Samara Journal of Science

Samara Journal of Science was established in 2012. It is a quarterly scientific journal.

The authors of the journal are university academic staff, researchers, postgraduates, candidates for a doctor’s degree, senior students.

By the decision of Supreme Attestation Commission dated of 29.12.2015, the journal is listed in the Catalogue of peer-reviewed scientific publications, where the core scientific results of the candidate and doctoral theses must be published (link, №1924).

The journal is registered in the system “Russian Science Citation Index” (RSCI – eLIBRARY.RU).

The journal is registered in the system “CyberLeninka”.

The journal has professional, highly qualified editorial staff consisted of leading scientists (doctors of science, professors, academicians, correspondent members of Russian Academy of Sciences) – representatives of national and foreign institutions of higher education and scientific organizations.

Samara Journal of Science is an open scientific platform for all interested individuals and organizations, which enables authors to publish the results of their research in psychology and education as well as biological sciences, historical sciences and archeology. The journal promotes an exchange of views on various issues of pedagogy and psychology, biology, history, and archeology between researchers from different regions and countries.

Samara Journal of Science is published quarterly.

Scientific fields of Samara Journal of Science:
03.02.00 General biology
03.02.04 Zoology
03.02.05 Entomology
03.02.08 Ecology (biological sciences)
07.00.00 Historical sciences and archeology
07.00.02 Domestic history
07.00.03 World history
07.00.06 Archeology
07.00.07 Ethnography, ethnology and anthropology
07.00.09 Historiography, source studies and methods of historical research
13.00.00 Pedagogical sciences
13.00.01 General pedagogy, history of pedagogy and education
13.00.02 Theory and methodology of training and upbringing
13.00.08 Theory and methodology of professional education


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Current Issue

Vol 9, No 3 (2020)

General Biology
Environmental quality assessment in Kirovsk (Murmansk Region) based on the state of Siberian spruce needles
Aleksandrova E.Y., Trotsenko A.A., Kalinovskaya L.S.

The paper presents data on environmental quality assessment of the state of Siberian spruce needles (Picea obovata) in Kirovsk, Murmansk Region for the period – autumn 2019. It is confirmed that the methods of bioindication of the environment using coniferous plants are based primarily on the study of their morphological and structural changes. It was found that the condition of Siberian spruce needles in the study area (Kirovsk, Murmansk Region) is assessed as satisfactory. The average percentage of the area of damaged plants at different sampling points ranges from 1,96 to 2,4%. With the height of the tree, the needles become more susceptible to drying out, which may be due to an increase in the age (aging) of shoots and needles, as well as the action of abiotic factors (wind, precipitation). The dependence of the average percentage of damage on height was not revealed. The main conclusion is that the state of the environment in Kirovsk, Murmansk Region is rated as «good». Indicators for assessing the state of the environment in the study areas differ slightly. The obtained data can be used for monitoring the environment of various districts of the Murmansk Region and other areas of Northern latitudes, for making a plan of environmental measures and environmental monitoring of various industrial enterprises of the Murmansk Region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):10-14
Seasonal nutrition variability and trophic differentiation of ducks on Baikal
Badmaeva E.N., Dorzhiev T.Z.

The analysis of the food ration of 7 species of ducks from Lake Baikal helped to reveal the features of the seasonal dynamics of ducks feeding. The degree of trophic differentiation was determined for all species and for systematically related forms. All species of ducks in general are polyphages of different ranges, there are no highly specialized species. According to the ratio of plant and animal feed, three trophic groups were identified among ducks: phytophages, mainly phytophages and zoo-phytophages. Ducks’ plant feed is represented by seeds, vegetative parts and tubers. At the same time, a significant proportion are seeds, especially sedge, which in some species of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos, Anas penelopе, Anas acuta) in some seasons exceed 15–20% by volume in the stomach and esophagus. Anas querquedula and Anas clypeata ignore vegetative parts of plants, while mallard consumes them only in summer. Anas penelope selects vegetatic parts of plants and seeds, in spring they are selected by Anas acuta. Animal feed is actively consumed by Anas crecca, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Aythya ferina. It is noted that Anas clypeata consumes mollusks in large numbers, while Aythya fuligula consumes them to a slightly lesser extent. Anas querquedula and Anas clypeata prefer insect larvae. Gammarids are quite common for most species of ducks and in volume they occupy a worthy place. Seasonal nutrition dynamics are well traced for all types of ducks. Ducks prefer to use accessible objects, while showing species selectivity in the choice of feed components and feed biotopes. As a result, we see a low overlap of trophic niches of various types of ducks, including systematically close forms.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):15-20
Fauna and ecology of Hymenoptera background species of terrestrial ecosystems in the Yenisei Siberia tundra and forest-tundra
Baranov A.A., Stambrovskaya E.V., Gorodilova S.N., Bannikova K.K., Melnik O.N.

This paper presents materials on the ecology and faunistic composition of four species of Hymenoptera: Urocerus gigas L., 1758; Vespula vulgaris L., 1758; Bombus polaris Curtis, 1835; Bombus hyperboreus Schonherr, 1809. Their number was calculated for 2017–2019, data on population density, seasonal activity and forage plants of Hymenoptera adults in the tundra and forest-tundra of Yenisei Siberia are presented. As a result of calculating in both natural conditions, numerous species are true wasps and bumblebees and the large horntail is a rare species and was recorded only in the forest-tundra. When studying the food base of the studied species, it was noted that Vespula vulgaris was most often found on the forest bellap Anthriscus sylvestris L., in thickets of willow shrubs, Salix polaris Wahlenb. Adult insects Urocerus gigas were found mainly on Siberian larch Larix sibirica L. and alder forest Alnus fruticosa Rupr. Individuals of Bombus polaris and Bombus hyperboreus were recorded on horned dandelion Taraxacum ceratophorum L., narrow-leaved fireweed Chamerion angustifolium L., common tansy Tanacetum vulgare L.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):21-27
The current state of the ornithological fauna of the Krasnoyarsk Reservoir
Bulycheva O.V., Baranov A.A.

This paper discusses the current state of the avifauna on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk Reservoir. To date, the species composition of birds in the study area has not been studied, although it is worth noting the need to study the distribution of birds in this area. The construction of the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station led to changes in the hydrological regime of the Yenisei River with subsequent flooding of the surrounding territory, as a result of which various geological processes of collapse of the Krasnoyarsk Reservoir banks are observed. Bank metamorphoses can also influence the spatial distribution of birds and creation of new ornithocomplexes. Our ecological and faunal analysis was carried out over two years (2018–2019) at nine key points along the bank lines of the Krasnoyarsk Reservoir within a radius of one kilometer from the water to identify the impact of geological changes in the banks on the nature of bird placement. The key areas of the study were determined, taking into account various biotopic habitat conditions that attract birds. Monitoring of avifauna on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk Reservoir will allow us to assess the degree of influence of changes in the geological processes of the banks on the spatial and biotopic distribution of birds, and it is also possible to forecast the disappearance or movement of some species and subspecies on this territory.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):28-31
The analysis of natural radionuclides activity in the soil and vegetation cover in the South of the Tyumen Region
Burlaenko V.Z., Igasheva S.P.

The paper deals with the study of the radiation state of the soil and herbaceous vegetation represented by perennial grasses (Poa pratensis, Calamagrostis epigejos, Rubus saxatilis, Carex acuta, Phleum pratense) in the south of the Tyumen Region. The content and distribution of natural radionuclides in soil and herbaceous vegetation was studied in the Nizhnetavdinsky District of the Tyumen Region at the site of an underground nuclear explosion. Sampling and laboratory tests were carried out according to generally accepted methods. Soil samples were taken at the epicenter of the explosion and at the cardinal directions. Layer-by-layer sampling allowed us to study the vertical distribution of radionuclides in the soil profile. Sampling of perennial grasses was carried out at the same sampling points. Radiation studies of soil and vegetation samples were carried out on the Progress-2000 spectrometric complex. The authors have revealed specific activity of natural radionuclides (K-40, Th-232 and Ra-226) in the profile of grey forest soil in the Nizhnetavdinsky District. They have calculated effective specific activity of radionuclides in the soil. The comparative analysis of the obtained results with the data on administrative areas in the south of the Tyumen Region showed that in the soil of the Nizhnetavdinsky District specific activity of natural radionuclides is higher than in the South region in general. The specific activity of natural radionuclides in perennial grasses of the Nizhnetavdinsky District was determined, and the coefficient of accumulation of radionuclides was calculated.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):32-36
The study of agricultural pests of the genus Liriomyza (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Nagorno-Karabakh
Grigoryan N.M., Hovhannisyan V.S., Galstyan H.G.

