Samara Journal of Science

Samara Journal of Science was established in 2012.

The authors of the journal are university academic staff, researchers, postgraduates, candidates for a doctor’s degree, senior students.

By the decision of Supreme Attestation Commission dated of 29.12.2015, the journal is listed in the Catalogue of peer-reviewed scientific publications, where the core scientific results of the candidate and doctoral theses must be published (link).

The journal is registered in the system “Russian Science Citation Index” (RSCI – eLIBRARY.RU).

The journal is registered in the system “CyberLeninka”.

The journal has professional, highly qualified editorial staff consisted of leading scientists (doctors of science, professors, academicians, correspondent members of Russian Academy of Sciences) – representatives of national and foreign institutions of higher education and scientific organizations.

Samara Journal of Science is an open scientific platform for all interested individuals and organizations, which enables authors to publish the results of their research in education as well as biological sciences, historical sciences. The journal promotes an exchange of views on various issues of biology, history and pedagogy between researchers from different regions and countries.

 


Scientific fields of Samara Journal of Science:
1.5 Biological sciences
1.5.12 Zoology
1.5.14 Entomology
1.5.15 Ecology (biological sciences)
5.6 Historical sciences
5.6.1 Domestic history
5.6.2 Universal history
5.6.3 Archeology
5.6.4 Ethnology, anthropology and ethnography
5.6.5 Historiography, source studies, methods of historical research
5.8 Pedagogy
5.8.1 General pedagogy, history of pedagogy and education
5.8.2 Theory and methodology of training and upbringing
5.8.7 Methodology and technology of professional education

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Current Issue

Vol 11, No 3 (2022)

From editorial board

The 70th birthday of the doctor of historical sciences, professor Aleksandr Ivanovich Repinetsky
Vybornov A.A., Korolev A.I., Mochalov O.D., Khramkova E.L.
Abstract

This paper is dedicated to the 70th birthday of Aleksandr Ivanovich Repinetsky, doctor of historical sciences, professor of National History and Archeology Department, vice-rector for research at Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education. The paper deals with the main stages of the life of this prominent historian who has worked at the pedagogical university for more than forty years, who has gone from the position of an assistant to a vice-rector for research. His scientific, pedagogical, organizational and social activities are highly appreciated. In these positions A.I. Repinetsky proved to be an outstanding researcher, a teacher and a leader. A brief review of his research on historical demography, everyday history, the history of the Great Patriotic War and other problems allowed us to conclude that he has made a significant contribution to the study of the Soviet period. He has also conducted a significant study on the history of the «alternative capital» (Kuibyshev) of the USSR in 1941–1943. The role of A.I. Repinetsky in the creation of local history textbooks for secondary schools in Samara and the Samara Region is great. Six doctoral and twenty candidate theses were defended under the scientific supervision of Aleksandr Ivanovich Repinetsky. Most of the theses were written by graduates of the Historical Faculty of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):10-18
pages 10-18 views

Biological Sciences

Vegetation cover and spatial distribution of small mammals in the conditions of woodland large city park (Nizhny Novgorod)
Boryakova E.E.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to the study of ecological connectivity vegetation cover and microtine rodent’s spatial distribution in the conditions of the Nizhny Novgorod woodland park. The oak forest of National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod Botanical Garden with partial anthropogenic transformation was chosen as a site of the study. We used five various plant communities represented by linden trees. The dominant in all ecosystems on the test areas is the red vole (73%), the codominant is the pygmy wood mouse (21%). The yellow-necked mouse has been observed only in several communities. It has been revealed that a decrease in the biodiversity of plant communities due to an increase in the degree of individual species dominance marked by Berger–Parker index doesn’t entail significant negative consequences for small mammals. It is possible that the dominants in vegetation cover create a favorable microclimate for small mammals. The PCA analysis shows the presence of two significant factors for the distribution of microtine rodents. The first factor is associated with the balance of humidity and illumination, the second – with nitrogen availability in combination with low illumination. The ecological divergence of niches in two species of mice (pygmy wood mouse and yellow-necked mouse) was observed. In relation to the projective cover, the bank vole occurs both at very high (90%) and low (30%) values, which confirms the ecological plasticity of that species. For yellow-necked and pygmy wood mice, the optimal values of projective cover in studied communities range from 70 to 90%. However, yellow-necked mice can also live in plant communities with a plant cover index about 40–50%.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):19-24
pages 19-24 views
Zooplankton in the temporary recreational pond in microdistrict 13 of Samara
Gerasimov Y.L.
Abstract

Rotifers make a significant contribution to the self-purification of the water bodies. Full self-purification is especially important for water bodies of recreational zones of settlements. These water bodies are constantly visited by local residents and conditions in these water bodies must comply with sanitary standards and they shouldn’t be dangerous to human health. At the same time, the rest of residents on the banks of urban ponds leads to a deterioration in their ecological and sanitary conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the ecosystems of urban ponds located in recreational areas and among resident buildings. The Rotifera and Crustacea community in the small temporary urban recreational pond in microdistrict 13 of Samara was studied in 2012 and 2018. The pond is situated in the middle of the plot among Kirov avenue, Georgy Dimitrov street, Stara-Zagora street, Moskovskoe highway. 23 Rotifera (13 familia) and 24 Crustacea species (8 familia) have been identified. All species are common for water bodies in the Samara Region. Most of the species live in other ponds of Samara. Brachionidae dominated in the Rotifera community, Cyclopoidae и Daphniidae dominated in the Crustacea. The seasonal dynamics of the population size from May till November was studied. The Rotifers largest abundance in both years was observed in spring and autumn. The crustaceans largest abundance was in 2012 in October, in 2018 in July. The indicator species of Rotifera and Crustacea correspond to the β-mesosaprobic zone. While resting people trample grass on the banks, the soil washout causes eutrophication and shallowing of the pond. It is necessary to remove bottom sediments and strengthen the pond banks to improve the state of the pond.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):25-34
pages 25-34 views
The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the reproductive function of male white rats
Dudenkova N.A., Shubina O.S.
Abstract

Ultraviolet radiation is an area of electromagnetic radiation that is not perceived by the eye, which occupies the middle range between visible and X-ray radiation. Scientists and doctors have proven that ultraviolet radiation in moderate doses has a rather positive effect on the human and animal body, as well as on their health. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the skin, blood and immune system has been well studied. However, there is practically no information about the effect of ultraviolet radiation on the reproductive system, and in particular on the male, which is most susceptible to the thermal effect received from it. Our experiment indicates that exposure to ultraviolet radiation adversely affects the reproductive function of the male gonads (testes). So, with short-term exposure to long-wave ultraviolet radiation, the protective resources of the body are first activated and active replenishment of the spent resources of the body begins, which affects a slight increase in the total concentration of epididymal spermatozoa, and their viability indicators increase slightly. With a longer exposure to long-wave ultraviolet radiation, in particular due to the thermal effect caused by it, there is a decrease in the total concentration of epididymal spermatozoa, as well as a decrease in their viability.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):35-40
pages 35-40 views
Features of the balance of ecosystem services and risks for woody plants in the Samara Region
Zaika A.S., Kavelenova L.M.
Abstract

The development of the concept of ecosystem services, started at the end of the 20th century mainly by foreign authors, has recently extended to the consideration of various aspects of the mankind interaction with the surrounding natural complexes, including the functioning of agroecosystems of various types and urban environments. The urban ecosystem includes various forms of infrastructure that provide services to the population, including green infrastructure consisting of natural plant systems and associated green technologies. Green infrastructure ensures the implementation of regulatory, supportive and cultural ecosystem services. On the other hand, the reverse interaction has recently been considered – the practice of considering ecosystem services provided directly by the urban environment for the conservation of biological diversity has appeared. The provision of ecosystem services is an important role of urban plantings, and the contribution of woody plants to their implementation is particularly important. Despite the small share of the area occupied in the urban environment, the use of land covered with trees contributes to a significant reduction in the «ecological footprint» of the city. However, the quality of ecosystem services provided is largely determined by the vital condition of a particular instance of trees and depends on their specific features. Based on the actual data obtained during the survey of model plots of street plantings in Samara, the authors consider the features of the balance between ecosystem services and risks associated with the species composition and vital state of the tree component of plantings in the urban environment. For a number of species of woody plants, their actual role in the urban environment has been factorially analyzed, taking into account the effectiveness of the implementation of ecosystem services and the severity of problems associated with their condition or life characteristics.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):41-47
pages 41-47 views
Ontogenetic structure of natural populations of rare species of the genus Hedysarum L. in the Volga and Ural regions
Ilina V.N., Abramova L.M., Mustafina A.N., Suprun N.A., Lavrentiev M.V.
Abstract

