Vol 8, No 3 (2019)

Articles
Student science at Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education: results and prospects
Ivanov D.V., Gritskova A.V.
Abstract

Student science at Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education: results and prospects

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):10-14
views
General Biology
Biology and ecology of the rare species Astragalus galactites Pall. in the South-Western Transbaikal
Alekseeva E.V.
Abstract
Astragalus galactites Pall. (milky-white astragalus) is a species listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Buryatia, has a category and status of 4 (DD), a species with an uncertain status, a representative of the Fabaceae family. A . galactites belongs to the mountain-steppe zone and has a point distribution. It belongs to the early spring flowering stem-rooted herbaceous polycarpacae, with polycyclic monopodially growing shoots. It’s a hemicryptophyte. A . galactites occupies a narrow ecological niche: steppe, sandy, rocky steppe slopes and saline coast of lakes. It prefers open spaces with good illumination, winds and fluctuations in temperature, to which it has perfectly adapted, and which are a selective filter for other species. It is confined to dry low grass-semi-shrub mountain petrophytic steppes, well adapted to the lack of moisture - sclerophite. Most of all it is found in saline habitats. It’s an optional halophyte. In the vegetation cover, the milky-white astragalus acts as an assektator. By the type of ecological-phytocenotic strategy, A . galactites belongs to ecotopic patients. As a rare species it needs protection. We propose to create protected areas, which is part of the biocenoses of the coenopopulation of the rare species, as an optimal measure for floristic diversity conservation.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):15-19
views
Leaf pigment complex of spring soft wheat cultivars of different maturity groups under different moisture regimes
Amunova O.S., Lisitsin E.M.
Abstract
Creation of new higher productive cultivars of cereal crops is often linked with straightening of degree of resistance to abiotic environmental factors. Indirectly this degree of resistance could be estimated on quantitative change in leaf pigment composition. There is practical interest to compare the activity of pigment complex of flag leaves of wheat cultivars belonging to different maturity groups that could give information on direction of breeding improvement of plant physiological-and-genetic traits under different ecological conditions. Plants of nine breeding lines and two standard cultivars grew in 2016-2018 at the experimental field of FARC of North-East (Kirov) under continental climate conditions with moderately cold winter and warm summer. The study of flag leaves pigment complex allows to discover differences between early and middle-ripening cultivars on investigated parameters in different hydrothermal conditions. During the study years, middle-ripening cultivars accumulated more chlorophyll a than the early ones. On average this excess was about 10%. The studied cultivars were differed on distribution of pigment between structural parts of photosystems: middle-ripening cultivars had more chlorophyll a in reaction centers whereas the amount of the pigment in light-harvesting complexes was not differed. Hydrothermal conditions significantly influenced the differences between cultivar groups. Thus, under dry conditions the content of chlorophyll b and carotenoids in flag leaves of cultivars belonging to both group of maturity had no significant differences. Under normal or moist conditions middle-ripening cultivars contained 11,0-12,6% more chlorophyll b and 7,6-23,1% more carotenoids than the early cultivars. Under dry conditions the two groups of cultivars significantly differed on mass ratio chlorophyll a/b: in the middle-ripening cultivars it was 5,0% higher than in the early ones. Based on chlorophyll a and b content at flowering stage breeding lines С-64, С-65, С-103, and С-129 were selected. The amount of chlorophyll in these genotypes was significantly higher than in Margarita standard cultivar. Within the group of early cultivars, no one exceeded Bazhenka standard by the pigment content. The cultivars of this group reacted on abiotic growing conditions change very much (the amount of precipitations and air temperature): the coefficients of chlorophyll a content variation were 6,5-16,3%, of chlorophyll b content - 26,9-29,7%, of carotenoids content - 4,1-17,2%.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):19-25
views
The influence of technogenesis on the accumulation of chemical elements in the placental barrier of Tomsk Region women
Belyanovskaya A.I., Baranovskaya N.V., Stankevich S.S., Laratte B., Perry N.
Abstract
The paper discusses general patterns of chemical elements accumulation in the placental tissue of residents of different Tomsk agglomeration settlements (Tomsk, Asino, the settlement of Mirny, the village of Moryakovsky Zaton) as well as of Tomsk districts (Sovetsky, Leninsky, Oktyabrsky, Kirovsky) as an indicator that demonstrates a degree of human impact on the human health. The paper describes possible sources of chemical elements in the human body, depending on residence area. The chemical elements were determined to the maximum (the concentration coefficient exceeds 1,5) accumulated in the tissues of the residents of each settlement. For Tomsk they are Au, As, La, U, Br, for the village of Moryakovsky Zaton - La, As, Ca, Sc, for the village of Mirny - Hf, Sm, Ce, Au; in the city of Asino Eu reaches the maximum concentration coefficient that equals to 1,2. According to the study, the authors assumed that in the barrier system of the placenta, as in the protective mechanism of the body, chemical elements accumulate selectively, depending on their release from the environment. In the specific accumulation of elements, the so-called «geochemical face» of each studied area appears.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):25-30
views
Accumulation of heavy metals by family Lymnaeidae representatives as response to anthropogenic pollution critical levels of South Ural reservoirs
Deryagin V.V., Nazarenko N.N., Devyatova E.V.
Abstract
The features of heavy metals accumulation by Lymnaea fragilis and L . psilia were researched for the aerate emission polluted area of Karabash copper-smelting manufacturing (Southern Ural). These features are concluded with selective redistribution of heavy metals between soft tissues and the shell of Lymnaea . The heavy metals accumulation takes place by three independent tendencies: «water → soft tissues», «water → shell» and «soft tissues → shell». The heavy metals content levels a thousand times exceed the physiological norm in soft tissues while in shell they exceed manifold. In the first place manganese and iron are accumulated while the cobalt, cadmium and molybdenum are finalizing the researched rank of accumulation. It has been ascertained that more biophil manganese are accumulated in mollusk soft tissues more than in other metals, while slightly less biophil iron is accumulated in shell, mainly in surface layers. For soft tissues and shell different ranks of heavy metals accumulation are observed, but these ranks are similar for different habitats, thus qualitative biogeochemical similarity is observed. The heavy metals accumulation in the system «water → soft tissues → shell» can help to estimate the extent of the metal environment pollution as well as local biophility of this metal. The adaptive response of pond snails to anthropogenic pollution is that there are more of them in less polluted reservoirs and less in more polluted reservoirs. It has been confirmed, that high heavy metals concentration and low pH level in reservoirs leads to death and absolute absence of these mollusk species.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):31-38
views
Use of corvids’ nests by other bird species in Baikal Siberia and Mongolia
Dorzhiev T.Z., Badmaeva E.N., Dayanzhav T., Enkhsaikhan U., Saaya A.T.
Abstract
The paper presents the species composition of corvids in Baikal Siberia and Mongolia. More than 700 nests of 8 species of corvids in Transbaikalia, Baikal and Mongolia were examined. 133 cases of using nests of 5 species of corvids (Magpies, Eastern Carrion Crow, Rooks and Daurian Jackdaws) by other species of birds were noted. Nests of small corvids do not attract other birds. Nests of magpies are most commonly used; they are characterized by a specific structure. Of the 8 species that use corvid nests for nesting, Amur red-footed Falcon and long-eared owl are obligate tenants. Then goes Kestrel that prefers magpie nests. The number of these types in many places is determined by the abundance of magpies and crows. In recent years, due to the high number of magpies, the number of Amur falcons in the region is growing. They began following magpies to penetrate the outskirts of Ulan-Ude. Three species (Mallard, hobby, tree sparrows) are considered optional to be the tenants and three other species (Ruddy Shelduck, Long-eared Owl and House Sparrow) are considered to be random. Tree sparrows often nest in the magpie nests in natural habitats. Almost all types of tenants use old nests of the owners. Regional features in the use of corvid nests are revealed. Some species in different regions do not prefer the same nests of different types of corvids.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):38-42
views
Morphometric characteristics of inflorescences and phenology of introduced plants of the genus Crataegus L. in the Kola subarctic conditions
Zotova O.E., Goncharova O.A.
Abstract
This paper presents phenological development of seven introduced species of the genus Crataegus L. in the Kola North. The studied hawthorn species are characterized by early onset of vegetation, short duration of linear growth of shoots and a short vegetation period. Timely completion of growth processes and lignification of shoots contribute to successful adaptation of Crataegus plants under the conditions of introduction. The authors study morphometric parameters of flowers and inflorescences, decorative qualities, size and density of the inflorescence, the number of flowers in the inflorescence, the diameter of the flowers. The most decorative species of Crataegus during flowering are selected. The plants of the studied hawthorns are characterized by the average duration of the prefloral period, annual / irregular flowering. The most decorative species during flowering are the ones with larger flowers and inflorescences: C . maximoviczii and C . dahurica . Species with a large number of flowers are characterized by a denser inflorescence. Species with smaller flowers form smaller inflorescences and vice versa. In the conditions of the Kola Subarctic, the number of flowers in the inflorescence depends mainly on the specific features. C . maximoviczii is recommended for gardening in northern cities.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):42-46
views
Acer platanoides L. in the conditions of anthropogenic load of Donetsk
Kornienko V.O., Kolchenko O.R., Matveeva T.B.