The goal of the research is to study polyphagous species of the genus Liriomyza (Diptera, Agromyzidae) in Nagorno-Karabakh. The vegetable leaf-miner L. sativae (Blanchard, 1938), the tomato leaf-miner L. bryoniae (Kaltenbach, 1858) and the cabbage or serpentine leaf-miner L. brassicae (Riley, 1885) have been revealed among them. They affect mainly plants from the families Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Asteraceae. The quarantine species L. sativae has been described in the Caucasus for the first time. The paper presents distinctive features of the genus Liriomyza, a morpho-biological description of the imagoes, a structure of their wings, male genitalia, in particular the aedeagus, structural features of larvae and pupae of certain species, mines formed by the feeding of larvae, their harmfulness on the leaves of various plants. In terms of the number of host plant species, as well as the extensiveness and intensity of plant infection, the most common pest is L. sativae, the least common and harmful is L. brassicae. The larvae of L. sativae often mine the leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Solanum lycopersicum. Methods of a variance analysis have revealed that the sexual dimorphism of the studied species is most expressed in L. bryoniae.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):37-43
Materials on phenology and ecology of the Batyrevskaya population of Iris aphilla L. (Chuvash Republic)
Dimitriev A.V., Rahmatullin M.M.

The paper presents the history of discovery and distribution of Iris aphilla L., listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation (status 2 category) in the Batyrevsky area of the State Nature Reserve «Prisursky». It has been reported that the steppe biogeocoenosis, which was severely beaten out by cattle, is being reanimated and restored after 3–5 years after the establishment of the reserve regime. The results of phenological observations of the beginning of blooming of I. aphilla L. from 2004 to the present time (n = 17) are summarized. According to observations from 2004 to 2020, the early dates of the blooming phase of I. aphilla L. in the Batyrevsky population were noted in 2009, 2010, 2016 (May 14), 2019 (May 12), 2020 (May 10), and later in 2017 (May 23), 2011 (May 26), 2004 (May 28). The average date when the phenophase blooms is on May 17–18 (or ≈56–59 days from the vernal equinox). The influence of abnormally cold weather in the pre-winter period 2009–2010 on the population of I. aphilla L. has been analyzed. The results of this analysis suggest that the ecological scale of D.N. Tsyganov for this species should be extended by the parameter of cryothermal resistance from Cr 7–12 to Cr 1–12 for the northernmost Batyrevskaya population of the specified iris.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):44-48
The nesting ecology and postembryonic development of the Columba rupestris in Tuva and Buryatia
Dorzhiev T.Z., Saaya A.T.

A material on the nesting ecology of Columba rupestris was collected in southern Siberia on the territory of Tuva and Buryatia. The Columba rupestris lives sedentary in various types of localities and a small proportion – in the natural rocks of open spaces. The number of this species has now decreased by 3–5 times compared to the 70–90-es of the 20th century. It is due to the deterioration of the food supply as a result of the elimination and reduction of arable land near settlements, the reduction of livestock in private households, changes in the architecture and construction material of buildings, first of all, the replacement of slate roofs with metal profiles. The most preferred localities are medium and small rural settlements located in forest-steppe and steppe landscapes. The deterioration of habitat conditions affected the structure of nesting settlements, and colonies became small (no more than 30–50 birds compared to 100–200 individuals at the end of the 20th century). Breeding periods in localities are stretched from late February to mid-October, but the majority of populations breed from the 20th of March to the end of July. Birds manage to hatch their сhicks 2–4 times, 2,4 times on average. There are 2 eggs in a clutch, incubation lasts 17 days, and the сhicks leave the nest at 26 days of age. The paper presents features of growth and development of chicks. Nesting efficiency (ratio of the number of chicks that have reached sexual maturity to the total number of eggs laid) equals to 27%. It is noted that currently interspecific hybridization of Columba rupestris and Columba livia, which was observed relatively often in the second half of the 20th century, has almost stopped due to a decrease in the number of both species, which led to greater spatial differentiation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):49-53
Materials to the fauna of caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) from streams and reservoirs of the Ergaki Natural Park (Western Sayan)
Dragan S.V.

For a little more than a century, researchers have been studying the fauna of caddisflies of streams and lakes of the Ergaki Natural Park. The paper provides a brief overview of studies of the caddisfly fauna in the upper part of the Oya and Us rivers basin. Caddisflies were collected in the Ergaki Natural Park (Western Sayan) in the 2015 using different methods. Altogether, collections were made at 13 sampling sites in the springs, streams and lakes. A total of 17 species belonging to 14 genera and 7 families were collected. Oligotricha lapponica (Hagen, 1864) and Lenarchus sp. are new to the caddisfly fauna of Western Sayan. Five species, Rhyacophila kaltatica Levanidova, Schmid, 1977; R. retracta Martynov, 1914; O. lapponica; Molanna angustata Curtis, 1834 and Lenarchus sp. are added to the list of Trichoptera from Ergaki Natural Park which now comprises 66 species. The highest species richness was recorded for the Bolshoye Lake. For the first time, caddisflies have been listed for lakes Tushkanchik and Nizhnee Buibinskoe, one and three species, respectively. In the Nizhnyaya Buiba River and its tributaries, 8 species of caddisflies were found.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):54-57
Phytoplankton as a bioindicator of the water quality of Lake Malenets (Pskov Region)
Drozdenko T.V., Kek I.V., Mishkova T.A.

This paper shows the use of planktonic algae in determining the ecological state of the reservoir. Phytoplankton is an important link in the aquatic ecosystem, which is the first to react to the slightest fluctuations in environmental conditions by changing its structure and quantitative characteristics, and therefore is very convenient in bioindication studies. In the summer of 2017, the planktonic algaflora of Lake Malenets, located on the territory of the Mikhailovskoye Museum-Reserve in the Pushkinogorsk District of the Pskov Region, was studied for the first time. In total, 87 species and intraspecific taxa of phytoplankton were identified from 8 phylums, 12 classes, 20 orders, 35 families, and 58 genera. The dominant algaflora complex is characterized as diatom-chlorophytic with the presence of golden algae. Using the Sierensen-Chekanovsky index, the degree of similarity of the phytoplankton species composition of Lake Malenets with the nearby Lake Kuchane was estimated. The calculation of quantitative indicators of phytoplankton – abundance and biomass was carried out, the ecological and geographical characteristics of microalgae were presented, and the water quality class of Lake Malenets was established. The obtained results are of practical importance, since they allow to establish the ecological state of the water body as well as to develop methodological recommendations for its improvement and stabilization.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):58-61
The state of Recurvirostra avosetta Linnaeus, 1758 and Larus ichthyaetus Pallas, 1773 (Aves, Charadriiformes) populations of the Tryochozyorki tract (South Minusinsk basin) in 2020
Zlotnikova T.V., Geld T.A., Dzingel N.K.

This paper presents the results of observations on the state of two bird species’ populations listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation – Recurvirostra avosetta L., Larus ichthyaetus Pall. The populations of these species in the State Natural Reserve «Tryochozyorki Tract» have been studied by the authors for 8 years. The wetland is a key ornithological area of international importance. The paper presents information obtained in 2020, which has been compared with the information received in 2013–2018 which was published. For R. avosetta L. the maximum number of breeding pairs (127) and the maximum value of the average clutch size (3,6) were noted for the entire observation period. The reproduction of R. avosetta L. started earlier than in previous years. For L. ichthyaetus L. a relatively high number (no less than 280–300 pairs) and also the maximum value of the clutch size (3,0) were noted, the breeding time of the species turned out to be typical for this territory. The analysis showed a favorable state of the populations of these species. The previously stated assumption about the relationship of the studied indicators of the nesting biology of these species with the level of water content of the territory was further confirmed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):62-66
Reasons of time shifting of animals’ seasonal events in the Central Forest Biosphere Reserve
Zorina A.A., Shuyskaya E.A.

