak», «Nikonovsky forest» and «Floodplain oak forest») in the conditions of the Penza region. The studies were carried out in 2016–2022 by methods of route and stationary studies. When determining fungi, the method of light microscopy was used. As a result, the species composition of fungi of the Russulaceae family of the studied natural monuments located in the Penza region was studied. Within the studied protected areas, 78 species of fungi of the Russulaceae family were identified. As a result of the taxonomic analysis of mycobiota, it was found that it included 24 species from the genus Lactarius, 3 from the genus Lactifluus, and 51 from the genus Russula. All of them belong to the ecological-trophic group of symbiotrophs. 19 species form mycorrhiza with various tree species, and 59 species have a narrow specialization in relation to partners in symbiosis (29 species are associated with Quercus robur, 15 with Betula pendula, 10 with Pinus sylvestris, 2 with Populus tremula, 1 with Tilia cordata, 1 with Alnus glutinosa and 1 with Corylus avellana). It has been established that the leading factors determining spatial distribution and productivity of fruiting bodies of fungi of the studied family are soil fertility and moisture. In megatrophic habitat conditions, acidity also has a significant effect on the distribution of fungi of the family under consideration. The species composition of fungi of the Russulaceae family for habitat types was determined in accordance with the edaphic grid. For different ecotopes, the composition of indicator species was revealed. An estimate of the yield of fruiting bodies of fungi of the Russulaceae family in various types of forests, depending on fertility and soil moisture, is given.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):39-46
pages 39-46 views
Microcrystallization method use for assessing the content of secondary metabolites of lichens
Kasyanova A.P., Korchikov E.S.

The paper presents photographs of crystals of fumarprotocetraric, evernic, usninic, solorinic, olivetoric, perlatolinic, physodalic, salazinic, tamnolic acids and atranorin obtained from their acetone extracts of lichens. The shape of the crystals is specific to each substance, and their number, size and degree of aggregation depend on the concentration in the solution. Stellate crystals have atranorine, salazinic and evernic acids, with atranorine having the largest and salacic acid having the smallest; rod–shaped branched crystals form solorinic and fumarprotocetraric acids, wider in the first, but longer in the second; the oval shape of crystals in the larger tamnolic and small and narrow perlatolinic acid; usnic, physodalic and olivetoric acids form unique crystal forms – prismatic, needle branched and pinnate, respectively. It is possible to observe crystals of secondary metabolites of lichens with a conventional light microscope under a ×40 lens without immersion oil. For the subsequent comparative assessment of the amount of substances, it is necessary to standardize the suspension of the studied lichen thallus, use a strictly fixed volume of acetone, view at least four sides of the dried drop on the slide and identify their total number in points, noting the presence, degree of branching and aggregation of crystals into conglomerates.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):47-51
pages 47-51 views
The findings of the Trachys minutus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Voronezh
Kondratyeva A.M., Rzhevsky S.G., Budaeva A.V., Kornev I.I., Aksenenko E.V.

Tiny leaf-mining jewel beetle Trachys minutus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Trachysini), being a species with a wide food specialization and distributed throughout the Palearctic, causes periodic outbreaks in linden plantations. Larvae of tiny leaf-mining jewel beetle mine leaves and feed on their tissues, adults feed on leaves in the crown of trees. Up-to-date information obtained during the monitoring of the T. minutus number from the end of May to the beginning of September 2022 on the territory of the forest park site of the All-Russian Research Institute of Forest Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology and in squares and street plantings of the Soviet and Central districts of Voronezh is provided. Larvae mine leaves of white willow (Salix alba Crawford, 1914), goat willow (S. caprea Linnaeus, 1753), small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata Miller, 1768), Midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata (Poiret) de Candolle (1825)) and common hawthorn (C. monogyna Jacquin, 1775) on the territory of Voronezh. The species is rare in the center, while on the northern city outskirts (on the territory of the forest park site) up to 10% of linden leaves were affected by mines of T. minutus. White willow, goat willow, small-leaved linden, large-leaved linden (T. platiphyllos Scopoli, 1772), Norway maple (Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753), European ash (Fraxinus excelsior Linnaeus, 1753) and hawthorn species were noted as fodder plants in the city.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):52-56
pages 52-56 views
Temperature conditions optimization for storing tropical orchid seeds on the example of Eulophia streptopetala and Stanhopea tigrina
Makarova A.E., Syrova V.V., Polovinkina E.O., Shirokov A.I.

The paper presents the results of the study of temperature regime optimization for storing seeds of tropical orchids on the example of Eulophia streptopetala Lindley and Stanhopea tigrina Batem ex Lindl. Mature seeds were frozen at temperatures of −18°C, −40°C or −80°C for a period of 1, 3, 6 or 12 months, the storage temperature was +4°C. Before and after freezing, the viability of seeds was determined by visual and tetrazole methods. After defrosting, the seeds were sown and the plants grown from them were cultivated on a nutrient asymmetric medium, then the dynamics of plant development was recorded, the content of photosynthesis pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids) was quantified. The analysis of the data obtained showed that the viability of seeds significantly decreases after storage, including in conditions of low temperatures. At the same time, in experimental groups of plants, the terms of early ontogenetic states were shortened, and the growth rate of protocorms increased. Freezing of seeds caused further restructuring of the photosynthetic apparatus. The optimal temperatures for storing seeds of the species Eulophia streptopetala were +4°C, and for Stanhopea tigrina −80°C and −40°C.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):71-77
pages 71-77 views
The effect of xylotrophic basidiomycetes on the photosynthetic pigments of small-leaved trees
Maramokhin E.V., Sirotina M.V., Zontikov D.N., Golubev V.S.

Xylotrophic basidiomycetes are an essential component of any biogeocoenosis. It is due to these organisms that one of the most important processes occurs throughout the biosphere, namely the decomposition of organic substances and, first of all, cellulose, which is synthesized by producers. However, these phytopathogens bring significant losses to forestry, making wood unsuitable for industrial use. At the same time, sufficiently effective methods for diagnosing and assessing wood damage by heartwood rot, which are caused by xylotrophic basidiomycetes, have not been developed. The paper studies the peculiarity of the influence of these phytopathogens on the pigment apparatus of valuable small-leaved tree species using the methods of spectroscopy and electrophotocolorimetry, while comparing the rate of degradation of the main pigments of photosynthesis – chlorophylls a and b to pheophytin, as well as assesses the content of chlorophyll, and auxiliary pigments such as carotenoids and xanthophylls in healthy trees and trees with signs of damage by pathogenic xylotrophs. A significant number of effects of phytopathogens on leaf pigment apparatus of small-leaved tree species have been identified. Among those are rapid degradation of primary and secondary pigments, distortion of chlorophyll a concentration data caused by filter properties of photoelectric colorimeter and higher chlorophyll b concentration in affected trees in comparison to control sample. These methods and the results obtained can be actively used both in forestry to assess the phytosanitary state of small-leaved trees, and to further study the features of the interaction of xylotrophic basidiomycetes with woody plants.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):78-84
pages 78-84 views
Vegetation and biotopes of the regional botanical natural monument «Kashtak Pine Forest» (Sosnovskiy District of Chelyabinsk Oblast)
Nazarenko N.N.

The vegetation and biotopes of the regional botanical natural monument «Kashtak Pine Forest» have been characterized in this paper. By multivariate statistics and a dominant approach 13 pine and birch-pine plant associations have been identified. But in most cases the associations are detected by dominance or co-dominance of Fragaria vesca L. in the herbage in spite of high biodiversity. The difference of associations is identified by shrub species dominance mainly. The biotopes of the regional botanical natural monument «Kashtak Pine Forest» are not characterized by principal abiotic factors of high variation while the differences are determined by coenotic factors. The classification of Kashtak Pine Forest biotopes is identified by soil acidity and soil nitrogen regimes in the first place. For «Kashtak Pine Forest» three ordination axes have been detected: 1) boreal pine forests of Boreal zone, 2) temperate pine and birch-pine forests of Temperate Forest and Forest-Steppe zones and 3) axe of soil moistening and cryoregime. Three coenotic series have also been detected: hydrosere of Fragaria vesca associations and two trophoseries of boreal pine forests of Boreal zone. These series form an integrated biotopical sere and succession of South-Urals pine forests from temperate forest-steppe pine forests to boreal pine forests of Boreal zone.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):85-90
pages 85-90 views
Soil conditions and vegetation cover of the «Oruku-Shynaa» cluster of the «Ubsunurskaya Hollow» reserve (southern part of the Republic of Tyva)
Kurbatskaya S.S., Samdan A.M., Oorzhak C.O.