The paper presents the results of studying the population structure of rare species Hedysarum argyrophyllum Ledeb., H. cretaceum Fisch., H. gmelinii Ledeb., H. grandiflorum Pall. and H. razoumowianum Fisch. et Helm in the Volga and Ural regions. The study area covers Volgograd, Samara, Saratov, the southern part of the Ulyanovsk and the western part of the Orenburg Regions and the Republic of Bashkortostan. 10 coenopopulations of Hedysarum argyrophyllum, 18 coenopopulations of H. cretaceum, 410 coenopopulations of H. gmelinii, 1800 coenopopulations of H. grandiflorum, 1400 coenopopulations of H. razoumowianum were examined. The work was carried out in 2000–2021 using population-ontogenetic methods. The studied representatives are rare, their population characteristics are subject to changes under the influence of anthropogenic factors. Species have sufficient potential for self-recovery of natural populations. The ontogenetic spectra of populations are similar in their parameters; the dominant fraction of individuals is the generative one. Common features are the fluctuation type of population dynamics and ontogenetic structure of model representatives, relatively low demographic characteristics, weak ability for self-maintenance and self-recovery of populations under anthropogenic load. Anthropogenic load leads to a decrease in the number of individuals, their density and the gradual aging of populations.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):48-55
pages 48-55 views
Ecological characteristics of ornamental plants and their use in landscape architecture
Kalendar O.V., Vishegurov S.K., Buglova L.V., Kaigalov I.V., Sarlaeva M.Y., Yudanova S.S., Vasilyeva O.Y., Dorogina O.V.
Abstract

The paper deals with abiotic environmental factors affecting the decorative effect created by plants belonging to various biomorphs in the conditions of the continental climate. The authors have identified some problems of Siberian landscaping. They are 1) insufficient knowledge by landscape architects of the ecological and biological features of trees and shrubs and their belonging to certain zones of frost resistance; 2) the use of ornamental plants with a short period of ontogenesis in landscape compositions; 3) insufficient involvement of late summer and autumn flowering perennial plants in landscaping. It is shown that the degree of winter damage of the aboveground shoot system of trees and shrubs is influenced not only by the absolute values of minimum temperatures, but also by the duration of their exposure. Methods of rejuvenation of ornamental plants from the family Ranunculaceae used in landscape architecture are proposed. As a result of long-term studies of the Chrysanthemum L. generic complex, including species, forms and varieties, conducted in the CSBG, a garden group of Korean chrysanthemums has been identified. Its representatives, characterized by average flowering periods and blooming at a day longitude of 13–14 hours, can significantly fill the period including September and even the first half of October with their ornamental effect. The characteristics of resistance and ornamental qualities of some species and varieties of plants included in the biological resource collection USU 44053 are given.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):56-63
pages 56-63 views
Lateralized behavior of jackal-dog hybrid
Kislaeva M.S., Blokhin I.G.
Abstract

This paper examines the phenomenon of interhemispheric asymmetry, which underlies lateralization, using jackal-dog hybrid as an example. The aim of the work is to reveal the existence of a connection between the leading paw used and individual characteristics of dogs, such as sex, age, and percentage of jackal blood. The identification of such patterns can help to adjust or select a more effective method of training a working dog, which is the relevance of this work. Using the «first-pitch» method, it was found that of the 76 jackal-dog hybrid, 46 favored the right paw, 23 favored the left paw, and 7 used both paws equally. Among right-handed ones there are 31 females and 15 males, among left-handed ones there are 3 females and 20 males, and among ambidextrous ones, those who «have not decided» with the leading limb, there are 2 females and 5 males. In general, there is a correlation between the sex of the dog and severity of motor lateralization: females prefer the right limb more often than males, and males, in their turn, prefer the left limb more often than females. Among older dogs there are only jackal-dog hybrid with pronounced lateralization, i.e. only left- or right-handed dogs. As for the percentage of jackal blood and emotional functionality – no regularities were found.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):64-68
pages 64-68 views
Comparative characteristics of the population organization of Myodes glareolus Schreber and Apodemus uralensis Pallas on the territory of the State Nature Reserve «Kologrivsky Forest» named after M.G. Sinitsyn
Klimova A.S., Sirotina M.V.
Abstract

The paper deals with a comparative analysis of the features of the population organization of the Myodes glareolus and the Apodemus uralensis on the territory of the State Nature Reserve «Kologrivsky Forest» named after M.G. Sinitsyn. This research is a part of a long-term monitoring of the state of populations of dominant species of small mammals on the site of the Kologrivsky Reserve. The paper presents factors of the dynamics of the density of rodent populations, considers trends in the number of individuals of the studied species, their sex and age structure, characteristics of interior and exterior features. The general tendencies and regularities of rodent adaptation to various external environmental factors are revealed. The authors have established a direct statistical dependence of the density of the studied populations on the average air temperature and an inverse dependence on the amount of precipitation. The dependence of exterior and interior features on the gender and age structure, population dynamics and weather conditions is traced. The role of autoregulation of integral population indicators as one of the mechanisms for maintaining its homeostatic state is considered. The revealed patterns allow us to make a forecast of the population dynamics of the Myodes glareolus and the Apodemus uralensis on the territory under consideration. It is possible to use the results of the study as a control example for comparison with other populations of cyclomorphic rodents in ecologically contrasting conditions of forest biocoenoses.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):69-78
pages 69-78 views
Some results of the research of mammals and birds inhabiting the Polar Ural Mountains foothills
Levykh A.Y., Zamyatin D.O., Morgun E.N., Ilyasov R.M.
Abstract

This paper describes some results of the research of mammals and birds’ fauna and population structure as ecosystem condition indicators, and provides an investigation of flora and soil to establish habitats’ structural peculiarities. The research covered an area of a future road from Kharp Village through a ski resort to the Snowflake International Arctic Station (Priuralsky District, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia). Our study aims at assessing the environmental impact of the project. In the area’s typical habitats, we registered two small mammal species (Clethrionomys (= Myodes) rutilus, Sorex araneus), 25 bird species, traces of three medium and large mammal species presence (Lepus timidus, Vulpes vulpes, Rangifer tarandus). Micromammals show very low abundance, low indices of small mammal communities’ diversity and sustainability, Cl. rutilus being an absolute dominant. The bird species show a relatively low level of abundance. The composition and structure of animal and bird communities are in line with natural and climate conditions of the Polar Urals foothills. The investigation results revealed low resource capacity, sustainability and biotic communities’ vulnerability to any impact. The study materials suggest that the future road from Kharp Village to the Snowflake International Arctic Station will not significantly harm mammal and bird population of the area, and will provide facilities for recreational and tourist activities, and will mitigate risks of anthopogenic impact on these vulnerable ecosystems.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):79-90
pages 79-90 views
The environmental assessment of the specially protected natural area «Lake Dus-Khol» due to its recreational use
Mongush C.B., Andreeva I.V., Sambyla C.N.
Abstract

This paper deals with the field integrated geo-environmental research of lake Dus-Khol in the summer of 2021. Under the leadership of the Tuvan Scientific Center in the context of project to identify maximum permissible and optimal recreation load on the specially protected natural area the study collected and updated data on the number of visitors and the condition of the coastal ecosystem health. Lake Dus-Khol is located in Tandinsky kozhuun of the Republic of Tuva, 3 km away from lake Hadyn. Dus-Khol is one of the most visited lakes in the Republic of Tuva. The main attractions are therapeutic mud, high-quality rapa, heliotherms, and drinking mineral waters. A regime of regional specially protected natural area has been introduced on the territory of the lake, the main goal is to preserve natural wetland complexes in their natural state and protect them from the negative effects of anthropogenic and man-made factors. Based on the data obtained, the types of recreation, the values of recreational load and the degree of recreational digression of the ecosystem are determined. The forms of recreation, recreation load values and recreation degree of ecosystem were identified based on the received data. The ways of optimizing recreational nature management on the lake were proposed. The visitors were counted by route counting method during the peak season. Data on the types and scale of recreational activities, as well as the degree of recreational digression of natural complexes of the coast were carried out by visual assessments and surveys.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):91-95
pages 91-95 views
Halophytic vegetation of the Lopatinsky District in the Penza Region
Novikova L.A., Vasjukov V.M., Mironova A.A., Gordeeva L.A.
Abstract

The halophytic vegetation of the Lopatinsky District in the Penza Region was studied on the example of five solonets (Litvinovsky, Lipovsky, Staro-Vershautsky, Olginsky and Belogorsky). Halophytic meadows (44,0%) slightly prevail over halophytic steppes (36,0%) on all of these salt lakes. 550 species of vascular plants have been identified in the Lopatinsky District of the Penza Region, 29 rare species have been identified, 2 species (Iris aphylla, Stipa pennata) are protected at the federal level and 29 species (Adenophora liliifolia, Adonanthe vernalis, Allium lineare, Allium podolicum, Allium praescissum, Amygdalus nana, Artemisia santonica, Astragalus varius, Bupleurum falcatum, Dianthus volgicus, Galatella linosyris, Galatella rossica, Galatella villosa, Gelasia ensifolia, Hippochaete ramosissima, Iris aphylla, Jacobaea erucifolia, Plantago maxima, Plantago salsa, Potentilla alba, Pulsatilla patens, Rosa corymbifera, Salvia nutans, Silaum silaus, Spiraea crenata, Stipa borysthenica, Stipa pennata, Stipa tirsa, Syrenia montana) are protected regionally. In all of these five solonets, perennial grasslands predominate among halophytic meadows (36,0%), and semi-shrubby grasslands predominate among halophytic steppes (23,0%). The main stages of halophyte vegetation demutation in various ecological conditions have been established. Halophytic meadows are formed in saline and moist soils: annuals, perennials, turf and slag. On the contrary, in the conditions of saline and dry soils, halophytic steppes are formed: annual grasslands, perennial grasslands, semi-shrubby. Of the studied salt shakers of the Penza Region the salt shakers of the Lopatinsky District are the closest to the salt shakers of the Maloserdobinsky District in their structure and dynamics.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):96-105
pages 96-105 views
The diversity of plumage coloration and behavioral features of synanthropic blue rock pigeon of urbanized territories
Polyavina O.V., Lebedeva M.A.
Abstract

