Samara Journal of Science

Samara Journal of Science was established in 2012. It is a quarterly scientific journal.

The authors of the journal are university academic staff, researchers, postgraduates, candidates for a doctor’s degree, senior students.

By the decision of Supreme Attestation Commission dated of 29.12.2015, the journal is listed in the Catalogue of peer-reviewed scientific publications, where the core scientific results of the candidate and doctoral theses must be published (link, №1992).

The journal is registered in the system “Russian Science Citation Index” (RSCI – eLIBRARY.RU).

The journal is registered in the system “CyberLeninka”.

The journal has professional, highly qualified editorial staff consisted of leading scientists (doctors of science, professors, academicians, correspondent members of Russian Academy of Sciences) – representatives of national and foreign institutions of higher education and scientific organizations.

Samara Journal of Science is an open scientific platform for all interested individuals and organizations, which enables authors to publish the results of their research in psychology and education as well as biological sciences, historical sciences and archeology. The journal promotes an exchange of views on various issues of pedagogy and psychology, biology, history, and archeology between researchers from different regions and countries.

Samara Journal of Science is published quarterly.

Scientific fields of Samara Journal of Science:
03.02.00 General biology
03.02.04 Zoology
03.02.05 Entomology
03.02.08 Ecology (biological sciences)
07.00.00 Historical sciences and archeology
07.00.02 Domestic history
07.00.03 World history
07.00.06 Archeology
07.00.07 Ethnography, ethnology and anthropology
07.00.09 Historiography, source studies and methods of historical research
13.00.00 Pedagogical sciences
13.00.01 General pedagogy, history of pedagogy and education
13.00.02 Theory and methodology of training and upbringing
13.00.08 Theory and methodology of professional education


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Current Issue

Vol 9, No 4 (2020)

General Biology
Development of polygynous colonies of Messor muticus ants in laboratory conditions
Arbuzov M.A., Chirkova E.N., Zavaleeva S.M., Sadykova N.N.

The process of growing a family of reaper ants Messor muticus (Nylander, 1849) in a test tube incubator according to the method proposed by G.M. Dlussky and M.P. Bukin (1986) considers its structure and principle of operation. The queens were captured during the flight and identified in accordance with the phylogenetic analysis of F. Steiner. The test ant colonies were divided into 3 experimental and one control groups. The main factors influencing the polygyny development of ant colonies, such as nest size and temperature are considered. The features of the destructive behavior of worker ants and their participation in the regulation of oviparous queens number in the family, as well as the influence of pheromone activity on the relationship between workers and reproductive individuals are described. The main goal of the experiment was to confirm the theory of the effect of nest size and temperature on the development of dimatological colonies of a species with a monogyny family structure. The experiment was carried out for 71 days, observations were recorded every week, the results were summed up on the 8th and 10th weeks of the experiment. The conclusion confirms the theoretical assumptions about the influence of temperature and the size of the primary nest on the development of polygynous colonies of reaper ants Messor muticus. The data obtained can serve as a basis for further study of polygyny in ant colonies, ants behavior in an unnatural habitat and the existence of ants under controlled conditions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):10-14
Species composition and distribution of birds in Nizhneangarsk airport and adjacent territories (Buryatia)
Badmaeva E.N., Dorzhiev T.Z., Sergeev S.V., Gulgenov S.Z., Maksarova D.D.

A study of the species composition of birds at the Nizhneangarsk airport (Northern Baikal, Buryatia) and the adjacent territories within a radius of 15 km was carried out. A wide variety of landscapes and biotopes determines a relatively rich species and ecological diversity of birds. 145 species were identified; the majority of them belong to the order of Passeriformes (41,3%), Charadriiformes (19,2%), Anseriformes (11,7%) and Falconiformes (6,3%), the share of other orders is small (no more than 4%). 39 bird species were recorded in the central area around the airport within a 2 km radius. The rock dove, waxwing, magpie, house and field sparrows are common among them. 144 bird species have been recorded in the area adjacent to the airport (radius 15 km). The largest concentration of wetland bird species is observed in the Verkhneangarsk sor (bay) of Lake Baikal. Cormorants, gulls and ducks are numerous here. Among the birds there are quite a few species that form large flocks and colonies, as well as species – feeding in the air and soaring high above the ground. Nizhneangarsk airport in terms of aircraft flight safety is located in an area of increased risk of collision with birds. This circumstance provides for strengthening the work of the ornithological service of this airport.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):15-22
Ecological and phytocoenotic features of the vegetation cover of the Beshpagir Heights (Stavropol Upland)
Belous V.N., Lykhvar A.V.

The authors have studied herbaceous communities in the steppe landscapes of the Beshpagir Heights and this paper presents the results of this study. The floristic and ecological structure of phytocoenoses on limestone outcrops of the parent rock is discussed. As a result of the research carried out in 2019–2020, 185 species of higher plants were identified in the modern flora of the studied steppes. There are descriptions of 16 accounting sites. A phytocoenotic table is presented, a characteristic of communities is given and their structure is described. The abundance of species and the distribution by relief elements and communities were determined by experts on the basis of field information. The features of communities and the reasons for their spatial differentiation are revealed. It has been suggested that the factors determining a diversity of steppe vegetation in the studied region should be the following ones: the degree of destruction of the parent rock and soil development, high insolation and low ecotope moisture. The steppe communities are distinguished by their species richness and are of significant conservation interest; they include such rare and endangered species as Psephellus annae, Stipa pulcherrima, S. pennata, Scabiosa isetensis, S. micrantha, Medicago cancellata, Astragalus bungeanus, A. pseudotataricus, A. calycinus, Iris pumila, I. notha, Erodium stevenii, Thymus daghestanicus, Gypsophila glomerata, Allium inaequale, etc. The authors have shown that the studied steppes are important for the preservation of the biological diversity of the region; habitats of rare species are of scientific importance. By this research the authors have tried to emphasize the regional specificity of the studied communities, due to the geographical, ecological-coenotic and historical features. The results obtained will make it possible to assess the real phytocoenotic diversity of the steppe complex of the region, as well as to update further work on the inventory and monographic generalization of vegetation materials of the Stavropol territory. The typology of steppe vegetation can be detailed in further work.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):23-33
Epiphytic myxomycetes on the bark of Salix and Populus in the southeast of Western Siberia
Vlasenko A.V.

The diversity of epiphytic myxomycetes developing on the bark of aspen and willow in the southeast of Western Siberia was studied. In the study area, aspens and willows most often dominate in intrazonal communities: in floodplains, ravines and gullies. Myxomycetes of the epiphytic complex were identified using two complementary methods: collecting fruiting bodies in the field and isolation in laboratory conditions on natural substrates (bark of living trees) using the «moist chambers» method. A total of 505 samples of myxomycetes were analyzed, where a sample is a specific group of myxomycetes formed from a single plasmodium. 64 species of myxomycetes were identified in the «moist chambers» and 8 species in the field. Despite the fact that the bark of the aspen and willow has very similar values of acidity (pH), the taxonomic composition of myxomycetes living on these trees varies greatly. As a result 72 species of myxomycetes were recorded on the bark of the aspen and willow in the southeast of Western Siberia – on the willow bark only there were 51 species, on the aspen bark only there were 10 species, on the bark of both trees there were 10 species.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):34-38
Substrate specialization and distribution of fungi of the genus Trametes in the southeast of Western Siberia
Vlasenko V.A.

The authors have studied the features of the substrate specificity of fungi of the genus Trametes s.l. in the southeast of Western Siberia, where this taxon has 10 species. Most species of fungi have a wide substrate spectrum, represented by the wood of various types of woody plants. Fungal species with a wide distribution and a high frequency of occurrence develop a wide range of substrates. Fungal species that are rare and common only in some localities are not numerous; they are characterized by a narrow substrate spectrum. Most species of fungi develop on hardwood, but only a few species can grow on coniferous wood in mountainous areas. Fungal substrates are represented by wood of sixteen species of angiosperms and one species of gymnosperms of woody plants. These ten species of fungi of the Trametes genus have been identified in natural plant communities in the southeast of Western Siberia, while only eight species have been found in anthropogenic habitats. The largest number of fungal species develops on large-sized tree species found in plant communities that are common in the studied region. The number of species of wood-decay fungi on shrubs is insignificant. A small range of species of wood-decay fungi is typical of introduced species (Linden, Oak, Manchurian Walnut, Apple, Ash, Mulberry) growing in urban plantings and in Botanical gardens. Species of fungi with a wide ecological amplitude can develop on the wood of introduced plants.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):39-42
Synonyms of the species Coprophilus (Zonyptilus) solskyi Bernhauer, 1908 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Oxytelinae)
Gildenkov M.Y.