Abstract

This paper presents ecological and biological characteristics of holly maple ( Acer platanoides L.) that hasn’t been previously described in the conditions of Donetsk. The authors describe urban environment as a broeksema and transformation in it under the influence of anthropogenic factors. The paper considers the influence of the anthropogenic environment in the city on plant organisms, as well as physiological and morphological changes in them. In the course of the research, a high level of anthropogenic load in Donetsk was determined based on the analysis of vibration and acoustic noise along highways, concentration of heavy metals in soils and concentration of aeropolutants in the air in the study areas. A close relationship between the fluctuating asymmetry index of holly maple leaf plates and the viability index and the level of noise pollution along highways has been established. The authors have studied basic parameters of the mechanical resistance of Acer platanoides L. in Donetsk, in the conditions of technogenic contamination and control (arboretum of the Donetsk Botanical Garden). It is established that young trees (5-7 years old) and the ones that have a low viability score due to the approach of critical age in the conditions of the city are at the greatest risk of breakage. The results can be used in biomonitoring studies of the urban environment state.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):46-52
views
Biocenotic complexes of lakes and estuaries of the southern and central Primorye
Milovankin P.G.
Abstract
The studies of lakes and estuaries of the central and southern Primorye, conducted in 2005-2013 in the warm period of the year (May-October), allowed to distinguish them in the composition of fish catches and nektobenthos (crabs, prawns and shrimps). In accordance with the data of cluster analysis, 7 biocenotic complexes were identified in the studied reservoirs: lakes in the south of Primorye and the accessory system of the Razdolnaya river, the Gladkaya and Tesnaya rivers; the Ryazanovka, the Barabashevka rivers, the mouth of the Artyomovka river and the central Primorye rivers; the lower course of the river Razdolnaya, the Artyomovka and the Skotovka rivers, the upper part of the Sukhodol estuary; the main part of the Razdolnaya estuary; the Sukhodol estuary and the marine part of the estuaries of the central Primorye. The average specific biomass of hydrobionts in the lakes and estuaries of the southern and central Primorye was 6,4 g/m², or, which is also the same t/km², of which fish is 84,7% by weight. So-iuy mullet or redlip mullet Planiliza haematocheila (1,036) prevailed by biomass, young common rudd Tribolodon spp. (0,904) and Eriocheir japonica (0,606 g/m²) followed it. In all seven biocenotic complexes Acanthogobius lactipes , Crangon spp., Gasterosteus nipponicus , Gymnogobius urotaenia , Palaemon spp., Pungitius sinensis , Tribolodon spp. and Tridentiger brevispinis were found. In total, 68 expeditions were carried out (700 catches) in the warm period of the year (May-October), 106 taxa of fish and nektobenthos were revealed.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):52-59
views
Current status of Cypripedium macranthon Sw. (Orchidaceae) coenopopulation on Bering Islands (Komandorsky reserve)
Mogileva A.V., Lavrentyev M.V., Petrova N.A.
Abstract

The paper presents the results of Cypripedium macranthon Sw. monitoring on Bering Island (Kamchatka Krai) in 2012-2018. Cypripedium macranthon Sw is a rare Orchidaceae species enlisted in several regional Red Books and the Red Book of the Russian Federation. The species on Bering Island inhabits its north-eastern range border and is protected in Komandorsky State Biosphere Nature Reserve. 7 coenopoulations of C . macranthon are found on the island. The studied coenopopulation inhabits the polydominant mixed-herbs-gramineous meadow on coastal sandy dunes. The coenopopulation occupies 4,0 ha and consists of separate loci. The vital state of the plants was defined as normal (3 points). Adult vegetative and generative individuals prevail in the coenopopulation. According to our data the number of shoots was 8 to 16 individuals per sq. m. The average number of generative shoots in 2013, 2017 and 2018 was 9, 10 and 1,4 correspondingly. The maximum generativity index of 81,8% was marked in 2013 due to favorable conditions of the vegetative season. The quantitative data from different periods allow to assume that C . macranthon coenopopulation’s state is stable which if determined by the population dynamics and proportion of generative shoots.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):59-63
views
Distribution of heavy metals in cutover peat bog soils
Novosyolova E.S., Shikhova L.N., Lisitsin E.M.
Abstract
The paper contains the research results on content of total and mobile heavy metals compounds (lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc) in soils of the cutover peat bog Zenginsky located in the central part of the Kirov Region. As a result of the conducted researches it is revealed that the content of elements in different peat layers in control site (zinc - up to 2,60; copper - up to 0,90; lead - up to 5,60; cadmium - up to 0,59 mg/kg of soil) does not exceed the level of their maximum-permissible concentration and background contents in soils of the Kirov Region. For the undeveloped site the increased content of total and mobile compounds of the studied metals in the top layers is noted; it can be caused by biogenous accumulation of these elements by plants. The developed soils (the drained sites) are characterized by considerable fluctuations of elements content both in different profiles, and in the different layers of the same profile. Here the maximum content of elements in separate layers is much higher than control (zinc - up to 126,0; copper - up to 34,0; lead - up to 17,0; cadmium - up to 1,2 mg/kg of soil). Economic use of the peat bogs leads to an active mineralization of the top part of the remained peat mass. As a result of these processes stability of biogeochemical cycles of separate elements is broken. At the same time, the received data allow to consider soils of control sites as indicators of surrounding environment condition. The good safety of peat deposits gives the opportunity to study processes of accumulation and migration of chemical elements.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):63-69
views
A model bioassay for influence of heavy metal salts toxicity on the viability of nodule-forming bacteria Rhizobium meliloti
Oznobikhina A.O., Pershakov A.Y., Yeremin D.I.
Abstract
The study consists of a bioassay of a medium experimentally contaminated with heavy metals using Rhizobium meliloti microorganisms as a test object. In vitro, the viability reaction of clover and alfalfa nodule bacteria to lead, cadmium, copper and zinc was established. The effect of the studied metals on the number of colonies depends on the concentration of the chemical element, physiological action of the microelement and biological characteristics of the strains used. The studies performed have determined a direct relationship of reducing the growth in the rhizobia colonies number of clover and alfalfa with an increase in the concentration of salts of heavy metals. Inhibition of the colonies number had a high regularity when the environment was contaminated with lead, copper and cadmium at a concentration of 0,3%; with a subsequent increase, complete death of microorganisms was observed. With the introduction of zinc into the nutrient medium in small concentrations, a positive resistance tendency of the clover and alfalfa bacteria was observed: thus, at 0,01-0,1% of the zinc salt content, the number of grown colonies was above the control level and amounted to 714-987 pcs. at the control value of 578 pcs. In an environment with a concentration of zinc 0,5%, a significant decrease in the growth of clover rhizobia was noted up to 65 pieces of colonies. At the same time, in the alfalfa rhizobia colonies in these concentrations a lower degree of survival was observed and the environment of zinc 0,3% became critical.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):69-72
views
Species composition and structure of parasites component communities of tugun Coregonus tugun (Pallas, 1814) from the Khatanga and Yenisei Rivers
Polyaeva K.V., Dorovskikh G.N., Chugunova Y.K.
Abstract
Tugun Coregonus tugun (Pallas, 1814) is an endemic of Siberia. Information about the species composition and structure of tugun parasite community on the stage of spawning migration is described in this paper. We carried out ichtioparasitologic studies in the Yenisey and the Khatanga Rivers in 2011-2014. Tugun parasite complex from the Khatanga River remains statistically identical in species composition, number of individuals and biomass and differs from those of the Yenisei’s tugun over the entire study period. Apparently two different stocks of tugun were investigated in the Yenisei River. One of them lives in the Yenisei’s streambed, the other one lives in the Podkamennaya Tunguska River. The composition of the parasitic fauna of tugun from two rivers is formed by generalist species. Tugun parasites component communities from all material collection stations have high values of the Shannon index and two dominant species (by numbers of parasites and by biomass). We found out that the species biomasses differ significantly on the «graphic» community structure. The description of tugun parasite communities corresponds to characteristic of a climax community on the stage of destruction except the «graphic» structure. In the analyzed parasitic communities the processes of egg laying and larval appearance, the death of parasites of previous year generation and infection with this year parasites occur simultaneously. The stages of formation and destruction of the community overlap. The described state of tugun parasites communities has an adaptive value. The load on the host body is reduced which ensures the long-term existence of parasites.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):72-80
views
The influence of urban environment on pollen grains of the silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) in conditions of Yakutsk
Soldatova V.Y., Samsonova A.P.