The paper considers the features of the phenotypic structure formation of blue rock pigeons populations on the basis of plumage color on territories with varying degrees of urbanization. The distribution of morphotypes may depend on the number of pigeons in flocks (the density of micropopulation groups), which is determined by migration processes associated with the transformation of the habitat, changes in foraging and other factors. An important role in the phenotypic structure formation of the pigeon population is the development of adaptations to living conditions in the city. The most anthropotolerant and, accordingly, adapted to the conditions of urbanization, are the most numerous morphotypes – black and grey, which have developed various adaptation strategies in the process of co-evolution. Representatives of these morphotypes predominantly constitute the «sedentary» part of pigeon populations in urban areas. Migrants, among whom, apparently, there is a large proportion of «aberrant» morphotypes or hybrid forms, demonstrate less adaptability to anthropogenic impact and to the conditions of urbanization. The existence of stable polymorphic populations of blue rock pigeons in the urban environment indicates the development of multidirectional behavioral strategies that make it possible to fully use the features of urban landscapes and adapt to humans and numerous anthropogenic disturbance factors. One of the directions of the adaptive population strategy of blue rock pigeons is the development of moderate anthropotolerance, which is possessed by representatives of the most common black-striped phenotype.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):106-111
pages 106-111 views
Biomorphological features of plants and amino acid composition of Agastache anisatus and Agastache rugosa (Lamiaceae) proteins under culture conditions in the North
Portnyagina N.V., Echishvili E.E., Fomina M.G.
Abstract

This paper summarizes the results of a long-term collection study of the growth and development of plants of two species of polygrate – Agastache anisatus and A. rugosa (Lamiaceae) in the Botanical Garden of the Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. The material for the study was attracted according to the exchange lists of seeds from other botanical gardens and abroad. Under the conditions of the culture of the middle taiga subzone of the Komi Republic, both types of multi-grate behave like juvenile herbaceous plants. Seeds of these species do not need pre-sowing preparation. When sown in open ground at the end of May – the first ten days of June, mass seedlings were noted on the 12–20th day, depending on the weather conditions of the season. During the first year of life, the plants successively passed through all phases of the pregenerative period, and only 5–10% of plants passed into the generative period in September, forming one shoot up to 40–45 cm high with 1–3 inflorescences. Winter hardiness of plants of the pregenerative period is quite high, 70–85%. The following year, plant regrowth was observed in mid – may. They entered the flowering phase at the end of July – August, forming 3–5 generative shoots per individual 50–80 cm high, branched in the upper part of the stem up to the second or third order. At the same time, under the conditions of a short northern summer, for 120–130 days of vegetation, plants of the second year of life are able to form abundant self-sowing, but as a result, winter hardiness of plants fell to 10%. Overwintering was tolerated by single individuals, 2–4 specimens from 20–30 generative plants. A more optimal option for growing multi-grate plants in the north is the seedling method. When plants were planted at the age of 30–40 days in early June in open ground with an optimal feeding area of 40 × 40 cm, large branched shoots 50–65 cm high were formed, which until mid-September went through the phases of flowering and fruiting, forming mature seeds. Winter hardiness of seedlings of plants of the first year of life is low. It has been established that under the culture conditions of the middle taiga subzone of the Komi Republic, plants of the multi-grate are able to accumulate a large amount of nitrogenous substances in the aboveground phytomass. Thus, a high content of crude protein was found in the aboveground phytomass of plants of the first and second years of life 26,2–28,8% in Agastache anisatus and 21,9–22,5% A. rugosa. 17 amino acids, including 7 essential amino acids, were found and determined in the above-ground phytomass of plants of polygonium. The proportion of essential amino acids varied from 34 to 39%. The highest indicators in the raw plant phytomass were noted for amino acids: glutamic, aspartic, leucine, proline, lysine and arginine – 13,0, 10,7, 9,0, 8,6, 7,5 and 6,4% respectively.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):112-118
pages 112-118 views
Rare lichen species of the Chuvash Republic that need constant monitoring in the natural environment
Sinichkin E.A.
Abstract

The paper provides information about 13 rare lichen species of the Chuvash Republic that need constant monitoring in the natural environment (Agonimia allobata, Agonimia flabelliformis, Bryoria simplicior, Bryoria trichodes, Cetraria islandica, Cladonia stellaris, Flavoparmelia soredians, Heteredermia japonica, Inoderma byssaceum, Phaeographis dendritica, Platismatia glauca, Scytinium tenuissimum, Usnea diplotypus). A brief ecological and biological characteristic, occurrence in neighboring regions, limiting factors and measures of protection of these species are indicated for each species. 7 species of lichens are located on the border of the range or beyond (Bryoria simplicior, Bryoria trichodes, Cetraria islandica, Cladonia stellaris, Flavoparmelia soredians, Phaeographis dendritica, Platismacia glauca), 10 species are strictly confined to a certain type of habitat and substrate (Agonimia allobata, Agonimia flabelliformis, Bryoria trichodes, Bryoria simplicior, Flavoparmelia soredians, Heteredermia japonica, Inoderma byssaceum, Phaeographis dendritica, Scytinium tenuissimum, Usnea diplotypus), 7 species are decreasing in number due to a decrease in the area of old-growth forests as a result of logging, trampling and fires (Agonimia allobata, Cetraria islandica, Cladonia stellaris, Heteredermia japonica, Inoderma byssaceum, Platismatia glauca, Usnea diplotypus). Cetraria islandica disappears when the soil cover is disturbed, when collected by the population for medicinal purposes.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):119-125
pages 119-125 views
The spatial structure of an experimental group of domesticated moose (Alces alces L.)
Sitnikova O.N., Zaitsev V.A., Sirotina M.V.
Abstract

During the domestication process, it is necessary to take into account the population structure of the wild species. In this paper we analyze a spatial structure of experimental groups of moose in conditions of keeping in pens and forest pastures as well as the allocation of individual species and their groups in ontogenesis driven by the social status of moose. The spatial structure is characterized by the position of individual species and small close-knit groups in relation to each other, by social distances, and by the location of moose habitat in forest pastures. Domesticated moose largely retain the properties of the social and spatial structure of the wild population, which results in an individual-group lifestyle and the formation of distant and close-knit groups. Young moose under one year of age form close-knit associations of significant quantity. Then, by the age of one and a half year, these groups gradually disintegrate, and small cohesive subgroups are formed, which become a part of distant associations characterized by partial synchronization of the behavior of these subgroups. Upon reaching the age of three, domesticated moose mostly exhibit the properties of spatial organization of wild species.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):126-130
pages 126-130 views

Historical Sciences

The results of excavations at the Algay site in the steppe Volga region in 2021
Vybornov A.A., Vasilyeva I.N., Gilyazov F.F., Doga N.S., Kulkova M.A., Platonov V.I., Popov A.S., Roslyakova N.V., Yudin A.I.
Abstract

The excavations of the multilayer site Algay in 2021 confirmed the stratigraphical strata of Neolithic and Eneolithic layers. The cultural layers with artifacts of the Orlovskaya culture are well stratified. The faunistic remains of the Neolithic period are numerous and have different localization. This is also evidence of several stages of occupation of this place by people during Neolithic. There are solely wild species of animals. The stone tools are characterized by homogeneity. The stone tools from the «hoard» were made with different raw sources but they are the same types. There are scratchers of several types, perforators, and geometric microliths (trapeziums with planed backs). According to their typologies these stone tools are the same as the tools from layers 2B and 2A of the Varfolomeevka site. The ceramics was made from fat clay rich of organics and tempered by crushed shells. The lipid analysis of charred food crusts in the pottery showed that they were used for the animal and plant cooking. The pottery decoration is typical for the vessels of the Orlovskaya culture with some differences in comparison to the pottery from the Vorfolomeevka site. Four points made of bones are also found. The stone tools of the Cis-Caspian culture were made of other type of quartzite unlike to the Neolithic ones. The technique of an enhanced push-up was applied for the stone tools in comparison to the Neolithic period. The radiocarbon dates confirmed the chronological framework of developed and later stages of the Orlovskaya culture from 6800 to 6100 BP.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):131-151
pages 131-151 views
Boulder cenotaphs of Eastern Fennoscandia: the question of one kind of the orthodox funeral rite in the late middle ages
Shakhnovich M.M.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to the little-studied funeral practice of the Orthodox communities of the White Sea region and Russian Lapland in the absence of a body. The research was based on the results of the author’s work in the last two decades. On the island of Kildin in the Barents Sea, on Lake Sredne Kuito in North Karelia and on a small forest lake near the town of Kovdor three original, similar monuments – groups of «stone structures of unknown purpose» have been recorded. The originality and controversiality of these objects requires their systematic study, introduction into scientific circulation and interpretation. Archaeologists, as a rule, carry out only a primary fixation of objects, but excavations do not always allow to determine clearly the purpose of stone piles. Based on the experience of working with such facilities in Karelia and on the Kola Peninsula, it can be argued that they were not intended for economic purposes. A number of common features make it possible to attribute these structures to a group of monuments associated with the Orthodox funeral tradition. This is the orientation of the stone constructions west – east, the general location «beyond the water», on the periphery of cemeteries, visual similarity with grave mounds of earth or wooden «houses of the dead». Presumably they were ground cenotaphs for the drowned – a «house» for the soul in the absence of a body. The spread of the tradition of their creation can be limited to the area of culture of the Russians and Karelians of the Pomerania of the European North. They are tentatively dated to the period of the Late Middle Ages – Modern Times and are considered as part of the Orthodox culture of the population of Eastern Fennoscandia. Understanding the idea of these objects is impossible without information on the ethnography of Slavic and Finno-Ugric ethnic groups – about the division of the dead into those who died a «natural» or «unnatural» death.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):152-160
pages 152-160 views
State policy of the Russian Empire on the Christianization of Muslims in the Middle Volga region in the 16th-19th centuries
Bogdan A.V.
Abstract