The paper presents the results of the study of soils and vegetation cover of the Oruku-Shynaa cluster, a natural feature of the Ubsunur Hollow Biosphere Reserve, which is a possible acquisition of the UNESCO heritage. The Ubsunur Hollow, the northernmost of the inland basins of Northwestern Mongolia, is the destination of Inner Asia, where nature preserves an exceptional «parade of landscapes» of unusual diversity, which predetermines the creation of biosphere reserves in Russia and Mongolia by a cluster approach. Nine clusters have been created on the territory of the Republic of Tuva (Russia). One of them is Oruku-Shynaa. The purpose of creating the Oruku-Shynaa cluster is to study natural complexes and objects, preserve biodiversity, and carry out long-term environmental monitoring of the reference territories of the Ubsunur Hollow. The background soils are brown desert-steppe soils, which have local hydromorphic manifestations of meadow, saline, and solonetsous soils. The study of the temperature of soils in the middle of summer showed that the most mobile dynamics of soil temperature is observed at a depth of 5 cm from the surface. The reaction of meadow-peaty soil is neutral, in solonchak soils it is strongly alkaline, the humus content in solonchak soil is negligible (0,42%), and in meadow-peaty-humus soil it is quite high (9,24%). There is quite a lot of magnesium in saline soils (up to 29 mmol/100 g of soil), and nitrogen (1,10%) in meadow-peat-humus soil. There is a lack of phosphorus in all soils. The cluster is characterized by a high complexity of vegetation cover, expressed in a combination of phytocoenoses of real (glycophytic), saline (halophytic) meadows, steppes, reed beds and woody shrub vegetation. The soil and vegetation cover of the Oruku-Shynaa cluster of the Ubsunur Hollow Nature Reserve generally reflects the regional specifics of the natural situation of floodplain-channel complexes of arid Central Asian territories. The largest areas are open spaces occupied by halophytic vegetation under brown meadow-desert-steppe soils on lake-alluvial deposits. The introduction of the protected regime caused a restructuring in the structure of phytocoenoses, where signs of waterlogging are observed, peat accumulation in the upper horizon of the soil profile, an increase in dead mass (mortmass) in plant communities; an active salinization process is underway in the soil cover.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):57-63
pages 57-63 views
The analysis of specific structure of lichens of the pine and birch wood in the neighborhood of Big Kyzykul Lake (Minusinsky District, Krasnoyarsk Krai)
Larina O.A., Smirnova E.S.

The paper presents a multidimensional analysis of pine-birch forest lichens in the vicinity of Big Kyzykul Lake (Minusinsky District, Krasnoyarsk Krai). The studies on the species composition of lichens were conducted from 2013 to 2016. The material was collected in the summer and autumn months by the route method. Based on the authors’ own collections, the species composition of lichens was determined for the first time, including 46 species from 22 genera and 11 families. The paper presents a list of lichen species of the study area with the indication of the Russian and Latin names, families to which they belong, life forms, ecological groups, the substrate the species grew on as well as the years of collection. The systematic analysis has determined a predominance of the families Parmeliaceae and Cladoniaceae, and genera – Cladonia, Hypogymnia, Usnea, Physcia. The analysis of life forms has showed a predominance of bushy (20 species) and leafy (17 species) lichens. The ecological analysis has revealed a predominance of mesophyte lichens (37 species). The substrate analysis has showed a dominance of a group of epiphytes (32 species), which mainly settle on the base, trunks and branches of pine. In total, 4 forophytes have been identified in the study area – Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula, Populus tremula. The forophytes like the Picea abies and the Populus tremula in the vicinity of Big Kyzykul Lake are represented by single young specimens, in this regard, and epiphytic lichens on them are insignificant.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):64-70
pages 64-70 views
Heavy metals in coastal soils and sediments of the ponds in Samara
Prokhorova N.V., Bugrov S.V., Makarova Y.V., Gerasimov Y.L., Platonov I.A., Goryunov M.G.

The total contents of Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in foreshore soils and bottom sediments of 20 ponds have been investigated for the first time in Samara by the method of spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. It is shown that polymetallic pollution of coastal soils and bottom sediments of 16 ponds out of 20 considered is acceptable; 3 ponds, located in the 13th microdistrict (small pond) and on the Solnechnaya street (large and small ponds), are characterized by moderately hazardous pollution with heavy metals; 1 pond, located in the area of the former Hippodrome, has a high level of pollution of coastal soils. Cu, Zn and Pb should be considered to be the main elements that significantly affected the ecological state of coastal soils and bottom sediments of the studied ponds. Their content in selected samples ranged: from 0,3 to 20,3 for Cu, from 0,2 to 14,9 units for Zn, from 0,2 to 25,2 units of background concentrations – to Pb. The analysis of heavy metals average levels in coastal soils and bottom sediments of Samara ponds showed, that bottom sediments were enriched with all analyzed metals except Mn in comparison with coastal soils, whereas Mn was accumulated to upper levels in coastal soils. The location of water bodies in various parts of the urban area relief caused differences between the levels of heavy metals accumulation. For instance, the coastal soils of the ponds located on the watershed between the Saratov reservoir and the Samara River accumulated heavy metals more actively than the coastal soils of the ponds on the Volga slope. The accumulation of heavy metals in bottom sediments on the watershed was more active for Mn, Cr, Zn and Cd whereas in the ponds on the Volga slope it was shown for Ni, Cu and Pb.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):91-96
pages 91-96 views
The content of saicosaponins and flavonols in different organs of the aerial part of the golden snail (Bupleurum aureum Fisch. ex Hoffm.) upon introduction in the Komi Republic
Punegov V.V., Portnyagina N.V., Echishvili E.E., Patov S.A.

The results of an introductory study of Bupleurum aureum in the collection of medicinal plants of the Botanical Garden of the Institute of Biology of the Komi Science Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences are presented. It has been revealed that plants of this species are characterized by high winter hardiness and resistance in culture. For 102–110 days of vegetation, they go through all phases of development and form full-fledged seeds. As a result of the research, the morphological features of the generative shoot have been studied. Under the conditions of culture, the golden boletus is able to form 2–6 (7) generative shoots per individual with a height of 109–137 cm. The distribution of saicosaponins and flavonols in the aerial organs of the golden voles has been studied using the methods of differential spectrophotometry and chromato-mass spectrometry. The highest rates of biologically active substances in the phase of mass flowering have been found in the leaves and inflorescences of the golden lily, the lowest – in the stems. It has been found that the concentration of biologically active substances in the stem leaves depends on the position of the leaves on the shoot. The mass fraction of saikosaponins in the leaves has increased from bottom to top along the shoot from 1,66 to 3,07%, flavonols – from 1,75 to 4,5%. The maximum amount of flavonols have been found in inflorescences – complex umbrellas (6,23%). The obtained analytical data allow us to state that the above-ground phytomass (leaf, inflorescence) of cultivated plants of golden boletus is characterized by high levels of saikosaponins and flavonols and can be recommended for use as a medicinal plant material.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):97-102
pages 97-102 views
The primary assessment of the red oak seeds quality and prospects for its bioinvasive potential realization in the Samara region urban environment
Rodionova P.V., Oven A.P., Ivanova A.V., Zhavkina T.M.