The paper discusses the synonymy of the species Coprophilus (Zonyptilus) solskyi Bernhauer, 1908. In 1991, Toth described a new species Coprophilus (Zonyptilus) drugmandi by a single specimen from Dobrudja. In this work he also gives redescriptions of the following species: Coprophilus bimaculatus Luze, 1904; C. longicornis Bernhauer, 1903; C. pentatoma Fauvel, 1897 and C. solskyi Bernhauer, 1908. Toth illustrates the detailed characteristics of these species with drawings of the aedeagus, antennae, and pronotal contours. Despite the serious differences in the structure of the aedeagus and antennae illustrated by Toth, it should be noted that when studying the holotype of C. longicornis and the lectotypes of C. bimaculatus and C. pentatoma, we did not reveal any differences in the structure of these species and they were synonymized. Later, Toth described another new species from Azerbaijan, Coprophilus (Zonyptilus) fauveli Tóth, 1992. When describing C. fauveli, in addition to the structure of the aedeagus, Toth considered a brown spot in the scutellum and a shiny clypeus as the key features that distinguish this species from C. solskyi and a shiny clypeus as a distinctive feature from C. drugmandi. Toth considered the structure of the clypeus a significant feature – as for C. solskyi and C. drugmandi it is opaque, as for C. pentatoma, C. bimaculatus, C. longicornis and C. fauveli it is shiny. The study of type materials for C. pentatoma, C. bimaculatus, C. longicornis, C. solskyi and C. fauveli showed that they all has a shiny clypeus without signs of shagreening and opacity. The holotype of C. fauveli does not have a pronounced brown spot in the scutellum region, which contradicts Toth’s description; there are also no differences between C. fauveli and C. solskyi in the structure of the aedeagus – these species were synonymized. Considering that the differences in the structure of the aedeagus of C. pentatoma, C. bimaculatus, and C. longicornis cited by Toth, as well as the differences in the structure of the aedeagus between C. solskyi and C. fauveli, have not been confirmed, the only feature that distinguishes C. drugmandi from C. solskyi should be considered as having a brown spot in the scutellum region. However, the specimens of C. solskyi studied by us also have such a spot. Thus, considering the study of the features set out in the descriptions of C. solskyi, C. fauveli and C. drugmandi, as well as materials for the species C. solskyi, including the types, we consider it reasonable to establish the synonymy: Coprophilus (Zonyptilus) solskyi Bernhauer, 1908 = Coprophilus (Zonyptilus) drugmandi Tóth, 1991, syn. n.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):43-48
Some parameters of mesoclimates that determine altitude differentiation of forest formations on the Belyagush Ridge (South Ural Reserve)
Gorichev Y.P.

The paper presents the results of studies of forest biogeocenoses on the Belyagush ridge. The analysis of materials was carried out in order to establish the boundaries of the high-altitude distribution of forest formations on the slopes of the Belyagush ridge, to determine the mesoclimatic parameters of ecotopes occupied by the formations, to clarify the presence and extent of temperature inversions. Forest test plots, the absolute heights of which were established, were used as markers of the height boundaries of the formations. Based on these data, the high-altitude strip of deciduous forests, marked with 7 test plots, occupies an altitude interval from 436 to 512 m above sea level, a strip of subnemoral broad-leaved-dark coniferous forests, marked with 10 test plots, occupies an altitude interval from 520 to 650 m on the western slope and an interval of 596–630 m above sea level on the eastern slope. The belt of ridge dark coniferous forests is marked with 1 trial plot located at an altitude of 830 m above sea level. The analyzed data of 4-year microclimatic observations indicate significant differences in the thermal regimes of ecotopes occupied by associations of deciduous and dark coniferous forests, comparable to latitudinal gradients. A comparative analysis of January amplitudes of the minimum daily temperatures on 3 sample plots located on an altitude profile extending from the Revet River valley through the middle part of the eastern slope to the top of the Belyagush ridge revealed frequent temperature inversions in winter. Over the observation period in January, inversions at the altitude segment of 470–605 m were observed from 14 to 24 days, on the segment 605–830 m – from 7 to 14 days, while the maximum positive vertical temperature gradients in these segments reached from +8,5°C/100 m to +8,9°C/100 m and from +1,3°C/100 m to +2,7°C/100 m.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):49-52
The nesting ecology and postembryonic development of the Baikal white wagtail Motacilla alba baicalensis
Dorzhiev T.Z., Saaya A.T.

The goal of the paper is to identify the features of the breeding ecology of the Motacilla alba baicalensis in the Baikal region and Transbaikalia. The nesting ecology study deliverable of the Motacilla alba baicalensis in the Baikal region and Transbaikalia showed that this subspecies, unlike other forms, is more synanthropic, more than 95% of populations live in localities and other anthropogenic habitats, and only 2–3% of populations inhabit natural biotopes. At the same time, the Motacilla alba baicalensis in the region prefers small rural settlements and livestock camps in open landscapes near reservoirs. When the Motacilla alba baicalensis builds nests, like other subspecies, it is quite plastic and easily finds shelter in various anthropogenic and natural biotopes. The higher nesting efficiency of this subspecies indicates its wide opportunities to develop anthropogenic landscapes. Due to the short favorable nesting period, most pairs manage to hatch chicks once, but only a small number of pairs manage to raise chicks twice a season. A comparison of the nesting ecology of the Motacilla alba baicalensis with other forms of the Northern Eurasian species did not reveal any fundamental differences. The differences relate to the phenology of different stages of the breeding season, as well as the timing of arrival and departure of birds.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):53-57
A comparative evaluation of the fluctuating asymmetry of the leaf blade Betula pendula Roth for different methods of plant material fixation
Zhuikova T.V., Popova A.S., Meling E.V.

The influence of plant material fixation methods on the index of fluctuating asymmetry of Betula pendula Roth leaves is determined. The methods used were herbarization under pressure and leaves fixation in a solution of ethyl alcohol (45%). Biological material was collected in natural phytocenoses of the Pritalskaya zone of the Middle Urals and in technogenically formed territories, including soil contamination with heavy metals. The FA level of Betula pendula Roth leaf blades obtained on freshly harvested material increases in the gradient of toxic load and reflects a natural increase in soil contamination with heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, etc.). The smallest deviation from the actual FA values obtained on freshly harvested material is given by a method of herbarization of leaves. The correlation coefficients are 0,94–0,99. Plant material fixation in an alcohol solution leads to more than 10-fold deviation of FA values from the real ones. The correlation between the studied morphological parameters of fresh and alcoholic leaf blades is 0,17–0,70. The signs «distance between the bases of the first and second veins of the second order from the base of the leaf» and «angle between the main vein and the second vein of the second order from the base of the leaf» are more distorted. Correction coefficients are proposed that allow to level out the differences in the FA level between the results obtained on freshly collected material and recorded by different methods. For the herbarization method, regardless of where the plant material is collected, the correction factor to be entered for the FA values of the fixed leaf blades is (–) 0,0004. For the method of leaves fixation in an alcohol solution, the coefficient value is (–) 0,00075 for material collected in undisturbed communities, and (+) 0,0045 for technogenically disturbed communities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):58-65
Variability of leaf blade characters of some microspecies from Alchemilla L. (Rosaceae) in nature coenopopulations and culture on the territory of Mari El Republic
Zhukova O.V.

The genus Alchemilla L. is one of the largest in angiosperm. This paper deals with variability of leaf blade characters of some microspecies from Alchemilla L. genus. The studies were conducted in 3 natural regions on the territory of Mari El Republic and in culture. A consensus configuration of leaf blade for A. acutiloba Opiz, A. gracilis Opiz, A. monticola Opiz, A. sarmatica Juz., A. schistophylla Juz., A. substrigosa Juz. was obtained by a geometric morphometrics method. The variability of the leaf blade shape for A. acutiloba, A. gracilis, A. sarmatica in natural cenopopulation was described. The study has shown that the size and shape of leaf blade for A. gracilis in ecologically contrasting conditions differ. The size of leaf blade for A. substrigosa differs in conditions with some differences in the ecological characteristics of soils, the shape – does not differ. According to a discriminant analysis based on a complex of morphometric characters of leaf blades for microspecies A. litwinowii, A. monticola, A. substrigosa in meadow plant community are classified with an accuracy of about 80%. A similar classification result of leaf blades for A. acutiloba, A. gracilis, A. hirsuticaulis in culture was revealed. Leaf blades for different microspecies form distinct, but overlapping «clouds» in the plane of discriminant functions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):66-71
The assessment of the status of the rare species from the family Ranunculaceae in Samara Region taking into account the coenopopulation characteristics
Ilina V.N., Senator S.A.

The paper studies a spatial ontogenetic structure of natural coenopopulations of ten species from the family Ranunculaceae: Adonanthe vernalis (L.) Spach, A. volgensis (Steven ex DC.) Chrtek et Slavíková, Anemonoides altaica (C.A. Mey.) Holub, A. × korshinskyi Saksonov et Rakov, Clematis integrifolia L., Delphinium subcuneatum Tzvelev, Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., Ranunculus polyphyllus Waldst. et Kit. ex Willd., R. polyrhizos Stephan and Trollius europaeus L., growing in Samara Region and listed in the regional Red Data Book. It was revealed that the demographic indicators of the studied species populations have low values, indicating their weak ability to maintain and increase the number. The highest capacity for self-healing and self-maintenance is typical for Trollius europaeus, Anemonoides × korshinskyi, Adonanthe vernalis, A. volgensis, Anemonoides altaica, the lowest – for Clematis integrifolia, Pulsatilla patens, Ranunculus polyrphyllus and R. polyrhizos for most species, with an increase in anthropogenic load on habitats, the indices of replacement and recovery of coenopopulations decrease by 25–50%, with the exception of Ranunculus polyphyllus, in which these indices increase by about five times. The features of the spatial ontogenetic structure of populations were used to assess their current state according to the criteria and categories of the IUCN Red List. The most vulnerable at the regional level were the endemic species Anemonoides × korshinskyi and Delphinium subcuneatum, as well as Ranunculus polyphyllus and R. polyrhizos (category CR – critically endangered). Anemonoides altaica and Clematis integrifolia correspond to the EN category – endangered. Vulnerable species (category VU) include Trollius europaeus. Adonanthe vernalis, A. volgensis and Pulsatilla patens ranked in the LC category of least concern.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):72-79
Features of ecosystem services supply by agroecosystems of the Samara Region gardens
Kavelenova L.M., Petrova A.B., Antipenko M.I., Minin A.N.