Based on scientific publications, historical sources and legislative acts of the Russian Empire, the article examines formation and development of the state policy towards Muslims in the Middle Volga region. The baptism of the local Muslim population since the 16th century was considered by the authorities as an effective method of incorporation of Tatars into Russian society. The policy of Christianization of the Tatar population on the part of the state was based on a system of all kinds of benefits and incentives on the one hand, and the containment of Islam and its influence on the other one. The principle of the symphony of spiritual and secular power allowed relatively successful Christianization of the Muslim population. However, this process was uneven and heterogeneous. The state policy towards the Muslims of the Volga region was also quite changeable during the reign of different sovereigns. The process of secularization of society greatly contributed to changes in the policy of Christianization of the Tatar population. The policy of religious tolerance pursued since the time of Catherine II eventually led to the abolition of benefits and equalization of newly-baptized Tatars with the Islamic population in religious and socio-economic rights. The paper reveals basic principles of the policy of Christianization of the Muslim population in the Volga region, the most important periods and aspects are highlighted in the process of Christianization. Thanks to the selected sources, it is possible to build a general picture of the Christianization of Muslims in the Middle Volga region in the 16th–19th centuries.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):161-164
pages 161-164 views
Egor Frantsevich Kankrin’s participation in the territorial and sectoral management reform of the Ural region in 1820s
Sysoeva E.O.
Abstract

The paper studies the role of the Minister of Finance of the Russian Empire E.F. Kankrin in the reforming of the Ural region’s territorial and sectoral administration in the 20s of the 19th century, as well as his influence on the implementation of the governor-general project by Alexander I of the potential district, which was supposed to appear after merging the Perm, Vyatka and Orenburg provinces together. Particular attention is paid to specification of official powers of the governor general, which was to manage this district. Considering two ways of carrying out this reform discussed in the government circles (Project by Senator V.Yu. Soymonov and Project by E.F. Kankrin), the author comes to the conclusion that the project, created by the Minister of Finance in 1824 and the introduction of the position of the chief head of the mining plants of the Ural Range, influenced the content of the project of a special «mountainous» general government of Senator V.Yu. Soymonov, however, had one fundamental difference, which greater extent contributed to overcoming the problem of departmental disunity at the regional level. It is for this reason that it was applied at the beginning of the reign of Nicholas I.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):165-169
pages 165-169 views
Residences of Samara governors in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries
Kabytov P.S., Tyurin V.A.
Abstract

The paper deals with the problem of the location of governors’ residences (service apartments) in the urban space of Samara in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries. It shows the characteristics of the placement of the provincial government and the governor’s office. The paper analyzes the location of the authorities, their interior and furnishings, describes the repair and construction of these buildings. The authors of the paper consider in detail the traditional for the Samara provincial authorities hire of the governor’s residences from private owners. They also show the reasons and circumstances for the change of the governor’s apartment and the location of the provincial government and the governor's office. This study has led to the conclusion that the intensive process of socio-economic development of the Samara province in the late 19th – early 20th centuries was reflected in the formation of a new administrative and cultural center of the provincial capital. A logical continuation of this process was the construction by the government of the spacious «Governor’s House», one of the most luxurious and technically equipped buildings in Samara at the beginning of the 20th century, where the governor’s apartment and office premises of the provincial authorities were comfortably located. In addition, the paper examines the personal attitude of the Samara governors to the issues of the location of the provincial government and the governor’s office.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):170-174
pages 170-174 views
F.F. Martens’s views on the practice of appointments and personnel decisions in the sphere of Foreign Policy of Russia at the beginning of the 20th century
Chernov O.A.
Abstract

Fedor Fedorovich Martens is a widely recognized international lawyer who organized and conducted a number of international conferences, the author of studies in the field of international law, a high-ranking employee of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Empire. The activity of F.F. Martens was devoted to a fairly extensive research literature. Historians assess his personal qualities differently, but agree on the diplomatic and legal practice of F.F. Martens. The value of the diaries of F.F. Martens lies in the fact that they contain assessments of the activities of Russian and foreign diplomats, other statesmen and the organization of foreign policy of the Russian Empire as a whole. The analysis of the diary entries of F.F. Martens allows us to identify his personal position, which sometimes differed markedly from what he wrote in official documents reflecting the formal business side of the issue. This makes it possible to introduce significant elements in understanding how the practice of appointments and personnel decisions in the sphere of Russia’s foreign policy was formed. F.F. Martens criticized the principles on which the practice of appointments and personnel decisions in the sphere of Russia’s foreign policy was based, noting the phenomena that hindered a successful implementation of the foreign policy of the Russian Empire.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):175-178
pages 175-178 views
The main forms and areas of excursion work in Soviet Russia in 1917-1935
Sidorchuk I.V.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to the history of the development of excursion activities in the early Soviet period, when its development was characterized by both the intensification of the study of the theory and practice of organizing excursions, the growth of social demand, and the close attention of the authorities, who stimulated work in this field. Based on the analysis of materials from archival and published sources, the main types and directions of excursions are described. In particular, the characteristic features are shown and examples of historical, industrial, suburban, etc. of their types are given. As a result of the research, it is shown that in the era under consideration, excursions were one of the integral components of cultural and rational leisure in the understanding of the authorities, which explains their prevalence and the intensity of work on their arrangement. With the help of excursions, it was necessary to solve a whole range of tasks, starting from the transfer of technical or medical knowledge and ending with physical recovery. At the same time, the state consistently sought to control excursion work: recreation, entertainment and even raising the educational and cultural level were only one of its components, and they were rather an addition, without which it would be more difficult to realize the potential of excursions as a means of political and propaganda work.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):179-184
pages 179-184 views
Cultural and educational work in the Red Army in the 1920s – June 1941: the late Soviet historiography of the problem (a brief historiographical review)
Tribunsky S.A.
Abstract

The researcher has revealed late Soviet historiography of the problem of cultural and educational work in the Workers and Peasants’ Red Army (Red Army) in the 1920s – June 1941. Such a scientific task is solved in the format of a brief historiographical review. In this case, the late Soviet historiography refers to an array of Soviet historiographical sources published in the second half of the 1980s – 1991, that is, during the so-called Gorbachev’s perestroika. The author of this brief historiographical review proceeded from the fact that in the conditional historiographical period, the chronological framework of which is indicated above, a certain number of historiographical sources devoted to the history of the Red Army in the 1920s – June 1941 appeared. They reflected, among other things, many aspects of cultural and educational work in the Red Army, which was an integral part of party-political work (moreover, with a relative degree of independence) that became, without a doubt, a unique phenomenon in Soviet military construction and construction of the Armed Forces of the young Soviet state. The authors selected, first of all, a set of historiographical sources having both direct and indirect relation to the topic of cultural and educational work in the Red Army in the 1920s – June 1941. While working with them, the peculiar historical situation that developed in the USSR during Gorbachev’s perestroika was taken into account. Then the general vector of historical development was built – the movement towards the collapse of the USSR. And this circumstance left an indelible imprint on all historiographical sources, which reflect (to one degree or another) the problem being subjected to a brief historiographical review. Such historiographical sources today require comprehension and rethinking from the standpoint of new theoretical and methodological approaches that have established themselves in modern Russian historical science.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):185-191
pages 185-191 views
The policy of confessional particularism of the French authorities in Mandatory Syria in 1920–1946
Tovsultanov R.A., Tovsultanova M.S., Galimova L.N.
Abstract