The world population growth postulates a necessity for food increase to provide mankind with edible products. A growing number of archaeobotanical finds of acorns indicates that they were important as a staple food for some regions. According to its characteristics, red oak is one of the promising species that can increase the resource potential of oak forests in the Middle Volga region. Compared to local oak one, red oak wood is more resistant to vascular and necrotic-cancerous pathologies. The red oak is also more resistant to oak powdery mildew. On the territory of the Middle Volga region, red oak is still rare, because of its limited use in plantations. The subject of the study is the quality of red oak seeds formed by trees from the arboretum of the Institute of Ecology of the Volga Basin (Togliatti city), where they were collected in an amount enough to assess the quality of seeds formed by an introduced species on a territory new to it. The study of the internal structure of oak seeds with dense shells was carried out by digital microfocus radiography using a PRDU installation. This method is included in international standards, primarily for assessing the formation of the seeds internal structure and grain damage by phytophages. X-ray screening allowed to categorize the red oak seeds: 1) seeds, fully formed, filled and not damaged by insects; 2) seeds that, when falling from a tree, retain their cupula (do not have a developed content); 3) seeds damaged by insects during the formation of cotyledons; 4) seeds without a cupula, but with varying severity of underdevelopment; 5) seeds with partial underdevelopment of the cotyledons, which do not fill the entire volume of the seed coats. The weight and size parameters of seeds formed in the Samara region correspond to the indicators from other regions of red oak growth and are: diameter – 1,76 ± 0,01 cm; length – 2,48 ± 0,02 cm; weight of 1000 seeds – 4224 ± 62,65 g (harvest 2021). At the same time, only from 55 to 39% of red oak seeds (harvests in 2021 and 2022, respectively) were of a sufficiently high quality to be used for sowing. Considering the prospects of red oak as an agent of biological invasion, the authors point to the variability of its seed harvest by years, the formation of a high proportion of low-quality seeds, as well as a small amount of self-seedings with increased demands to soil moisture.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):103-109
pages 103-109 views
Sex identification of Humboldt penguins using a morphometric analysis
Sabutskaya M.A.

Primorsky Aquarium keeps a population of 32 Humboldt penguins. The employees of Ornithology Department are faced with a problem of sex identification of 18 immature/young penguins. Male and female Humboldt penguins have not significant differences in feather coloration, so reliable sex identification by direct observation is not possible. The most reliable ultrasound and genetic methods require special equipment, reagents and qualified specialists as well as provoke stress that is dangerous for the health of the birds. Sex identification by morphometric parameters for captivity birds is more preferable, since this procedure is non-invasive, does not require special equipment and specialists. We have performed a statistical analysis of measurements of the beak length in 3 variations, of the dorsal part of flipper length, and weight of females and males of the studied group. For the first time, we have added to the analysis the length of the beak from the nostril, which was not previously taken into account. It has been found that the use of 4 traits simultaneously in the analysis does not demonstrate a significant correlation with the sex of the bird, and therefore is not suitable for the sex identification of penguins. The most consistent features for correlation analysis were the beak length and the flipper length. The maximum grouping of birds by sex within the study group was observed while comparing these morphometric characteristics.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):110-114
pages 110-114 views
A geographical analysis of the dendroflora of Cheboksary in the greening system of the city
Samokhvalov K.V., Arsentiev A.P., Sinichkin E.A.

The paper presents the results of the geographical analysis of the dendroflora of Cheboksary. The landscaping system of Cheboksary is represented mainly by woody vegetation, which grows in public areas, in limited-use plantings, as well as along the streets and main highways of Cheboksary. Woody vegetation is represented by 73 species, which, according to the generally accepted systematics of plants, belong to 43 genera and 20 families. The geographical analysis of the dendroflora of Cheboksary is based on archaeological data from various reports. In the dendroflora of Cheboksary, 7 groups of the area have been identified, depending on their natural distribution: 1) aboriginal group, 2) cultural group, 3) hybrid group, 4) North American group, 5) East Asian group, 6) Mediterranean group, 7) European group. The dendroflora of Cheboksary is dominated by introducents, which account for 44 species. The most numerous of the introducers is the East Asian group, which makes up 41% of the total, the North American and European groups – 25% each, the Mediterranean group – 9%. The geographical composition of the dendroflora, depending on the element of the system of green spaces, showed that the largest number of introducers were identified in public plantings, which were represented by 40 species of trees and shrubs, in limited–use plantings – 29 species, along streets and main roads – 28 species. The analysis of the dendroflora by the ratio of hygromorphs has revealed that mesophytes predominate in the dendroflora of Cheboksary – 54,7%, xerophytes – 17,8%, mesoxerophytes – 12,3%.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):115-120
pages 115-120 views
The development of an adaptive response of Drosophila melanogaster to genotoxicity of alkyl(aryl)sulfurnyl 1,2,4-triazoles
Selezneva E.S., Belousova Z.P., Isaichkin V.A.

The widespread use of triazoles in agriculture as retardants has led to the need to investigate the possible mutagenic effects of these compounds on natural ecosystems adjacent to agrocoenoses. Model experiments were set up to investigate the ability to induce dominant lethal mutations by synthesized triazoles: 1,2,4-triazole: (1,2,4-triazole (1,2,4-TrH), N-triazolid methanesulfonic acid (CH₃SO₂TrH), N-triazolid benzene sulfonic acid (PhSO₂1,2,4-Tr) and N-triazolid toluene sulfonic acid (4-CH₃ ArSO₂1,2,4-Tr) in Drosophila melanogaster adults. The possibility of developing an adaptive response to these compounds in Drosophila melanogaster was studied. A relationship between the structure and physicochemical properties of the studied alkyl(aryl)sulfonyl 1,2,4-triazoles and their mutagenicity was analyzed. A series was constructed in which mutagenicity for Drosophila adults decreases in the following order: CH₃SO₂TrH > 1,2,4-TrH > PhSO₂1,2,4-TrH > 4-CH₃ArSO₂1,2,4-TrH, both when exposed to non-toxic doses of substances (0,001 mg/ml concentration) and when exposed to compounds at a dose of LD₅₀. It has been established that a short-term (within a day) preliminary action on adults by nontoxic doses (0,0001 mg/ml) followed by action on the same adults by these substances in LD₅₀ dose causes an adaptive response only in females of Drosophila melanogaster. Long-term exposure (the entire larval life period of drosophila) to a nontoxic dose and then repeated exposure of the same Drosophila melanogaster adults to the same compounds at the LD₅₀ dose caused a significant decrease in the number of induced dominant lethalities in females as well as in drosophila males. Consequently, the adaptive response developed only in tissues with an active cell division. It is supposed that the repair mechanisms leading to the development of an adaptive response in adults and larvae are different.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):121-126
pages 121-126 views
A comparative assessment of winter hardiness in varieties and elites of domestic apple trees of various breeding in the conditions of the continental climate of the Samara region
Sobolev G.I., Kuznetsov A.A., Blednykh O.V.

The research was carried out in order to assess the winter hardiness of apple varieties of the Oryol and Michurinsky selection, as well as the elite hybrids of the selection of the Scientific Research Institute of Horticulture and Medicinal Plants «Zhigulevskie Sady» in the conditions of the continental climate characteristic of the Samara region. Freezing of annual branches taken from trees of 10–11 years of age was carried out in the laboratory under controlled conditions of a freezer at extreme negative temperatures for the 2nd (−40°C) and 4th (−35°C after thaw) components of winter hardiness. After freezing, their damage was assessed in April, the results were compared by years of research. Simultaneously with the assessment of winter hardiness in the laboratory, the general condition of trees of these varieties and elite hybrids was assessed in the field conditions of the experimental garden of the Scientific Research Institute of Horticulture and Medicinal Plants «Zhigulevskie Sady», in August 2020 and 2021. The general condition and adaptation to low temperatures of the objects of the study were compared with dependence on the agro-climatic conditions of the growing season on the basis of meteorological data of the Samara GMC. During the study, varieties and elites of apple trees of various breeding with high winter hardiness were identified, surpassing control varieties such as Antonovka obyknovennaya, Kutuzovets, Severniy Sinap and others in this indicator. It is quite logical that winter-hardy apple trees, in the absence of winter damage, may have stronger immunity to diseases and resistance to pests. Therefore, the widespread introduction of new varieties and hybrids into industrial gardening will contribute to the creation of a more favorable agroecological environment in the gardens of the Samara region and the Middle Volga region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):127-135
pages 127-135 views
The influence of the Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam reservoir on the nesting and abundance of the osprey (Pandion haliaetus L., 1758)
Shikalova E.A.