Abstract
This paper studies variability of pollen grains of the silver birch in relation to the quality of urban environment. The material was collected in 12 sites. A total of 1,190 leaves and 24,000 pollen grains were examined and measured. The pollen fertility varied within 69-92%. Statistically significant decrease in fertility was observed in conditions of high-intensity traffic load, in the central area of the city, and where the road surface was in poor condition. Under the same conditions a statistically significant increase in percentage of «relatively fertile» pollen grains is observed. We found significant correlation between the level of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and the share of fertile and half-fertile pollen grains. For fertility Spearman’s rho was -0,71; and for half-fertility, r = 0,66, p < 0,05. A similarly significant correlation (r = -0,7, p < 0,05) was found between the diameter of pollen grains and traffic load, which indicates a consistent organism response to environment deterioration. From the above, it follows that for assessment of environmental condition such characteristics of pollen grains as fertility, half-fertility, and pollen grain size can be used.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):80-84
views
The balance of photosynthetic pigments pools and phenolic compounds in dwarf shrubs on the weakly disrupted territory
Ustinova M.V., Kravchenko I.V., Rusak S.N., Yadgarova D.A.
Abstract
The paper identifies photosynthetic pigments pools balance and phenolic compounds in suffruticous species of Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. on the Tundrinsky bor territory (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra) for the purpose of ecological and biochemical assessment of the valuable plant species status. The authors carry out a comparative analysis of the studied biochemical parameters (chlorophyll a , chlorophyll b , carotenoids and phenolic compounds) of two species leaves, collected from two sample plots similar in landscape and soil and hydrological conditions of the weakly disrupted territory of the Tundrinsky bor territory. The analysis of the suffruticous species leaves for chlorophyll content revealed the following distribution of chlorophyll pools: chlorophyll a - 64,96%, chlorophyll b - 35,04% for leaves of Vaccinium myrtillus and chlorophyll a - 68,28%, chlorophyll b - 31, 72% for leaves of Vaccinium vitis-idaea . The average content of carotenoids and phenolic compounds of Vaccinium myrtillus leaves was 0,62 ± 0,11 mg/g and 14,18 ± 1,65 mg/g, respectively, in Vaccinium vitis-idaea leaves - 0,52 ± 0,12 mg/g and 18,79 ± 2,25 mg/g, respectively. The correlation analysis showed the presence of a direct average strength correlation (r = 0,4) between the levels of chlorophyll and phenolic compounds in the leaves of Vaccinium vitis-idaea .
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):84-89
views
Invasions of Bidens frondosa L. (Asteraceae) in communities of saline soils of south-east Europe
Yuritsyna N.A., Vasjukov V.M., Saksonov S.V.
Abstract
Bidens frondosa - инвазионный ксенофитный вид, натурализующийся в растительных сообществах на территории Юго-Востока Европы. Естественный ареал B . frondosa находится в Северной Америке. Вторичный ареал - на территории Евразии, здесь B . frondosa вытесняет аборигенную B . tripartita , что объясняется конкурентным превосходством североамериканского вида по темпам роста и семенной продуктивности на почвах разного плодородия и водного режима. B . frondosa во вторичном ареале в Евразии растет по берегам водоемов, водотоков и иным влажным, в том числе нарушенным, местообитаниям, часто встречаясь массово. Этот вид обнаружен и на засоленных почвах Европейского Юго-Востока. Он зарегистрирован в сообществах ассоциации Atriplici aucheri-Tamaricetum ramosissimae Golub et al. 1998, относящейся к классу Nerio-Tamaricetea Br.-Bl. et Bolòs 1958 порядку Tamaricetalia ramosissimae Golub in Barmin 2001 союзу Elytrigio repentis-Tamaricion ramosissimae Golub in Barmin 2001, в единственной из ее субассоциаций - A . au . -T . r . althaeetosum Golub et al. 1998, но в ней B . frondosa входит в число диагностических таксонов и является постоянным видом, встречаясь во всех ее описанных ценозах.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):89-92
views
Comparison of weed communities organization factors in the Leningrad Region and the Republic of Bashkortostan
Yamalov S.M., Lebedeva M.V., Luneva N.N., Khasanova G.R., Shigapov Z.K.
Abstract
This paper considers the results of the ordination analysis of weed communities in two regions - the Leningrad Region (LR) and the Republic of Bashkortostan (RB). The dataset includes 1726 relevés of the weed communities executed by the authors during 2000-2018 in cereal and root crops. The calculation of the ecological statuses of communities on 9 scales of D.N. Tsyganov is carried out for ecological characteristics of habitats. The values of the scales corresponding to climatic factors (thermoclimatic scale, cryoclimatic scale, aridity-gumidity scale), edafic factors (salt regime, soil acidity, nitrogen richness, variability of moistening) as well as scales of soil moisture and lightning are attracted to the analysis. The communities ranges on each scale are determined. The detrended correspondent analysis (DCA-ordination) with CANOCO 4.5 software package is used for the identification of ecological patterns of species and communities distribution and definition of the main drivers. It is demonstrated that the sets of the scales reflecting main ecological drivers significantly differ for the compared regions. Only the thermoclimatic scale and the scale of variability of moistening are common for both regions. The scales of nitrogen richness, variability of moistening and cryoclimatic influence generally on floristic composition differentiation in the LR. The scales of aridity-gumidity, the salt regime, lightning, moistening and soil acidity determine the floristic differentiation in the RB. A large number of scales in RB are defined by a variety of zonal vegetation types in the region which are connected with landscapes of forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones as well as a mountain-forest belt of the Southern Ural. The zonal vegetation of LR belongs only to subzones of the southern and average Taiga. The exception is the lightning scale which high values of correlation are connected with a considerable share of sunflower and corn in cultivated crops in RB.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):92-98
views
Historical Sciences and Archaeology
The problem of the Paleolithic to Mesolithic transition on the Upper and Middle Don River
Bessudnov A.N., Bessudnov A.A.
Abstract
The youngest Upper Palaeolithic sites in the Upper and Middle Don Valley have radiocarbon dates about 13-12 ka BP (Borshchevo 2, Divnogorye 1, 9). Lithic assemblages of these sites are characterized by the presence of backed implements, end-scrapers on blades, burins on truncation which are distinctive features for the final stage of the Eastern Epigravettian. The sites that could be undoubtedly associated with the Final Palaeolithic are not represented in the region. Several Early Mesolithic sites discovered during two last decades have radiocarbon dates about 10-9 ka BP. Geometric microliths, burins of different types, circular end-scrapers and some pointes and chisels are typical for toolkits. Although at least 2000 years separate Palaeolithic and Mesolithic settlements there are some similarities in technical and typological characteristics of its lithic assemblages. Various scenarios of the Mesolithic formation and its probable origin are discussed in the paper. The most preferable is the point of view that there is no continuity between the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic, and the appearance of the Mesolithic population can be explained by migrations from neighboring territories.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):99-112
views
Population of the Upper and Middle Kama basin in the Neolithic
Demakov D.A., Lychagina E.L.
Abstract
The paper gives a description of the landscapes formed in the Upper and Middle Kama basin in the Holocene. First of all, we talk about the first river terraces and the most ancient floodplain generations. In the Upper and Middle Kama basin, 78 Neolithic sites are known. During the mapping of the study area, 4 micro regions were identified with a large concentration of Neolithic settlements and territories with no Neolithic sites are known. The first group includes: the old-channel formation of the Chashkinskoye Lake, the Berezovaya River and the Chusovsky Lake District, the old-channel formation of the Khomutovskoe Lake and surroundings of Perm. The second one is the Upper Kama in the Gainsky and Kosinsky District s of the Perm Region and middle flows of the Chusovaya and Sylva rivers. The analysis of Neolithic sites locations showed that there is a dependence on the first formed terraces and the most ancient floodplains of large water arteries. Actually the most of the sites were located on its tributaries rather than on the upper Kama river.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):113-119
views
The Mesolithic - Neolithic transition in the Upper Volga region resulted from the stone industry analyses
Tsvetkova N.A.
Abstract
The paper deals with a phenomenon of neolithisation in the Upper Volga basin. The author studies the results of culture processes in the region based on: 1) the investigation of the stone assemblages from reference sites with non-ornamented ceramics or pottery with simple puncture impressions; 2) the tools types comparison over the final Mesolithic and initial Neolithic; 3) mapping of the non-ornamented/notch-ware pottery in European Russia. The transition to the Neolithic is associated with infiltrations of some puncture-ware pottery makers into the indigenous Mesolithic populations. It is most likely that the first vessels were imported into the region by migrants. The untraceable differences between the Final Mesolithic and the Early Neolithic stone industries may indicate a scarcely noticeable infiltration of newcomers from neighboring territories to the Upper Volga region. The manufacture tradition of the ceramics either non-ornamented or decorated by simple puncture impressions was formed in the regional culture environment. This event should be regarded as a particular transition time from the Mesolithic to the Neolithic. The later rise of the Neolithic was marked by shifts in the economy and by the local ceramic manufacture development accompanied by thin biface technique appearance in the stone assemblages. These changes give evidence of a transition to the Neolithic in the Upper Volga signalized by the progressive replacement of populations.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):119-131
views
Absolute chronology of ceramics of the Lugovskoy type
Andreev K.M., Vybornov A.A., Kulkova M.A., Khramov D.Y.