The paper considers dynamics of phenological phenomena of animals in the south taiga Central Forest biosphere reserve. As initial data we used materials of meteorological and phenological observations made under the program of maintaining the nature chronicle on the basis of the meteorological post «Forest reserve» in the Roshydromet network. Of the 46 meteorological series only ten (22%) show significant long-term changes over the period 1990–2019: an increase in the average annual air temperature, temperature in May, August, September and November; a decrease of total precipitation in September and an increase in December; a positive displacement of occurrence dates of maximum temperature less than 0°C and the final formation of ice on the pond, a negative shift of the phenological summer beginning dates. The authors prove that there has been a shift of time when winter comes or an increase in the duration of the frost-free period on the reserve territory over a 30-year period. For the spring phenodates of the considered animal species, there is a negative long-term linear trend in the variability of phenological phenomena towards an earlier start of events. Such signs as the first meeting of the small tortoiseshell, the first bites of the biting mosquito, the first appearance of the grass frog and the viviparous lizard are recommended to be used as indicators of the climate change. The shift of insect and amphibian phenodates is associated with a shortening of the cold season in the reserve climate system. A significant change of lizards phenological phenomenon time is caused by abiotic as well as by biotic (forage) factors.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):67-72
Climate factors influence on biological features of Crataegus maximowiczii C.K. Schneid. when introduced within the arctic circle
Zotova O.E., Goncharova O.A.

This study evaluates the development of Crataegus maximowiczii when introduced to the Kola Peninsula. The paper presents the timing of the onset of phenological phases, morphometric indicators of inflorescences and flowers, fruits, features of seed reproduction. C. maximowiczii is a plant with an early onset and short growing season. C. maximowiczii has a short shoot growth period, a short prefloral period, annual flowering and fruiting. The studied specimens of C. maximowiczii plants were characterized by heterogeneous morphometric parameters of flowers and inflorescences. Specimens with a denser inflorescence are characterized by a greater number of flowers per inflorescence, specimens with small flower sizes form medium-sized inflorescences. The species specificity factor affects the morphometric characteristics of inflorescences. Fruiting indicators largely depended on external conditions, among which temperature and relative humidity of the air have little effect. Plants of C. maximowiczii, when introduced to the Kola Peninsula, can be classified as small-fruited. The highest germination capacity is possessed by the samples with average values of mass, which have undergone combined pre-sowing preparation. The relative humidity of the air during the growing season has a greater effect than the temperature regime on the values of the mass of seeds for a given species under conditions of introduction.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):73-78
Ecological and biochemical properties of thermophilic bacteria taken from the Dachnie hot springs of Kamchatka (Far East, Russia)
Lebedeva E.G., Kharitonova N.A.

In this work, we studied some ecological and biochemical characteristics (cultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical properties, extracellular enzymatic activity, bacterial growth in various ranges of temperatures, pH, NaCl concentrations, resistance to heavy metals) of 14 strains of thermophilic bacteria taken from thermal waters and microbial mats of Kamchatka Dachnie springs. On selective environment the strains formed mostly transparent, beige, white-gray, brown, yellow and pink colonies. It was shown that the isolates were represented most of all by asporogenic, catalase-positive and oxidase-positive, mobile, gram-negative rods of various sizes. Most of the cultures were capable of forming exozymes, especially amylases and proteinases. The strains grew in a wide range of temperatures (35–50°C), pH (5–8), NaCl concentration (1–5%) and were characterized by increased resistance to a number of heavy metals. 4 strains of thermophilic heterotrophic bacteria exhibited multiple multidrug resistance to metals. They were identified and it was shown that the isolates were represented by bacteria of the genus Bacillus sp. (№ 19), Thermus sp. (№ 40), Pseudomonas sp. (№ 15), Rhizobium sp. (№ 125). The strains with high enzymatic activity and increased resistance to pollutants are promising for use in the field of ecology for cleaning contaminated environmental objects.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):79-85
Revisiting «Malaya Sosva» state reserve characteristics of fauna and population structure of small mammals
Levykh A.Y., Suppes N.E., Vilkov V.S., Trushnikova A.S.

The paper deals with the study of species composition and small mammals population structure of «Malaya Sosva» (Little Sosva) state nature reserve, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra, Russia. The research was conducted within the last ten days of June, 2019 on the Malaya Sosva River flood plain (Shukhtungort ranger station neighborhood, northern taiga). The animals were registered in typical biotopes of the research area: a herb-oxalis pinery, a lingonberry-lidum pinery, a lingonberry-pleurocarpous moss pinery, a herb-oxalis spruce forest, a herb-woodreed pinery, on the skirts of a mixed forest around the ranger station on the border of a mowed secondary meadow. In the course of investigation, the following five species of small rodents and insectivores were registered: Myodes rutilus, Myodes rufocanus, Sorex caecutiens, Talpa europaea, Pteromys volans. M. rutilus was an absolute dominant species in terms of numbers in the majority of the studied biotopes. S. caecutiens is co-dominating in the herb-oxalis pinery and herb-oxalis spruce forest, and M. rufocanus is co-dominating in the lingonberry-lidum pinery. In the herb-woodreed pinery, only individuals of S. caecutiens species were caught in a pitfall trap. Communities of small mammals in different types of habitats show low values of species diversity and sustainability due to harsh natural-climatic conditions of the region. A small mammals community of mature herb-oxalis pinery on the bank of Svyatoy Sor Lake, where the protected species, Pteromys volans, was registered, shows the highest values of abundance of small mammals and a maximum level of overall welfare index. It suggests that the habitat under study should be studied further and protected.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):86-92
Patterns in steppe meadow vegetation at the border of Forest-steppe and Steppe zones of the Southern Ural
Nazarenko N.N., Malaev A.V., Pirozhenkova A.V., Bayda N.A.

The patterns (mosaicity) in steppe meadow vegetation were characterized at the border of Forest-steppe and Steppe zones of the Southern Ural by hierarchical continuum concept theory for Troitskiy state natural complex preserve example. It has been established that the discordant natural region bring about mosaicity destruction – micro-patterns are fuzzy, parcels are not formed and coenotics (12,0 m) level is identified only. The steppe meadow vegetation is characterized by coenotic level continuum – coenotic patterns have almost identical dominant and co-dominant species composition, phytochorologic units form combination of four meadow grasses with middle and weak contagious spatial distribution and most species have random spatial distribution. But the steppe meadow biotopes are characterized by specifics of abiotic factors. The significant factors, influencing coenotic patterns and biotopes of steppe meadow, are soil calcium and nitrogen regime, soil aeration, moistening and its variability.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):93-99
Demutation of the Volga meadow steppes in a reserve
Novikova L.A.

The paper deals with the problem of restoring rare communities of meadow steppes after plowing using the example of the «Volga forest-steppe state nature reserve». The author has studied 9 uneven-age deposits in three forest-steppe protected areas: Kuncherovsky – 5, Poperechensky – 2 and Ostrovtsovsky – 2. The study of deposits of different ages was carried out by the method of periodic large-scale geobotanical mapping using modern GIS-technologies. Maps of vegetation of different scale (1:5000, 1:10000, 1:25000) have been created. Deposits areas that adjoined to the virgin steppe were studied by a method of geobotanical profiling. At the same time, profiles (out of 10–25 sample plots of 4 m² in size) were laid at a distance of 10 m from each other. About 500 geobotanical descriptions were made at 9 different-age deposits at different times. Restoration of meadow steppes is impossible without the introduction of elements of anthropogenic intervention (moderate grazing and regulated haying) into the existing protection regime. Restoration of the steppes in an absolutely protected mode is possible only on the slopes of the southern exposure in forest-steppe landscapes of erosion-denudation plains («Kuncherovskaya forest-steppe»).

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):100-106
Intrapopulation and inter-population variability of color polymorphism of synanthropic blue rock pigeon
Polyavina O.V., Dukalskaya A.V.

The paper deals with intrapopulation and inter-population variability of color polymorphism of synanthropic blue rock pigeons (Columba livia Gm., 1789) living in industrial centers of the Middle Urals. The authors have identified seasonal and inter-annual differences of color morphotypes of synanthropic blue rock pigeons, which are primarily determined by the total number of birds in clusters (flocks). With an increase of birds «concentration» in a flock, which occurs in winter, the relative proportion of the blue and the «aberrant» morphotypes increases while the relative proportion of the black-chequer individuals decreases. Density-dependent mechanisms of phenotypic structure formation of synanthropic blue pigeons populations work in conditions of significant increase of bird population in accumulations when different behavioral strategies, especially food, ensuring survival, are vividly manifested. The inter-population variability of color morphs from the geographically close localities of the Middle Ural may be determined by the degree of urbanization of the habitat, the diversity and abundance of forage resources and the technogenic load. The obtained materials may be of interest in general for the study of sustainable color polymorphism of blue rock pigeons synanthropic populations as well as for identifying and justifying inter-population differences of blue rock pigeons populations from geographically remote localities of the Urals.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):107-112
The quality of drinking water supply in Samara
Sazonova O.V., Ryazanova T.K., Tupikova D.S., Sudakova T.V., Vistyak L.N., Toropova N.M., Sokolova I.V.