The paper presents the materials of the study of the osprey grouping on the territory of the Sayano-Shushensky Nature Reserve. Before the formation of the reservoir, 3–4 osprey nests were recorded on the banks of the Yenisei. The flooding of the valley was accompanied by the formation of extensive flat areas suitable for nesting. The volume of fish resources that form the basis of the osprey’s food supply has increased and their availability is one of the main criteria of the ecosystem, on which the number of this rare bird depends. Continuous monitoring of the osprey grouping on the shores of the Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam reservoir within the Sayano-Shushensky Nature Reserve began in 2012. The work included a survey of suitable habitats in order to identify nesting sites, certification of nests, accounting of adult birds, as well as monitoring the reproduction of ospreys. Based on the results of the research, it was possible to create a model of optimal natural conditions for nesting ospreys in the mountainous regions of Siberia. The creation of a large artificial reservoir has had a positive impact on the number of protected groups of ospreys. A special regime of strict protection peculiar to biosphere reserves plays a positive role, which excludes visits to nest bays, significantly reducing the anxiety factor. Together, this allows the birds to expand the nesting areas and breed offspring.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):136-139
pages 136-139 views
The dynamics of the perennial grass crops communities on the restoration succession gradient
Yamalov S.M., Khasanova G.R., Lebedeva M.V., Drap M.N., Safin K.M.

The trends of the coenoflora structure dynamics of the perennial grass crops communities were characterized on the gradient of restorative succession in the conditions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the Southern Urals. Using an agglomerative cluster analysis, four community groups have been identified, which corresponds to the stages of succession and reflecting the age of the communities (from 1 to 16 years or more). It is demonstrated that the succession gradient complicates the species composition, the species richness of the communities increases by almost 2 times. An analysis of the activity index change for the coenoflora core species at each stage has been carried out. It has been revealed that the activity of sown herbs species decreases, while the total activity of well-eaten species as well as the feed value of the whole phytocoenoses increases with the age of communities. A community of each stage of succession is marked by a group of highly active species, the functional composition and coenotic affinity of which changes. The activity of apophyte species increases while the activity of synanthropic ones decreases. There is a natural complication of the phytosociological spectrum from species of affine to classes of synanthropic vegetation Sisymbrietea and Artemisietea to species of classes of natural vegetation – meadows (Molinio-Arrhenatheretea) and steppes (Festuco-Brometea). At the same time, the most active substitution of synanthropic species for natural ones occurs after the second stage of succession, i.e. its significant acceleration is observed after the age of 11 years. According to the results of the ordination analysis (DCA-ordination) with an additional assessment of the contribution of environmental variables, the leading in the differentiation of the species composition of communities is the factor of the age of communities, the factor of humidification of habitats makes a smaller contribution. According to the results of the comparison of the studied phytocoenoses with the data of weed, meadow and steppe communities from the database of non-forest vegetation of the Southern Urals (1660 releves), the central position of perennial grass crop communities on the gradient of restorative succession from disturbed arable land vegetation to natural (steppes) (steppes) and quasi-natural (meadows) vegetation types is demonstrated. Thus, a high importance of perennial grass crops for the creation of stable phytocoenoses of high forage value, which can be used for the restoration of biodiversity in the forest-steppe and steppe regions, is revealed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):140-147
pages 140-147 views

Historical Sciences

Bone and stone industries of the Middle Trans-Urals: continuity and innovation in the transition from the Mesolithic to the Neolithic
Kosinskaya L.L., Savchenko S.N., Zhilin M.G.

The paper presents an analysis of bone and stone industries of the Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic of the Middle Trans-Urals. Researchers of the Neolithic usually consider that stone and bone inventories played an auxiliary role. But these features are basic for the Mesolithic where ceramic is absent. A comparison of industries of the Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic, identification of their semblance and difference is the main indicator of the role of local Late Mesolithic traditions in the formation of Early Neolithic cultures. This research has showed a continuity of bone and stone industries of the Middle Trans-Urals from the Early Mesolithic to Early Neolithic. Main functional groups of bone artefacts, many tool types and methods of their manufacture existed during this whole time period. Transformation of bone industry during the Mesolithic – Early Neolithic manifested in emergence of new categories and types of artefacts at every stage of its development. Stone industries of the Middle and Late Mesolithic display great similarity. The continuity in the Mesolithic – Early Neolithic stone and bone industries of the Middle Trans-Urals indicates a formation of the Early Neolithic of this territory on the local substrate.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):148-157
pages 148-157 views
New materials about the Neolithic period of the North Caspian Sea region
Vybornov A.A., Vasilyeva I.N., Laktaeva E.M., Frolov I.K.

The paper is devoted to the results of the research materials of Kairshak site of the North Caspian Sea region. The relevance of the topic is determined by the role of this region in the Neolithic process of Eastern Europe. The ceramic tradition of the early Neolithic is one of the oldest in this region. Technical and technological analysis of ceramics indicates that the dishes were made of silt with an addition of freshwater molluscs. Different vessels are typologically identified. An ornament is made by a drawn line and a single prick. The set of features allows to assign the collection of ceramics to the Kairshak type. Stone tools are characterized by plate-flake technique. End scrapers dominated. Arrowed and other forms are rarely met. The second category concludes geometrical microliths of segment type. The number of sharp points isn’t big. An amount of indicators indicates that the complex has an early Neolithic character. A kind of animal is identified with an archeozoological method – kulan. The radiocarbon date indicates the end of the 6th millennium BC. This contradicts the available data bank on the chronology of the Kairshak type sites. According to all characteristics of the stone and ceramic inventory, the discovered complex is most similar to the materials of the Kairshak I.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):158-165
pages 158-165 views
The Neolithic site of Luzhki II in the forest-steppe Volga region (first results of the studies)
Somov A.V., Andreev K.M., Roslyakova N.V.

The paper deals with the materials of Luzhki II site, which is located in the stepping Volga region on the left side of the Sok River. This memorial was found in 2019. The excavation area of 96 meters was made in 2020. The common collection of artifacts includes 2394 things. The founded materials are from the Neolithic except small group of ceramics (21 fragments) of early middle centuries. The collection of stone inventory includes 568 things. 81 items are implements, they take up about 14,2% of all stone. 1359 things of ceramics were found. The thickness of fragments is from 0,5 to 1,2 sm. Almost all founded rims have a dimple-pearl belt under the cut, which was applied exclusively from the outside. There are four typological groups (without ornament, pinned, comb and ceramics with impression), which show stages of ornament tradition development in the region. A collection of animal bones has been collected, including 412 units. 12 bones have traces of processing or were used as tools. 5 small clay vessels were found in a cultural layer. Two sinkers and one shaft straightener for arrows were found too. According to the available radiocarbon definitions for similar complexes of the forest-steppe Volga region the discovered site could be second half VI – middle V thousands BC. The assemblage of pottery from the site reveals the closest analogies in materials from the sites of the developed and late Neolithic of the forest-steppe Volga region, attributed to the Srednevolzhskaya culture.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):166-182
pages 166-182 views
Knyaz Vsevolod Yaroslavich of Kiev: personality, reign, family relations
Abukov S.N.