Abstract
The ceramics of the Lugovskoy type is represented by small straight-walled, weakly profiled or rounded canals with a flat or flat-concave bottom. The surface of the vessels is carefully smoothed, the external one is clogged. The fragments of ceramics have a visually dense molding material; the original plastic raw materials are silty clay, which sometimes contain an admixture of sand, shell or organic matter. The bulk of the vessels are ornamented only with horizontal bands of pits or pearls, sometimes along the neck of the vessels. The formation of the Lugovskoy type is associated with the interaction of the Elshanskaya and Lower Volga populations, while the Elshanskaya component was dominant. The existence of the Lugovskoy type dishes belongs to the end of the early Neolithic period of the forest-steppe Volga region and characterizes the second stage of the development of the Elshanskaya culture. The problem of the absolute chronology of the Lugovskoy ceramics hasn’t been studied yet. As a rule, the dating obtained for vessels of this type were considered in the context of the general chronology of the Elshanskaya culture and did not receive an appropriate interpretation in special works. To fill this gap is the main task of this paper. During the analysis of a representative series of radiocarbon determinations, it was established that the existence time of the dishes of the Lugovskoy type can be determined within the end of the first - second quarter of the 6th millennium BC. At the same time, with an increase in the radiocarbon date bank, the expansion of the chronological framework for the development of the final stage of the early Neolithic of the forest-steppe Volga region cannot be ruled out.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):132-135
views
Related Neolithic cultures of the Dnepr-Donetsk community of the Upper Dnepr region: common and distinctive features
Ezepenko I.N.
Abstract
The paper provides data on two Neolithic cultures of the Upper Dnepr basin: the Dnepr-Donetsk and the Upper-Dnepr cultures. It addresses the main stages of historic study of the Neolithic sites on the right bank of the Dnepr and the middle and lower Sozh River area. Even now the problems related to the formation of early Neolithic complexes, the absolute chronology of the Dnepr-Donetsk culture in general, remain topical, especially for Eastern Polesye. Only the first steps have been attempted in terms of interdisciplinary study of the settlements of the Dnepr-Donetsk culture: a petrographic analysis of ceramics and radiocarbon dating of soot, a geomorphological and geochemical analysis of settlement structures in the micro-region of the Streshinskaya lowland. Despite the impressive historiographic data, the western and southern borders of the Upper Dnepr culture area, the morphological features of ceramic complexes, and the genesis of the culture based on «local Mesolithic» still remain controversial. Radical carbon data that appeared mainly due to the dating of soot on the walls of vessels of different periods in the culture development are also scarce. Traditionally for Belarus archaeological literature the author considers Neolithic sites of lower Pripyat as an east polessian variant.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):136-142
views
Ceramic materials of the late neolithic - early bronze age of the Podzorovo site on the Upper Don from the excavations by M.E. Foss in 1953
Zheludkov A.S., Smolyaninov R.V., Klimkova I.V.
Abstract
The following paper analyzes ceramic collection from the excavations by M.E. Foss in 1953 from the Podzorovo site in Michurinsky District , Tambov Region, stored in the collections of the State Historical Museum (GIM 104032, inventory A 833). According to the results of the research, M.E. Foss concluded that there was originally a Late Neolithic site, and then a Bronze Age settlement. At the same time, the ceramics were divided into two groups: Late Neolithic (first of all pit-comb ornamented) and relating to the Bronze Age (other). When reviewing the collection in the light of new knowledge we were able to identify the materials of Dronicha late Neolithic culture, Eneolithic Srednestog culture and ceramics of the Ksizovo type, as well as Repino culture of the early Bronze Age. All of them find numerous analogies in the settlements of Don forest-steppe area. Thus, it was established that only in the Neolithic era - early Bronze, the Podzorovo site was settled at least six times. As additional information when describing ceramics, we present data on the results of the technical and technological analysis obtained during the study of ceramics of these cultures and cultural types originating from the settlements of the Upper Don.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):143-149
views
Signs of gathering and fishing on the monuments of the Late Neolithic - Early Eneolithic of Karelia (based on the settlement of Vigainavolok I)
Vasilyeva T.A.
Abstract

The paper presents the study results of Vigainavolok I materials. This settlement is located on the west of Lake Onega in Karelia. The monument was investigated by G.A. Pankrushev in 1963-1966. Its area was 8,000 m². 26 buildings remains were revealed. The area of 2748 m² was studied. The inventory collection includes more than 25 thousand pieces of ceramics and about 7 thousand pieces of stone, clay and metal. The buildings served as dwellings and workshops. The collection includes sinkers that are marked as direct signs of fishing. Favorable climatic conditions for the development in the forest zone, confined to the coast of a large body of water, settlement equipment, osteological materials of the Stone Age monuments characterize fishing as one of the determining factors in the life of the population.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):150-157
views
Traces of Mahanjar culture in the forest-steppe Tobol region
Yakovleva E.S.
Abstract
The paper summarizes all currently known source data on the Neolithic Mahanjar culture in the forest-steppe Tobol region. Both scattered archival data - materials from Ubagan 2,3,5, Ust-Suerka 4 and several others - and the results of new archaeological works on such settlements as Kochegarovo 1 and Tashkovo 1 are published, which allows a significant expansion of the periphery of the Mahanjar culture to the north boundaries of the forest-steppe zone of the Tobol region. The western boundary of the periphery requires further work. The author traced geographical dependence in the distribution of materials in the composition of monuments with other Neolithic cultures. Based on the available absolute dates and the fixation of some facts of ceramics stratification, conclusions are drawn about the coexistence of Mahanjar complexes in the Tobol region with carriers of early Neolithic - Kozlovskaya and Koshkinskaya - and Late Neolithic - Poludenskaya and Boborykinskaya ceramic traditions from the end of early Neolithic to the mid of late Neolithic. It is assumed that the spread of the Mahanjar culture in the forest-steppe zone proceeded by including its carriers among the local inhabitants through social ties. The inclusion of the Mahanjar antiquities of the forest-steppe Tobol region in the corpus of sources allows us to expand our understanding of cultural genesis and migrations at the end of the early Neolithic.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):158-166
views
The site Vavilino 1 on the right bank of the Derkul River in Western Kazakhstan (materials of 2018)
Mamirov T.B.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to preliminary data from a study of the Vavilino 1 site in Western Kazakhstan. The monument was first opened by N.M. Malov in 1986, later he picked artifacts from the surface in 1988. In 1991 N.L. Morgunova carried out excavations on the site, which showed the importance of this monument study to understand the Neolithic Volga-Ural interfluve. The monument is located on the right bank of the Derkul River and is currently classified as an emergency. In 2018, employees of the Institute of Archeology named after A.Kh. Margulan in the framework of the Stone Age study in Western Kazakhstan started to work on the monuments of Yeshkitau, Derkul 1 and Vavilino 1. At the Vavilino 1 site a small excavation area - 16 square meters was made, more than a thousand stone artifacts were received; fragments of ceramics and bone remains of animals were poorly diagnosed. Excavations have shown the presence of a 15-20 cm thick cultural layer belonging to the Neolithic time. The upper layer of the monument with a capacity of up to 30 cm was destroyed by anthropogenic activities in the past century. The material from the cultural layer is not numerous; tip scrapers, fragments of plates with retouching, geometrical microliths, prismatic nucleus for plates, etc. are typologically distinguished.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):166-173
views
New Sarmatian grave on the left bank of the Lower Dniester
Simonenko S.O.
Abstract
In 2018, a secondary Sarmatian burial with an impressive inventory (molded pot, pottery jug, silver earring, necklace of beads) was discovered in the Scythian mound in the course of the study of the barrow group «Garden» near the Glinoe village, Slobodzeya region, on the left bank of the Lower Dniester. Orientation of the buried head to the south-southeast is quite rare in the North-West Black Sea region. The cult of fire is fixed by the finds of three burned pebbles from the left to the head. A handmade pot combines features known for the dishes of a given cultural and chronological period. At the same time, the wave-like ornament in the upper part of the body was fixed only once on a similar vessel in the Danube-Dniester interfluve. Of particular interest is a pottery jug from the complex. Such forms were not previously known in the North-West Black Sea region. The closest analogies to the vessel come from the sites of the Volga-Don interfluve. Earrings identical to those found in the published grave are widely represented in the materials of the Prut-Dniester interfluve, the Middle and Lower Dniester. Necklaces of various shapes and beads belong to the most mass material received by the Sarmatians from ancient centers. The burial dates back to the 2nd century based on the analysis of the grave goods.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):173-178
views
The appearance of broadswords in the Middle Kama region in the I-II centuries AD
Malykh O.O.