The purpose of the study was to monitor the quality of drinking water supply in Samara. The quality of drinking water was evaluated in 7 districts of Samara on the basis of 20 sanitary-chemical indicators in accordance with health and safety norms and regulations (SanPiN–01 2010–2013 and 2018–2019). A changed color of drinking water was mainly observed in the areas with water supply from the Saratov reservoir (53,5 ± 8,5% of samples). In the areas with underground water sources the dry residue and hardness of drinking water exceeded hygiene requirements by 100% and 87,5% of samples respectively. 64% of samples in 2010–2013 and 17,4% of samples in 2018–2019 were non-standard in terms of permanganate oxidation. Several samples didn’t meet the hygienic standard for iron content. Adverse changes in the temporal dynamics of the proportion of samples that didn’t meet the hygienic standard for the content of oil products were noted. The quality of some samples of drinking water in Samara did not meet sanitary requirements for some indicators. No significant differences were found between the average long-term values of sanitary and hygienic indicators for urban areas and the obtained data for drinking water in the new housing estate, which suggests that the condition of the water supply pipes doesn’t influence the composition of the drinking water in the yard or at home.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):113-121
Developing a list of woody plants recommended for landscaping and reconstruction of Cheboksary green areas based on the assessment of the urban environment quality
Samokhvalov K.V., Sinichkin E.A.

The paper presents the results of research to assess the quality of the urban environment in the areas we have identified by the functional and economic significance of Cheboksary using a method of fluctuating asymmetry of Betula pendula Roth leaves and a scale of gas resistance of tree and shrub plants. The studies have showed that the integral indices of fluctuating asymmetry of Betula pendula leaf plates of all surveyed green planting objects vary from 0,038 to 0,054. The highest levels of asymmetry were found in the eastern and southern parts of the city, where the values of leaf asymmetry fluctuations range from 0,050 to 0,054. Based on an assessment of the quality of the urban environment the authors have developed recommendations to improve and expand the range of resistant woody plants to anthropogenic stress of Cheboksary. Depending on the nature of the urban environment and the degree of woody plants resistance to anthropogenic pollution, we offer a range of woody and shrub plants for landscaping, it contains 73 species. The recommended range of trees and shrubs for landscaping in the Central zone of Cheboksary is 68 species (asymmetry coefficient – 0,040 to 0,044), in the Coastal and Suburban areas – 62 species (asymmetry coefficient – 0,046 to 0,049), in the Industrial zone – 29 species (asymmetry coefficient – 0,050 to 0,053).

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):122-128
Phytodiversity of the Irgiz Floodplain nature monument
Solovieva V.V.

The Bolshoy Irgiz River is 375 km long and has a catchment area of 24 thousand km², including the Orenburg Region and the Samara Region. The flora contains 64 species of plants: 14 belong to the class of monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and 48 belong to the class of dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida), the most numerous families by the number of species are Lamiaceae (5), Cyperaceae (5), Potamogetonaceae (5), Polygonaceae (4), Poaceae (4). The ecological spectrum of the flora is represented by hydrophytes (20 species), helophytes (8), hygrohelophytes (5), hygrophytes (19) and mesophytes (12). These are mainly broad-area species of the Eurasian (23), Holarctic (23) and pluriregional (11) ranges. There are only 7 species of plants with narrow range borders. In economic terms the flora consists of 28 species of medicinal plants, as well as forage (23), tanning (15), food (14), dye (13), honey (12), ornamental (11) and poisonous (8) plants. Vegetation is represented by 17 formations and is represented by the coastal-aquatic vegetation type and two subtypes: coastal and aquatic vegetation. The first subtype contains formations: Phragmiteta australis, Typheta angustifolitae, Scirpeta lacustris, Sagittarieta sagittifoliae, Persicarieta amphibii, Alismateta plantago-aquaticae. The second subtype contains: Nymphaeeta candidae, Nuphareta luteae, Potameta lucentis, Potameta perfoliati, Potameta crispus, Lemneta minori, Salvinieta natantis, Hydrocharieta morsus-ranae, Spirodeleta polyrhizi, Lemneta trisulcae, Ceratophylleta demersi. Coastal plant communities are characterized by a 2–3-tier structure, a high degree of projective coverage, and a relatively high abundance of species (from 15 to 26). Water phytocoenoses are poor in species composition, have a spotty character of overgrowth and 1–2 tiered structure. The Irgiz Floodplain nature monument requires compliance with the stipulated protection measures in order to preserve the habitat of rare plant populations – Nuhar luteum L., Nymphaea candida J. et C. Presl., Salvinia natans L. (All.), Cicuta virosa L., Najas major All. Descriptions of phytocenoses were carried out according to the generally accepted method of geobotanical research in the summer of 2018, while tiering, abundance, projective cover and vitality were noted as well as all species included in plant communities were registered.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):129-136
Distribution of lichen thalli Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf along Pinus sylvestris trunk in different types of pine forests with different relief positions
Suetina Y.G.

The research of the Pseudevernia furfuracea population was carried out in the Mari El Republic on the territory of the «Mari Chodra» National Park. The lichen-mossy and cowberry pine forests were studied with different relief positions: uplands and lowlands. The paper discusses the use of two indicators of population density: D₁ – is a number of thalli on the tree; D₂ – is a number of thalli in the substrate area. The distribution of thalli along the trunk of Pinus sylvestris depends on the characteristics of the stand, characteristics of the tree and the position of the trees in the relief. In a well-lightened lichen-mossy pine forest the distribution of the number of thallus is equal at different exposures, but it is different due to the heights of the trunk. The maximum number of thalli is typical for a height of 0,5–1 m. The most number of thallus grows at the southern and western expositions in less lightened cowberry pine forests. There is a shift in the height of the number of thallus to a height of 1–1,5 m. There is a dependence of the upper boundary of the thallus distribution along the trunk on the height of the lamellar bark. The highest upper limit of thallus growth (a height of 4,8 m) is typical for the lowering of the lichen-mossy pine forest, where the lamellar bark rises to a height of 7,2 m. The lower boundary of the thallus settlement depends on microclimatic factors. Among them the decisive factor is light. The smallest lower boundary of a thallus settlement (a height of 0,2 m) is typical for an elevation in a lichen-mossy pine forest. This habitat has the highest population density of P. furfuracea.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):137-141
The assessment of woody plants vital state in the landscaping of Ishim
Tokar O.E.

This paper analyzes the current state of landscaping in Ishim. The data on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of woody plants have been obtained for the first time; the assessment of trees and shrubs state is based on the analysis of the vitality index. A database of green plants within 21 objects in Ishim was created and analyzed. The paper also contains data on the species diversity of trees and shrubs in Ishim. It turned out that the objects under study have trees and shrubs placed in special dividing strips, linearly, in rows or in small compact groups, less often they are planted singly. The species composition is represented by 47 species from 28 genera, 16 families and 2 divisions. The biomorphological structure is represented by trees (25, or 53% of species) and shrubs (22, or 47% of species). The total composition of tree and shrub plantations, determined by the number of trunks (bushes) and the percentage of woody plants, is 2854; the composition of the preserved ones is 2 815 (99%) pieces; the ones assigned for removal are 39 (1%) pcs. The vitality index shows that among 85% of the studied objects of the town at the time of the survey were «healthy», among 10% of the objects they were qualified as «damaged», among 5% of them were «severely damaged». Based on the results of examining crowns and trunks of woody plants, signs of diseases and pests, a plan of measures for the treatment, restoration and preservation of woody plants was drawn up and recommendations were given for caring, sanitary felling and removal of single specimens.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):142-147
Several introduction aspects of herbaceous perennials representatives from the collection of Surgut State University Botanical Garden
Turbina I.N., Kravchenko I.V.

The paper deals with the results of introduction studies of herbaceous perennials of the family Asteraceae – Centaurea dealbata Willd., Helenium hoopesii Gray, Achillea filipendulina Lam; family Hemerocallidoideae – Hemerocallis fulva L.; family Scrophulariaceae – Penstemon digitalis Nutt. ex Sims in Surgut State University Botanical Garden. It has been established that their seasonal development is characterized by long vegetation; phenorithmotype has been identified as spring-summer-autumn-green, with a flowering period starting in late summer and autumn periods. The quantitative determination of pigments of the introduced species leaves has been carried out by a spectrophotometric method. As a result, it has been revealed that the pigment composition of the leaves of experimental perennials indicates their relatively high physiological status, species specificity and dependence on the phase of plants vegetation. It has been noted that the content of yellow pigments during the growing season was stable and several times inferior to the level of chlorophylls. An increase in the concentration of carotenoids and flavonoids of most of the experimental plants has been observed during the formation of generative organs and fruits ripening. The data obtained highlight the relevance of analyzed species as a source of decorative perennials stable in culture, characterized with long vegetation and flowering periods.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):148-151
The external environment of birds as a factor of immunobiochemical conditions
Fatkullin R.R., Saken A.K.