The paper discusses the confessional principles of the territorial structure of Syria during its stay in the status of a French mandated territory. The authors prefaced their analysis with a description of the process of establishing a French colonial administration in Syria, in particular, the conclusion of the Anglo-French Sykes-Picot agreement on the division of the Middle East and, in particular, Greater Syria, into spheres of influence that determined the modern borders of the Middle Eastern states. The instrumental role of confessional differences in the struggle of the French authorities in Syria with the popular idea of pan-Arabism in the region is shown. Predominantly according to the confessional principle, the territory of Syria was fragmented by the French into 5 regions-states, which, firstly, determined the subsequent loss of control by Damascus over Lebanon and the Alexandretta Sanjak, and secondly, laid the foundation for the emergence of separatist tendencies and future domestic instability. However, as the authors of the paper show in the short term, the policy of the French imperialists failed. Paris failed to use Christians to put down the Druze and Sunni uprisings. However, after the French left the territory of Syria, there was a conflict between large ethno-confessional groups (Sunnis, Alawites and Druzes), the consequences of which were especially sharply exposed already in the 2010s.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):192-196
pages 192-196 views
The organization of supply and working conditions of the first prospectors of Baikal-Amur Mainline (1932–1933)
Soldatova O.N.
Abstract

The paper deals with the issues of supply and working conditions of the first prospectors of the large-scale construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline, the survey of the route of which began after the decisions of the USSR Council of People’s Commissars in 1932. On the basis of the study of the documents stored in the Russian State Archive in Samara, the author shows the problems that the survey expeditions had to face in the process of performing the work – misunderstanding of the specifics of field parties work on the part of the bodies involved in supplying expeditions, the lack of sufficient personnel, poor nutrition, insufficient water transport, horses and deer, guides seriously complicated the execution of the work in the designated time. In terms of its scope, the surveys of the Baikal-Amur Mainline route surpassed all the surveys previously carried out in the USSR. In the presence of technical difficulties and the absence of cartographic material, poor supply of food, equipment, clothing and footwear, in conditions of impassable taiga and mountainous terrain, difficult climatic conditions, the prospectors were able to cope with the task assigned to them. The analysis of archival documents showed that despite the difficulties encountered by the prospectors, by the end of 1933 they had presented the main material for the design of the railway route from Taishet to Sovetskaya Gavan.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):197-203
pages 197-203 views
The feat of the home front workers of the «Alaska - Siberia» ferry route
Ivanchenko V.N.
Abstract

During the Great Patriotic War, the entire Soviet people stood up to defend their homeland. All the resources of the country were mobilized to repulse the enemy. The paper is devoted to home front workers who during the Great Patriotic War carried out an important task of the State Defense Committee to arrange the supply of combat aircraft under lend-lease from the United States to the Soviet Union along a shorter route through Alaska, Chukotka, Eastern Siberia to Krasnoyarsk and further to the front, where fighters and bombers were needed, which the Red Army badly needed, especially in the initial period of the war. In harsh climatic and natural conditions, inaccessible deserted areas, where delivery of equipment and building materials was difficult, aviation specialists and local residents managed to build airfields in a short time, the construction of which would have taken 5 years in peaceful time. The pilots of the Alaska-Siberia ferry route, showing courage and heroism, made flights in extreme conditions, mastered new equipment and eliminated malfunctions of American aircraft, poorly adapted to work in low temperatures. The flight crew, aviation specialists and local residents did everything to help the front and defeat fascism.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):204-209
pages 204-209 views
Dynamics of success: the development of the Tatar ASSR industry in the middle of the 1960s-1970s
Gapsalamov A.R., Vasilev V.L., Bochkareva T.N., Akhmetshin E.M.
Abstract

The collapse of the Soviet Union, the destruction of intra- and intersectoral ties between the former Soviet republics, and the unsuccessful market transformations that followed, supplemented by political and social problems, could not produce an explosive positive effect on the development of the new statehood. Crises became an integral part of the economy of the Russian Federation, which did not take long to affect the social sphere of society. It was necessary to search for mechanisms capable of changing the situation and accelerating economic processes. Relying only on the experience of leading foreign states, as practice showed, did not always lead to a positive result. The reasons for this lie in the combination of political, economic, cultural characteristics of countries that are not like Russia. Undoubtedly, it is worth trying to use this experience, but at the same time applying the achievements of domestic theory and management practice. In this regard, in the presented study, on the example of a separate republic, an analysis of the development of the Soviet economy in the middle of the 1960s–1970s is carried out, the features of the success and at the same time the crisis of the Soviet industry are shown. Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the period under review was able to achieve a powerful upswing in industry. Success was built primarily on the oil and petrochemical industries, which was explained by the demand for the products of these industries in the domestic and foreign markets. However, only the focus on data, traditional industries, in the conditions of late industrialism, became the anchor of further development. Central and local leadership failed to capture these trends.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):210-214
pages 210-214 views
The French experience in colonial counterinsurgency: transfer of practices and ideas
Lyozin A.I.
Abstract

The paper describes the main stages and aspects of the development of the French theory and practice of anti-insurgency in the 20th – early 21st centuries. It is shown that the systematization of the colonial experience of fighting insurgents in France originates in the 19th century. The starting date for the military thought of France in this sense is considered to be 1830, the beginning of the conquest of Algeria. The development of colonial counterinsurgency reached a new level at the end of the 19th century, when the concept of the «oil spot» appeared, based on the works of Joseph Simon Gallieni and Hubert Lyautey. Its main provisions are also disclosed in this paper. After the «trauma of 1940», the loss of Indochina and the French war in Algeria, a new concept emerged that responded to the challenges of the Cold War – the concept of «revolutionary war», created by the French military after the defeat in the First Indochina War of 1946–1954 – Charles Lacheroy, Roger Trinquier and David Galula. The latter had a noticeable impact on the US counterinsurgency strategy already at the beginning of the 21st century. The era of the global «War on Terror» prompted US allies and their NATO allies to actively study the problems of colonial counterinsurgency.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):215-218
pages 215-218 views
The history of the Orenburg encyclopedia project (based on materials from T.L. Bolshakova’s family archive)
Lyubichankovskiy S.V.
Abstract

The paper analyzes the history of the unrealized project of the Orenburg encyclopedia, which could become an example of the first regional encyclopedia creation in the history of modern Russia. However, this project faced unforeseen organizational difficulties, contradictions of a subjective nature, and as a result was reformatted into several narrowly thematic regional encyclopedic publications. The author shows main stages and directions of the work of the authors on this project, identifies fundamental approaches to the encyclopedia and its structure, which were followed by the authors and well-known regional scientists of the Orenburg Region. The paper is based on the materials of the family archive of T.L. Bolshakova. One of them is a personal diary of Leonid Naumovich Bolshakov, the head of the team of authors who worked on the encyclopedia project. This unique source made it possible to see the emotional component of the work on this project, the internal mechanisms of its development, to trace the ambiguous role of historians and representatives of the government of the Orenburg Region in the encyclopedia creation as well as in the reasons for this project failure. It is noted that the Orenburg encyclopedia could become the first project of this kind in Russia, if there weren’t any objective and subjective difficulties that arose while working on it.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):219-223
pages 219-223 views
Methods of fortune telling and predictions in Bashkir folklore
Gaisina F.F.
Abstract

The paper is the first to describe and classify fortune telling and predictions in the Bashkir folk art by various methods. This phenomenon has been preserved in the Bashkir culture since mythological times up to the present day, mainly in oral form. The methods are divided by the author into general and personal, into pre-Islamic (related to nature, natural phenomena, objects) and Islamic, appeals to the saints saturated with different symbols. The work mainly is based on the 1998–2018 years’ expedition materials of the author. The paper shows the reflection of the methods of fortune-telling and predictions in different genres of Bashkir folklore (in the calendar rite «Cuckoo Tea», in medicine, in the game genre, etc.). Islamic methods of fortune-telling and predictions are singled out separately as well as meteorological signs, as a way of predictions, and beliefs related to human anthropology. The peculiarity of the paper is that some methods of divination were recorded and described for the first time. The work is intended for ethnographers, folklorists and local historians.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):224-228
pages 224-228 views

Pedagogical Sciences

The analysis of the demand for scientific and methodological support for the organization of students’ project and research activities
Andreeva N.D., Malinovskaya N.V.
Abstract

The paper presents the results of a large-scale study of the current state of the problem of students’ project and research activities organization in Russian schools and institutions of additional education for children. About twenty thousand teachers and administrative and managerial workers from 67 regions of Russia took part in this study. It was carried out on the basis of the Federal Center for Scientific and Methodological Support of Teaching Staff at Herzen State Pedagogical University. The content of the paper examines the demand for different types of scientific and methodological support of subject teachers in the implementation of students’ project research activities, the degree of modern teachers’ awareness and mastery of project learning technologies, including evaluation of the quality of projects and research. The paper deals with the problems related to the organization of project and research work in classes with in-depth study of subjects as well as the organization of independent activity of students at all stages of projects and research. Special attention is paid to the analysis of problems and difficulties arising during the implementation of educational projects and research, which are differentiated, based on the content, into 3 groups (methodological, organizational-methodical and methodical, resource-informational nature). In this regard, possible ways of solving them are proposed at the level of schools and centers of scientific and methodological support of teaching staff.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):229-234
pages 229-234 views
Educating a virtuous student as a multifaceted process
Bezdukhov V.P.
Abstract