The concept of ecosystem services, which has been developed over the past 20 years in foreign and native scientific literature, is to a different extent specified in relation to various types of ecosystems. A relatively new approach is its application to orchards as important components of human agricultural activity. The ecosystem functions they perform as regards to the volume and implementation effectiveness depend on the regional soil and climatic conditions and the technologies used. For the Samara Region, this problem is considered for the first time. Trends associated with the dynamics of the fruit and berry plantations area in the Russian Federation are discussed, including general indicators decrease simultaneously with the intensive orchards growth. At present, the Samara Region is significantly ahead of neighboring regions in the gardens area, with their minimum area in the Ulyanovsk Region. Other territorial units belonging to the Middle Volga horticultural province of the Saratov Region such as republics of Tatarstan, Bashkortostan possess significant areas occupied by the gardens. In addition to large horticultural farms, the cultivation of fruit crops in the Samara Region is widespread among the local population. Horticultural agrocenoses of industrial and individual kinds, participating in the implementation of ecosystem services do it differently not only because of their different area scale. The authors explain this provision with examples related to specific groups of ecosystem services. The main target ecosystem service, growing of fruits, in terms of assortment and volume in the Samara Region is supplied to a greater extent at the expense of the individual orchards of the population. Agrotechnical features, implying large-scale treatment of industrial gardens with chemicals, pose a greater risk of environmental pollution. A greater variety of cultivated crops, varieties and organisms trophically associated with them as well as less intensive chemicalization level provide the gardens of the population with a leading position in the conservation of biological diversity, both natural and cultivated.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):80-86
Ecological-floristic characteristics of the specially protected natural area «Kostinskie Loga» (Samara Region)
Kuzovenko O.A., Samotueva Y.A.

The paper considers ecological-floristic characteristics of the specially protected natural area «Kostinskie Loga», located in the southern part of the Samara Region (Bolshechernigovsky and Bolsheglushitsky Districts). The research area belongs to the subzone of fescue-feather grass steppes. The flora is represented by 240 species of vascular plants belonging to 160 genera, 49 families, 2 classes and 1 division. Ecological-cenotic analysis was used to assess the ecosystem diversity of the nature sanctuary. The leading groups for phytocenotic affinity are identified: steppe (65 species; 27,1%) and meadow-steppe (54 species; 22,5%), which indicates a good preservation of steppe biomes and demonstrates landscape features of the nature sanctuary. The low value of the synanthropization index (15,8%) reflects a moderate level of anthropogenic load. The adventive component of the flora is represented by 30 plant species (12,5%), among which the degree of naturalization is dominated by epecophytes (10,8%), the time of introduction – by neophytes (6,7%), the methods of introduction are dominated by xenophytes (27 species; 11,3%). The analysis of flora identified 6 species included in the «Black book of Central Russia» (Acer negundo, Atriplex tatarica, Cyclachaena xanthiifolia, Hordeum jubatum, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Xanthium albinum). The introduction of alien plants into natural communities occurs due to pasture digression in areas bordering the territory of the nature sanctuary. In general, the degree of anthropogenic transformation of the flora in most of the territory is expressed slightly, the vegetation cover retains natural features inherent in the steppe zone. A high degree of preservation of steppe communities with a significant participation of rare representatives of flora (14,6%) creates prerequisites for the organization of one of the steppe reserve sections of the Samara Region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):87-92
The limiting factors for the snow leopard (Panthera uncia Shreber, 1776) on the territory of Tuva
Kuksin A.N.

The paper presents the influence of limiting factors for the population of the snow leopard on the territory of Tuva (Republic of Tuva, Russia). It describes biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic factors to irbis. The author examines the role and degree of each factor of this influence. The paper represents literature sources and the author’s field research work data for the period 2001–2019. The study was carried out on the territory of the Chikhacheva, Tsagan-Shibetu, Shapshalskiy Ranges and Sangilen Highlands, that are permanent habitats for the snow leopard. On the studied territories the anthropogenic influence such as hunting, extension of highways, cattle farms and the number of livestock increases in the high mountain ecosystems. All this leads to an increase of disturbance factor, a displacement from traditional habitats of wild animals, especially the irbis food items, so it is forcing the snow leopard to rely more on livestock for food. As a result the cattle breeders sometimes kill snow leopards in retaliation for attacking their livestock. The paper demonstrates data of all known incidents of the snow leopard death and finds of cadavers within the studied region which shows that 74% of all incidents are the fault of people for destroying this rare animal. So it proves that the anthropogenic factor plays a leading role in the death of snow leopard among others.

Keywords: irbis; snow leopard; ecology; Tuva; Republic of Tuva; limiting factors; biotic factors; abiotic factors; anthropogenic factors; disturbance factor; causes of death of irbis; diseases of irbis; competitors of irbis; snow leopard attacks on livestock.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):93-98
Microbiological monitoring of the production environment at the Birsk Dairy Plant
Maltseva O.N., Islamova A.A.

This paper discusses the state of the production environment at the Birsk dairy plant. Milk and dairy products are one of the main human food products, and should be safe for microbiological indicators. Monitoring of the production environment was carried out to prevent secondary contamination of food with pathogenic microflora. The main methods of microbiological control in the production of dairy products that were used for the study are described. The paper presents the results of the sanitary and hygienic state of the air environment and drinking water of centralized water supply. Microbiological industrial monitoring of air and drinking water was carried out 4 times a year in the period from November 15 2019 to July 9 2020. 6 production facilities were selected for the study. During monitoring, microbiological parameters of the air environment were determined: NMAFAM (the number of mesophilic anaerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms), mold fungi and yeast. Microbiological parameters were determined in drinking water: total microbial number, total coliform bacteria, and thermotolerant coliform bacteria. The results of the analysis showed that the state of the production environment complies with all established norms and rules, and it is safe to produce dairy products in these conditions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):99-103
Influence of growing conditions on the content of Pentaphylloides fruticosa flavonoids during introduction and in nature in the European North
Miftakhova S.A.

The paper studies the content of culture and wild samples of flavonoids Pentaphylloides fruticosa (L.) O. Schwarz in the European North. On the territory of the Komi Republic P. fruticosa requires conservation measures. The species is used as an ornamental, medicinal, food, honey and forage plant. When determining the pool of flavonoids of vegetative parts of one-year shoots in the flowering phase, it was found that they were significantly higher in wild samples than in introduced ones. This suggests that geographical growing conditions should influence the amount of flavonoids. The difference in the amount of flavonoids in the flowers between the wild and introduction of the samples was found. There were no significant differences between the introduced samples in the leafing phase and in the flowering phase. In the phase of mass fruiting the amount of flavonoids was significantly higher in sample № 1, due to their different ecological and geographical origin. It is advisable to introduce the culture of these natural samples that grow in the northernmost location in Europe, which can be a promising source of raw flavonoids and their further study in new growing conditions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):104-108
Ecological and coenotic groups of Orenburg Region vascular plants flora and biotopes phytoindication
Nazarenko N.N., Pohlebaev S.M., Malaev A.V., Tretyakova I.A., Khodzhayev A.K.

The expert and statistical assessment of ecological and coenotic groups of Orenburg Region vascular plants flora has been done for A.L. Bel’gards coenomorphs scheme and scheme of vascular plants flora of temperate forest zone of European Russia. The regimes of principal ecological factors have identified for detected groups of flora. Both suggested schemes of groups give adequate and similar assessment of biotopes, proposed groups of Orenburg Region vascular plants flora are identified in phytometer scales space definitely and its groups can used for regional assessment of biotopes. It has been established, that steppe coenomorph has extensive coenotic amplitude in Orenburg Region conditions and make petrophilic, chasmophilic, mountain and semi-desert vegetation elements also. Sylvant coenomorph has formed boreal and nemoral sciophytes and heliosciophytes and coenotic group of semiarid steppe forests has not specific biotopic and coenotic value. Pratal coenomorph has been made up humidity-meadow flora, dry-meadow coenotic group is not specific. For Orenburg Region is recommends using unite pratal (meadow) and paludal coenomorphs and separation coenotic group of oligotrophic bogs and ruderal coenomorph, the separation of mountain coenotic group is not confirmed statistical. The best assessment of ecological flora of region are realize by combined coenomorphs and coenotic group schemes approach at the same time. It has been established methodical problems of statistical methods using by phytoindication, problems of «transitional» coenotic groups and problem of wood species assessment in phytometer scales, which are require further researches.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):109-120
Complex composts influence on the growth and dynamics of vermiculture number
Nakonechniy N.V., Ibragimova D.V.