Abnormal environmental factors contribute to advanced behavioral strategies in higher regulatory centers as well as to the assessment of possible morphofunctional and energy transformations in the body. Animals, especially birds, which are characterized by curiosity, are highly sensitive to the presence of environmental pollution, since they interact with elements of the environment and surroundings. Contamination of broiler products can also be caused by contaminated soil and dust, unknown sources of persistent heavy metals and organic pollutants that are unknown to the public, such as car wreckage, household waste, and so on. In general, adverse factors that regularly affect small details do not require significant changes in the body at the initial stage, mainly affect non-specific mechanisms that lead to long-term activation. The paper contains significant work based on the analysis of microbiogenic links in the trophic chain, but the formation of processes associated with metabolic disorders from the development of trace elements to clinical manifestations is still insufficiently studied, so it is difficult to diagnose and treat previously unknown animal diseases in veterinary practice.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):152-157
The analysis of planktonic algae structure in the Volga and Kama rivers (Republic of Tatarstan)
Khaliullina L.Y.

The paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of planktonic algae structure in the Volga and Kama rivers at the confluence of the Kuibyshev reservoir. The author has also assessed the trophic state of the studied river sections in 2012. The hydrochemical regime of the Kuibyshev reservoir is heterogeneous and is determined by the chemical composition of the Volga and Kama waters, which differ in the ratio of ions and mineralization. The ionic composition of the Kama waters is often dominated by sulfates. The salinity depending on the season and water content of the year ranges from 168 to 674 mg/l. The Volga waters contain calcium bicarbonate and have a lower mineralization (120–130 mg/l). The variability of the incoming water, the amount of runoff, the degree of volume drawdown within water bodies and groundwater inflows primarily affect the conditions for planktonic algae existence. In the phytoplankton of the Volga and Kama rivers (areas before their confluence in the Kuibyshev Reservoir), 123 taxa of algae were identified during the 2012 growing season. The waters of the Volga River have a higher species diversity (107 species). The phytoplankton of the Kama River is less diverse (76 species). In the seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton in the studied river sections, two peaks of abundance and biomass are observed – by the middle of summer and at the end of it, when the maximum values of abundance and biomass are reached. The waters of the investigated sections of the Volga River is characterized by a complex of phytoplankton of blue-green, diatoms and green algae, while the Kama River is dominated by diatom phytoplankton. In summer and autumn the «blooming» of water in both rivers is due to the massive development of blue-green algae of the genera Microcystis, Aphanizomenon, Anabaena, Oscillatoria. The waters of the Volga and Kama rivers in 2012 during the study period corresponded to the mesasaprobic type and moderately polluted zone; the waters of the Kama River had higher saprobity indices. The trophic status of the rivers under consideration in the study area was mostly related to the eutrophic type; during the periods of maximum reproduction of blue-green algae – to the hypereutrophic type.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):158-165
Species diversity of birds in various high-rise complexes of the Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam area
Shichkova E.V., Chumakov S.V.

This paper presents the inventory results of bird species diversity in the area of the Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam. The territory covers the mountainous area of the National Park «Shushensky Bor», urban-type settlement Cheryomushki and its surroundings, including a section of the Sayano-Shushensky reservoir in the upper head water of the Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam and the Yenisei channel below the dam. A list of 216 species has been compiled, for 195 there is reliable confirmation of their habitat. The share of migratory-nesting species is 41%, sedentary – 14%, migratory species – about 31%, wintering and partially wintering – 34%. Three species of waterfowl spend winter in the non-freezing areas of the reservoir. Within various high-altitude complexes 10 types of habitats have been identified, where on the basis of quantitative surveys numerous and common bird species have been identified. The maximum species richness was observed for the ornithocoenosis of the floodplain-valley complex. A cluster analysis of the lists of bird species for the selected habitats has been carried out. The analysis showed a high β-diversity along the gradient of heights: forest communities of different altitude levels are similar in species lists by no more than 45%, intrazonal and alpine habitats have unique sets of species and are similar to the others by 2–9%. The lists of birds in subalpine meadows and high-mountain tundras were found to be identical. In winter there is a high correlation of the bird population between the floodplain-valley complex and anthropogenically disturbed territories. Three bird species were found outside the main range and 5 species within the main range, but not previously noted in this area by other researchers.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):166-172
Ecological and biological features of the Far Eastern dendroflora representatives introduced in the Altai Mountains
Yamtyrov M.B., Vasilyeva O.Y.

The paper substantiates the importance of research in the field of ecological morphology when introducing woody species to culture in more severe climatic conditions compared to natural habitats. A set of techniques used for introduction experiments with trees, shrubs and woody lianas is described. The authors have carried out a comparative analysis of life forms of the same species in the monsoon climate in the Far East in places of natural growth (according to literature data) and in the sharply continental climate of the Altai Mountains at the point of introduction (according to long-term observations). It has been revealed that the most frequent adaptive manifestation is the change of life form in the following directions: summer green tree above 10 m → summer green tree up to 10 m; summer green shrub above 2 m → summer green shrub 1–2 m. The least adapted ones were representatives of evergreen and wintergreen biomorphs. Berberis amurense, Corylus heterophylla, Cotoneaster dammeri, Pentaphylloides davurica, Lonicera chrysantha, Forsythia ovata, Eleutherococcus senticocus, Stephanandra incise, Rubus matsumuranus, Rubus crataegifolius, Rosa rugosa showed a high degree of winter hardiness (I score) among shrubs.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):173-179
Historical Sciences and Archaeology
The question of the Paleolithic of Mangystau (Levallois-Achel or Mikok?)
Artukhova O.A., Mamirov T.B.

The paper presents technical and typological characteristics of stone artifacts, which were collected on the III above-floodplain terrace of the Shakhpakatasai valley on the northern coast of the Mangystau peninsula, south of Sarytash Bay, in the area of the underground mosque – Shakpakata. It was these artifacts that served as the basis for A.G. Medoev’s identification of Levallois-Achel cultures 1 and 2. These concepts are widely used in generalizing works on the Paleolithic of Kazakhstan, although the materials remained unprocessed and unpublished due to the untimely death of the researcher. In 2018–2020 the authors conducted field and office work to localize collection points of 1966–1969, to process and describe collections, and attempted to interpret them. The artifacts lay on the surface of the third above-floodplain terrace of the through-valley Shakhpakatasai uncovered and unredeposited. In the sides of the valley thick layers of flint nodules are exposed, which served as an inexhaustible source of raw materials for making tools at different stages of the Stone Age. According to the degree of surface deflation the artifacts are subdivided into three series. Of particular interest are moderately deflated artifacts, including a significant number of bifaces and bifacial tools, which makes it possible to raise the question of including the early series of artifacts from Shakpakata workshop sites in the framework of the «Eastern Micoquien».

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):180-188
Dwellings of the Elshan Early Neolithic culture
Andreev K.M.

Dwelling is the most important source, revealing the details of social structure, economy, technical traditions and is of key importance for understanding society. Only a limited number of dwelling complexes which can be reliably interpreted as early Neolithic and classified as the Elshan culture have been identified. Moreover, the cultural and chronological attribution of some interpreted as early Neolithic dwellings, in our opinion, is not sufficiently reasoned. In this paper data on all Elshan residential buildings is combined and a brief interpretation is given, as well as some of the previously mentioned provisions are disclosed in more detail. To the early Neolithic in the forest-steppe Volga region, with a high degree of probability, only dwellings identified on the sites of Vyunovo ozero I, Imerka VII and Utyuzh I, with certain reservations, the dwelling of the Lugovoe III site, with the same reservations, the residential structure investigated at the Lebyazhinka IV site, can be classified with a high probability. Most likely, it belongs to the developed and late Neolithic of the region. In general, the dwellings of the Elshan culture were light frame structures, slightly deepened into the mainland, such as a hut, without a visible system in the location of pillar holes. Probably, but not doubtfully, the area of residential buildings of the Elshan culture increased from early to late stages of its development. In connection with the specific life support model of the Elshan population, which implied a systematic change of place of residence, they functioned for a short time. Judging by the available data, the use of a limited number of dishes (1–3 vessels) is associated with a period of Elshan population residence in one place, and, therefore, settlements with relatively large collections of ceramics were most likely visited many times by the Neolithic population.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):189-193
Regional Center Landscape Evolution in the Middle Volga Region
Chepurnova E.I.