The paper attempts to consider the figure of Knyaz Vsevolod Yaroslavich of Kiev in the context of personality, family and features of rule. Based on the sources and their critical analysis, the author tried to collect all the available material in order to present this son of Yaroslav the Wise as a person, as well as the head of Rus’ in a difficult period of its development. Special attention is paid to the connection of his reign with the state of health. Vsevolod Yaroslavich lived a long life for his time, outliving all his brothers and very likely sisters. The Knyaz of Kiev was not a strong and active figure, not successful in battles and preferring to negotiate with enemies. Nevertheless, he managed to expand his domain, as well as raise his family’s marital ties with European monarchs to a new level. Vsevolod was a scribe and a polyglot who avoided earthly temptations. His reign cannot be considered successful, since a series of various disasters occurred at the end of his power. Only the energy and valor of Vladimir Monomakh’s son, Knyaz of Chernigov, supported his father in Kiev. The sick old knyaz had little control over the management system, where the power was in the hands of his young advisers, who left a bad name about themselves. One of Vsevolod’s confidants was Dmitr, who left an inscription on the wall of the Kiev St. Sophia Cathedral. Vsevolod’s family was distinguished by education, as can be seen from the examples of the knyaz himself and his children. The princely family maintained good relations between the sons from different marriages of Vsevolod and between the son Vladimir Monomakh and the stepmother. After Vsevolod’s death, his son did not dare to occupy Kiev, as he had no support, but ceded power to his elder cousin Svyatopolk Izyaslavich, as previously planned. The figures of the sons of Yaroslav the Wise, as well as Rurikids as a whole, need further comprehensive research.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):192-199
pages 192-199 views
The shapes of clay vessels of the Srednedonskaya Neolithic culture from site Dobroe 9 on the Upper Don
Yurkina E.S.

The paper describes the main types of pottery forms and some results of their analysis for vessels of the Srednedonskaya Neolithic culture from site Dobroe 9. Until recently, only a few settlements of the Srednedonskaya Neolithic culture with a traced stratigraphic position on the Upper Don were studied. At site Dobroe 9, a homogeneous lithological layer was revealed, containing only the materials of this culture: pottery, bones, stone products. At the moment, 109 m² of the site were researched by the excavations. We established the date of the pottery collection of the site as the last quarter of the VI millennium BC. Earlier, A.T. Sinyuk put forward the thesis that the cylindrical shape of vessels with a relatively smooth transition of the walls to a sharp bottom is characteristic of the Middle Don culture, but in the collection of site Dobroe 9 closed-type vessels predominate. The comparative analysis of the shapes of ceramic vessels of two settlements with the greatest variety of vessel shapes (site Universitetskaya 3 and site Dobroe 9) of the Srednedonskaya Neolithic culture has shown that its material culture influenced by other archaeological cultures is not particularly homogeneous. This is manifested not only in ceramics, but also in stone tools.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):183-191
pages 183-191 views
China and the war in the cinema of the USA in 1941–1942
Buranok S.O., Selifontova D.Y.

The study of the USA cinema during World War II is interesting not only from the point of view of forming the image of the enemy, but also of allies. This will allow us to determine more accurately what visual propaganda techniques were used by American directors. The image of China was always significant for the American information discourse: through it they created and adjusted of ideas about the East as an arena of struggle between the USA and Japan. This paper reveals features of the process of mythologizing the Second World War in the American cinema in 1941–1942, through an analysis of the features of constructing the image of China in the USA films. This will make it possible to judge the cinematography of the war years as a special phenomenon of the socio-political and cultural life of the United States of America. In addition, the features of American films about China, the methods and techniques of propaganda, and the role of cinema in the overall system of the American propaganda are clarified. The features of the process of visualization and mythologization of the Second World War in American society are determined as a historical phenomenon of the public life of the United States of America, which reflects both general (characteristic of civilization as a whole) and national patterns. The authors study interethnic imagological plots (the image of enemies and allies on the screen) as well as internal ones (American volunteers, the image of America), which have no less strong influence on the formation of the American national self-concept in a historical crisis period.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):200-204
pages 200-204 views
FBI film control activities and the «COMPIC» Program (1941–1943)
Levin Y.A.

The period of 1941–1943 became a time when the American art was rapidly rebuilt into «war rails». Artists in every possible way reinforced the morale of American soldiers and were engaged in justifying various actions of the government with the help of a more accessible and understandable language of artistic storytelling to the wider masses. The paper will address specific films and their propaganda subtexts. A special role in this process was played by the USA Federal Bureau of Investigation, which quickly realized the propaganda potential of cinema and therefore quickly began building systemic work to control film production. As part of the paper, it will be examined on a specific example how the FBI was displayed in the cinema and how the Bureau began to build mechanisms for controlling the film industry through a special program «COMPIC». This program was aimed at countering the «communist influence» in the cinema. The close connection between the development of the COMPIC program and the COMRAP program, which provided for the opposition of federal agents to the Comintern, was also considered and the CINRAD program developed at the same time was mentioned, designed to protect USA developments in the field of nuclear weapons. The paper is based on archival materials and literature on the history of American cinema and the FBI.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):205-208
pages 205-208 views
The activity of G.M. Malenkov in the USA State Department evaluations
Mamedov Z.I.

This paper discusses the process of evaluating the activities of Georgy Maksimilianovich Malenkov by the USA State Department and people associated with it. On the basis of documents available to the American Foreign Office, an analysis is made of the perception of the personality of this Soviet leader. The paper traces the evolution of points of view regarding his position in the political hierarchy in the USSR, G.M. Malenkov’s influence on the domestic and foreign policy of the state. The paper identifies the features of the analytical intelligence of the State Department on this issue. Telegrams, letters and memorandums provide an opportunity to trace the vision of diplomats, officials, politicians in contact with this department, the causes and consequences of G.M. Malenkov’s elevation to the chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and his final removal from the Soviet leaders. The sources allow us to explore a retrospective analysis of his activities based on the reports of American ambassadors. The overall body of evidence demonstrates the importance of a personal approach in assessing Soviet leaders, not only for the State Department, but also for the USA President, the National Security Council, the CIA, congressional committees and allied foreign diplomats. The results of the study can become a basis for scientific research on the topics of the Cold War, the political development of the USSR, and the assessment of the Soviet system by the American authorities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):209-217
pages 209-217 views
Anti-communism as a factor in shaping the foreign policy of the Russian Federation in 1991–1992
Mochalov D.P., Magomedov R.R.

The purpose of the paper is to consider the anti-communist component in the foreign policy of the Russian Federation during the first post-Soviet years. Based on the material of the socio-political periodicals of that time and the documents of the archive of the Presidential Center of Boris Yeltsin, the influence of the struggle against the threat of communist revenge inside the country on the foreign policy of the state is traced. The paper examines the international reaction to the persecution of the Communist Party in Russia and attempts to use this event to promote foreign policy interests. The specific steps of the Russian leadership in the fight against the international communist movement and the assessment of this activity by contemporaries are considered. Various conceptual approaches to overcoming the Soviet in the field of international relations, which were formulated in Russia at that time, are highlighted. The main directions of using anti-communist rhetoric in building relations with a number of states, successes and failures in this direction are outlined. The conclusion is made about the preservation of the ideological component in the Russian foreign policy of the first post-Soviet years, despite the declarations on the de-ideologization of this sphere. It is noted that the anti-communism of the new government has not always been an effective tool in achieving foreign policy goals and has not always found a positive assessment even in Western countries.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):218-223
pages 218-223 views
The Soviet military-industrial complex in 1945–1950: crisis or conversion transition (historiographical aspect)
Zakharchenko A.V.

The paper presents an analysis of the historiography of the military-industrial complex development in the USSR in 1945–1950. Attention is focused on determining the main approaches to the development of the military-industrial complex in the years of post-war economic recovery. The results of the study show that the characterization of the situation in which military production found itself since the second half of 1945, as a crisis, has no sufficient grounds. Most of the problems experienced by the Soviet military-industrial complex took place during the Great Patriotic War and even earlier. The transition to a peaceful life only aggravated them. Changes in the military-industrial complex system after the war were not related to the crisis, but to the conversion transition, which was accompanied by significant investments in new industries – rocket science, nuclear industry, radar. On the other hand, the conversion process was characterized by an increase in the share of civilian output and a reduction in defence products. Modern Russian historiography shows that the approach to managing the economy of military production and planning underwent changes. The requirements for the quality of weapons in connection with the increase in their service life became tougher. It is proved that one of the promising directions in historiography at the present stage is the plot of interdepartmental conflicts in the military-industrial complex system and ways to resolve them.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):224-229
pages 224-229 views

Pedagogical Sciences

The results of testing medical university graduates (majoring in «General Medicine») and residency graduates (majoring in «Therapy») on the organization of preventive activities
Astanina S.Y.