The paper examines the influence of complex composts from waste water residues and brewer’s grains on the growth dynamics of Eisenia foetida vermiculture in greenhouse conditions as a regional aspect of sustainable development of the Ugra territory. The substrates were used: soil with a total humus content of 1,83 ± 0,51%, waste water residues, brewer’s pellet, plants, food waste, paper, bird droppings, microbiological additive «Tamir», as well as 50 immature worms «Prospector». The experience lasted 30 days. Each compost variant contained 7 replications with microbiological additive «Tamir» and worms, as well as 2 controls without worms: with and without microbiological additive «Tamir». Composite composts showed a positive trend in the increase in the number of earthworms and their total weight. A decrease in the mass of the substrate after vermicomposting using the microbiological preparation «Tamir» was observed in all variants. A statistically regular decrease in the mass of the substrate with time was established due to the growth of worms. The optimum temperature for the development of worms is +21°C, and the pH values at which a high number of worms were observed are in the range from 7,8 to 8,2. Thus, all types of complex composts can be used. The process of decomposition and positive dynamics of growth of worms was observed everywhere at different rates. The use of brewer’s grains in a raw state is possible with the introduction of 10–25% of the total mass of the compostable substrate with organic components having a sorption capacity.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):121-124
The investigation of oil microbocenosis influence on the corrosion process of pipe steel
Nesterova E.V., Borisenkova E.A., Prokhorova N.V.

The paper presents the results of model laboratory experiments carried out to assess the influence of oil microbocenosis bacteria on the corrosion process on the internal surfaces of oil pipelines made of steel 17G1S. It is known that the bacteria of this group most often include hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria (HOB), sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), sulfur-oxidizing, or thionic (TB) and iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB). In model experiments with 17G1S steel samples alloyed with 1% manganese we used corrosion-hazardous bacteria of the genera Desulfotomaculum, Paracoccus, Pseudomonas and Sphaerotilus, isolated from a damaged section of an oil pipeline at a field in the northern part of the Samara Region. In the initial phase of the experiment, the titer of the analyzed bacteria was quite high (SRB – 10⁴–10⁵, TB – 10³–10⁴ cells/cm³), but by the end of the experiment, only sulfate-reducing bacteria with quantitative characteristics of 1–10 cells/cm³ were isolated from the culture liquid, may be due to the high adhesion capacity of mass cultures of the bacteria. On the surface of the steel samples the method of electron microscopy revealed unevenly distributed loose deposits, but the cells of the bacteria themselves were not visible in them. The morphological features of the revealed corrosion deposits indicated their bacterial origin, which was also confirmed by biochemical analysis of corrosion products suspension, in particular, by revealing a high mass concentration of sulfides, protein, and the dehydrogenase. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiological interactions occurring in the oil microbocenosis on the internal surfaces of pipelines have been experimentally confirmed and are in good agreement with the data of other researchers. It has been established that the main role in the corrosion destruction steel samples belongs to SRB, whose participation can be carried out according to two main mechanisms: hydrogen cracking and anodic dissolution of iron. Pits and through holes are formed on the steel surface, and the local corrosion rate can approaches 7,3 mm/year. The experiments proved the active role of oil microbocenoses, the basis of the microbiont of which consists of four bacteria, in the rapid destruction of oil pipelines in the Samara Region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):125-131
Variability of morphometric characters and sexual dimorphism of Galeodes araneoides (Pallas, 1772) (Arachnida, Solifugae, Galeodidae) in Eastern Transcaucasia
Novruzov N.E.

Using 20 morphometric characteristics and 6 indices, the variability and sexual dimorphism of the camel-spider Galeodes araneoides (Pallas, 1772) from 10 regions of Azerbaijan were studied. The species and sex of the individuals were determined taking into account the key diagnostic features and comparison with the identified materials from the collection fund of the Institute of Zoology of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. The variability of the general dimensions of the body and its individual parts (a total of 14 signs) was revealed. It was found that sexual dimorphism, manifested by 9 traits and 3 indices, is expressed to varying degrees in individuals from different regions: less pronounced – in mid-mountainous and low-mountainous regions; more pronounced – in foothill, plain and low-lying regions. The analysis of interpopulation variability of morphometric characters did not reveal clear geographical patterns: among representatives of both sexes, significant differences in the complex of characters were observed between individuals of samples located in relative proximity to each other, while individuals from distant samples were morphologically more similar. The manifestation of the variability of morphometric characters and sexual dimorphism is presumably less connected with the geographical features of the regions, and more connected with the existing ecological conditions. The variability of morphometric characters among individuals of the studied populations indicates a high ecological plasticity and a significant adaptive potential of the species.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):132-141
Morphological features of the plant Pyrethrum majus (Desf.) Tzvel. and variability of the component composition of essential oil during introduction in the North-East of the European part of Russia
Portnyagina N.V., Punegov V.V., Echishvili E.E., Fomina M.G., Gruzdev I.V.

The paper presents the results of the research on the growth, development, and biochemical evaluation of introduced Pyrethrum majus plants in the middle taiga subzone of the Komi Republic. It is established that in the conditions of culture the species is characterized by a high stability and winter hardiness. The phenology and dynamics of plant growth were studied. Morphological parameters of vegetative and generative shoots were determined. The yield of essential oil from the aboveground phytomass of P. majus and its component composition were studied. It was found that the content of essential oil of flowering plants varied over the years of research from 0,25 to 1,41% and depended on the weather conditions of the growing season. More than 190 components were found in the essential oil of P. majus plants using the method of GLC analysis, 48 of them were identified. The main terpenoids in the essential oil were S-(+) carvone (54–65%), α-tuyon (6–10%), TRANS-and CIS-p-Menta-2,8-dienols (2,3–2,8%), 1,8-Cineol (1,4–2,9%), CIS – Menta-1(7)8-Dien-2ol (1,5–2,1%), germacrene d (1,2–1,8%) α-cadinol (0,5–1,5%), γ-muurolol (0,2–2,6%). It was found that the component composition of the essential oil from perennial plants P. majus corresponds to the carvone-Tuyon chemotype and did not change significantly due to the meteorological conditions of the environment. Taking into account a high adaptation of plants of this species to the conditions of the middle taiga subzone of the Komi Republic, high indicators of aboveground phytomass with a sufficient content of essential oil, P. majus can be successfully cultivated in the North as a promising spicy-aromatic medicinal and ornamental plant.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):142-148
Relict pine forests with Arctostaphylos uva-ursi in the Zhiguli Mountains (the Middle Volga Region)
Saksonov S.V., Bondareva V.V., Vasjukov V.M., Keller S.A.

The pine mountain forest with bearberry is a rare, relict and endangered phytocoenosis in the Middle Volga (Samara Region; Stavropol District). At present, they are distributed in a limited way and only in the area of the Zhigulevsky State Natural Biosphere Reserve named after I.I. Sprygin. On this territory, geobotanical relevés of plots with bearberry were performed. The ecological-phytocenotic and floristic characteristics of the phytocenosis from the position of Braun-Blanquet are given. Ecotopes are located on slopes of different steepness of the western and north-western exposure. The plant community forms several layers. The species composition is not rich. The dominant species are Pinus cretacea Kalen., Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng., Carex pediformis C.A. Mey., Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce, Rhaponticoides ruthenica (Lam.) M.V. Agab. et Greuter, Asperula tinctoria L. Rare species: Arctostaphilos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng., Astragalus zingeri Korsh., Euphorbia zhiguliensis (Prokh.) Prokh., Gypsophila juzepczukii Ikonn., Helianthemum nummularium Mill., Koeleria sclerophylla P.A. Smirn., Pulsatilla patens Mill., Thymus zheguliensis Klokov et Des.-Shost., that are listed in the Red Book of the Samara Region. In recent years, pine forests with bearberry have suffered greatly from fires and are in the stage of degradation. The uniqueness and relict nature of the bearberry phytocenoses in the Zhiguli Mountains requires their preservation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):149-152
The assessment of field resistance to scab and winter resistance of columnar apple trees in the Samara Region
Sobolev G.I., Chernyshkov V.V., Saksonov S.S.

The research was conducted from 2006 to 2019 in the garden of Research Institute of Horticulture and Medicinal Plants «Zhigulevskie Sady» in the village of Malaya Tsarevshchina of Krasnoyarsk District of the Samara Region on 14 (0,432 ha), 43 (0,1 ha), 44 (0,05 ha) and 47 (6,8 ha) areas. On the 14th area, to accelerate flowering, fruiting, pollen collection and hybridization, in the springs of 2007, 2009 and 2012, parent varieties-donors of immunity were grafted to scab of domestic and foreign selection in the crown of young fruit-bearing trees of the Northern synapsis. Hybrid seeds obtained by crossing these varieties with local varieties were sown on the seedling plot (in a new plantation) and tested for scab resistance at an early age (from 2 years old). Scab-resistant hybrids were culled, and resistant hybrids were replanted in the breeding garden on the 47th area and tested for winter resistance separately after low-temperature stress in the freezer and in the field. The authors have identified columnar elites resistant to scab, which are superior in winter resistance to the local zoned coastal variety Kutuzovets, zoned variety Northern synapsis and common Antonovka. Apple trees with a columnar crown type of local selection in Research Institute of Horticulture and Medicinal Plants «Zhigulevskie Sady» with a high field resistance to scab, immunity, winter resistance and other varietal advantages will contribute to the improvement of orchards (amateur, farm, industrial) and import substitution of fruit products in the Samara Region of Russia.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):153-158
Environmental factors influence on leeches distribution in the middle reaches of the Irtysh River
Fedorova L.I.