The paper discusses the development of Samara’s urban space in the focus of the planning structure of the city and its territorial growth. The stages of development of the urban landscape from the moment of the city’s foundation to the beginning of the XX century are studied. During this time, Samara has gone from a small fortress with narrow functionality to a large commercial and industrial administrative center. Its functioning required a special organization of urban space. The historical planning structure was chaotic, which, combined with mass wood construction, led to regular devastating fires and hampered the development of the city. A turning point in the development of the urban area of the regional centers of the Middle Volga region should be considered the appearance of master plans with regular construction, which ordered the urban space. The city went beyond the boundaries of the plan as the urban population grew, and the city authorities could not always cope with the situation, so chaotic buildings continued to grow on the periphery of the city. The analysis of the problems of architectural development of the city showed that eclecticism and Art Nouveau had the greatest impact on the urban landscape.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):194-198
«Ultimum ratio of the Great century»: the development of the English Royal regular army in the XVII century
Gordienko D.O.

The paper analyses the processes of a modern state development on the example of a regular army development as a basis of the national military system. The author considers the relationship between the development of foreign and domestic policy issues under the Late Tudors. The author analyzes the role of force-based decision-making of the most important issues in decision-making by the Crown under the First Stuarts. The author also analyzes the heavy legacy of the Protectorate regime in terms of the population’s acceptance of the idea of a regular army existence. The difficulties encountered by the Stuart dynasty in solving this problem are shown. The problems of financing the Royal army were the main reasons why the active part of the population didn’t support the existence of a regular army. The process of creating the Royal regular army is shown on the background of broad European practices of the Great century. The main vectors of British foreign policy development are shown – from the continental confrontation with the United Provinces and France to the colonial coexistence with Spain and France. In addition, a conclusion is drawn about the continuity of military construction by the ruling regimes in England of the XVII century. Practices undertaken by the Tudors, James I, Charles I, Lord Protector Cromwell and the age of Restoration sovereigns are shown.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):199-203
The conflict between Nomadic and Sedentary civilizations in a render of cartographical thought
Ivanov K.V.

This paper compares the mental map of the Kazakh nomads and representational mappings of Russian surveyors. This comparison makes it possible to identify several categories of place-names, which had been heavily used both by nomads and Russian topographers. In spite of the fact that in many cases these place-names varied little concerning the expression, they usually included a number of key differences concerning the content. Such a situation caused series of mental conflicts, which under certain circumstances could escalate into the arm clashes. One of the conclusions in this paper is that the narratives resulted from colonial knowledge were insensitive to the signifieds that were central to the nomadic existence. In contrast, the benchmarks of representational topography had immediately identified the categories, by which the nomads linked their mental map to the steppe. These categories included «isolated terrain features» (urochishcha), «routes», and «boundaries». The paper provides an analysis of the structure relevant to each of these concepts and reveals significant differences in their values for the representatives of nomadic and sedentary civilizations. The paper contains a few examples that illustrate how these differences could lead to conflicts between Kazakh nomads and Russian sedentary settlers.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):204-212
«Russia does not step out of the role of the defendant in the Persian question…»: British discursive practices and Russian public opinion on the eve of the Great War
Larin A.B.

The paper is devoted to the peculiarities of the British socio-political discourse functioning in the relation towards Russia and its foreign policy on the eve of the First World War. Based on the materials related to the Persian question and the activities of the Persia Committee, it was shown that a significant part of the British public opinion was biased against Russia, even after the signing of the 1907 Convention. Such invective approach had a direct and indirect impact on the policy of Foreign Office. At the same time, these British discursive practices were accepted by Russian public opinion as a constant in the mutual relations of the two Empires. Moreover, there was a tendency in Russian press to use the British «Other» (accusing and rebuking) as a convenient tool for affirming their own ideas and positions. Commenting on various British accusations and reproaches, Russian publicists appealed to their own government, hinting that the latter pays more attention to the British public opinion than to the interests of Russia. The government, for its part, used the appeal to Russian public opinion as an argument in its disputes with London. Thus, during the period under review, in Russia it was learned how to use the British approach to it as to a convenient «Other» in its own interests.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):213-218
«Jewish easternism» of Ya.A. Bromberg
Bystryukov V.Y.

The Eurasian movement included a large number of intellectuals – representatives of the Russian emigration. Not all of them shared the ideology of the new movement, some were in its ranks accidentally and later disavowed Eurasianism. A.V. Kartashev, S.L. Frank, P.M. Bitsilli had a status of invited specialists and could not be attributed to Eurasianism. The issue about the membership of the movement and the legitimacy of attributing the texts of a particular author to the Eurasian ones is relevant. We deal with the works of Ya.A. Bromberg, devoted to the Jewish question. He said that the impetus for writing them was the articles by L.P. Karsavin and A.Z. Steinberg published in the weekly magazine «Versty». Ya.A. Bromberg’s methodology was completely based on the policy that appeared in previous works of Eurasian authors, especially P.N. Savitskiy, N.S. Trubetzkoy and L.P. Karsavin. He considered that the position of Jewry at the junction of Poland and Russia obliged to understand the religious, cultural and political position to the East and West. The main meaning of the works by Ya.A. Bromberg was the critics of Western movements in the area of Eastern Jewry and acceptance of its «Eurasian» future as the only possible one.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):219-223
The Chinese Civil War based on «Foreign Affairs» magazine
Buranok S.O., Nesterov D.A.

In this paper the authors consider the materials of one of the leading American analytical magazines «Foreign Affairs», devoted to the Chinese Civil War in 1929–1950. The novelty of this study lies in the analysis of assessments of key actors and assessments of the situation in the country as well as a possible outcome of the conflict which were made by American journalists. The authors provide the results of the analysis of Foreign Affairs articles for the formation of Mao Zedong image in connection with the events of that time. The authors reviewed the main arguments of the American press, which revealed that the problem of the civil war was one of the components of the complex problem of planning a post-war reconstruction of the world. The United States was primarily interested in changes in the balance of power in the Far East, tried to assess the possible outcomes of the conflict and how they would affect the United States itself (mainly in the economic sphere). But as the victory of the Chinese Communist Party, headed by Mao Zedong, approached the Kuomintang support from American experts weakened. The study of this information phenomenon will allow researchers to understand what impact on Sino-American relations was made by an influential American analytical magazine through the formation of ideas about China, the Chinese people and their political elites.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):224-229
Livestock industry of the Urals on the eve of the Great Patriotic War
Bakhtiyarov R.S., Fedorova A.V.

The study examines the development of the most important branch of agriculture and livestock farming on the eve of the great Patriotic war of 1941–1945. The work provides the most important indicators of the livestock development in the USSR as a whole and in the Ural Region in particular after the beginning of agricultural production reconstruction in the Soviet Union on an industrial basis. The authors analyze the reasons that influenced the dynamics of the agricultural livestock sector development in the country after the beginning of collectivization in the Soviet village. The paper contains the facts of the negative impact of the first steps that the leaders of the country and the Ural regions made during the transition to industrial methods of livestock farming. The paper also considers the ways of the identified shortcomings and excesses elimination in the agricultural policy in the 20s–30s of the XX century. The paper provides clear evidence that, despite the most serious mistakes in planning the development of the industry in conditions when the bulk of commercial livestock products gradually began to be produced by large collective and state agricultural enterprises rather than by small farms, the state’s efforts to improve the efficiency of the industry yielded positive results. Compared with previous periods, the marketability of agricultural production in general and the livestock industry in particular significantly increased. For example, in comparison with the pre-revolutionary period, the marketability of meat had risen from 42% to 67% by 1940 as well as the amount of meat produced in the country had increased from 2,4 million tons in the late 20s to 4,2 million tons by 1940. At the same time, the Ural economic area during the period under review, contrary to many established stereotypes, was one of the largest livestock areas in the USSR. In the Soviet Union the share of livestock in agricultural production reached 25,4% while in the Urals it was 28,4%.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):230-233
Turkey’s political crisis of the 1970s and the military coup on September 12, 1980
Tovsultanova M.S., Tovsultanov R.A., Galimova L.N.