The quality of readiness of university graduates (majoring in «General Medicine») and residency graduates (majoring in «Therapy») to provide primary health care to the adult population is an objective problem in practical healthcare. In this regard, the goal of the study was set: to determine the level of knowledge of university graduates majoring in «General Medicine» and residency graduates majoring in «Therapy» of medical educational organizations of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation on conducting medical, preventive medical examinations, dispensary observation of patients with diseases and (or) conditions according to the major «Therapy» and monitoring the effectiveness of measures for dispensary observation. The methodological basis of the study was a systematic and competent approach to determining the level of knowledge of graduates. The level of knowledge of graduates was determined by using a testing method. 1695 sixth-year students of medical faculties and 449 second-year residency students majoring in «Therapy» took part in the testing. The study has showed that the level of knowledge among graduates is heterogeneous. The identified problem in the development of knowledge in preventive activities among students majoring in «General Medicine» and residency students majoring in «Therapy» determined the directions for improving the system of students’ training.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):230-238
pages 230-238 views
The nature and features of the implementation of gamification as a systematic and specific game practice into the educational sphere
Busel S.V., Polupan K.L.

Based on the conducted content analysis of the definition of gamification in educational and non-educational contexts the author defines gamification. The main components of gamification are highlighted and described; they are game mechanics; game dynamics; game aesthetics, social interaction, and game elements. The principles of the implementation of gamification into the educational, organizational and management processes of an educational institution are articulated: the principle of instant feedback; the principle of convergence with interactive technologies; the principle of the fun component importance; the principle of versatility of interactive information users’ environment; the principle of versatility of the form; the principle of interaction; the principle of the social component importance; the principle of visualization; the principle of the narrative component importance; the principle of content segmentation and gradual complexity of tasks. The features of gamification implementation into the educational sphere are also highlighted, which are important to take into account both in the educational and management aspects. Eventually, the common substantive characteristics of gamification and interactive technologies which are used within the educational sphere have been identified; they are: changing the perception of evaluation procedures used in the learning process; simultaneous consideration of the needs of different education subjects; assistance in developing the reflective and self-evaluative skills of students; boosting the level of motivation of education subjects within the conducting either educational or professional activity, etc.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):239-246
pages 239-246 views
The concept of ecological culture in the professional training of pedagogical university students
Busygina A.L., Bakulina S.Y., Lizunova E.V., Vershinina L.V., Bondareva V.V.

Currently, environmental education is of great importance in the system of vocational education and training, which is interpreted by the fact that effective social formation is determined by the awareness of the need to correct the existing state of the natural environment. The critical state of nature leads to an alarming state, rather than the state of the economy, politics, morality and culture of society. The vital activity of an individual contributes to the fundamental transformations of nature, including the entire biosphere as a whole. Natural ecological systems in most countries become unfavorable for human habitation, and also negatively affect it. Today there is a dominant need for the formation of a harmonious interaction of the individual with the natural environment. Liberation from a critical bioecological situation cannot arise automatically, by chance, it, as a rule, projects sufficiently responsible socio-economic, political and socio-legal measures from the position of society, as well as world restructuring in the spiritual and practical relations of man to the natural environment. The formation of an ecological culture based on universal norms and motives is understood as an internal condition of pedagogical education and upbringing. The way out of this problem requires significant dynamic restructuring in almost all elements of the modern education system and upbringing of the younger generation, which directly relates to the personality of the prospective teacher, since the ability of young people to part with the position of boundless attitude to the environment depends for the most part on his universal, including ecological culture. The development of the ecological culture of prospective specialists is a psychological and pedagogical process focused on the multiplication of ecological ideas, concepts of the interaction of professional and environmental behavior, the formation of bioecological values and motivation of readiness for environmental-oriented life in the professional sphere. The acquisition of the necessary effectiveness of the development of ecological culture of pedagogical university students creates a set of psychological and pedagogical conditions. Following many researchers, we consider the development of ecological culture to be the task of environmental education. In the presented paper, the pedagogical concept of the formation of the ecological culture of prospective teachers in the process of their education at a pedagogical university, based on the leading ideas of the concept of sustainable development and three key approaches – desmoecological, synergetic and culturological, is formulated and well-substantiated.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):247-252
pages 247-252 views
Media text and media literacy in the higher education system
Gritskevich Y.N., Lukyanova S.V., Popkova L.M.

The paper is devoted to the role of the mass media text in the modern system of higher education while training graduates in media field, linguists, philologists, teachers of literature and the Russian language. The authors substantiate the necessity to update the approaches to the use of mass media text in educational programs in connection with changes in ideological, socio-political, economic processes. Media literacy of a university graduate implies competent interaction with the information environment, modeling of their own information behavior, professional perception and evaluation of the information in the media. The paper analyzes the use of mass media text in the educational process from the point of view of different education process participants, and also suggests the organization of training graduates to work with mass media text in three vectors – educational, scientific research and the vector of personal development. The authors of the study emphasize the importance of the use of media text in teaching linguistic courses in various areas of training and the necessity to redefine the approaches to student-research activities and educational work. The preparation of a university graduate should be adjusted to the current social demand: the modern media text has a significant impact on the individual’s worldview, as well as on the formation of civic responsibility and patriotism.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):253-258
pages 253-258 views
Negative traits in the modern learner portrait
Ershova O.V.

This paper is the second one in the series «Portraits of subjects of the educational process» and is devoted to the second status subject of the educational process – the modern student. Despite the fact that schoolchildren and students are presented as a single group of students, their portraits are analyzed progressively in order, on the one hand, to identify features characteristic of a particular age period, and on the other one, to trace the changes that have occurred in them over time. A feature of material selection for the study was the emphasis on the negative aspects of the portrait, identified by theorists and practitioners. The general portrait of the student revealed the following features: pragmatism, desire for independence, high pace of life, infantilism, clip thinking, desire to receive benefits without effort, willingness to put pressure on others, etc. According to the author’s concept, consideration of the student’s portrait is formally constructed similarly to the teacher’s portrait presented in the first paper of the series, and also has an identical three-part structure, but with content relevant to the research subject. Key features are covered in three dimensions: professional is determined by the opinion of teachers and employers; personal is connected with family and family ties; public – with school, friends, mass media (media), social networks.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):259-264
pages 259-264 views
Distance learning in universities of the Samara Region: results of situational reflection
Izmailov A.M.

The paper analyzes the state of distance learning in universities at the present stage of digitalization of society; conducts a theoretical analysis of publications on the problems of distance learning in universities of the Russian Federation, describes the results of a sociological study of students of Samara universities regarding organizational aspects and conditions of distance learning. The problems of distance learning are identified and the typological features of their classification in the author’s edition are determined. A brief description of legal, psycho-emotional, physiological, organizational, technical and technological problems is given. As part of a practical study, the focus is on the organizational aspect of distance education. The practical component of the study was reflected in the conduct of a sociological survey of students of 1–5 courses of universities in the Samara region to identify certain aspects of their attitude to the organization of distance learning. The validity of the results of the study was ensured by the representativeness of the sample of respondents: the study involved students of different universities, areas and majors, courses, forms of education, which is confirmed by the statistical data of the results of the survey. The study has revealed an opinion of respondents in relation to the quality of distance learning, technological readiness of the subjects of the educational process for the implementation of distance learning, availability of objective conditions (in particular, logistics, functionality of the videoconferencing systems used, etc.). The paper presents quantitative indicators and analyzes the results of the study.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):265-271
pages 265-271 views
Developing the motivation to enrich active vocabulary in the process of teaching English to students majoring in Economics
Kazakova L.N., Nikitina S.V.