The Irtysh River is a transboundary watercourse that exhibits a wide range of climatic conditions, environments and ecological niches. As a result of the technogenic impact of industrial enterprises on surface and underground waters – all the main tributaries of the middle reaches of the river Irtysh are in different degrees of pollution. Due to the impact of sewage and other wastes from the mining and metallurgical industry, in the waters of the river basin Irtysh the concentration excess of a number of toxic metals is observed. Among the invertebrates used to assess the state of natural waters, representatives of the Annelida type are often used. Since annelids are among the most common organisms on Earth, this makes it possible to study them in many regions and to assess the specificity of the impact and compare the impact of various pollutants in similar natural and climatic zones. It is known that the distribution of freshwater leeches is largely determined by natural and climatic conditions, landscape characteristics and the specifics of trophic connections, etc. In this case, the most important parameters are the physicochemical properties of water. This paper provides information on the factors influencing the species composition and structural indicators of leech communities living in the middle reaches of the Irtysh River.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):159-164
The integrated assessment of socio-ecological tension in urbanized territories
Khasanova R.F., Suyundukov Y.T., Semenova I.N., Rafikova Y.S., Suyundukova M.B., Ilbulova G.R.

The paper examines environmental problems of a city with a developed mining industry. Their influence on social stability, public health and demography, labor activity, migration, etc. was revealed. The methodology for assessing social and ecological tension for the city of Sibay in the Republic of Bashkortostan was tested, based on the approaches developed by I.A. Sosunova for the regions of Russia. The main materials for calculating the socio-ecological tension of the city were data from the analysis of information on the socio-economic and ecological state of the territory, conducting a sociological survey of the population, as well as assessing the ecological and geochemical state of the environment by a set of ecological indicators. All indicators were assessed using five-point scales. The final indicator was the index of social and ecological tension, which was determined by dividing the sum of points for the indicators under consideration by their number. As a result of a comprehensive analysis, it was revealed that the socio-ecological tension of the city of Sibay includes: Gorny (3,7) – Yuzhny (3,2) – Center (2,7) – Gold (2,6) – Eastern (2,4) – Fisherman’s House (2,3) – Arkaim (1,6). The use of the category of socio-ecological tension in the proposed interpretation makes it possible to identify sociological problems of behavior and society. The results of the study are recommended to be used for a comprehensive analysis of indicators for monitoring urbanized territories of a mining region, which determine its environmental safety and sustainable development, ranking the territory as well as a set of economically justified measures to include them in the programs of strategic development of the region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):165-171
Structure and ecological features of the Yeravninsky steppes flora (Western Transbaikalia)
Kholboeva S.A., Banaeva S.C.

The paper is devoted to the characteristics of the floristic diversity of steppe vegetation in the southern part of the Vitim plateau in Yeravninskaya and Uldurginskaya basins. There is a southern border of the permafrost. The flora of the steppes is characterized by a depleted composition in comparison with the steppes of the Selenga middle mountains. Some widespread plant species of the true steppes of the Central Asia are absent here. The basis of the ecological and phytocoenotic structure is the steppe group, which is dominated by mountain and forest-steppe plant species. There is less participation of the true steppe species; this fact indicates an insular nature of these steppes. A group of light-coniferous species is significant; they are the part of the cryoarid forest-steppe complexes of the Vitim plateau. In the ecological structure of the flora xeromesophyte and gemixerophyte species dominate. They have the most important coenotic role in the formation of the vegetation cover of these steppes. The cereals species are of high coenotic significance, there are indicators of the dry bunchgrass steppes of Southern Siberia (Poa botryoides (Trin. ex Griseb.) Roshev., Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn., Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers.). The role of mesoxerophytic of East Asian and Daurian-Manchurian species is also high (Filifolium sibiricum (L.) Kitam., Stellera chamaejasme L., Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd.). They are typical for meadow steppes of the Central Asian sector of the Palearctic.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):172-176
The investigation of ground beetles shape (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and its relationship to the species structure of vegetation in a mixed forest (by the example of the Pustynsky sanctuary, Nizhny Novgorod Region)
Chueva A.V., Isaykin N.A., Zryanin V.A., Yakimov V.N.

This paper is devoted to the investigation of the relationship between the body shape of the imago of ground beetles and the structure of vegetation layers in the mixed boreal forest located in the State Natural Biological Sanctuary «Pustynsky», Nizhny Novgorod Region. The materials were collected in the July 2019. 23 sampling sites were established. Vegetation was described at each site and ground beetles were sampled. Representatives of 8 carabid genera were found (Amara, Calathus, Carabus, Cymindis, Harpalus, Notiophilus, Pterostichus, Synuchus). Ground beetles shape analysis was carried out with methods of geometric morphometry. As a result of the analysis, a morphospace was formed. The analysis of shape variability was carried out, which showed that interspecific variability prevailed over intraspecific variability. The relationship between ground beetles shape and species structure of vegetation layers was carried out with a multivariate redundancy analysis. We did not find statistically significant influence of the structure of tree and shrub layers on ground beetles shape, but found the impact of the herb layer. A more heterogeneous herbaceous layer is preferred by species with a body shape characteristic of zoophages, and simplification of the structure of herbaceous vegetation leads to the prevailing of mixophytophages shape.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):177-183
The use of Landsat 8 remote sensing data for assessing the temperature conditions of the Larus ridibundus L. habitat
Shurakov S.A., Chashchin A.N.

This paper discusses the possibilities of using Landsat 8 remote sensing data for assessing the temperature conditions of aquatic landscapes when studying the abundance and density of gulls. The study of the ornithological situation was carried out on the territory of the Perm international airport of the Perm Region, where the black-headed gull is an unfavorable factor in the safety of passenger aircraft flights. Within the boundaries of the region, 5 reservoirs were identified. A method for calculating the surface temperature from a multispectral satellite image of the Landsat 8 series is described in detail with the presentation of primary data sources, atmospheric parameters and obtaining raster coverage with a resolution of 30 meters per pixel. The tool used for the calculation is the Land Surface Temperature module of the QGIS software. The paper presents maps of temperature within the area of conducted ornithological surveys and the density of gulls. The densities of birds for individual bodies of water are calculated using the Spatial Analyst module of the ArcGIS program with the «kernel density» tool. According to the research results, a close correlation was established between the attractiveness of reservoirs for gulls and water temperature. The correlation coefficients were 0,83 and 0,71, respectively, with the abundance and density of gulls.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):184-191
The state of the rare endemic species population Nonea decurrens (C.A. Mey.) G. Don fil. (fam. Boraginaceae, Magnoliopsida) on the Narattyubinsky ridge and its dynamics
Yarovenko E.V., Gasanova A.M.

The paper presents a four-year study results of a rare Dagestan endemic Nonea decurrens (C.A. Mey.) G. Don fil. сoenopopulation state on the Narattyubinsky ridge (Foothill Dagestan). An irregular distribution on the study area was found with confinement mainly to shrub communities. The degree of morphometric characters variability of the vegetative and generative spheres of Nonea decurrens in the two coenopopulations studied varies both between sites and research years. The maximum values of biometric indicators were noted in different years for site 2. 2013 was the most favorable period for the vegetative sphere development, while higher values in general were found in 2012. The calculated vitality data of the studied coenopopulations revealed their depressive state according to the majority of morphometric characters for all years of research. Based on the results of one-way analysis of variance, the influence of weather conditions (temperature and precipitation) on the quality of coenopopulations in the years of the study was established. The obtained materials can serve for further monitoring of rare species. Recommendations for the protection of the species are given.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):192-198
Historical Sciences and Archaeology
T-shaped antler axes on the territory of Belarus
Vashanov A.N., Malyutina A.A., Tkacheva M.I., Tkach E.S.

T-shaped antler axes are widely represented in Western Europe, both by occasional findings and materials from well researched settlements. This type of axe is most often found on the Ertebelle culture sites in Denmark and on the northern coast of Germany. Products of this type are also known in the context of the Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic settlements in the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Belgium. At the time of writing, 21 T-shaped antler axes are known in Belarus, as well as their production waste. The tools come from 11 locations. All locations are situated in western Belarus, in the basins of the Western Bug and Neman rivers. The presented artefacts have been found accidentally in river channels or in the coastal, often flooded zone. The locations do not have a clearly defined cultural and chronological context. In the location of Mikhnevichi, a few specific axe production wastes of this type have been discovered, indicating the existence of local production of these tools. In this connection, the authors of the study have suggested that there should be a connection between antler T-axes and Neolithic forest cultures of western Belarus. The paper presents the results of a complex analysis of T-shaped antler axes from the territory of Belarus with a detailed description of each artifact. Most of the materials are published for the first time.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):199-213
The age and sex structure of the population based on materials from the Eneolithic burial sites of the Middle Volga Region
Bogdanash A.V.