In the 1970s, Turkey was in a state of political turbulence. Weak coalition governments changed frequently and could not bring order to the country. The city streets turned into an arena of battles for various armed radical groups of nationalist, communist, Islamist and separatist persuasions. For 9 years from 1971 to 1980, 10 governments changed in Turkey. The political crisis was accompanied by an economic downturn, expressed in hyperinflation and an increase in external debt. Chaos and anarchy caused discontent among Turkish financial circles and generals with the situation in the country and led to the idea of a military coup, already the third in the republican history of Turkey. The US State Department was extremely concerned about the situation in Turkey, hoping to find a reliable cover against further exports of communism and Islamism to the Middle East, approving the possibility of a coup. The coup was led by the chief of the General Staff K. Evren. Political events of the second half of the 1970s allow us to conclude that, despite the interest of the financial and military circles of the United States in it, the military coup on September 12, 1980 had mainly domestic political reasons.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):234-238
Alcohol in the Bashkirs’ value system
Migranova E.V.

The paper touches upon such a relevant topic as alcohol in the Bashkirs’ value system. The history of alcohol in the life of a traditional Bashkir society shows that they were previously uncharacteristic of drinking strong alcoholic beverages; in addition, it was condemned by the public, elders, representatives of a religious cult, etc. Traditional Bashkir drinks were koumiss, buza, ayran, katyk, less commonly – mead. The study conducted in 1913 on the spread of alcoholism among the rural population of the Ufa province showed that the population of the Mohammedan, including Bashkir, villages had practically no alcoholism. However, with the decomposition of the traditional social system of the Bashkirs, strengthening of commodity-money relations, development of capitalism and urban culture, the alcoholization of the Bashkir population intensified. This process also continued under the secular system; in the middle of the twentieth century alcohol abuse in certain circles was a legacy of the front-line subculture, as well as the introduction of Soviet civilian rituals into the life of the Bashkirs. The paper presents the results of an ethno sociological study conducted by us in 2018–2019 among the Bashkir population. It turned out that almost half of the respondents drink alcohol from time to time or during the holidays; more than 35% indicated that they did not drink at all. These data are almost identical to those obtained in a similar study conducted among the Bashkirs in the mid-1980s. The comparison of the materials obtained on the subject of this study in other Russian regions and in the whole country is also consistent with the data on the Bashkirs and shows that the problem of alcoholization of the Russian population is currently very acute. The materials that we received can be used for further research of the transformation processes of Bashkir society, for the preparation of practical recommendations for state authorities, scientific, educational institutions, public organizations, etc.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):239-244
Pedagogical Sciences
Scientific and methodological conditions for adapting foreign experience of higher education internationalization
Aldakimova O.V.

The paper presents an analysis of education internationalization as a leading direction in the development of higher education in the context of globalization. The author considers domestic and foreign theories of education internationalization, highlighting its political, economic, demographic and pedagogical aspects, which proves the multidimensional nature of this scientific and educational phenomenon. The need to strengthen Russia’s geopolitical influence in the world as well as strengthen the competitive advantages of Russian education actualizes research interest in the successful experience of foreign countries in the field of education internationalization and the possibility of its use in Russian universities. The scientific novelty and theoretical significance of the research lies in the substantiation and characterization of the scientific and methodological conditions for adapting the foreign experience of education internationalization. The author proves that scientific and methodological conditions for adapting foreign experience of education internationalization include theoretical and methodological conditions, organizational and methodological conditions, educational, methodological and psychological conditions. Comprehensive implementation of the identified conditions allows implementing of the international dimension in the educational, research and management activities of higher education institutions. The practical significance of the research is determined by the possibility of using the results obtained in the development of international activities of higher education institutions, in the integration of modern tools for higher education internationalization, taking into account Russian academic and scientific traditions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):245-249
The specifics of barriers of adult students learning a foreign language inside and outside the language environment
Brem N.S.

The paper contains a comparative analysis of difficulties in learning foreign languages inside and outside the language environment. On the first stage of the study based on the research of literature the author (1) builds a typology of difficulties in foreign language acquisition inside the language environment; (2) describes the specifics of the adult as a subject of education; (3) gives a definition to the term «barrier in foreign language acquisition». A barrier in foreign language acquisition is defined as a student’s individual reflection of objective and subjective difficulties influencing the learning process, accompanied by frustration, a high level of anxiety and a low learning progress. The second stage of the research deals with comparing students’ problems inside and outside the language environment. The author interviewed foreign language teachers working inside and outside the language environment about their students’ learning problems and compared the results. Both stages of the current study proved that the level of barriers inside the language environment is high. Moreover, inside the language environment students demonstrated even more psychological, social, psychophysiological and linguistic barriers than outside. Some types of difficulties exist just inside the language environment: social adjustment difficulties and problems of intercultural communication. However, a few difficulties on the contrary prevail outside the language environment: low auditory ability, low motivation to learn the language, mistrust to teacher as a reliable source of information. The author explains the reasons of a high level of barriers inside the language environment with the tendency to intensify the learning process inside the language environment and a high affective filter due to the necessity to adjust to a new culture and learning conditions. The following conclusion was drawn: on the one hand the language environment stimulates students to learn a language faster, on the other hand it triggers the emergence of additional difficulties in the learning process, especially sociocultural and psychological barriers.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):250-257
Linguodidactic potential of concepts in teaching foreign languages to students-interpreters
Vasilenko S.S.

The paper discusses possibilities and ways of studying concepts in teaching foreign languages to students-interpreters. The author notes that modern didactic research has interdisciplinary nature, analyzes the theory of the concept from the point of view of linguistics, cultural studies and psycholinguistics. The author also notes the fact of creation of linguo-conceptodidactics as a new scientific direction. The paper presents a linguodidactic understanding of the concept, analyzes its structure and semantic content. The author describes in detail the process of foreign language concepts acquisition and presents it as a sequence of several stages. The acquisition of foreign language concepts is associated with the development of concept competence. The paper notes that the acquisition of foreign language concepts should go in parallel with the acquisition of foreign language lexis. In addition, it is necessary to use authentic materials in teaching foreign languages that allows forming a conceptual picture of the world of native speakers. Acquisition of foreign language concepts is especially important for students-interpreters who study several foreign languages and are faced with the problem of translating foreign concepts and phenomena of foreign language reality. The paper presents how conceptuality can be realized in teaching foreign languages. The author gives a practical example of studying the English concept «Travel», offers examples of exercises and tasks for mastering it, as well as mnemonic techniques for memorizing lexemes that represent the concept. In the paper is stressed, that the concepts should be included in the content of foreign language teaching to students-interpreters. This contributes to the development of correct ideas about foreign language reality, understanding the facts of the native and foreign language culture, i.e. cultural reflection development.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):258-262
Moral knowledge of students – prospective teachers as a subject of a pedagogical analysis
Guschina A.V.

The goal of this paper is to study the current state of moral knowledge of students majoring in «Education». The author explains the need to study the moral knowledge of students about the content of the categories «moral», «morality», «value» and the golden rule of morality. The author finds a leading method that can be used while studying the moral knowledge of future teachers – it is the method of the conceptual vocabulary. The paper reveals common and different ideas of freshmen and graduating students about morality, value and the golden rule of morality. It is substantiated that the moral knowledge of freshmen is mostly ordinary knowledge, while the moral knowledge of graduating students is connected with scientific meaning. It is proved that graduating students, realizing that morality is a reflection on themselves, understand the relationship between morality and behavior in relation to another person, they understand that the relationship is the link between the side of consciousness and the behavioral side of the teacher’s morality; The author reveals graduating students’ orientation towards those taking the form of a guideline of their activities, the ideal to which the prospective teacher aspires, and values. The development of students’ ability to moral and pedagogical reflection of moral knowledge is defined as a prospect of upbringing the morality of prospective teachers.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):263-267
Methodology for studying the «Struggle for existence» topic within the university course «Theory of Evolution»
Lamekhova E.A., Lamekhov Y.G.

The paper discusses a methodology for studying one of the most complex phenomena in the organic world – struggle for existence within the course «Theory of Evolution» at a pedagogical university. The study of information about the history of development and the formation of evolutionary concepts shows that the discovery of the factors of the organic world evolution is one of the outstanding achievements in the development of biology. In the 20th century, scientific knowledge about the causes of the evolutionary process expanded and together with the material factors of evolution discovered by Charles Darwin stand out as follows: mutation process, dynamics of the number of organisms, isolation, migration, struggle for existence and natural selection. The modern level of «struggle for existence» theory development is based on achievements in the field of ecology and evolutionary biology and proves that this factor of evolution really exists. The developed methodology for studying this topic includes the content of the course program, a list of questions for study, recommendations for laboratory studies and independent observations in nature. Since the course is studied in the 5th year, it relies on students’ knowledge from other biological courses as well as on the skills they develop. The course contains the use of elements of partial search and research methods (laboratory work, observations in nature) of teaching with options for conversation, comparison of different points of view, etc. The proposed variant of studying the «Struggle for Existence» topic will contribute to the high-quality training of students – prospective teachers of biology.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):268-274
Professional substitutability and additional education of engineering graduates
Mikhelkevich V.N., Ovchinnikova L.P., Chugunova S.V.