This paper deals with teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP), focused on the professional training of prospective economists of various fields of activity: managers, accountants, sociologists, specialists in the sphere of economic security. The authors indicate that the most difficult aspect of foreign language for students is the lexical aspect, the problem of enriching the active vocabulary precisely, since being under permanent growing flow of information; the students who already possess basic knowledge are not always motivated to memorize and actively use new lexical units. They prefer using the constructions, words, concepts and terms which they have learned before. It concerns mostly idiomatic expressions and phrasal verbs, which differ in specific semantic characteristics and structure, as well as the complexity of their practical application. However, the use of such structures in speech ensures a successful improvement of a foreign language communicative competence and an integrative approach is proposed for the development and strengthening of motivation in the preparation of methodological textbooks and tasks. It is underlined that when preparing individual stages of the educational course, orientation to the professional use of a foreign language should be taken into account with the analysis of target situations and subsequent consideration of the compliance of tasks and applied forms of work with the needs of prospective economists in specific situations of their professional activities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):272-278
pages 272-278 views
Creating a health-preserving social environment at the university by means of the functioning of Physical Education and Sports Department
Kalimullina O.A., Kalmanovich V.L., Abdrashitov R.I.

The paper substantiates the importance of the problem of determining educational tools aimed at the health protection of student youth, and proves that the role of one of these tools is the health-saving environment of the university. The views of scientists on the concept of «health-saving environment» are given, attention is focused on its social aspect and the need to create a health-saving social environment at the university is indicated. It is substantiated that approaches to building a health-saving social environment of the university are personality-oriented ones. They are considered to be activity approaches: personality-oriented approach contributes to the formation of a conscious attitude towards health as a value among students; activity approach ensures the development of students’ skills and abilities to implement a healthy lifestyle. The role of Physical Education and Sports Department in creating a health-saving social environment of the university is revealed. The model of functioning of Physical Education and Sports Department is presented; it determines the main directions of activity of the staff of the department, in order to create and improve the health-saving social environment of the university. The content of the four leading activities of Physical Education and Sports Department, focused on creating a health-saving social environment of the university, is revealed: 1) educational and methodological work; 2) research work; 3) sports work; 4) health-improving and educational work.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):279-283
pages 279-283 views
The efficiency of national-regional component application in physical culture classes for modern youth’s value orientations formation
Kalmanovich V.L.

The paper substantiates the importance of modern youth’s value orientations formation for building a humanistic society. The role of the educational space of the university is indicated, in which training and education are optimally combined in introducing young people to values. The possibilities of using a national-regional component in physical education classes for modern youth’s value orientations formation at the university are revealed: the use of the national-regional component allows familiarizing a young person with the culture of his/her people, instill interest in its history, creating conditions for understanding the significance of traditional national spiritual values and their appropriation. The pedagogical significance of national sports use in the educational process is revealed, which consists in its capabilities in educating morality, character, volitional qualities, in creating a certain mood, in developing interest in ethnic creativity. The results of the study of the effectiveness of national-regional component implementation in the educational activities of physical education and sports departments of six largest universities of Tatarstan are presented. It is substantiated that within insufficient legal framework for the implementation of the national-regional component in the educational process of the university in general and in the course «Physical culture», in particular, a significant part of teachers implement the national-regional component in physical education classes by means of folk outdoor games and national sports which is an effective means of modern youth’s value orientations formation at a university.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):284-288
pages 284-288 views
The study of the value attitude of cadets of a departmental university of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia to a person
Klychkov S.A.

The paper indicates a necessity to humanize the performance of an employee of the penitentiary system, within which the problem of the value attitude formation among cadets of a departmental higher education institution of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia to a person is highlighted. It is substantiated that the value attitude of a cadet – a prospective employee of the penitentiary system to a person is a personal formation that has a structure. The components of the value attitude of a cadet to a person – cognitive, motivational-evaluative, emotional, activity – are distinguished and their content (knowledge, values, empathy, relationships) is revealed. A set of methods of scientific and pedagogical research is determined. It allows to study the value attitude of cadets to a person: a method of the conceptual dictionary, a method of associations, a method «Value orientations», a method «Diagnosis of empathic abilities level», «Personal growth», and the use of each of the methods for studying a specific component of the cadet’s value attitude to a person. The results obtained using methods of scientific and pedagogical research for the study of the value attitude towards a person among cadets of the first and final courses are compared. Changes that have occurred in the value attitude of prospective employees of the penal system towards a person are presented. The conclusion about the effectiveness of the experimental work on the value attitude formation among cadets towards a person in the educational process of a departmental university of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia is substantiated.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):289-295
pages 289-295 views
The educational potential of the choral competition in the professional training of music teachers
Kolysheva T.A., Petsina I.A.

The paper is devoted to the disclosure of the pedagogical and educational potential of the choral competition as a creative project aimed at improving their musical and performing competencies of prospective teachers-musicians. The paper substantiates the importance of cultural and educational environment of the choral collective, which has a direct controlling effect on the personality of a prospective teacher, his or her spiritual and moral upbringing in the educational process of a university. Preparation for a choral performance competition is considered in the form of stages of successive motivated actions of a teacher and students to achieve the planned result. The work on the competition program is carried out in an educational environment of creative interaction, creates prerequisites for personal growth of each participant and involves introducing students to choral music with a high level of spiritual content. Mastering the moral system, the «ethical code» in the works of Russian sacred music contributes to the awareness of the choir members of the power of the influence of sacred music on the development of their ethical sides. The bright emotional intensity of the competitive performance, creative enthusiasm enhance the productivity of creative solutions, the manifestation of the abilities, personal and professional qualities of students, the affirmation of the value of everyone in the conditions of the competition. Reflection and introspection of the competitive execution of the program develop the independence and critical thinking of the participants, confirms their professional position. Overcoming performing difficulties, solving problematic situations contribute to improving the level of professional training of prospective teachers-musicians, their «social hardening». The interaction of the choir members teaches the distribution of roles in society, gives an idea of the continuity of norms, rules, values of life.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):296-300
pages 296-300 views
The organization of an individual educational route as a tool for the development of gifted students’ personal qualities
Kremneva A.S., Markova N.G., Kudasheva A.A.

In this paper the authors actualize the need for the development of moral qualities and feelings among students with signs of giftedness, which encourage them to overcome difficulties, solve educational problems of various designs. The moral paradigm in the organization of an individual educational route of students with signs of giftedness is the basis of constructive subjective interaction. Namely, the development of moral qualities helps each student to build his or her own individual educational route. The purposefulness and systematic nature of pedagogical influences in the organization of an individual educational route of students helps to consolidate their moral qualities, develop moral feelings, and most importantly, develop skills and habits of moral behavior that are necessary for the implementation of an individual educational route. Students with signs of giftedness gradually develop confidence, willpower, and an active lifestyle. Practice confirms that the purposefulness and systematic impact on the consciousness and feelings of students makes it possible to maintain the productive educational process, oriented on the development of the student’s personality, the consolidation of his qualities and the enrichment of motivation resources. The development of student’s personal qualities affects the quality of the individual educational route of students with signs of giftedness, their creative activity in general, the formation of an active life position and the formation of studying habits.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):301-307
pages 301-307 views
A method of projects as a means of developing a linguistic and cultural competence in high school English classes
Kulaeva O.A., Zolotukhina A.I.

This paper considers a linguoculturological approach to teaching a foreign language, a method of projects as one of the most effective methods in the process of developing a linguocultural competence among secondary school students. The authors consider the stages of work on short-term projects or lesson projects. The authors propose to comply with four stages: preparation, planning, research, presentation and assessment of the results of project activities. The analysis of the Spotlight 8 educational and methodological complex allowed the authors to propose a transformation of the tasks of the sections marked «Project» from tasks for the written skills development into full-fledged lesson projects, having developed all necessary stages, assessment criteria, options for implementation and development of the project. The paper proposes a development of short-term projects for the modules of the Spotlight 8 textbook. The development includes a full-fledged lesson scenario for a lesson project in a specific module, assessment criteria that can be useful to the teacher both for assessing an individual, and a paired, group project. The paper may be of interest to teachers of a foreign language, methodologists, teachers of educational organizations of additional education, teachers supervising project activities. The developed evaluation scheme, detailed stages of work on a lesson project will be interesting and useful for an English teacher.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):308-312
pages 308-312 views
Features of the moral development of the personality of a teenager – a student of the cadet corps
Larin I.A.