The paper describes the sex and age structure of the Chalcolithic era population in the Middle Volga. The materials of burial sites of different localization were used, in total – 304 individuals. Historiographic information on the Eneolithic burial grounds of the region is presented. Various approaches to the interpretation of anthropological materials, the accumulation of new sources, as well as the improvement of methods of paleodemographic analysis determine the periodic appeal to the problem of the ancient societies life features. The сross-group analysis was carried out using the method of principal components of multivariate statistics. There is some similarity for the anthropological series in terms of the indicators of high mortality of children and men survival to old age. Differences can also be traced. The characteristics of the dynamics of human mortality based on the materials of the earliest Eneolithic burial ground Ekaterinovsky Cape brings it closer to the indicators of the Neolithic burial grounds of Eastern Europe. The age-sex structure of the population of the Khvalynsk culture of the developed Eneolithic is close to that which was previously given for other populations of the Eurasian era. It has been confirmed that the change in demographic indicators in a favorable direction among the Eneolithic societies in previous times is associated with the expansion of economic systems that have acquired a complex nature, combined agriculture, cattle breeding, hunting and fishing.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):214-223
The features of the skeleton of the population in the early bronze age of the Volga-Ural Region
Grigoryev A.P.

The paper is devoted to the study of a series of postcranial skeletons from the Early Bronze Age burial grounds on the steppe and forest-steppe territory of the Volga and Ural Rivers basin. Using the standard osteometric technique in the processing of the material and statistical techniques in its analysis, the morphological originality of the male part of the population was revealed. Within the group a robust tall type of constitution dominates, more or less found among the representatives of the early pastoral groups in the Ural-Volga Region. The specificity of the group originating from the territory of the left bank of the Sok River is revealed; it consists in the gracile of the skeleton. Compared to the chronologically synchronous groups of the Early Bronze Age, the Volga-Ural group has a somewhat more massive skeleton structure, especially on the background of the gracile sample of the Lower Don. The author has revealed similarity with the Eneolithic group of the Dnieper-Donets Region. The dominance of the hypermorphic body type in the group of the Early Bronze Age in the Volga-Ural Region is genetically associated with the population of the Late Stone Age in the Dnieper Region. The population of the Khvalynsk Eneolithic culture of the Volga Region, considered by some specialists as ancestral for the Early Bronze Age pastoralists, has a noticeably more gracile osteological constitution and morphologically approaches the Neolithic population of Central Europe.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):224-231
«The Silver Age of Piracy»: French pirates in the Atlantic in the first third of the XVI century
Ashrafyan K.E.

The purpose of the study was to find a causal relationship between the activities of king Francis I and the large-scale pirate actions of the captains of the French merchant fleet, Jean Ango. This was necessary to show piracy as a fusion of the military and diplomatic policies of France against Portugal and Spain with the naval experience of warfare on the seas and in the oceans, which had the captains of the merchant fleet of Jean Ango. We can see this connection by the captured and looted of hundreds of ships in Portugal and Spain with the full support of piracy from the French crown. The goal was also to show how France, through piracy and its promotion at the state level, destroyed the system of international agreements and Royal oaths in the Christian world for the sake of its commercial advantage. The author studies and gives examples of numerous acts of piracy, numbering in the hundreds of captured, robbed, and sunk ships, the reasons and conclusions are given why Francis I began to demand «Open seas and oceans» and why he demanded a revision of the borders of the world in the XVI century. The author has considered and found the answers to the questions of what caused the rupture of international treaties, on the part of Francis I. The author has also revealed and shown the facts of multiple penetrations of France on the territory of Portugal and Spain, which later led to attempts by France to establish settlements in Brazil in 1555–1559 and Spanish Florida in 1563–1565, contrary to all international norms and agreements – the Pope’s bulls of 1493 and the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 and subsequent ones. The paper shows that the scale and scope of the pirate actions of French pirates in the Atlantic contributed to the formation of piracy as a mass phenomenon and can be called the «Silver age of world piracy», which falls on the 16th century, and anticipates the «Golden age of piracy» of the 17th and 18th centuries. This term is quite appropriate to introduce for this time, especially if it is considered together with the even larger-scale pirate actions of Berber pirates in the Mediterranean, which are quite well known and described in the scientific literature.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):232-239
The development of women’s education in Governor-Generalship of the Steppes and Turkestan in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
Rygalova M.V.

The paper analyzes the problem of women’s education development in Governor-Generalship of the Steppes and Turkestan in the 1880s-early 20th century in the context of socio-economic development of the territories. Initially, education for girls was not necessary. It was viewed from a negative point of view. But with the modernization of the territory, there was a need for education, including for girls. There were significant changes in the system of women’s education during the period under review. The number of girls studying was growing, and additional institutions were being opened for their education due to the demand and needs for qualified personnel. In addition, the demand for education among the indigenous population was significantly increasing. This shows an increase in the level of development of society as a whole, as well as the inclusion of the outlying territories in the socio-economic and cultural relationships of the Russian Empire. The education of women among the aboriginal population changed from complete denial, because they had a traditional way of life to the recognition of its necessity and the development of a network of women’s educational institutions for all classes.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):240-245
The development of photography in Samara in the middle of the 19th – beginning of the 20th centuries
Androsova A.A.

The paper deals with the development of photography in Samara and the Samara province during the period of the Samara province establishment to the beginning of the 20th century. The history of the photography as a technology is briefly presented. The paper also contains the data on the chronology of photo workshops appearance in Samara and the province as well as of the first photo business organizers. The author also describes methods of photography lovers organization in Samara at the turn of the 19th–20th centuries. The main categories of photographs of the period under review are considered. Having appeared almost simultaneously with the establishment of the province, the photographic business in Samara became an integral part of cultural life at the beginning of the 20th century. Photography in pre-revolutionary Samara developed from individual wealthy citizens entertaining to the establishment of the Samara Photographic Society. By 1917 photographic establishments had spread throughout the Samara province and were accessible to most residents. The analysis of the photographic documents used allows us to say that the Samara photography of the period under review was dominated by photographic portraits and photographs, photographic postcards with views of the city. The paper is based primarily on documents and photographs of the Central State Archives of the Samara Region and the Samara Regional State Archives of Socio-Political History, most of which have not been included in scientific circulation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):246-251
Colonial empires and USA policy in the South-East Asia after the 1945
Malkin S.G., Buranok S.O., Nesterov D.A.

The following paper analyzes the characteristics of the US foreign policy decision-making process at the beginning of the Cold War, due to the active appeal of representatives of the political establishment, the military and the country’s expert community to the colonial experience of the European powers – in terms of the prospects of applying their experience in ensuring colonial control in Southeast Asia before and after the end of the World War II as part of the US political course in this region. In addition, it is concluded that more attention should be paid to the role and, therefore, to the prosopographic profile of the experts (in the broad sense of the word), who collaborated with the departments responsible for the development of American foreign policy, such as the Department of State and the Pentagon, and formulated many of the conclusions, which, at least rhetorically, formed the basis of Washington’s course in Southeast Asia after 1945. Special attention is paid to interpretations of the role of colonial knowledge in the light of the unfolding Cold War in the «third world», proposed by British diplomats and the military to their American colleagues in the logic of the «special relations» between Great Britain and the United States.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):252-255
Industrial production and administrative resources influence on the environmental situation in the Kuibyshev Region in the 1950s–1970s
Repinetskiy A.I.

The paper examines the impact of the accelerated industrial development of the Kuibyshev Region in the 1950s and 1970s on the environmental situation in the region. The activities of defense, petrochemical, and machine-building industries had a negative impact on the quality of atmospheric air and drinking water. This had a negative impact on the health of the urban population. The conflict of interests between the plans of industrial development of the region and the need to preserve its environmental safety is considered. As a rule, the interests of economic development won, and the industrial potential of the region was constantly replenished with new industrial giants, which further worsened the environmental situation. The paper shows that the measures to improve it taken by the regional authorities and sanitary and epidemiological structures did not always lead to the desired results, since the interests of the industry leaders focused on the implementation of the planned tasks, while the interests of the population receded into the background. This led to the fact that the funds aimed at the environmental situation improvement were not fully developed. At the same time, the understanding of the enormous harm caused to the nature of the region by harmful industries forced the regional authorities to more actively defend its environmental safety.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):256-260
Cultural and educational work in the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army during the front-line Civil War: early Soviet historiography (a brief review of the history of the problem)
Tribunsky S.A.

The author made an attempt to develop (in the format of a lapidary historiographical review) the problem of the history of cultural and educational work in the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army (Red Army) during the front-line Civil War (1918–1920). The problem under review is of increased interest because in 1918–1920 there was a unique process of the Soviet historical science birth. It was designed to comprehend, and in hot pursuit, the historical phenomenon of the party and political work in the armed forces of the young Soviet state, which had no analogues in the history of world civilizations. This is the historical phenomenon in which cultural and educational work in the Red Army was born and strengthened. At the same time, it should be emphasized that the unique process of the birth of Soviet historical science took place against the background of the escalation of the fratricidal Russian Civil War (in its front-line stage). At this time, interesting sources, primarily historical, as well as some historiographical sources were published on the problem that is considered in this paper. It is they that are subjected to a historiographical review. Naturally, the author does not claim to cover the topic that falls within the scope of his research interests, which, in fact, cannot be achieved in the format of a historiographic review, especially in the format of a lapidary one.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):261-267
The biography and scientific work of the Soviet microbiologist Z.V. Yermolyeva: historiographic characteristics of post-Soviet publications
Gorshenin A.V.