Abstract
In modern archaeology researchers try to go from existing finds description and systematization to considering possible variants of the processes or even the events that led to certain objects of material and spiritual culture or their change. In the I-II centuries AD broadswords appeared on the territory of the Middle Kama region; the weapon that would be distributed in VII-IX centuries AD. There are no grounds for linking the origin of broadswords with the development of the armament complex of the local population; broadswords were more likely to be external borrowings. This paper considers a version of broadswords appearance among the population of Prikamye in the I-II centuries as a result of a contact with military detachment representatives who committed a transit migration through the territory of the region. The starting point of the migration beginning could be one of the Trans-Urals regions. A military detachment, moving along the banks of the Belaya, Kama, Volga rivers and their tributaries, could not only become a source of the weapon, it could also engage a part of the Pyanoborsk population to their movement to the west. The activities of the detachment representatives as well as of those who were attached to it led to the formation of the Andreevsko-Piseralsky community in the Oka-Sursk interfluve.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):179-184
views
South Russian traces in the origins of the tillage in the Perm Region (archaeological evidence)
Sarapulov A.N.
Abstract
The paper deals with some issues of the origins of the tillage in the Perm Region at the turn of the 12th century. During that time, a new type of implement got widespread. They were ards fitted with broad-bladed iron shares. The finds of the shares were analyzed and compared with the analogous ones from the territory of Kievan Rus’. The analysis showed that the South Russian articles found in the Upper Kama region appeared together with Bulgarian articles and sometimes with the ard shares. South Russian things of 10-11 centuries were also found on the territory of Volga Bulgaria. Being a large mediaeval state, Volga Bulgaria both had a strong influence on the Finno-Ugric population of the Kama region and had dealings with Kievan Rus’ (northern and southern parts) using the Volga trade route. Therefore, the origins of the tillage and the appearance of the broad-bladed iron shares in the Perm Region may be connected with the spreading of the South Russian agricultural traditions through the agency and under the influence of Volga Bulgaria.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):184-188
views
The policy of imperial acculturation of the northern Kazakh steppes population (mid XVIII-XIX centuries): phenomenon of the Orenburg Kyrgyz school
Kotov A.V.
Abstract
This paper covers the main issues of the educational policy of the Russian Empire in the XVIII-XIX centuries in relation to the northern Kazakh steppes population. Examples of peaceful interaction of Russian settlers with the local Kazakh population are considered through the prism of cultural and educational influence, which was expressed at the basis of a number of educational institutions for the «foreigners» of the northern Kazakh steppes. The significance of the educational and cultural integration of the local population into the Russian society is revealed. The main aspects of the educational policy of the Russian Empire are investigated on the factual material of Russian-foreign schools. The problems of acculturation of the local population and ways to solve them in the works of contemporaries and direct participants in these events are given. Archival materials telling about the history of the educational institution - the Orenburg Kyrgyz School are introduced into scientific circulation. The work of the Orenburg Kyrgyz School is considered, which implied cultural and educational acculturation of the Kazakh population in the middle of the XIX century. The author also reveals the reasons for changing the educational and cultural orientations of the school at different periods of its existence, the results of its work and its role in the process of non-Russian peoples integration into the unified sociocultural space of the Russian Empire.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):188-194
views
Samara merchants and commercial education in the early XX century
Sumburova E.I.
Abstract
The paper examines a process of commercial education development in Samara on the basis of archival materials and published sources of educational institutions and public institutions. The study revealed the motives that determined the main directions and results of Samara commercial and industrial circles activities aimed at providing staff to urban enterprises at the beginning of XX century. The author highlights a special role of Samara entrepreneur organizations, and first of all, the society of clerks and the Exchange society in the creation of a commercial school and a trading school. The author emphasizes that the established lower and secondary commercial educational institutions met the needs of the local business community. It is noted that the commercial school was focused mainly on the training of students for admission to universities (mostly technical), while trade schools and commercial courses provided the city with the necessary specialists majoring in Economics. As a result, the author comes to the conclusion that the local institutional conditions for higher economic school establishment in Samara in the early XX century was not developed, the rate of commercial education development depended on the economic development of the region.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):195-200
views
State policy in the field of social security for families of soldiers in ethnic military formations during the World War I (1914-1917)
Podpryatov N.V., Poperechnaya A.D.
Abstract
The paper examines the normative legal acts of the First World War period, which regulated the social sphere, studied the social practices and institutions of the charity system in the national regions of the empire. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the measures of state social support and manage its delivery to certain groups of the empire population during the First World War. The relevance of the topic is determined by the fact that the issues of social assistance to families of soldiers and cavalrymen of ethnic military formations have not yet become the subject of deep historical research. The authors, based on the systematization of legal documents of the era and the analysis of archival materials, first introduced into scientific circulation, identify common approaches in the production of cash benefits for food, reveal the features of the implementation of social charity regulations in national regions. A comparative analysis of the social practices of the war period allows us to conclude that the government’s policy in this area was systematic and quite effective. Institutions of power demonstrated timely responses to the demands of society in matters of social security of the family, which provided timely and equal material support to the families of volunteers in the army, regardless of their ethnic or religious affiliation.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):201-205
views
The revolutionary-Bolshevik Maria Oskarovna Aveide as a leader of the youth movement in Samara in 1917-1918
Gorshenin A.V.
Abstract
The paper analyzes the activities of the revolutionary and teacher Maria Oskarovna Aveide aimed at promoting the ideas of Marxism among boys and girls during the pre-revolutionary period in Samara. The author establishes her role in creation of the youth Bolshevik organization - «Agitator group of youth» in Samara on the eve of the October revolution. The paper also examines the multifaceted activities of this youth organization in the political life of the city in 1917-1918: participation in the development of the first Soviet departments, military action against the counterrevolutionaries, the propaganda of revolutionary ideas among the workers, campaigning during the preparation for the elections to the Constituent Assembly, clandestine activities in the period of domination of the Czech legionnaires in Samara. The author also reveals the character of the ideological and theoretical training, which was carried out by M.O. Aveide and invited experienced Bolsheviks. The paper is based on the study of the documents of the federal (State Archive of the Russian Federation) and regional (Samara Regional State Archive of Socio-Political History and the Central State Archive of the Samara Region) archives, as well as the memories of this revolutionary’s students. This study allows to establish the contribution of M.O. Aveide in the organization and the ideological content of the predecessor of Komsomol.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):206-210
views
«The Palmer raids» - reaction to «The Red Scare» and Edgar Hoover’s role in the actions of the U.S. Department of Justice
Levin Y.A.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to reaction of the U.S. Department of Justice to the October revolution of 1917 in Russia and the process which received the name «The Red Scare» in the historiography. The basic changes which happened in Russia, the ideas of radical social justice, the dictatorship of the proletariat and the world revolution during the last stages of the World War I led to an extremely negative perception of the Bolshevik party and its policy in the USA. The general unfriendly spirit was warmed up by various publications accusing V.I. Lenin and his colleagues of communications with Germany (well-known Sisson’s «documents») as well as by various publications in the press. At the same time, the revolution in Russia became an ideological beacon for anarchists and socialists worldwide including America. A special activity was shown by the galleanists organization (followers of the revolutionary and the ideologist of anarchism Luigi Galleani). From April to June 1919 they organized a series of explosions as well as attempts on the life of prominent politicians, businessmen and even the staff of intelligence agencies of the USA. In response to it the Attorney-General Alexander Mitchell Palmer initiated a series of military actions directed against all left-wing parties and groups in the country. The Bureau of investigations became the main body that was occupied in these actions. The paper analyzes the raids that were carried out by BI, their features and effects as well as the career of John Edgar Hoover, who was Palmer’s personal assistant at that time and later became a director of FBI.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):211-214
views
Professor of the Kuibyshev Planning Institute Vasily Lvovich Pogodin: materials for the biography
Zherdeva Y.A.
Abstract
The paper is based on archival materials about the activities of the Kuibyshev Planning Institute of the 1930s. It reconstructs the biography of the Russian and Soviet diplomat, military and academic of the first third of the 20th century, Vasily Lvovich Pogodin (1870 - after 1937). The study reveals a set of documentary evidence on the diplomatic and pedagogical career of V. Pogodin in the first years of the Soviet power, and determines the features of his pedagogical and party activities in Kuibyshev in 1933-1937. The author highlights a special role of the Planning Institute party committee materials as well as the high school workers trade union in the reconstruction of Pogodin’s biography. The paper emphasizes that Pogodin was considered to be one of the best lecturers of the Kuibyshev Planning Institute and a credible party worker. It is noted that his noble origin, service in the tsarist army and membership in the party of the Social Revolutionaries until 1937 were not the reason for penalties or prosecution by the party or the university administration. As a result, the author concludes that the fate of Vasily Lvovich Pogodin shows an extraordinary character of his personality. He made a brilliant military career in the years of the late Russian empire and became a major general of the Russian imperial army. Then he managed to integrate into the new Soviet system, radically changing the sphere of his activity and having achieved no less outstanding results in diplomacy and education. He became the plenipotentiary representative of the Far Eastern Republic in China, the director of a number of educational and cultural institutions of the Far East, then a professor of political economy in Kuibyshev.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):214-222
views
«Red Threat» in the estimates of the USA press in 1939
Buranok S.O.