The relevance of the topic of the paper is motivated by the importance of finding ways to preserve the highest moral values in the minds of the younger generation, and the development of moral feelings. The paper argues that one of the possible ways to preserve traditional values is education of a virtuous person. The author motivates the social relevance of educating such a person by the fact that a virtuous way of life, the person’s virtues are not innate. It is shown that a virtuous person is a moral person who cares about his spiritual qualities, or virtues, the essence of which is the ability to feel ashamed. The author points out that the development of the concept of «virtue» is carried out mainly by ethics that this concept is interpreted ambiguously and is not identical to the concept of «moral quality» used in pedagogical research on education. Various interpretations reflect the complex nature of the phenomenon and, accordingly, suggest the multifaceted nature of the process of educating a virtuous student. Each meaning of the concept of «virtue» corresponds to a specific area of the teacher’s activity in educating a virtuous student: a) improvement of moral qualities (virtue in the sense of moral quality); b) improvement of value orientations (virtue in the sense of value); c) raising moral awareness (virtue in the sense of the concept of moral awareness, the concept of morality); d) raising ethical awareness of young students (virtue in the sense of the category of ethical awareness, the category of ethics). The integrity of the teacher’s activity in educating a virtuous student as a multifaceted process is due to the dominance of the value approach: the sense of value has a moral quality, the category of ethics and the concept of morality, and the student’s focus on values forms his/her value orientations.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):235-240
pages 235-240 views
A systematic approach to the multi-level career guidance «kindergarten - school - university»
Berkutova D.I., Gromova E.M., Gorshkova T.A.
Abstract

One of the most important problems of modern society in general and of each individual person in particular is the problem of professional self-determination. Currently, the labor market is characterized by rather high requirements for potential workers. At the same time, job seekers are constantly faced with numerous problems: these are ongoing changes in market conditions; and fierce competition for vacant jobs, the number of which is constantly decreasing in the context of digitalization of all spheres of society; and the emergence of new «digital» professions – professions of the future, in which labor maintenance requires special skills; and the exponentially accelerating obsolescence of professional competencies due to rapidly changing technologies and the ongoing scientific and technical revolution, etc. At the same time, professional self-determination is characterized by the dynamic process of finding oneself in the profession, which manifests itself, among other things, in entering the phase of option more than once in a lifetime due to various circumstances. In this regard, the problem of organizing an early multi-level comprehensive career guidance work with the younger generation, which would ensure successful professional self-determination of the individual, becomes urgent. The paper presents the author’s view on the organization of the system of career guidance work, as well as the results of diagnostics of students of university classes of the Ulyanovsk State University of Education according to the method of J. Holland using digital career guidance services.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):241-245
pages 241-245 views
The Christian meaning of the individuality principle in V.V. Zenkovsky’s education concept
Bliznetsova Y.S.
Abstract

By means of hermeneutical analysis a Christian content of the individuality principle has been identified in V.V. Zenkovsky’s education concept, its priority meaning is justified, factors of individuality development are determined, tasks of school education are formulated. According to the Christian teaching about the Image Divine in a person, the thinker interprets individuality as the main core in a person, rooted in his spiritual beginning. The holistic unity of a person’s mental life as well as his individual characteristics are determined by individuality. The scientist connects pedagogical opportunities for the development of individuality with religious education. Churching, free aspiration to God, creative assimilation of the universal content of culture, social activity of personality are the main factors of development of the child’s individuality. These factors are directly related to the tasks of school education: creating an atmosphere of love and sincere respect for the child; development of the emotional sphere of the child’s personality and social responsiveness formation; supporting of the child in the search for an individual trajectory of his development, creating an Orthodox cultural environment for education. The thinker’s interpretation of the individuality principle shows his intention to restore the integrity of the individual by building a system of holistic pedagogy based on the principles of Orthodoxy.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):246-250
pages 246-250 views
Didactic potential of the academic courses of the natural science cycle for prospective teachers’ ecological culture development
Busygina A.L., Bakulina S.Y., Lizunova E.V., Vershinina L.V., Bondareva V.V.
Abstract

Currently, the vital activity of an individual increasingly determines the need for an effective method of existence that would meet the solution of important problems in the field of environmental sciences. For a long time, environmental education has been the main focus of this higher school, as well as the education system as a whole, including preschool, school, secondary vocational and higher education. The formation of the basic base of ecological thinking among prospective specialists and the connection to reality are the dominant criteria for the life of society, as well as its adequate promotion in the formation of the necessary humanitarian and pressing issues of modern times. The present directions of development in education and upbringing require changes and restructuring of its structure, methods and options for solving innovative goals. Currently, the main goal is to form a certain connection to life in all its spheres, to understand the interrelation and interdependence of objects and phenomena of the world, which the reasonable person himself becomes a part of. Modern psychological and pedagogical experiments show the necessity of increasing the role of higher education in determining the fundamental goal of ensuring and giving an ecological orientation to the entire educational process at the university. The stage of ecologization of upbringing and education is determined, first of all, from the teacher, his social and professional competence, worldview, mentality, culture. The issue of ecological culture is well-known today. In the structure of professional education, the ecological path as a result of ecological culture development among bachelors of pedagogical universities is one of the driving forces in our world, there is a need to combine ecological and natural science pedagogical education into a single whole, common: there are cardinal changes in certain systems, cultural norms, standards, ideals among real youth. In the state educational standard of higher professional pedagogical education, the most important dominant goal is highlighted – to create a personality of a prospective specialist with the most significant ecological culture, which strives for a certain permissible influence with the world; an individual who stands out mainly by beliefs, necessity in behavior for the preservation of natural resources. The most important fact is the necessity of the importance of the ecological responsibility of the prospective teacher in the development of the main aspects of ecological culture development among prospective specialists who can create a personality, they are distinguished by a careful attitude to nature as a whole. Therefore, the most in demand at the socio-pedagogical level is the need to increase attention to the problems of ecological culture development among pedagogical university students – prospective teachers and specialists. This paper examines a leading role of the courses of the natural science cycle for bachelors’ ecological culture development. The structure of the academic courses of the natural science cycle is very much dominated by the rest of the university courses on environmental content, since ecological hypotheses, ideas, concepts, laws, theses, antitheses, etc. appeared and developed in them. In addition, natural science terms are a priority basis for considering the unified structure «natural environment – society – individual».

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):251-258
pages 251-258 views
Teaching speaking a second foreign language to students majoring in linguistics
Doskovskaya M.S., Oparina K.S.
Abstract

The paper deals with the problem of teaching speaking a second foreign language. The emphasis is put on the fact that two foreign languages are studied in many liberal fields of education, including linguistics. However, observations show that students’ proficiency in a second foreign language is zero or significantly lower than in the first one. In the theoretical part of the paper the authors consider the development of foreign language speaking skills in the context of communicative activity approach. This approach implies that the main goal of foreign language learning is the mastery of all kinds of language activities (reading, listening, writing, and speaking). At the same time the development of lexical, grammatical, phonetic and other skills facilitate. The main phases of the speaking process are listed and the close interaction between speaking and listening is highlighted. The practical part of the paper is devoted to describing exercises to develop the skills of preparing a dialogue on the topic under study. At the first stage of training the authors suggest practicing individual situations in the form of micro-dialogs. At the second stage, students perform an audio script and then memorize the resulting text. The final stage of preparation is the reproduction of the whole dialogue using speech supports.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):259-263
pages 259-263 views
Conditions for successful development of the mathematical component of the professional competence of students majoring in technical areas
Evelina L.N., Balabaeva N.P., Enbom E.A.
Abstract

Successful training of prospective communications engineers at a technical university requires strengthening the mathematical component of the developing professional competencies. The readiness to master such competencies begins long before entering a university and requires Math teachers at school and university to pay attention to all aspects of the problem, namely: initial mathematical training is the main foundation for the formation of a communications engineer, the level of school mathematical education should meet the requirements of the profession, only provided that the necessary level of basic mathematical training is formed, one can be sure of the quality of mastering professional competencies, first in the process of studying at the university, and then directly while performing work duties. The attention of the authors of the paper is focused on the joint actions of school and university teachers in this direction. In addition, the teaching of mathematics at the university also needs to explicitly highlight the existing connections in the mathematical content and methods of mastering it through the conscious application of various methodological techniques, in other words, the professional orientation of the mathematical training of communications engineers in the process of studying all sections of mathematics at the university is necessary. The paper proposes specific steps to solve this problem on the example of teaching mathematical courses to undergraduate students majoring in 11.03.02 Infocommunication technologies and communication systems at Povolzhsky State University of Telecommunications and Informatics.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):264-270
pages 264-270 views
The use of creative technologies in teaching a foreign language to students of pedagogical universities
Kizrina N.G., Eliseeva O.R.
Abstract