This paper provides a brief analysis of works that consider the main stages of the scientific biography of the famous Soviet scientist-microbiologist, academician of medicine Zinaida Vissarionovna Yermolyeva (1898–1974). Among the most famous achievements of the scientist are the receipt of the first Soviet penicillin and the prevention of the cholera epidemic in Stalingrad during the Great Patriotic War. Her scientific interests had a fairly wide range: from cholera and antibiotics to lysozyme, interferon and other biologically active substances. Speaking about Z.V. Yermolyeva, the famous Soviet microbiologist and epidemiologist, academician N.F. Gamaleya noted that she as a researcher is characterized by a desire to work in the area that is currently the most urgent for socialist health care. Indeed, getting acquainted with the biography of this amazing woman scientist, it becomes clear why she switched from one research direction into another – this was her ability to quickly respond to the needs of the country and the challenges of the time. Given a great importance to the figure of Z.V. Yermolyeva in the history of Russian science, it seems relevant to establish a degree of study of this problem. The author of this paper has already carried out a brief analysis of the historiography of the works in the Soviet period on the history of Zinaida Yermolyeva’s scientific activities; therefore this paper is its logical continuation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):268-271
Pedagogical Sciences
The value of human dignity as a form of moral regulation of teacher’s actions and deeds
Bezdukhov V.P., Bezdukhov A.V.

The relevance of the research is motivated by the importance of understanding the value of dignity as one of the forms of moral regulation of the teacher’s actions and deeds. The authors motivate the social relevance of teaching a moral quality (or virtue) of dignity by the fact that, considering him/herself and others equally worthy, a person becomes capable of a constructive dialogue. The paper argues that one of the leading goals of modern education as an introduction to values is the education of students’ self-esteem, the upbringing of worthy people. The authors reveal that value is one of the elements of the system of moral regulation of actions and deeds; that the imperativeness of values lies in the fact that, being a guideline for pedagogical activity, they instruct the teacher to correspond to their content, which determines the content of moral requirements for him/herself and for students. It is shown that the golden rule of morality as a value determines the most important form of moral regulation in modern conditions. It is revealed that positive or negative aspects of the golden rule of morality correspond to what the teacher wants or does not want to experience, endure; what action he/she wants (does not want) to do so that students do (don’t do) the same. It is substantiated that the above-mentioned aspects of the golden rule of morality from the pedagogical point of view are requirements to act (requirements-samples) or not to act (requirements-prohibitions) accordingly. It is revealed that dignity as a virtue combines the elements of obligation and value. Obligation is manifested in behavior focused on a certain moral quality – dignity; the value of dignity, which manifests itself in behavior through the manifestation of moral qualities of honesty, truthfulness, etc., sets the form of moral regulation in which (form) the content of moral qualities and value of dignity is transmitted. The authors of the paper insist that the teacher, in the course of interaction with students, creates conditions for them to understand the essence of requirements-prohibitions, contained in the negative side of the golden rule of morality, and the essence of requirements-samples, enclosed in the positive side of the golden rule of morality; that at the level of self-education, these requirements are formulated by the teacher and students in the form of self-persuasion, self-order to commit a moral deed and not to commit an immoral act. Self-persuasion and self-order are methods of self-education, and the more a person masters them, the more he/she strengthens self-respect. Such a person becomes a moral guide for others; such a teacher creates the most favorable conditions for developing students’ self-respect.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):272-277
Pedagogical discourse in the system of color perception of art by future designers in the process of training
Bugaev V.I.

The priorities of modern education are addressed to the spiritual, moral, aesthetic and artistic foundations in the development of artistic culture and art of the young creative generation. The paradigm shift in the color perception of the art of modernism and postmodernism is acquiring a tendency to dominate quasi-cultural values. The creativity of the young generation is based on the traditions of the «imagery» of Russian realistic art. The artistic image in art always carries with it a certain social significance. This affiliation of art is characteristic of the entire development of the traditions of the spirituality of Russian education. The modern universe of art education has enormous spiritual heuristic potential. Russian thinkers, scientists and teachers A.F. Losev, Yu.M. Lotman, V.A. Sukhomlinsky, K.D. Ushinsky and P.A. Florensky pointed out that without traditions in art it is impossible to navigate in the present and build harmonious foundations of the future. The fast flow of information processes of young creative generation is not able at times to understand the higher spiritual and moral values of color art.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):278-281
Problem-based learning as a means of chemistry education effectiveness improvement at a medical university
Garanina R.M.

The paper discusses the goals and objectives of problem-based learning, discusses methods of students’ cognitive activity and cognitive independence stimulation by practical problems solving. Problem-based learning is a necessary condition for increasing students’ motivation for self-study and self-education, contributes to the development of students’ cognitive abilities. Problematic interpretation of educational material by practical problems solving, integrated problems with designation of interdisciplinary connections suggest using of a partial search method to optimize students’ cognitive activity. The relevance of problem-based learning largely lies in its developmental orientation, including various types of situational problems solving in the study of the course «chemistry». Special attention is paid to problem-based learning through the case method, actualization of interdisciplinary connections as a didactic principle in teaching. The subject role of the teacher is actualized, which still remains central and coordinating, presupposes a creative approach to work, the presence of fundamental theoretical knowledge, intellectual baggage, global professional thinking and professional culture. The formulation of problematic situations requires innovative thinking, non-standard approaches to learning, contributes to a better understanding of their professional role, democratization and modernization of the educational process. Objective data on the advantages of problem-based learning for the development of students’ cognitive abilities, manifestation of subjectivity, activation of the acquired knowledge and their application in practice to solve real educational, educational-research and educational-professional tasks, development of systemic clinical thinking capable of providing a high level of training of a modern specialist are presented in health care.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):282-289
Heterogeneous electronic information and educational environment of the university – a problem or an opportunity?
Dobudko T.V., Malova N.V., Pugach O.I.

E-learning technologies in the context of full-time and distance education have long passed the stage of innovation and have become an integral part of modern professional education. However, a number of issues related to the implementation and maintenance of the educational process based on e-learning are still relevant. This paper analyzes the problem of unification of software products, cloud technologies and services that form the electronic information and educational environment (EIEE) of a university. The authors interpret «homogeneity» and «heterogeneity» concepts in the context of the EIEE and illustrate the industry specifics of requirements and expectations for homogeneity. It is clearly proved that the heterogeneous EIEE of the university acts as a useful object/model of study when training specialists for work in cultural institutions in the fields of computer science and computer engineering, applied computer science. In these cases the EIEE structure of the university through the provision of experience develops students’ readiness for subsequent formal and non-formal life-long training. The paper also presents tools for assessing the existing level of heterogeneity of the EIEE and a method of expert evaluation that allows to predict the optimal level of heterogeneity-homogeneity for the EIEE of a particular university.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):290-295
Development of prospective engineers’ readiness for international partnership in oil and gas production
Emelyanova O.P., Zhuravleva M.V.

This paper deals with the development of prospective engineers’ readiness for international partnership in oil and gas industries. The directions of international technological cooperation of integrated corporations are described. The paper presents approaches and principles (advanced learning, efficiency of technological knowledge, global technological imperative, motivation for competitiveness, internationalization, social partnership, interdisciplinarity) used for readiness development process modeling. The conditions for the activity of a prospective engineer in internationally integrated companies and the possibilities of the international polypartner educational environment for engineering activity modeling in internationally integrated companies are correlated. The development of prospective engineers’ readiness for international technological partnership in oil and gas production is carried out in the course of a phased continuous training and divided into the following stages: introduction-technological, adaptation-technological and initiative-technological. To assess the effectiveness of the development of prospective engineers’ readiness for international partnership in oil and gas industries, motivational, professional-activity (scientific and technological, organizational and managerial, communicative) and personal resource criteria are used. The paper defines a number of performance indicators for each of the three stages: development of additional competencies, knowledge in the field of intellectualization, technology commercialization, research activities during academic mobility, scientific publications in international journals, work experience in an international company.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):296-300
Contemporary art in the development of a gifted child’s art-aesthetic thesaurus
Kalinina L.Y., Ivanov D.V., Nikitin N.A.

The authors substantiate the expediency of referring to the forms and artistic means of contemporary art as integrating mechanisms of the semantic space common to adult authors and children who are passionate about creativity. According to the most important understanding of childhood in the thesaurus approach – according to Val.A. Lukov, the preserved past – in its correlation with the peculiarities of the children’s subculture, the idea of matching the spontaneous creative actions of the child and the well-thought-out creative method of modern authors who seek to show the creative process itself is justified. The contradiction between the fundamental difference of the adults and children’ thinking models disappears when the child in the game acts «on behalf of the Contemporary Author», showing his talent as actions to structure the fruitful disorder of an unfamiliar educational environment. The thesaurus helps to discover new meanings – an accumulated body of knowledge about the world and how it is reflected in art products, sufficient for orientation in this environment. Taking into account the complex effects of the digital age on the child from the real and virtual subspaces, the presence in his thesaurus of contemporary art concepts, embodied in words, visual and musical images, it will contribute to a bright, obvious manifestation of giftedness at the age of 6–7 years.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):301-306
Modeling the assessment of the quality of students’ professional competencies development
Makarov S.I.