Abstract
The following paper deals with the research of the place and value of Russia’s foreign policy and its reflection in the USA public opinion. The study of information campaign around USSR’s foreign policy has its specifics and value: first, it gives a chance to establish new, unknown facts; secondly, to determine the level of knowledge of «another» (in this case, American) society about the Soviet foreign policy; thirdly, to understand what place information about Soviet foreign policy took in the USA in the system of the USSR image creation, the image of «the Soviet revolution». This paper uses materials of the USA press about USSR’s foreign policy in 1939. Besides, the author analyzes the image of the Soviet foreign policy in the American society. The information campaign around USSR’s foreign policy could report to the world about the Soviet foreign policy achievements as well as promote preparation (in the information plan) to the following large project - the image of the Soviet ally. Articles, reports, notes on USSR’s foreign policy of 1939 helped to change the attitude towards Russia / the USSR in the USA and helped to correct the image of the USSR in the world.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):223-226
views
The case of Solomon Gertsevich Basin: regional practice of political and ideological campaigns of the second half of the 1940s - early 1950s
Khramkova E.L., Khramkova N.P.
Abstract
The paper reconstructs the little-known pages of the biography of the Samara historian, doctor of historical sciences, professor Solomon Gertsevich Basin. The source base for the study was the materials of his personal file, personal files, protocol documentation of the primary party organization of the Kuibyshev State Pedagogical Institute (now Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education), the Frunzensky District Committee of the Kuybyshev CPSU(b) and other documents that were found in the archive and the SSUSSE library, the Central State Archive of the Samara Region and the Samara Regional State Archive of Social and Political History. The focus is on the circumstances of the involvement of S.G. Basin in the well-known political campaigns of the second half of the 1940s - early 1950s, the analysis of his «case» as well as the teachers of the Kuibyshev Pedagogical Institute - the most active participants in the «fight against servitude before the West», with «cosmopolitanism» and others. The paper also attempts to clarify the motivation that determined certain actions of the main «actors» in the context of the ideological influence on the pedagogical intelligentsia in the post-war period. For this purpose, the biographies of some directors, deputy directors, secretaries of the university organization of the party, teachers of the history department of KSPI were studied.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):226-238
views
The «second virgin land» performance: an attempt to implement the «super program» in the Orenburg Region
Pakhomova E.V.
Abstract
This paper discusses complex problems of the «second virgin land» performance - livestock production development. The study analyzes specific conditions in the late 1950s when a massive campaign began; it was widely covered in the periodicals. The author and ideological inspirer of the new project was N.S. Khrushchev, he believed that the farms established on the virgin lands had all the necessary resources for the effective development of the livestock industry. In this regard, in the paper, special attention is paid to the study of a real state of affairs in state farms organized shortly before as well as their «potential capabilities» identification. At the same time, feature characteristics of the «second virgin land» performance on the territory of the Orenburg Territory were noted. The information given in this paper allows us to trace the dynamics of animal husbandry development in the virgin regions. We study the impact of the campaign on the development of traditional pasture and stall (stall-pasture) livestock, characterized by the main ways to improve production efficiency. We raise a problem of providing virgin lands with human resources - specialists demanded directly in the livestock industry. The conducted research allows us to assume that the result of the «second virgin land» performance was a unique experience; however, the results of this campaign are mixed.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):239-243
views
Development of museum activities on the territory of Orenburg Region and Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic during the «Thaw»
Morozova I.P.
Abstract
This paper discusses the development of cultural life of the Orenburg Region and Bashkiria on the example of museum business during the «Thaw». The author shows that the development of the museum network in the southern Urals in the second half of the 1950s is associated with the general rise of cultural and scientific life of the country after the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. During this period, the interest to archaeological activities also increased. The popularization of the museum business in the region took place thanks to the activities of the museum staff that began to resort to various forms of communication with visitors: exhibitions, lectures, etc. The flow of museum visitors increased every year. The analysis of periodic publications and data archives helped to conclude that the museum business on the territory of the southern Urals during the «Thaw» was successful as new museums opened, because it was necessary to introduce culture to the population of the regions. If we consider the specifics of the opened museums, most of them were local lore. Due to the involvement of the region’s population, the museum funds were actively replenished with artifacts. In the early 60s of the XX century new museums were opened as well as Askin Museum of local lore was created on a voluntary basis in the Republic of Bashkortostan (Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic).
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):243-247
views
Pedagogical Sciences
Organization of lexical-semantic studies at the elementary school based on agnomic risk zones vocabulary definition
Avdonina A.Y.
Abstract
This paper reviews an up-to-date problem of organization of lexical-semantic studies at the elementary school. Existing traditional approaches are unfortunately within the framework of the Russian language teaching methodology, and thus do not create a language and cultural area that provides successful acquirement of knowledge and communication goals. The school practice shows that one of the main reasons, which negatively influence the quality of production, perception and understanding of texts by students, is the agnonymy which has a direct correlation with periphery layers of the vocabulary. Agnonyms mainly include archaisms, historisms, obsolete words, scientific terms as well as words and phrases which are rarely or never used by a child in everyday life. Such words being met in various school-books make it difficult for the students to perceive and produce the texts. This paper provides types of tasks which let a teacher choose certain didactic materials (in accordance with school-books of educational-methodical complex) based on students’ agnomic risk zones vocabulary that will be defined. This will facilitate to broaden school students’ outlook, their language and cultural communication.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):248-250
views
Problems of foreign students’ integration into the educational environment of a pedagogical university
Arestova I.Y.
Abstract
A survey was conducted among foreign students studying at Natural Sciences Education Faculty of the I. Yakovlev Chuvash State Pedagogical University located in Cheboksary, the Republic of Chuvashia, Russia. The methodology was used to diagnose the learning motivation of students and a survey was conducted in order to identify socio-pedagogical conditions of students’ adaptation to the university. Leading motives have been established that determine the desire of foreign students to obtain higher education in Russian cities. The dynamics of student motivation changes has been revealed. It is also found that the assessment of the university and faculty management work by foreign students testifies to the favorable social and pedagogical environment that is developed at the faculty and university. Foreign students’ poor knowledge of special terminology used for the study of natural sciences is noted. The author identified that it is necessary for foreign students to acquire professional activities of pedagogical education bachelors. Studying at a pedagogical university is demanded by foreign citizens from Central Asia states. Working with foreign students enriches the teaching experience of faculty members. Strengthening multicultural relations, creating conditions conducive to the full self-realization of foreign student’s personality facilitates the process of their adaptation and integration into the educational environment. Training a prospective bachelor of pedagogical education as a specialist takes place in the context of motivations change throughout the learning process. At the same time, an important point is the confidence in the future profession. In such conditions, educational and cognitive motives become more important and stimulate students to acquire knowledge in the field of their chosen profession.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):251-256
views
The content of younger students’ spiritual and moral education by means of educational tourism
Bakurova T.P.
Abstract
This paper presents a systematic approach to the spiritual and moral education of primary school children, which is proposed to implement through a model that includes target, meaningful, subjective and effective components. All components of the model are described. For its implementation, forms of educational tourism were chosen, taking into account the age characteristics of children. The author described how to use different forms of tourism. A tourist activity application algorithm for younger students’ spiritual and moral education is developed on the basis of a concentricity principle and assumes participation of students’ parents. The presented model of spiritual and moral education is based on local history material and includes active and interactive forms and methods of work, which allows to develop knowledge as well as experience of moral behavior. The paper describes the modules of the world exploration consistently from exploring the city, the region and the country on the principle of «expanding and deepening spiral». The description of each form of educational tourism on the material of Omsk and Omsk Region is given. The author offers options for involving parents, options for creative assignments and final sessions for children. The model is ready for use and can serve as a basis for further research.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):256-260
views
Valuable aspects of prospective teacher’s professional identity development
Berkutova D.I., Gromova E.M., Gorshkova T.A.
Abstract
The paper actualizes one of the most important problems of modern higher education - prospective teacher’s professional identity development. The authors study the history of the problem of identity, analyze the main theoretical approaches to the essence of the concept from the point of view of foreign and domestic scientists, and provide options for planning horizontal and vertical career of the teacher. The paper presents the results of the study of pedagogical university students’ value orientations in the context of planning their career strategy. The experimental sample of respondents consisted of full-time students of Physical, Mathematical and Technological Education Department of the Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University named after I.N. Ulyanov. They were diagnosed by F. Herzberg’s method, aimed at identifying the predominant role of hygienic factors or motivators in the career, as well as by Edgar H. Schein’s «Career Anchors» method, used to determine the leading professional motives. The results of the study were subjected to a thorough analysis. The paper presents comparative data of the diagnostics. The obtained materials can serve as a starting point for further theoretical and practical development of the problem of successful prospective teacher’s professional identity development.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):261-264
views
Development of professional foreign language speaking competences of students majoring in «Tourism Business» at the economic university
Glukhov G.V., Ermakova Y.D., Kapustina L.V.