This paper is devoted to the problem of using creative technologies for teaching a foreign language to prospective teachers, which is relevant in accordance with the standards of higher professional education. The role of creative thinking in the development of foreign language communicative competence is indicated. The question of the development of linguistic creativity in teaching a foreign language is touched upon. The definitions of pedagogical technologies, creative pedagogical technologies and creative technologies of teaching a foreign language are considered. The main characteristics are highlighted and the classification of creative technologies of teaching a foreign language is presented. Technologies for the development of linguistic creativity of students are presented. Attention is focused on the technologies of creative writing as a means of developing linguistic creativity. Examples of the use of language and group creative games as methods of creative writing for teaching a foreign language (German) to students are given. The technologies of heuristic teaching of a foreign language are also presented, on the basis of which students’ creative thinking points are considered: heuristic methods of cognition of an object, identification of its main features and heuristic methods of transformation of object features and creation of a new object. Each group of heuristic methods is illustrated by examples of use in German language classes at a university.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):271-277
pages 271-277 views
The problem of the development of prospective teachers’ competence to create a social space of preschool children’s relationships
Krakovskaya M.S.
Abstract

Constant socio-economic and political transformations in the Russian Federation are reflected in all spheres of human society. Within the framework of universal competition, the main resource and value is qualified labor, which is based on advanced scientific knowledge, concepts and achievements. Recently, the designated problem has received increased attention from both the state education system and employers, which is why this work is relevant. The question of high-quality training of specialists with the declared competence becomes significant. The paper discusses theoretical approaches to the problem of the development of the competence in question, assesses its current state and determines the role of this phenomenon in the life of a modern person. Today, the socio-communicative direction of the development of children in general, and the construction of the social space of preschool children’s relationships in particular, is a priority area of activity of the preschool educational institution, requiring special knowledge, skills and abilities from the teacher. The end result of the activity of any higher educational institution is the professional training of a professionally competent graduate who is able to adapt to constantly changing socio-economic conditions. The problem of the development of the competence under study in the educational environment of the university is relevant in the situation of education reform. The way to solve this problem is seen in the improvement of the educational process, which is based on the professional training of prospective teachers, taking into account the requirements of educational standards.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):278-282
pages 278-282 views
Cognitive universal educational actions as a factor of academic success of subject content mastering by students
Kutuzova O.B., Sorokina I.V.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to the problem of universal educational actions development among students of a general education organization. Special attention is paid to the need for cognitive learning activities development. Their role in the educational process when students master the subject content is determined. The paper presents the results of the study conducted by specialists of the Department of Pedagogy and Psychology of the Institute of Educational Development in the Samara Region. The purpose of the study is to identify and evaluate the current state of meta-subject results development among students of grades 5–8 of general education organizations in the Samara Region, demonstrated in the All-Russian test papers on Russian language and Mathematics in 2020, 2021. The study revealed the most problematic cognitive meta-subject results, the development of which is recommended to focus on in primary school. The results of the study have convincingly demonstrated that it is the low level of cognitive meta-subject actions in the majority of students that is an obstacle to their full development of any subject content. The meta-subject deficits of students allowed us to draw a conclusion about the actual professional deficits of teachers. The results of the study will be useful to teachers of general education, students of pedagogical universities and all those who are interested in improving the quality of general education.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):283-289
pages 283-289 views
The use of modern educational technologies in the process of a teacher of foreign languages practical training
Lazutova L.A., Piskunova S.I., Yankina O.E.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to the study of issues related to the teachers of foreign languages practical training for their future professional activities in the conditions of education transformation. The idea that modern society needs a specialist, who is rapidly responding to the challenges of the time, capable of self-development and self-organization, is observed in the paper. The research objectives are to determine didactic possibilities of interactive techniques in the process of teachers of foreign language training, to identify a potential of online courses for creating educational materials, to analyze the most effective digital tools as a means of developing foreign language communication skills of a prospective teacher as a competent specialist. As a result of theoretical study of the problem and analysis of domestic and foreign scientists’ experience, the advantages of interactive techniques in the course of foreign languages teaching have been found. The paper observes the advantages of the described work organization using the «Jigsaw» interactive techniques. The examples of tasks for communication-oriented reading and students’ lexical and grammatical skills development are presented in the research. Special attention is paid to the practical use of digital techniques based on the designers Questionstar, Myquiz, Padlet, Wordwall, LearningApps, Wizer.me, Master-test.net, Edvibe etc. for professional experience gaining in the educational activities design and implementation. The functionality of these digital tools provides students’ critical thinking development, learning motivation management, readiness to master the capabilities of various services and platforms. The conducted research allows us to conclude that the active use of modern educational techniques and digital services in the practical training of prospective teachers of a foreign language creates new opportunities for solving various problems, serves as an effective tool for making the students ready for professional activities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):290-294
pages 290-294 views
The transformation of personality-oriented pedagogy ideas in socialist education in the first third of the 20th century
Litvin D.V.
Abstract

On the basis of historical documents, pedagogical writings of the 19th – early 20th centuries and modern works, the paper reveals features of the development of ideas of personality free development in Russian pedagogy in the first third of the 20th century. Their significance for the modern theory and practice of personality-oriented education is assessed. It is determined that by the beginning of the 20th century education had become a strategically important phenomenon, the idea of personality as a value for society was becoming widespread. Schools of «pedagogy of individuality» were being formed. The content of personality-developing pedagogical systems had been heterogeneous by 1917–1918, they were influenced by various theories in the context of the relationship between the individual and society. Since the 1920s, pedagogical activity acquired sociocentric contours associated with the upbringing of the socialist type of personality. State educational authorities carefully, but firmly and consistently eliminated religious and other pedagogical influences that did not fit into the established format and ideal of the moral character of a Soviet citizen. At the same time, in socialist education, within certain limits, there was continuity between the ideas of free development and environmental education of the 1920s. The study shows that with unlimited resources in creating a controlled and ideological educational environment, outstanding results can be achieved. However, such results will be ambiguous: blocking personal development, encouraging a programmed influence on a person deprives him of a self-forming beginning, freedom, and ultimately responsibility.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):295-300
pages 295-300 views
Civil identity formation and digital technologies in the educational process of teachers’ training (experimental model)
Malkin S.G.
Abstract

Abstract.

The paper is devoted to the role of digital technologies in the formation of Russian civil identity in the educational process. The focus of the presented research is on the main parameters of the experimental model of updating the work programs of History courses at specialized (History) faculties, taking into account the capabilities of «end-to-end» digital technologies and digital tools in the training of pedagogical staff. At the same time, the pedagogical experiment of this kind is considered as a necessary integration of humanitarian and digital technologies in order to bring the country’s educational policy to a common meaningful and value denominator within the framework of Russian civil identity formation. Particular emphasis in this paper is placed on the importance of the teacher’s professional training for the implementation of tasks in the field of state educational policy in the modern information space. In this regard, close attention is paid to the close relationship between historical politics and historical education, on the one hand, and humanitarian and digital technologies, on the other hand, in terms of targeted (re) formatting of Russian civil identity in the educational process. In addition, methodological and organizational restrictions on the use of digital technologies are outlined, which have a noticeable impact on civil identity formation within the framework of historical education at the stage of teachers’ training.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):301-304
pages 301-304 views
The problem of readiness for self-education among cadets of the departmental university of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia
Mitrofanov A.O.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to theoretical aspects of the problem of readiness for self-education development among cadets of the departmental higher education institution of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia. The role of the concepts of «readiness» and «self-education» in determining the readiness of cadets for self-education is substantiated. A scientific idea is revealed about the readiness of a person for activity in the context of psychological and pedagogical knowledge as the possibility of an effective performance by a person of a certain activity, for which he must have adequate characteristics for it. An analysis of the works devoted to the types of readiness of cadets studying at universities of various law enforcement agencies is presented. Peculiarities of cadets’ readiness for professional activities, for professional communication, for self-education, for independent work, for professional and moral self-realization, for humanistic interaction with a person, for the implementation of professional moral standards are revealed. It is substantiated that the readiness of cadets of departmental universities for various types of activities, considered as a personal education, as a personality-activity neoformation, as a state of personality, has a structure. Components are given that correspond to the content of various types of readiness of cadets of departmental universities. Interpretations of self-education are analyzed in relation to cadets of various departmental universities (military, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia). The necessity of considering self-education of a cadet of a departmental higher education institution of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia is substantiated not only as self-education of a representative of a particular profession, but also as a person in the broadest sense. An interpretation of the readiness for self-education among cadets of a departmental higher education institution of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia is proposed as a personal education, characterized by purposeful, conscious, systematic and painstaking work of a cadet on himself, on improving himself as a person and professional, and developed by cognitive, motivational, axiological, emotional, practical and reflective components.