The paper raises a question of the moral development of the personality of cadet corps students. The specificity of the educational process in the cadet corps is indicated, which affects the development of cadets’ personality in general and their moral development in particular. The age limits of adolescence are presented and its main features are revealed: the desire for adulthood, puberty, communication with peers as a leading activity, inconsistency of behavior. The analysis of the features of the moral development of the personality of cadet corps students is based on the provisions of developmental psychology, which determine the specifics of adolescence as a stage in the development of the personality, on the provisions of pedagogy, which interpret moral education as a process of assimilation of moral values. The personality traits inherent in adolescents are analyzed in the context of the educational space of the cadet corps. It is substantiated that the moral development of adolescent cadets is carried out in the conditions of determining professional preferences by cadets through the assimilation of the moral foundations of the profession (military, employee of the Ministry of Internal Affairs – depending on the departmental affiliation of the cadet corps); gender homogeneity of the composition of students; development of the cadet fraternity, leading to the establishment of strong and long-term friendly relations; enrichment of the value sphere of consciousness of adolescents at the expense of moral and professional values.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):313-317
pages 313-317 views
Training of students – prospective teachers for summer teaching practice in children’s health camps
Pozdnyakova O.K., Semenova O.M.

The paper deals with the role of summer teaching practice in student’s personal and professional qualities development, in activating his/her work on himself/herself, in acquiring the student’s first professional experience, in professional and pedagogical development of the personality of the prospective teacher, and substantiates the need for purposeful, systematic and consistent training of students for the implementation of professional activities of the counselor during summer teaching practice. The authors have revealed possibilities of psychological and pedagogical academic courses and specialized academic courses implemented in different universities («Organization of educational work in a summer health camp», «Organization of summer holidays for children and adolescents», «Teaching for summer practice», «Fundamentals of counselor activities») as well as forms of practical training of students for professional activities of a leader (instructive camps, instructive and methodological camps, instructional fees, field workshops) in effective preparing students for summer teaching practice. The experience of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education in teaching students – prospective teachers for summer pedagogical practice in the process of mastering the content of the academic course «Fundamentals of Leadership Activities» is presented. As a result students can carry out independent educational work with children and adolescents during summer holidays, they can implement forms, methods and techniques of educating schoolchildren in a summer health camp; they have a responsible and creative attitude to educational work with children and adolescents.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):318-323
pages 318-323 views
The hermeneutic approach for shaping students’ experience of moral interaction with other people
Razumovskaya A.A.

The paper actualizes the problem of preparing young people studying in vocational education institutions for moral interaction with other people, one of the aspects of which is the shaping of students’ experience of moral interaction as a personal education with a structure (cognitive, motivational-value, communicative and behavioral components). The potential of hermeneutic, value, dialogic and personal-activity approaches in shaping the experience of students’ moral interaction with other people is substantiated, and the advantage of each of the approaches to the shaping of a specific component of experience is indicated. The possibilities of the hermeneutic approach, the central concept of which is «understanding», are revealed in the shaping of the cognitive component of the experience of students’ moral interaction. The correlation of knowledge and understanding is substantiated: knowledge, which precedes understanding and serves as its source, is presented to the individual in various forms, the main of which is the text. The potential of the hermeneutic arc is revealed in equipping students with knowledge that shapes the content of the cognitive component of the experience of moral interaction between students: knowledge about morality, values, etc., known to students, is enriched through the content of the texts presented to them, acquiring personal meaning, and then, returning to the life of students, substantiates their choice of ways of moral interaction. It is proved that the implementation of the hermeneutic approach contributes to the isolation in the texts presented to the student of such knowledge that justifies the student’s choice of ways of moral interaction, provides a reflective comprehension by the student of another person based on a deep personal understanding.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):324-328
pages 324-328 views
Field educational expeditions as a way to implement a meta-subject approach in teaching schoolchildren
Sinichkin E.A., Omelchenko P.N.

The paper discusses the types and features of school expeditions and their role in the meta-subject approach of teaching schoolchildren. An expedition is an off-site event that is conducted according to a developed program in order to learn and study the territory and/or several objects. Depending on the goals and objectives, research, educational, historical and local history school expeditions are distinguished. An educational expedition is understood as an extensive, well-designed event organized by teachers of various subjects to consolidate the knowledge of students acquired at school, to acquire skills to solve various problems in society. The educational expedition can be used both in regular and extracurricular activities in order to implement a meta-subject approach in teaching schoolchildren. Since 2021, the educational project «Interesting lessons in sneakers» has been implemented in Secondary School № 14 of Novocheboksarsk of the Chuvash Republic. A program, a scenario, didactic materials, feedback questionnaires are compiled for each educational expedition, and the necessary documents are prepared for the organization and holding of the event. Within the framework of the project, 6 field educational expeditions were conducted with a total coverage of more than 160 people: «Time to fly», «In the footsteps of Robinson Crusoe», «Sursky Frontier», «A visit to the marmots», «Tsvetik-semitsvetik», «BBK». Conducting educational expeditions increases the natural science functional literacy of students, develops cognitive and research skills.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):329-336
pages 329-336 views
Philosophical prerequisites for researching the personal and developmental potential of knowledge of the prospective engineer
Charikova I.N.

Changes taking place in the dynamically developing industrial production and society determine the key resource and wealth of the information society – knowledge, meanings, ideas, educational design and creativity of the subject of engineering activity. The problem of the personal development potential of knowledge as the most important attribution that becomes in the space of professional self-development of the prospective engineer is relevant for modern society. Today, the need for innovative transformations in the training of engineers of a new formation with the appropriate amount of knowledge for the successful solution of scientific, technical and production-organizational problems is obvious. The idea of coevolution of natural and social epistemically manifests itself in modern bionic engineering projects, awakening professional education to investigate the phenomenon of interpenetration of knowledge and mechanisms of cognition. The paper attempted to assess the existing aspects of the problem under consideration, to justify the relevance of the appeal to philosophical and scientific knowledge, the teaching of knowledge, the fundamental provisions of which will provide the required result, both for professional and personal development of prospective engineers. To determine the philosophical prerequisites for the personal-developing potential of knowledge, we turned to epistemology, a science that is more occupied with the value-meaning question: «What is knowledge for a person? What matters more in the development of personality as a subject of cognition?» The study has found that in the changed conditions of modern information and communicative civilization, epistemology puts forward the requirement to rethink traditional ideas about knowledge, how to obtain it and justify it. Its task-target functionality includes understanding the categorical essence of knowledge, identifying the grounds for its reliability, considering the mechanisms and models of cognitive processes; search for prerequisites for the developing potential of knowledge; awareness of the world around us, and the opportunities to live and act in it.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):337-341
pages 337-341 views
The author’s methodology in music pedagogy: a concept, distinctive characteristics and personalities
Shestitko I.V., Wan K.

The paper deals with the analysis of the concepts: «methodology», «author’s technique» and «teaching technology». The author’s methodology in music pedagogy is revealed through the concepts: «author’s concept», «teaching system», «innovative activity of the teacher», «a set of non-standard methods, techniques and teaching aids», which are aimed at developing musical abilities, revealing the creative potential of students, taking into account the personality of the teacher. The paper contains conclusions about the purpose of the author’s methodology, about its structural representation as a sequence of actions aimed at achieving the goal, about the content of specific methods and techniques, about the criteria and indicators of its effectiveness to determine the conditions that promote or limit its application. The paper presents brief characteristics of the author’s methods in music pedagogy: the author’s method of using musical instruments for the development of musical hearing among preschool children (E.I. Zotkina); the author’s technique (A.A. Piliciauskas), which uses a method of understanding the intoned meaning of a work and a method of understanding a personal meaning of a musical composition; the author’s technique (K.A. Martinsen), characterized by the transition from a technical education to an internal one and from the internal one to a private one; the author’s technique SITO (V.G. Razhnikova); the author’s technique Cheryl Porter «Cheryl Porter vocal method».

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(4):342-346
pages 342-346 views

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