Abstract
This paper discusses ways to optimize the process of students’ professional foreign language competence development at a non-linguistic university, based on students’ language and speech training at the economic university training program of «Tourism business», which combines a comprehensive business training with entrepreneurial approach to future qualified professionals working in the leisure and tourism industry. This involves acquisition of necessary competencies by students, aiming them at the prospect of becoming entrepreneurs and managers who are able to realize their working potential both at the national and international level. This, in turn, imposes quite high requirements for professional language training at a non-linguistic university and implies fluency in a foreign language by graduates. An additional catalyst for the Samara Region and a dozen other regions of the Russian Federation was the 2018 FIFA World Cup, which stimulated the formation of modern infrastructure of the tourism industry and confirmed relevant changes in the field of higher education. Globalization and the Internet have changed all aspects of foreign language training, including at a non-language university, especially for the tourism and hotel industry. Many of the strategies that have been applied in higher education until recently are no longer effective at present because of new and constantly evolving technical capabilities.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):264-269
views
The value of morality golden rule as the basis of the axiological-pedagogical concept of morality education
Guschina A.V.
Abstract
The task of this paper is to determine the value underlying the idea «Create the world of conscience and good», which is the backbone inner core of teaching morality to prospective teachers. Evidence is given that the value underlying the idea «Create the world of conscience and good» is the value of the golden rule of morality. The author shows the significance of the golden rule of morality in teaching morality to prospective teachers. The author also formulates a generalized goal of teaching morality to prospective teachers: a person who is able to live in morality. It is proved that the idea is a system-forming internal core of axiological and pedagogical activity as an activity of teaching morality to prospective teachers. The paper explains the use order of the terms «axiological» and «pedagogical» in the concept of «axiological-pedagogical activity» on the basis of methodology levels. The author reveals the content of axiological and educational activities and specifies features of the value relationship as one of the formative content of such activities. The author shows that the use of the golden rule of morality as a criterion for assessing realized, professed, and disseminated values makes it possible to show whether such values are really values, or anti-values.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):270-275
views
Students’ self-development through the prism of electronic portfolio
Dobudko T.V., Gorbatov S.V., Dobudko A.V., Pugach O.I.
Abstract
The following paper discusses one of the urgent tasks of higher education at the present stage - the development of the personality of a specialist capable of self-development in the conditions of education digitalization in the Russian Federation. The creation of the system of continuous education in Russia is primarily the result of this process, as specialists’ self-education is a necessary condition for successful employment, career growth, social and professional mobility at the present time. At the same time, the needs and opportunities of various forms of continuing education are unevenly distributed in various industries. So the IT industry requires constant self-education of employees. Practice shows that secondary general education, as a rule, does not develop the necessary skills of graduates’ self-education. Therefore, the issues of management of bachelors’ self-development as well as the formation of readiness for continuous education are very relevant for higher education. The paper describes conditions for the development of bachelors’ readiness to continue education in its various forms (formal, informal) using the electronic portfolio system, which is an integral part of the electronic information and educational environment (EIEE) of the University. The obtained materials can serve as a basis for the development of a single electronic educational space of Russian universities.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):275-279
views
Project activities of bachelor students of a pedagogical university as a condition for preparing schoolchildren’s research activities
Zaitseva O.A.
Abstract

The paper discusses current issues of training a professional teacher, a successful organizer of schoolchildren’s research activities. The material is presented in terms of new standards. The author discusses innovative forms of educational process organization at university and school - the creation of a single educational space based on the principles of science and education integration. The main condition for schoolchildren’s research potential development and successful teachers’ development is the project activity of students and schoolchildren in the framework of cooperation. A structural model of network interaction between the Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University, schools № 151, 129, 173 of Nizhny Novgorod, the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (Kaliningrad) and the A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow) has been developed. This model is a key factor contributing to the solution of the problem of high-quality training of a prospective teacher majoring in Biology who will be able to organize students’ research activities and develop their creative activity. The experience of the development and testing of various joint scientific, social and creative projects is shown. The data of the experiment are presented, which speak about the success of the events held as part of the implementation of the project technology.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):280-285
views
Moral values in the context of physical education of students - prospective employees of the penitentiary system
Klychkov S.A.
Abstract

The paper deals with the optimal ratio of physical training and moral education in the educational process of a higher education institution that trains employees of the penitentiary system (PS). As one of the ways to solve this problem, it is proposed to introduce moral values to students - prospective employees of the PS in the process of physical education. It is substantiated that moral values are values that are socially approved and shared by most people, they are associated with morality as an ethical category and its structure. There are classic signs of moral values (responsibility of a person for these values; awareness of moral insolvency affecting the conscience; the need for such values; the ratio of moral values to reward and punishment) and their classification (fundamental, basic and systemic social and moral values). The author has selected moral values that should be introduced to cadets - prospective employees of the PS in the process of physical education («good», «duty», «mutual understanding», «mercy», «responsibility», «truth», «freedom», «conscience», «justice», «empathy»). It is proved that the value «altruism» is concretized by the values «charity» and «justice» and therefore is not represented in the general list of values. Justice and mercy are considered to be sides of the golden rule of morality, the bilateral action of which contributes to co-feeling, co-action, co-help, co-participation. Values «good», «mutual understanding», «freedom», «responsibility», «truth» and «empathy» are described as values that should be introduced to a cadet in the process of physical education in order to develop him as a moral personality.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):285-289
views
Inter-subject links within the content-methodical lines of Math school course
Kononenko N.V., Tokareva J.S., Chukhriy P.A.
Abstract
This paper considers some ways of inter-subject links realization within the content-methodical lines of Math school course. The course of Math at school is permeated with inter-subject links, which are the foundation of the subject and through which a succession is implemented in teaching of Mathematics. The implementation of inter-subject links in teaching Mathematics requires a special organization of educational material and the process of its study and, therefore, acts as a didactic principle. In this paper, inter-subject links are revealed at two levels: the level of content and the level of methods for solving problems. The inter-subject links at the substantial level are learning numerical sequences and linear equations and inequalities, while at the level of methods - examples of transcendental equations. The implementation of inter-subject links at the content level takes place in conjunction with their implementation at the level of methods and has a wide practical application at Mathematics lessons. The conducted researches have shown that inter-subject links naturally extend on the subject area «Mathematics and Computer Science» according to the Federal state educational standards of the basic and secondary general education. The practical significance of the study is that its results can be used for teaching Mathematics at school.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):290-295
views
Modern formats of methodical training of students majoring in biology
Mitina E.G., Kryshtop V.A.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to the study of students’ attitude to the process of methodical training in high school. The authors describe some examples of the «formatting» of the methodological training of biology students, such as the «form of education», the «educational format», the «format of training» and others. The authors present the analysis results of student survey about the preferences in choosing one format or another; the principles for the inclusion of new formats in the learning process in higher education institutions were defined. The paper shows that, at the present stage, the formats of methodical training, based on the direct interaction of all subjects of the educational process, are the most demanded ones by students, while learning formats on the Internet space are less attractive for respondents. The authors of the paper, on the basis of students’ views study, found that the development of other subjects of the educational process and the continuous improvement of their qualifications are most important for the successful «formatting» of the methodological training of a teacher-biologist. The principles of new formats inclusion into the learning process presented by the authors in this paper focus it on expanding the boundaries of educational systems in accordance with modern trends in education the development, noted in new educational standards.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):295-300
views
The usage of foreign language integrative potential for prospective agronomists’ professional competence development in the realities of globalization
Perkova E.L., Nikitina S.V.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to the problem of professional competence development of students majoring in Agronomy during the process of learning a foreign language. The authors indicate that the use of the integrative potential of a foreign language in modern realities is a source of professional knowledge, advanced experience and emphasize that the knowledge of a foreign language enables prospective agronomists to navigate in professional literature, on the market of agricultural products, as well as in the latest technologies, which results in their competitiveness in the agricultural sphere. Thus, learning a foreign language gives an agronomist an opportunity to improve professional competence and skills, to gain experience abroad, learn a lot of new information. In this regard, there is a necessity to update the content and structure, develop new approaches to organize the process of foreign language teaching to prospective agronomists. The paper notes the importance of «Foreign Language» course potential as an integrative factor influencing prospective agronomists’ professional competence development, and provides specific examples of its use. The paper analyzes the notions «competence» and «prospective agronomists’ professional competence» based on the views of domestic and foreign scientists. The authors underline the expediency of the competence approach use for professional competence development, which has recently transformed from a local theory into a social phenomenon that claims to be the conceptual basis of educational development. The provisions of the paper are based on the advanced research in the field of professional training and teaching foreign languages.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):300-303
views
The structure of the patriotic consciousness of youth: the pedagogical aspect
Pozdnyakova O.K., Krylova E.L.