The paper deals with the psycho-didactic problems arising in employing engineering graduates for positions that don’t meet either the level or the area of training acquired at a technical higher school. Foreign authors refer to this socio-didactic phenomenon as professional substitutability. It is stressed that in a market-based society professional substitutability is, to some extent, predictable and inevitable. For that reason, the adaptation of university graduates to taking up job vacancies is becoming highly relevant both for young specialists and for their potential employers, as well as for the system of additional education. It is shown that professional substitutability may be of two kinds: vertical and horizontal. Vertical substitutability refers to the situations when graduates with a specific degree (specialist, bachelor, master) in a specific field and subject of training are employed according to the area of their higher school, but the job qualification doesn’t match the graduate’s qualification (it may be either higher or lower). Horizontal substitutability refers to the processes when the graduate, due to some extraordinary circumstances, is to take up a vacancy that is fully in line with the university qualification; however (in a more favorable situation) it doesn’t match the university training, although that major belongs to the same field of training. In a less favorable case, the graduate takes up a position requiring the qualification that may differ from the field of university training. The paper outlines the content and the components of the adaptation period needed for the young employee, when he/she is to go through psychological and professional subject and industry specific functional adaptation independently to bridge the knowledge gap and acquire professional competencies. Usually, the young specialist is to undergo additional training (in industry, technology, science), take a refresher course or enter a master’s degree or a post-graduate program. In the paper there is a summary table demonstrating the kinds and types of additional education for young specialists taking up job vacancies according to different types of horizontal and vertical professional substitutability. This table (which, actually, is a morphological matrix) can be used as a navigator for engineering graduates when taking up a job vacancy. It can be also applied by institutions of additional education to develop educational programs and curricula for refreshment and requalification courses.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):275-281
Development of foreign language communicative competence in the process of academic and professional interaction in a second foreign language
Odaryuk I.V., Gampartsumov A.S.

This paper examines the peculiarities of teaching German as a second foreign language in a railway university. The analysis emphasizes the inefficiency of traditional methods and the success of the bilingual approach, which consists in a harmonious combination of methodological principles of teaching the first and second foreign languages. The authors carry out a theoretical analysis of the fundamental principles of teaching a second foreign language: a comparative approach, the principle of reliance on the first foreign and native languages, an autonomous approach, a cognitive principle. The paper deals with the issues related to interference and transfer in teaching a second foreign language. Project methods (simulation, presentation speech, Lapbook-technology) tested by the author in the learning process are offered as learning technologies, the use of which facilitates effective mastering of foreign language skills and abilities. The syllabus of the course «A Second Foreign language» developed by teachers of the Rostov State Transport University in accordance with the new edition of the Federal State Educational Standard is analyzed. The conclusion is made that this syllabus satisfies the requirements put forward by methodologists to the process of teaching a second foreign language. The analysis of the organization of the educational process with the use of textbooks and a fund of assessment tools prepared for the course is expected to be the subject of our further research.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):282-286
Educational practice of students – prospective teachers in the context of distance learning
Pozdnyakova O.K., Kuleshova E.V.

The paper raises the problem of effective organization of pedagogical practice of students – prospective teachers in general and educational practice, in particular. The goal and the tasks of educational practice correlating with it are given (practice for obtaining primary professional skills, including primary skills and research skills). The experience of organizing this type of practice in the context of distance learning is presented. The tasks offered to students in a distance format are described: drawing up characteristics of an educational institution, identifying individual and personal characteristics of the teaching style of a foreign language teacher, analyzing activities of the subjects of the educational process at the lesson, assessing professionally significant qualities of the teacher, analysis of the educational process at the lesson, developing a plan outline of educational activities, analysis of educational activities, analysis of students’ activities in extracurricular educational work to achieve personal results indicated in the federal state educational standard of basic general education, analysis of pedagogical situations, reflective analysis of educational practice. The analysis of the reflexive part of students’ reports whose practice was in distant (2020) and full-time (2019) forms is carried out, and the peculiarities of students’ assessment of their activities within the framework of two forms of educational practice are revealed. The authors reveal what aroused particular interest among the students, what they thought they had learned, what caused the difficulties. The pros and cons of conducting educational practice (practice for obtaining primary professional skills, including primary skills and research skills) in a distant format are substantiated. The paper argues the position about the importance of real interaction with students and school teachers in the context of educational practice for the effectiveness of professional training of prospective teachers.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):287-293
The value foundations of the university teacher’s orientation towards the implementation of personality oriented education ideas
Tsepkova A.N.

The paper substantiates the importance of the implementation of personality-oriented education in higher education. The author reveals specifics of personality-oriented education at the university, an integral component of which is subjectivity. The author substantiates the legitimacy of extrapolating the ideas of personality-oriented education, the implementation of which is effective in a secondary school, to the university educational process and proposes the formulation of these ideas in relation to the university: the idea of recognizing a particular student’s personality value; development of the student’s personal experience; the ascent of the student to culture. The role of a university teacher in the implementation of personality-oriented education ideas in the process of interaction with students is revealed and the need to identify the value foundations of the university teacher’s orientation towards the implementation of such ideas is substantiated. The author considers that knowledge has a direct impact on human morality, the development of which is carried out through the choice of values and their subsequent appropriation by a person. The author also reveals the role of the teacher’s moral consciousness in understanding the value foundations of the orientation towards the implementation of personality-oriented education ideas. An example of determining the value foundations of personality-oriented education idea as the recognition of the value of a particular student’s personality is given and it is substantiated that this value basis is the value of «good». The author proves that it is possible to assess the implementation of personality-oriented education ideas according to moral criteria, in the role of which are the values that take on the meaning as values «for oneself» and «for another», the concepts of morality «good», «duty», «mercy», «justice», «honor». It is substantiated that the axiological space of the university filled with values, the meaning of which is acquired by the concepts of morality, can become a means of teacher’s orientation towards the implementation of personality-oriented education ideas.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):294-298
Technological competence of a modern educator as a condition of educational tasks efficient solving
Chelnokova T.A.

This paper considers a problem of technological competence of educators, which influences effectiveness of their activity. The problem of technological competence is considered in terms of requirements to educational institutions. It highlights the critical requirements to personality development of modern human. The paper touches upon the role of pedagogical engineering as a base for successful selection of educational technology. It describes modern technologies with specification of their applicability to solve educational challenges. The paper summarizes the experience of the author who has worked at school for many years. The paper describes capabilities of the technology for critical thinking development by means of reading and writing. The possibility of this technology for creativity, critical thinking, communication skills and teamwork development is proved. The paper provides a brief presentation of pedagogical technologies based on the ideas of psychotechnics. The author gives information about pedagogical technologies focused on the right hemisphere development. In the conclusion the author gives her own vision of the technological competence of a modern teacher, which is determined not only in quantitative, but also in qualitative characteristics.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):299-303
A value-based role-playing game as a method of prospective teacher’s moral culture development
Shadrina I.M.

This paper substantiates the importance of prospective teacher’s moral culture development. The author argues the values realized in the value-orientational activity of the teacher as moral guidelines that indicate the path of spiritual renewal of society. The author shows the relationship between the value-orientational activity of the teacher and his or her moral culture. It is stated that a value-based role-playing game is an effective method of prospective teacher’s moral culture development. The author finds similarities and differences between a value-based role-playing game and an ethical dialogue. The paper also contains the differences between spontaneous classroom pedagogical situations with value content and specially prepared and played out value-based role-playing games according to a specially prepared scenario. There are some examples of spontaneous and specially prepared value-based role-playing games in this paper. The author substantiates the importance of value-based role-playing games for prospective teacher understanding of his or her purpose in life in general and in prospective professional activities in particular, as well as in the search for moral life and pedagogical guidelines. The author provides evidence that in the process of participation in value-based role-playing games prospective teachers, mastering the knowledge about the moral guidelines of the value-orientational activity of the teacher, extract new ideas, which are subsequently transformed into principles that become the foundations of ethical and pedagogical activity. The purpose of a value-based role-playing game as a method of prospective teacher’s moral culture development is revealed: a value-based role-playing game allows to organize the interaction of students with values that clarify the meaning of pedagogical activity, life and the teacher’s purpose in life.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(3):304-308

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