The paper is devoted to theoretical aspects of the problem of readiness for self-education development among cadets of the departmental higher education institution of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia. The role of the concepts of «readiness» and «self-education» in determining the readiness of cadets for self-education is substantiated. A scientific idea is revealed about the readiness of a person for activity in the context of psychological and pedagogical knowledge as the possibility of an effective performance by a person of a certain activity, for which he must have adequate characteristics for it. An analysis of the works devoted to the types of readiness of cadets studying at universities of various law enforcement agencies is presented. Peculiarities of cadets’ readiness for professional activities, for professional communication, for self-education, for independent work, for professional and moral self-realization, for humanistic interaction with a person, for the implementation of professional moral standards are revealed. It is substantiated that the readiness of cadets of departmental universities for various types of activities, considered as a personal education, as a personality-activity neoformation, as a state of personality, has a structure. Components are given that correspond to the content of various types of readiness of cadets of departmental universities. Interpretations of self-education are analyzed in relation to cadets of various departmental universities (military, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia). The necessity of considering self-education of a cadet of a departmental higher education institution of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia is substantiated not only as self-education of a representative of a particular profession, but also as a person in the broadest sense. An interpretation of the readiness for self-education among cadets of a departmental higher education institution of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia is proposed as a personal education, characterized by purposeful, conscious, systematic and painstaking work of a cadet on himself, on improving himself as a person and professional, and developed by cognitive, motivational, axiological, emotional, practical and reflective components.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):305-310
pages 305-310 views
Text tasks in mathematics as a means of financial literacy improvement in primary school
Pakhomova T.S.
Abstract

The modern educational process, the purpose of which is high learning efficiency, requires new methodological approaches to acquire deep mathematical knowledge. Mathematical education contributes to the development of the basic types of students’ thinking. An urgent methodological issue is learning to solve text problems in mathematics, since this section causes difficulties for a large percentage of students in grades 5–9. In this paper, the value of learning to solve text problems is considered on the example of questions of financial mathematics. To date, the issues of financial literacy are included in the content of an exemplary program in mathematics, examination papers, and are also necessary for the successful development of the student’s personality. The paper analyzes the methodology for teaching the solution of text problems of a financial plot on the example of conducting a series of business games in the classroom. The approbation of the results of the study was carried out on the basis of Municipal Autonomous Educational Institution «Lyceum № 5» in Orenburg. It showed that the solution of plot text problems has a positive effect on expanding the general outlook of students. The methodology for conducting business games increases students’ activity in solving problems, increases the effectiveness of learning as well as expands the prospects for pedagogical activity.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):311-314
pages 311-314 views
Technosphere of the university: an environment for the teacher’s information culture development
Potmenskaya E.V., Mychko E.I., Serykh A.B., Mazanova S.E.
Abstract

This study is an attempt to analyse the university technosphere capabilities to develop the teacher’s information culture. The university technosphere is considered to be the most important condition to develop the university teacher’s information culture. Having analyzed the essence and structure of the teacher’s information culture, the following hypothesis is put forward: the effectiveness of the university technosphere development has an impact in the development of the teacher’s information culture; the effectiveness of the university technosphere development is also reflected in the teacher’s readiness to apply the information technologies in practice in the educational process. This hypothesis indicates the purpose of the study: to substantiate the model of the teacher’s information culture development in the conditions of the university technosphere creation and functioning. Having substantiated this model theoretically, the authors have built upon the ideas of information and communication, competency-based and cyber-ontological approaches, which are especially relevant in the context of modern cyber socialization. A pedagogical experiment involving 32 teachers from the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (Kaliningrad, Russia) has been organized to test the hypothesis. The experiment has been carried out in three stages: at the first ascertaining stage the teachers’ attitude to the development of their information culture has been diagnosed. The adoption of the teacher’s information culture development model, which has no analogues in modern pedagogy of higher education (implemented on the basis of the self-developed special course, which is held as a series of training seminars) has been carried out at the second formative stage. The re-diagnostics of the developed components of the teacher’s information culture has been carried out at the third control stage. The dynamics has been observed in all information culture components. The most significant changes have occurred in the indicators of the information culture operational component development (from 5,8 units to 9,1 units), which has indicated the effectiveness of the developed model. Hence, it can be used in the organization of work how to develop the university teacher’s information culture. The novelty of the study is related to the introduction of the developed model into the university educational space, which develops the teacher’s psychological readiness to master the information products and professional competence in the implementation of the innovative information technologies.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):315-322
pages 315-322 views
Digital educational technologies and resources in teaching geometry using the example of dynamic environment GeoGebra
Sukhodolova E.V.
Abstract

The organization of the educational process, characterized by high performance, requires providing students with an opportunity to acquire deep subject knowledge, including mathematics. Digital technologies and resources are a tool aimed at optimizing the learning process. This paper discusses basic concepts and definitions from the field of digitalization and mathematical education. The author lists the features of the organization of the educational process using the GeoGebra dynamic environment, theoretical and practical aspects of the use of the environment in solving planimetric problems both in the classroom and in the homework of students. The characteristic of the methodological and technical stages of the development of the worksheet is given. The content of the work contains an example of a task in the format of a worksheet. The program of the electronic educational module «Animation Mathematics» developed by the author is analyzed, aimed at achieving the main educational results by students of the 8th grade in the section «Similarity of triangles». The approbation of the results of the study was carried out on the basis of school in Orenburg and showed that the use of GeoGebra in teaching geometry expands the prospects for pedagogical activity, optimizes the work of teachers and leads to an increase in the effectiveness of training.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):323-326
pages 323-326 views
Interdisciplinary integration as a means of university students’ financial literacy improvement
Tokareva J.S., Kononenko N.V., Zarechnov N.Y., Tonkikh G.D.
Abstract

Currently, much attention is paid to the improvement of financial literacy in the Russian Federation. In modern conditions, financial literacy can be improved on the basis of the idea of interdisciplinary integration. One of the content and procedural characteristics of the educational potential of interdisciplinary integration is to increase the level of practice orientation of the educational process. The purpose of this study is to identify the possibilities of using interdisciplinary integration for university students’ financial literacy improvement by solving practice-oriented tasks. The educational course «Physics» has a special practical benefit when using such integration. The paper presents an example of a practice-oriented task that implements the principle of interdisciplinary integration. In the proposed problem, the content part is related to the course of general physics, mathematics provides the process of building a model and solving the problem in the language of the model. The following points are given: the statement of the problem, recommendations for the solution, the main characteristics of the problem and its solutions. The evaluation of the results obtained in the task and the choice of the most optimal solution contribute to the improvement of financial literacy and positive financial behavior. The task in question illustrates that solving physical problems associated with a certain kind of economic situations is a necessary condition for personal financial well-being. The results of the study can be used in the educational process of higher education organizations.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):327-332
pages 327-332 views
Pedagogical Studio as a way to develop the technological competence of prospective foreign language teachers
Fokina K.A., Lapshova E.S., Levchenko V.V.
Abstract

Modern research in the field of professional pedagogical education, as well as training of prospective teachers of a foreign language reveals a necessity to implement theoretical knowledge, skills and abilities in the process of professional training of prospective teachers of a foreign language. The research results also show urgent need for deeper and more versatile development of acquired skills, including technological skills in various systems. The authors of the paper have chosen a pedagogical studio as one of the ways to develop technological skills of prospective foreign language teachers, mastering the higher education program in accordance with the Federal State Educational Standard 3++ and majoring in 44.03.01 Pedagogical education (bachelor’s degree level). During the implementation of the curriculum of the bachelor’s professional training program, a necessity to use pedagogical studios as a way to develop the technological competence of prospective foreign language teachers was defined. Career guidance, as one of the components of the pedagogical studio, provides an opportunity for a more detailed immersion into professional activities of a prospective teacher, reveals all the nuances of working in the school education system which also provides an opportunity to communicate with professionals and to exchange experience. Career guidance activity involves calendar and thematic planning aimed at the development of technological skills, and therefore, technological competence.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):333-338
pages 333-338 views
The principles of a personality-oriented educational process organization at a university
Tsepkova A.N.
Abstract

The paper identifies the place of the problem of personality-oriented education in modern scientific discourse and substantiates the importance of personality-oriented education as a pedagogical tool for educational process organization at a university that provides an optimal combination of interests of an individual, society and the state in terms of development of a student’s personality as a person and a professional. The multidimensional nature of the problem of a personality-oriented educational process in higher education is shown, an important aspect of which (problem) is the definition of principles of a personality-oriented educational process organization at a university. The meaning of the term «principle» is specified in the context of pedagogical knowledge. The principles of its implementation adequate to the content of personality-oriented education are revealed and it is substantiated that the principles of implementation of personality-oriented education at a general educational institution and a university are not identical and have specific features. The principles of personality-oriented education and the principles of personality-oriented education developed by scientists are given. The possibility of implementing the principle of the transition of values «for oneself» into values «for another» and the principle of the moral and ethical orientation of the educational process at a university is substantiated. The content of these principles is supplemented and their essence is revealed as the principles of organizing a personality-oriented educational process in higher education. The essence of the principle of the transition of values «for oneself» into the value «for another» lies in the teacher’s orientation both to the actualization in their own value sphere of consciousness of values based on the corresponding concepts of morality, their implementation in the educational process, and to the development of the concepts of morality among students, which, directing his thought to another person, including the teacher, to his acceptance, to the recognition of his dignity, etc., and being endowed with meaning, take on the meaning of values moving in the space of relations between the teacher and a student. The essence of the principle of the moral and ethical orientation of the educational process lies in the orientation of the teacher to the development of the concepts of morality, through the prism of which he perceives and interprets pedagogical situations that arise in interaction with students who direct the teacher’s thinking to search for values that unite him and students when achieving goals and are the criteria for the implementation of the teacher's reflection of pedagogical situations that arise in the educational process of the university.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(3):339-344
pages 339-344 views

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