Vocational training of specialists in various fields is aimed at development of a complex of qualities and competencies necessary for future professional activities. The list of professional and general competencies is regulated by the State educational standard. The assessment of the level of competencies development is a measure of the quality of graduate training. The assessment of the quality of competencies development is a measure of the effectiveness of the educational institution work and its structural divisions. It is necessary for internal and external monitoring, adjustment of the pedagogical process and rating. This determines the importance of reliable and informative analysis of how developing factors influence the final result of training. The paper proposes an analytical method for determining the weight coefficient of each developing factor in the overall assessment of the level of professional competencies development. The possibility of its use in the analysis of learning problems at individual and group levels is substantiated. It is proposed to use a matrix of information representation and elements of matrix and vector analysis for processing statistical data. The author has developed a mathematical model that describes a complex process of professional competencies development in higher education institutions. Developing factors in this model are university departments. The possibilities of using the model are discussed. The ways of eliminating the problem of matrices dimensions mismatch when solving matrix equations are indicated. The paper contains examples of the proposed model use in other aspects of the education quality study. A method for determining the integral indicator of the quality of training in all disciplines is proposed. The main conclusions and results of the research can be used directly in the educational process, in the field of education management and in methodical work.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):307-311
A comparative analysis of Biology books included in the Federal list of school textbooks (2018) for grades 5–7
Marina A.V., Selina I.N., Churapina E.M., Shahzadyan A.S.

The paper discusses one of the most important issues for educational process organization while teaching Biology at secondary school – educational and methodological support and its main component – a course book. The authors prove the urgency of this problem as school teachers face a great choice of Biology course books. The paper also contains a brief overview how the notion «course book» developed in Russia. The authors have given a modern interpretation of the notion «course book» taking into account the Federal State Educational Standards of General Education. Particular attention is paid to considering the structure of the course book. The specificity of a Biology course book for secondary schools is characterized. The authors have also revealed some variability of Biology course books for 5–7 grades of secondary schools in modern conditions when there are two federal lists of school textbooks. The reasons for the existing difficulties in the choice of a Biology course book by school Biology teachers are revealed. Particular attention is paid to the criteria for a comparative analysis of the content of Biology course books for secondary schools. The authors have also revealed a degree of completeness of Biology courses with various components for grades 5–7. The presented materials can be used by school teachers while teaching a Biology course at a secondary school.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):312-316
The system of additional education in the field of industrial safety
Panyshev A.L., Gorina L.N.

The establishment of modern enterprises and modernization of production facilities at existing production facilities create a need for trained employees in various fields of activity. Taking into account the fact that the changes in information technologies and the current digitalization of the economy that permeates everywhere leave their mark on the requirements for personnel, the process of training necessary specialists is noticeably more complicated. Therefore, the issues of training qualified specialists for various industries are constantly in the focus of attention of both representatives of the educational community and employers. Moreover, the relevance of this topic for the latter is also becoming one of the conditions for competitive confrontation in the markets of products or services. It is obvious that a well-trained staff provides exactly a competitive advantage that allows the company to survive, and employers to make profit. A created staff of highly qualified employees makes it possible to ensure the successful operation of the organization on a permanent basis. The recruitment of employees of the enterprise occurs both due to the transfer of employees from other enterprises, and at the expense of graduates of higher educational institutions. In such conditions, in the absence of high-quality training systems for students at most universities, the importance of additional professional education increases.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):317-320
Features of teaching Russian as a foreign language to bilingual students (using the example of the Russian verb aspect study)
Perkova E.L., Shirobokova L.P.

The paper discusses the features of learning Russian by foreign students who speak English at a basic level. A difficult aspect for foreign students is grammar, which is accompanied by an innumerable set of rules and the same number of exceptions. One of the most difficult grammatical topics is «Imperfect and Perfect Verbs», since in other languages the grammatical category of the verb aspect does not exist. In this regard, there are difficulties for foreign bilingual students in determining the meaning, methods of education, use and application of imperfect and perfect verbs in speech situations. The explanation of the material is based on the principles of consistency and systematicity, i.e. from the disclosure of the semantics of verbs, their functions in specific communicative situations, further to the methods of forming of aspect pairs of the verb using common prefixes, suffixes, as well as exceptions to the rules, alternating adjacent consonants and vowels in the root, and special cases of formation of aspect pairs of the verb that need to be remembered. The paper presents methods of teaching the grammatical category of the verb aspect in the Russian language to foreign students, successive stages of work on the formation and correct using of perfect and imperfect verbs in order to remove the language barrier in intercultural communication.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):321-324
Regularities of modernization and improvement of educational services quality
Petrishchev I.O.

The paper reveals the main trends of the modern educational process, according to which the regularities of modernization of education and improvement of educational services quality are updated. The process of modernization is defined as a consistent change in educational practices under the influence of social, economic and cultural factors. The analysis of changes in the education system in the context of digitalization and informatization of society made it possible to build an educational paradigm, which demonstrates that the quality of educational services is proportional to the goals of education, the needs of society as well as to the education conditions and the possibilities of science in a specific period of time. This paradigm allows us to trace the causal relationship between the social and cultural context and changes in the education system as a form of students and teachers’ adaptive reaction. Thus, the regularities of education modernization are understood as pedagogical phenomena that are actualized at different stages of the educational process development with renewed power and thereby determine some periodicity in the educational process and didactic tradition. Building the educational process according to the gnoseological and psychological regularities of education modernization seems to be a constructive pedagogical decision that will allow educational organizations to stay competitive on the market of educational services.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):325-329
The analysis of modern approaches to the development of students’ professional competencies at transport universities
Polovinkina A.Y., Mikhelkevich V.N.

The paper discusses the recent qualitative changes in the country system of training students of transport universities. Based on the opinions of scientists and considerable experience in higher education, the authors of the paper state the timeliness of reforming the current system of professional training of prospective railway engineers. Taking into account the requirements of employers and the new generation of professional standards being introduced, it is planned to improve the forms and training methods. At the same time, it is recommended to focus on professional competencies development among students of the transport university, which will undoubtedly contribute to their successful industrial activities in the future. The paper analyzes the experience of applying various approaches that allow to form necessary professional competencies in engineering activities (design, research, operational and technological, organizational and managerial) for students of transport universities as part of the development of the program 23.05.03 The Railway Rolling Stock. The authors have described in details the essence, value and practical expediency of using context-based, activity-based and personality-oriented approaches in the system of transport education for students’ professional competencies development in engineering activities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):330-336
The forms of educational process organization at the institution of secondary vocational education
Razumovskaya A.A.

The paper actualizes the problem of the effectiveness of educational process organization at the institution of secondary vocational education. Various aspects of education in the system of secondary vocational education are presented and special attention is focused on the forms of educational process organization. The author shares the experience of students’ education through the use of such forms of educational process organization as student self-government and student public association in the branch of Murmansk Arctic State University in Kirovsk. The principles on which student self-government in the branch is based (the principle of statehood, the principle of voluntariness, the principle of unification, the principle of autonomy, the principle of partnership, the principle of consistency, the principle of corporatism) are indicated and the characteristics of these principles are given. The value foundations of student self-government organization in the branch are presented: goodness, justice; mercy; honour; dignity; respect for the dignity of another person, equality, responsibility, etc. The types of student self-government are designated: student council; student union; student club for social design; student parliamentary club, etc. The educational possibilities of student public associations of the branch (civil-patriotic; sports and recreation; research; cultural and leisure; professionally oriented orientation) are considered. The goals, objectives and activities of student public associations «Student – patriot – citizen», «Ministry of Sports», «Branch of Culture and Creativity» are also considered. The author indicates the values to which students who take part in the activities of student public associations are attached. The conclusion is made about the effectiveness of student self-government and student public associations as forms of educational process organization in the branch for the improvement of such qualitative indicators of students’ education as partnership, mutual responsibility, moral interaction, social guidelines in project work, mobilization for important tasks solving.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):337-342
The organization of current control of the educational results among pedagogical university students
Stepanova E.S., Makarova E.A.

The paper is devoted to the problem of evaluating the educational results of pedagogical university students. It describes the notions «assessment», «control» and «measurement» of educational results. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the system of educational results evaluation, the type of control among students of Faculty of Natural Sciences and Geography at Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education, as well as to describe the means of evaluating the quality of professional training, in particular, pedagogical testing. The authors analyzed the main professional educational programs of higher education implemented at Faculty of Natural Sciences and Geography, syllabuses, point-rating maps and evaluation funds in order to determine the system for evaluating the educational results of pedagogical university students. The paper presents the results of a survey of teachers in order to identify methodological approaches to monitoring and evaluating the results of students’ professional training. The authors showed the role of testing in the evaluation of educational results in distance learning, and described the experience of using the educational platform «Online Test Pad» in the organization of control. They also described the results of a survey of students, during which they established the attitude of students to modern means of evaluating learning outcomes. The use of modern assessment tools in professional education makes it possible to determine the correspondence of the content, level and quality of students’ training, and systematic monitoring and evaluation allows to determine the level and quality of students’ educational results, as well as the quality of their professional training.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(4):343-346

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