Abstract
In the framework of the younger generation patriotic education, a pedagogical task of young people’s patriotic consciousness development is being actualized. It is substantiated that the solution of this task requires clarification of the content of the notion «young people’s patriotic consciousness», the meaning of which is understood when its structure and structural components content are revealed. Interpretations of patriotic consciousness are offered. They are proposed by modern Russian scientists who present it as a systemic development with its own structure. Structural components of the patriotic consciousness of youth are determined: a worldview component (knowledge, ideas, and views), an axiological component (values), a behavioral component (value relations). The possibility and necessity of the separation of these components is proved. The choice of specific concepts, values, and value relationships that form the content of the worldview, axiological, and behavioral components of the patriotic consciousness of youth is substantiated. The content of the ideological component of the patriotic consciousness of young people is revealed; it is formed by the knowledge, ideas, views on the concepts of «patriotism», «love for the Motherland», «Motherland», «small Motherland», «Fatherland», «patriot». In the context of understanding patriotism as a complex value represented through a set of values, it is proved that the content of the axiological component of youth patriotic consciousness is developed by the values of «loyalty», «heroism», «pride in the Fatherland», «duty», «dignity», «interest in the history of the Fatherland», «culture», «love of the country», «courage», «responsibility», «family», «tolerance», «work», «respect», «honor». Valuable attitudes to the family, work, the Fatherland, culture are singled out as developing the content of the behavioral component of young people’s patriotic consciousness.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):304-310
views
Development of senior preschool children’s readiness for social orientation in the organizations of additional education
Ryabova N.V., Barcaeva E.V.
Abstract
This paper considers development of senior preschool children’s readiness for social orientation in the organizations of additional education. On the basis of psychological and pedagogical literature analysis the authors substantiate key concepts of the research and consider possibilities of additional education organizations for social activities development. The concept of «readiness for social orientation» is defined in the logic of socio-cultural, systemic, activity, anthropological approaches and is characterized as a property of the individual, allowing to design an indicative basis of social and household activities and implement all its types. In this paper «additional education» is considered as a tool for the development of socially significant qualities of the individual, providing social adaptation to the pace of social and technological change. The organization of additional education for preschool children ensures the unity of the processes of education, training and development of the child. The paper presents the results of designing the substantive and procedural aspects of social orientation readiness development. The experimental research was conducted on the basis of the Extended Day Centre in the Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute named after M.E. Evsevyev. In this organization there is a developing educational environment where a complex interaction of experts (teacher-psychologist, teacher-speech therapist, social teacher, teacher-defectologist) provides equal «starting» opportunities for all children of preschool age in the aspect of social and household adaptation. The study showed that the developed content of the program circle with a focus on social orientation, implemented with preschoolers in the individual and group form of developing methods and means of training, provided the dynamics of mastering the readiness for social activities.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):310-315
views
Combination of information coding methods as a condition of effective physical concepts development in primary school
Samoilov E.A.
Abstract
The paper discusses a way to resolve the contradiction between high requirements of the modern Federal state educational standard (FSES) to the level of training and intellectual development of primary school graduates and the lack of effective didactic means and teaching methods that ensure assimilation of students abstract elements of the curriculum, which were previously studied only in high school. The researches by Russian psychologists (V.N. Druzhinin, M.A. Holodnaya, etc.) show that an essential element of the individual intellect are mental conceptual structures, and their optimal development is provided by a collection of specially prepared learning tasks, involving the use of three modalities of experience (sensual-effective, figurative, symbolic). On the example of teaching methods design of electromagnetic induction in primary school, the author shows the sequence and specifics of the teacher’s actions, which allow to build a complex of didactic means for the full enrichment of the mental experience of students and organize their educational activities in accordance with the needs of school physical education, taking into account psychological laws of individual intelligence development together with modern private didactic approaches to the management of intellectual development of students. The proposed method of training and a set of training tasks that meet the requirements of the target orientation, target sufficiency, increasing the level of difficulty, motivational orientation, were approved in Samara Aviation Lyceum № 135 and showed high efficiency in terms of intellectual development and training of primary school students.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):316-321
views
Labor education and professional orientation in biological and ecological education of pupils
Semenov A.A.
Abstract
The attitude of a person to work, the activity of his work, creative approach to it depends on the right choice of profession, in general, and specialty in particular. In this regard, the correct training of pupils for future employment is of paramount importance in the education of schoolchildren. One of the foundations of labor education is vocational guidance of pupils. It is considered as a condition of all-round and harmonious development of the personality; the unity of teaching Biology and Ecology with the main directions of spiritual and moral development, education and socialization of pupils. Professional orientation involves purposeful activities to form pupil’s internal needs and readiness for conscious choice of profession and consists of several components: professional education; professional upbringing; professional advice; professional adaptation. Professional education equips pupils with knowledge about professions in the field of Biology and Ecology, conditions of their choice, educates them a positive attitude to work, forms professional preferences. Professional upbringing is the education of pupil’s professionally important qualities of personality: communication skills, professional duty and honor, responsibility, professional ethics and others. The teacher introduces pupils to the professions related to Biology and Ecology; studies and develops the interests, aptitudes and abilities of each pupil; includes career guidance topics in the design of the classroom; provides regular demonstration of videos reflecting the application of the achievements of biological science in production. Professional advice is designed to provide pupils with necessary assistance in professional self-determination. It involves informing pupils about biological and environmental professions. Professional adaptation is associated with the acquisition of necessary knowledge and practical skills for pupil’s future profession. There is a direct correlation between the level of subject knowledge and skills and the speed of adaptation of a person to professional training and work. Thus, labor education and professional orientation of pupils in the process of teaching Biology and Ecology is a holistic system consisting of interrelated and complementary components, united by a common goal and unity of management.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):321-325
views
Development of foreign language strategic competence of non-linguistic students
Tatarina T.M.
Abstract
A graduate of a modern Russian university must have a wide range of competencies within the chosen major as well as a large set of universal or key competencies. One of the universal competencies in each field of Bachelor’s degree courses is a foreign language communicative competence. In this paper the author considers the features of non-linguistic students’ oral communication, as well as the views of specialists on the difficulties impeding communication. The data of psychological and pedagogical research (Cattell questionnaire, language testing, and teacher’s observations) of freshmen at the Faculty of Economics are given in order to find out whether there is a relationship between the students’ personal structure, level of knowledge of the language and the desire to start oral communication in English. On the basis of the obtained data, the views of specialists are summarized and recommendations on the regulation of students’ emotional state in the process of communication are formulated. Based on the results of the research and analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature, techniques are defined that can be used by the teacher in order to minimize the fear of mistakes, and bring the state of the students to the optimum working (learning) state. The author emphasizes the importance of applying the techniques of reflection and self-regulation to change the emotional state of students in the English classroom.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):325-329
views
Integrative links in musical-theoretical and musical-historical cycles teaching
Fedotova T.Y., Nemirovskaya I.D.
Abstract
This paper deals with actual questions of modernization of musical pedagogical middle level teaching. Specific thinking features of contemporary students are marked, and problems of innovative development of information society are described. Difficulties of secondary professional musical education are shown. System thinking and scientific knowledge integration are pointed out as a basis of new ideological settings formation. Scientific researches in musical pedagogy about integrative links are analyzed. A use of integrative links in teaching musical-theoretical and musical-historical areas is marked as a necessary factor of solid and systematic music language image development. A language of music, as a complex of musical means of expression is named as an integrity factor. A system analysis of every element of music language aimed to discover their inner correlation and semantic role is named as a necessary clause, allowing to form a solid image of musical language and musical art in general. The authors justify a necessity of optimization and intensification of musical-theoretical schooling on the basis of integrative links inside the subjects of musical-theoretical and musical-historical cycles.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):329-333
views
Development of foreign philological students’ pedagogical competences by the course «Professiogram of a Teacher of Russian as a Foreign Language»
Filippova O.V.
Abstract
The paper deals with the role of the discipline «Professiogram of a teacher of Russian as a foreign language» (variable part of Curriculum 45.03.01 Philology, major - «Teaching Russian as a foreign language») for the development of foreign philological students’ pedagogical competences. The demand for Russian philological education among foreign students is largely due to the desire to continue teaching. Federal state educational standard of higher education for Curriculum 45.03.01 Philology involves the development of a number of pedagogical competencies that are important for prospective teachers of Russian. To develop necessary competencies and to become a successful specialist it is necessary to get a set of knowledge and skills, culture and experience, which is the professiogram of the teacher of Russian as a foreign language. The paper also deals with the specifics of the academic discipline «Professiogram of a Teacher of Russian as a Foreign Language» and defines the conceptual content, principles and form of practical work. The basis of pedagogical competencies development is a complex of knowledge about requirements for professional activity and personality of the teacher, pedagogical abilities as well as components of pedagogical skills. The specificity of the discipline «Professiogram of a Teacher of Russian as a Foreign Language» is that it develops communicative personality of a prospective teacher. The paper contains examples of practice-oriented tasks.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(3):333-339
views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies