Samara Journal of Science

Samara Journal of Science was established in 2012.

The authors of the journal are university academic staff, researchers, postgraduates, candidates for a doctor’s degree, senior students.

By the decision of Supreme Attestation Commission dated of 29.12.2015, the journal is listed in the Catalogue of peer-reviewed scientific publications, where the core scientific results of the candidate and doctoral theses must be published (link).

The journal is registered in the system “Russian Science Citation Index” (RSCI – eLIBRARY.RU).

The journal is registered in the system “CyberLeninka”.

The journal has professional, highly qualified editorial staff consisted of leading scientists (doctors of science, professors, academicians, correspondent members of Russian Academy of Sciences) – representatives of national and foreign institutions of higher education and scientific organizations.

Samara Journal of Science is an open scientific platform for all interested individuals and organizations, which enables authors to publish the results of their research in psychology and education as well as biological sciences, historical sciences and archeology. The journal promotes an exchange of views on various issues of pedagogy and psychology, biology, history, and archeology between researchers from different regions and countries.

 


Scientific fields of Samara Journal of Science:
03.02.00 General biology
03.02.04 Zoology
03.02.05 Entomology
03.02.08 Ecology (biological sciences)
07.00.00 Historical sciences and archeology
07.00.02 Domestic history
07.00.03 World history
07.00.06 Archeology
07.00.07 Ethnography, ethnology and anthropology
07.00.09 Historiography, source studies and methods of historical research
13.00.00 Pedagogical sciences
13.00.01 General pedagogy, history of pedagogy and education
13.00.02 Theory and methodology of training and upbringing
13.00.08 Theory and methodology of professional education

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Current Issue

Vol 10, No 1 (2021)

From editorial board
Research results of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education in 2020
Repinetsky A.I.
Abstract

Research results of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education in 2020.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):10-13
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General Biology
Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of Cistogaster globosa (Fabricius, 1775) и Cylindromyia interrupta (Meigen, 1824) (Diptera: Tachinidae)
Aksenenko E.V., Kondratyeva M.A.
Abstract

The paper describes the ultrastructure of antennal sensilla among two species of tachinid flies (Diptera: Tachinidae). For this purpose, the antennae of the adult flies Cistogaster globosa (Fabricius, 1775) and Cylindromyia interrupta (Meigen, 1824) were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The choice of antennae as structures for studying the receptor organs is explained by the fact that among insects they are the main site of sensilla localization. There is also a high degree of oligomerization of the antenna segments, which determines the concentration of sensilla on the apical segment in the short-tied circular-seam Diptera (Brachycera-Cyclorrhapha), to which the family Tachinidae also belongs. Most of antennal sensilla are morphologically independent elementary sensory formations. Each type of such sensory formations is responsible for one or more functions. Three types of sensilla were identified (trichoid, basiconic and coeloconical) as a result of the analysis of two tachinid species antennae. Trichoid and basiconic sensilla were found among the tachinid fly Cistogaster globosa, and trichoid and coeloconical sensilla were found among Cylindromyia interrupta. A large number of microtrichia was also found on the antenna elements in both tachinid species. Original SEM-images of the ultrastructural organization of the tachinid sensory system are provided; their localization and number per unit area are shown. The obtained data expand our understanding of the role of these morphological structures in the orientation of tachinid fly in the implementation of the reproductive strategy: search for a sexual partner, search for a potential host habitat, and search for a host.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):14-19
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Interrelation of hydrochemical indicators and the microbial community structure in the rivers within oil fields of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra
Arslanova M.M., Shornikova E.A.
Abstract

Assessing the quality of environmental objects, identifying the causes of pollution and predicting the future state is an urgent and important task, since it is the quality of natural objects that largely determines the state of human health. This paper presents results of the statistical analysis of the data of water quality monitoring in the rivers within oil fields of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra during 2018–2019. The correlation analysis (according to Pearson) was carried out to identify the relationships between the samples of hydrochemical parameters and the number of microorganisms of various ecological-trophic groups. As a result of the correlation analysis of the relationship between the indicators of the chemical composition of water, a direct and inverse correlation was obtained for the following indicators: total iron, anionic surfactants, nickel, phenols, copper, sulfates, ammonium ions, lead, phosphates, manganese. The maximum value of the correlation coefficient is observed for Ni and Cr concentrations. For total iron and manganese, a significant positive correlation is also revealed. The distribution of chemical compounds in the rivers doesn’t have a pronounced correlation dependence, which is probably due to the heterogeneity of the composition of the waters, as well as to the increasing impact on the environment of the oil and gas complex.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):20-23
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Morphological variability in coenopopulations of the rare species Adonis villosa Ledeb. (Ranunculaceae) in the North Altai
Achimova A.A., Papina O.N., Zhmud E.V.
Abstract

This paper examines the morphological variability in coenopopulations of the rare species Adonis villosa Ledeb., which grows in the North Altai. We have described the features of the places where this rare species grows – in the Maiminsky (on the right bank of the Maima river, in the vicinity of the villages of Maima, Kyzyl-Ozek, Kutash) and Choysky Districts (in the vicinity of the villages of Choya, Karasuk, Paspaul, Levinka). The studies of intra- and inter-population variability in dynamics over the years were conducted. It is established that the degree of variability of morphological features in similar ecological and geographical conditions is influenced by weather conditions. Based on the analysis of the state of the studied coenopopulations, the limiting factors for the growth and development of plants and the most favorable conditions for the introduction of this rare species into the culture were identified. The limiting factors should be considered – insufficient moisture in the winter-spring period, a higher altitude location, the presence of low grassy cover and the absence of woody and shrubby vegetation. All the A. villosa specimens we studied were confined to well-warmed, open slopes, mainly in the southern exposure. In the most favorable conditions, up to 7 lateral shoots can form on the axial shoot. In most cases, individuals of A. villosa form 2–3 lateral shoots. It was found that the parameters of the length of generative shoots were characterized by higher variability than the number of enrichment shoots. During the three-year observation period, individuals growing on the edge of the forest canopy were significantly higher. The shortest individuals were recorded (the height did not exceed 20 cm) in the coenopopulation located on an open, uncultivated area with low grass cover.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):24-32
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Comparative anatomical structure of the leaf Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. and Rhododendron brachycarpum D. Don, growing under conditions of N.V. Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Bondar Y.V., Zerkal S.V., Hetko N.V., Rysin S.L.
Abstract

The paper deals with anatomical parameters of the leaf of two genus representatives Rhododendron L.: R. catawbiense Michx. and R. brachycarpum D. Don, cultivated under conditions of N.V. Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The morpho-anatomical structure of the leaf, used in the diagnosis and taxonomy of species, is also a key indicator of its functional characteristics. It is no less important for studying the mechanisms of their adaptation during introduction into new growing conditions and allows to find ways to optimize the conditions of their life and cultivation. Introduction experience is a prerequisite for studying the adaptive potential of species and for developing methods for managing the growth and development of these plants. The paper provides a detailed ecological and geographical characteristics of natural growth areas of R. catawbiense (eastern part of North America), R. brachycarpum (Far East, Republic of Korea, Japan) and the introduction area of Moscow (North-Eastern Administrative District, N.V. Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences). In this work, for the first time, a detailed anatomical and morphological analysis of the leaf structure of two genus representatives Rhododendron: R. catawbiense and R. brachycarpum was carried out, and diagnostic signs of changes in the parameters of the structure of leaves, formed in conditions different from the natural habitats of species, were revealed during their introduction into N.V. Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):33-40
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Phytoremediation potential of flowering plants in relation to lead
Vityaz S.N., Kolosova M.M., Dremova M.S., Kazakova M.A., Rotkina E.B.
Abstract

This paper deals with the study of the phytoremediation potential of flowering plants in relation to lead ions under laboratory conditions. The test cultures were phacelia tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), small-flowered marigolds (Tagеtes patula L.) and a mixture of cereal grasses consisting of red fescue 40% (Festuca rubra L.), perennial ryegrass 50% (Lolium perenne L.) and meadow bluegrass 10% (Poa pratensis L.). Under the experimental conditions lead ions in concentrations of 2 and 10 MPC were introduced into the soil sampled from the territory of agricultural lands (leached medium-thick heavy loamy chernozem with a high content of humus, mobile phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, low content of nitrate nitrogen, bulk and mobile forms of lead). It has been established that all representatives of weeds, ornamental and green manure plants selected as test crops are capable, to one degree or another, of accumulating lead ions from soils and therefore can function as phytoremediators of agricultural lands intended for organic farming. The ability to accumulate lead ions increases in the following order: phacelia – marigolds – mustard – a mixture of cereal grasses. The maximum effect of phytoremediation of the soil was revealed in the variant with a cereal mixture (the content of lead ions in the soil with the introduction of 2 MPC decreases by 32,8%, with the introduction of 10 MPC – by 23,6%).

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):41-46
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Some ecological features of Tulipa patens Agardh ex Schult. & Schult. fil. in the collection of Central Siberian Botanical Garden of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Gerasimovich L.V.
Abstract

The paper analyzes the characteristics of the seasonal development of Tulipa patens from two donor regions (Altai Krai, Republic of Kazakhstan) in the ex situ conditions of the recipient region, provides comparative in situ morphometric characteristics of these two groups of plants and a comparison with plants in situ. The following characteristics of the adaptation process, which distinguish the two groups from each other growing at the time of the experiment under the same ecological conditions, were revealed: 1) the Kazakhstan plants start the growing season 2–6 days before the Altai Krai plants and most of its phases have a longer duration; 2) for Kazakhstan plants, at the beginning of the regrowth and sprouting phenophase, less sums of temperatures above zero and the number of sunny days are needed; 3) there are significant morphometric differences between Kazakhstan and Altai Krai plants, in ex situ and in situ. Republic of Kazakhstan plants that grow on rocky steppes have more adaptive potential than Altai Krai plants that grow on rocky slopes. Based on the obtained results we can assume that plants of the species Tulipa patens have genetic polymorphisms.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):47-50
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New data (for 2020) on the distribution of species from the genus Carpelimus Leach, 1819 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Oxytelinae) in the Oriental Region
Gildenkov M.Y.
Abstract

New data on the distribution of species from the genus Carpelimus Leach, 1819 in the Oriental Region for 2020 are presented. Carpelimus (s. str.) politus politus (Kiesenwetter, 1850) is recorded for the first time from the Oriental Region, the Jiangxi province in China. Carpelimus (s. str.) raptius Gildenkov, 2019 is recorded for the first time from Vietnam. Carpelimus (s. str.) papuensis (Fauvel, 1879), Carpelimus (Trogophloeus) pseudosimplex Gildenkov, 2013 and Carpelimus (Trogophloeus) simplex (Motschulsky, 1857) are recorded for the first time from Cambodia. Carpelimus (s. str.) praelongus (Bernhauer, 1938) is recorded for the first time from Thailand. Carpelimus (Trogophloeus) plenus Gildenkov, 2019 is recorded for the first time from Malaysia (Borneo) and Indonesia (Sulawesi). Carpelimus (Trogophloeus) geminus Gildenkov, 2018 is recorded for the first time from India, the province of W Bengal. Carpelimus (Trogophloeus) coriaceus (Cameron, 1930) is recorded for the first time from the south of India, the province of Tamil Nadu. Carpelimus (Trogophloeus) magnicollis Gildenkov, 2014, Carpelimus (Trogophloeus) taprobanae (Walker, 1859) and Carpelimus (Trogophloeus) vagans (Cameron, 1930) are recorded for the first time for the central part of India, the province of Madhya Pradesh. Carpelimus (s. str.) communius Gildenkov, 2019 is recorded for the first time from China, the Yunnan province. Carpelimus (s. str.) angusticollis (Bernhauer, 1907), Carpelimus (s. str.) indicus indicus (Kraatz, 1859) and Carpelimus (Troginus) atomus (Saulcy, 1864) are recorded for the first time from the Chinese province of Jiangxi; Carpelimus (Trogophloeus) paripalitans Gildenkov, 2013 is recorded for the first time from the provinces of Jiangxi and Guangdong; Carpelimus (Bucephalinus) formosae (Cameron, 1940) is recorded for the first time from for the province of Hainan. Carpelimus (Troginus) exiguus (Erichson, 1839) is reliably recorded for the Oriental Region from China, the Yunnan province.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):51-56
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Indicators of the water regime of some varieties of chrysanthemums in the conditions of the South Ural
Denisova S.G., Reut A.A.
Abstract

In introduction studies, it is of great importance to determine how favorable the water balance of the studied species is under given environmental conditions. The aim of the research was to study the water regime of some varieties of chrysanthemums in the conditions of the Southern Ural. The study was conducted in 2018–2020 on the basis of the South-Ural Botanical Garden-Institute of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences. The objects of the study were 23 varieties of Chrysanthemum × hortorum Bailey. In the course of the research, the total water content, water-holding capacity, the content of mobile moisture, water deficit, and sublethal water deficit were determined. The analysis of water regime indicators is based on the method of artificial wilting (V.N. Tarenkov, L.N. Ivanova) and the method of saturation of plant samples (V.P. Moiseev, N.P. Reshetsky). Sublethal water deficit was determined by the method of T.K. Goryshina, L.I. Samsonova, modified by N.I. Bobrovskaya. The calculations were carried out by standard methods using statistical packages of the Microsoft Excel 2003 and the Agros 2.13 program. The studies made it possible to determine the value of the sublethal water deficit (28,4%) for the varieties of chrysanthemums in the conditions of the Bashkir Ural. It was found that the studied varieties during the growing season did not experience such a moisture deficit in the tissues that could lead to irreversible damage to the assimilating organs. Our experiments showed that chrysanthemum varieties in the Bashkir Cis-Ural under the same soil-climatic and agrotechnical conditions had the following range of indicators of total water content 70,0–90,4% and water-holding capacity 19,00–64,6%. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences between water-holding capacity and the content of mobile moisture by varieties, the share of influence was 27,85–31,71%. As a result of the correlation-regression analysis, the authors revealed a direct dependence of the indicators of mobile moisture content on the total water content, and an inverse one – on the indicators of the content of mobile moisture and water-holding capacity.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):57-64
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Morphological variability of Betula pendula Roth leaves under conditions of technogenic transformation of the environment
Zhuikova T.V., Popova A.S., Meling E.V.
Abstract

The paper analyzes morphological characters variability of Betula pendula Roth leaves growing in the gradient of technogenic soil transformation. Biological material was collected in natural phytocoenoses and in the Pritagilskaya zone of the Middle Urals technogenically contaminated with heavy metals. In the gradient under study, a change in the shape of the leaf blade is observed: it is rounded, the base is straightened and the top is stretched. The sizes of leaf blades of Betula pendula are smaller under conditions of an average level of pollution than in the background and maximum polluted areas. The largest leaves are typical for B. pendula from the most polluted area. In the studied gradient of the technogenic transformation of the environment, four types of leaf blades forms were distinguished: 1) ovate with a rounded-wedge-shaped base and with a pointed apex; 2) triangular-broadly ovate with a rounded-wedge-shaped base and a pointed apex; 3) triangular-broadly ovate with a truncated base and a pointed apex; 4) triangular-broadly ovate with a truncated base and an elongated pointed apex. By the factor analysis the authors have identified the factors that explain 60% of the total variance of the «leaf shape» trait. The variables have large factor loads for the first factor (length and width of the leaf blade, length of the petiole, the distance from the tip of the leaf blade to the widest part) (42%) and smaller loads for the second one (leaf index) (18%). On the basis of these features, a discriminant analysis was carried out, the results of which indicate that the leaves of plants from the impact area differ from the rest. On the basis of the ratio of the general and consistent variability, morphological features were identified that are ecological indicators – the distance between the bases of the first-second and second-third lateral veins of the first order, the distance from the widest part to the base of the leaf blade, IF (shape index sheet). The high overall and low consistent variability of these characteristics is determined to a greater extent by the influence of environmental factors. The analysis of changes patterns in the level of leaves morphological integration in the gradient of soils technogenic transformation showed that Betula pendula is characterized by a protective-stress developmental strategy.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):65-73
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The assessment of the spatial ontogenetic structure of the coenopopulation Oxytropis floribunda (Pall.) DC. in undisturbed coenoses (on the territory of the Samara Region)
Zenkina E.T., Ilina V.N.
Abstract

Data on the peculiarities of rare plants coenotic populations’ organization in petrophytic steppes make a certain contribution to the development of theoretical issues of phytocoenology, bioecology and nature protection. Coenopopulations of Oxytropis floribunda (Pall.) DC. are monitored on the territory of the Samara Region (the natural monument «Sernovodnyy Shikhan») in the course of the work. Population ontogenetic methods have been used, including methods of spatial statistics. The coenopopulation of the species has been studied in the Stipa pennata Oxytropis floribunda community without any apparent anthropogenic load. It has been found that the total number of individuals of O. floribunda in the studied coenopopulation was 81 individuals, with a density of 6 individuals per 1 m². The phytogenic field strength coefficient is 0,06. The studied community is dominated by the pregenerative age states of O. floribunda. The coenopopulation of O. floribunda is generally characterized by a contagious type of spatial structure with the formation of aggregations of 0,4–1,2 m in size. The Ripley function graph for pregenerative plants has also showed the presence of clustering zones that occurs due to seed germination near the mother plants of the studied representative. Generative individuals of O. floribunda in the plant community are located randomly, which indicates favorable conditions for the growth of the species in this area.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):74-79
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The use of unconventional organic waste for vermicomposting in Surgut greenhouses
Ibragimova D.V., Guselnikova M.V., Nakonechnyy N.V.
Abstract

The paper discusses the use of non-traditional types of organic waste in vermicomposting in greenhouses on the territory of the middle taiga forest zone of Western Siberia. Experimental studies were carried out in the laboratories of the scientific and educational center and the center for collective use of the Institute of Natural and Technical Sciences of Surgut State University in 2001–2020. The main objects of the study were brewer’s grains, waste from the production of the Kristal brewing company in Surgut and wastewater sludge from the treatment facilities of the Gorvodokanal in Surgut. Additionally, the composition of complex composts included sand, office waste paper, waste coffee, food waste, leaf and grass litter, bird droppings and the microbiological additive «Tamir». The compost worms of the Eisenia foetida «Prospector» species were used as vermiculture. 10 juveniles were launched in the first series of experiments and 50 juvenile worms were launched in the second series. The resulting vermicomposting is more effective in quality than the original substrates. The use of the hybrid «Prospector» can be effectively used in the disposal of non-traditional organic waste. Complex composts mature more efficiently when microbiological additives are added. In the studied substrates the content of heavy metals was reduced to MPC norms.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):80-85
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Resistance of Aspergillus niger Tiegh. to the effect of amide anesthetics
Isaichkin V.A., Selezneva E.S., Korchikov E.S.
Abstract

The wide distribution of Aspergillus in nature is determined by their ability to adapt in the conditions of development of anthropogenic biocoenoses. Micromycetes survive due to rapid growth, intensive reproduction and labile metabolism, causing various kinds of damage to the substrates on which they were due to certain circumstances. However, it is noted that in the process of adaptation, many Aspergillus change physiologically, i.e. without changing the genetic information and heredity of this organism. These features of Aspergillus make them indispensable in model experiments allowing to assess the effects of xenobiotics even in micro doses and the ability to adapt to them. In this regard, it is interesting to investigate anesthetics widely used in surgery. Some of them have shown antibacterial activity, but their antifungal activity remains unknown. The authors investigated the ability of Aspergillus niger Tiegh. to adapt to the effects of certain amide anesthetics: lidocaine, ropivacaine and bupivacaine. Two series of experiments were carried out. In the first one the effect of anesthetics was investigated at concentrations of 0,001; 0,01 and 0,1 mg/ml per growth, number of colonies and sizes of spores and conidiophores; in the second one A. niger Tiegh. spores from a culture grown in a environment containing an anesthetic solution at a concentration of 0,001 mg/ml were germinated on nutrient medium with anesthetics at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. It was discovered that anesthetics affect differently the germination of spores and the formation of colonies of A. niger Tiegh. The maximum toxicity was shown by ropivacaine, significantly reducing the number of colonies, the minimum – by bupivacaine. It was discovered that ropivacaine and bupivacaine inhibit mycelium growth more than lidocaine. All investigated anesthetics at selected concentrations do not affect reliably the size of spores and conidiophores. The study of preadaptation caused by a low dose of anesthetics showed that the number of colonies in preadapted cultures after exposure at a high dose of 1 mg/ml significantly increased compared to direct exposure at a dose of 1 mg/ml. It can be argued that the observed changes in the number of colonies are an adaptive response of A. niger Tiegh. to the action of anesthetics. The diameter of colonies after preadaptation was significantly less than with direct exposure at a dose of 1 mg/ml (p < 0,05), that is we observe the effect of cumulation. Possible mechanisms of the observed effect, including hormesis, are discussed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):86-91
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The assessment of the correlation between the anthropogenic load index and the incidence of respiratory diseases in the Nizhny Novgorod Region
Kalashnikov I.N., Sinyushkina S.D., Pyatova E.D., Fedotov V.D., Zaznobina N.I.
Abstract

Recently, in the Nizhny Novgorod Region, the number of people with respiratory diseases has increased. This is due to the escalating anthropogenic load and the degradation of the environmental situation. There are a lot of different mechanisms by which air pollutants affect the state of the respiratory system, provoke the development of diseases or their exacerbation, induce disturbances of respiratory function, contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease, aggravate its course and worsen the symptoms. The aim of the work was to identify the correlation between the anthropogenic load index and the incidence of respiratory diseases in the districts of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. Using data about environmental zonation and information about the number of cases of diseases, a statistical analysis was carried out using the Pearson’s criterion. We have determined that there is a correlation between the number of people with respiratory diseases and the place of residence (cluster according to the anthropogenic load index). The obtained parameters of the Pearson’s criterion allowed us to conclude that there is a direct correlation between the features and a high degree of its statistical significance. The results confirm the role of anthropogenic impact as an unfavorable risk factor for the formation of respiratory diseases. This makes it necessary to review approaches to the prevention of respiratory diseases.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):92-96
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Flora and vegetation of urbanized areas on the example of the Melekeska and Shukralinka valleys within Naberezhnye Chelny
Lyubarsky D.S., Tokinova R.P.
Abstract

The paper deals with the examination results of flora and vegetation of the Melekeska and Shukralinka valleys within Naberezhnye Chelny. The most common plant associations are identified, they are Bromopsetum variograminosum, B. varioherbosum, Festicetum variograminosum, Calamagrostetum epigeiosum; Phragmitetum australis associations are identified in the flooded areas. Anthropogenically altered areas with a high mosaicity of listed above associations communities and ephemeral weeds are widely represented. The volume and structure are shown in the area’s flora. This area is subjected to constant anthropogenic load. Taxonomic and geographic analyses of flora as well as a range of vital forms and ecological types are submitted. 120 plant species from 94 genera and 40 families have been identified. The position of the leading families is like that in regional flora, Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Fabaceae are leading. Perennial polycarpic grasses especially long-rhizome (21,7%) and tap-root (15,0%) dominate among biomorphs (69,2%). Species with wide ranges are of paramount importance, they are Euro-West Asian (30,9%), Eurasian (27,5%), Holarctic (11,7%) and the percentage of alien species is 8,5%. Ruderal (36,7%), meadow (17,5%) and humid meadow (11,7%) species are leading in the ecological-coenotic spectrum. The adventive flora is represented by 16 species and it is briefly analyzed. Valley floras of some other Middle Volga rivers have been compared.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):97-101
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The study of primary productivity of lichenized epigeic fungi in the pine forests of the Kostroma Region
Malakhova K.V.
Abstract

Thalli of epigeic lichenized fungi of the genus Cladonia P. Browne are sources of high biological activity substances with a proven pharmaceutical potential. It’s necessary to study characteristics of the accumulation of biomass by thalli, as well as conditions affecting the accumulation of secondary metabolites by lesions. For the first time, studies of the primary productivity and concentrations of secondary metabolites in lichens of the genus Cladonia in pine forests in the center of the European part of Russia are presented on the example of the Kostroma Region. The primary productivity of bushy lichens of the genus Cladonia in the pine forests of the Kostroma Region is in the range of 16,05–34,72 g/m² per year for C. arbuscula and 14,70–28,18 g/m² per year for C. rangiferina. The weight gain of the living part of the subset is in direct proportion to the intensity of sunlight: the optimum for C. arbuscula is 4100–6100 lx (0,0250 g/year), for C. rangiferina it is 3800–5800 lx (0,0407 g/year). The influence of abiotic factors (biotope humidity and sunlight intensity) on the parameters of primary productivity and the accumulation of secondary metabolites by thalli was revealed. The influence of biotic factors is manifested on the projective cover of species. The highest values of the projective cover, 85,67% (C. arbuscula) and 61% (C. rangiferina), are confined to well-illuminated biotopes with rarefied sunlight (thin sphagnum pine forest, sphagnum-heather pine forest slope). The maximum amount of acetone extract of secondary metabolites per weight of air-dry raw material of lichenized fungi of the genus Cladonia was isolated from well-illuminated areas of pine forests at 5800–7400 lx (11,541 and 15,916 mg/g q.s. of C. rangiferina and C. arbuscula raw materials, respectively). The increased humidity of the biotope and shading conditions slow down the accumulation of secondary metabolites in the subsets.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):102-106
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Biostability of synthetic polymer materials – polyethylene, polypropylene and polycarbonate – in the conditions of Surgut
Mantrova M.V.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to the study of biostability of polyethylene, polypropylene and polycarbonate in the conditions of Surgut after their presence within a year in different types of soils – swamp-podzolic soil, culturosem and urbanozem. The studied types of soils differ in their chemical composition – urbanozems are saturated with bases, have a slightly alkaline reaction, they also contain an excess of lead content due to their close location to highways. In the studied soils bacterial microflora prevails over mycoflora, the amount of heterotrophic and lithoautotrophic microflora in urbanozems is especially high, which is due to the high anthropogenic load on these soils. For seeds and seedlings of wheat and radish the stimulating effect of these soils was revealed. Micromycetes isolated from the surface of polypropylene and polyethylene pipes are typical soil saprotrophs that can act as biodestructors of polymers. In the field experiment all the materials under study are biostable, and there was a slight change in the color of the cross-linked polyethylene sample. In the laboratory experiment certain instability of all the materials under study was revealed; their gradation in terms of mushroom resistance (from resistant to unstable) is as follows: low-density polyethylene, polypropylene random-heat-resistant copolymer, polycarbonate, cross-linked polyethylene. The nature of damage to low-density polyethylene (polyethylene film) is superficial, which corresponds to the literature data.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):107-112
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Birds as a food base for mosquitoes – carriers of the causative agent of tropical malaria
Mishchenko A.V., Artemyeva E.A.
Abstract

The paper discusses the food supply of the vector of malaria – mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, which are birds of tropical regions of West Africa. Birds, as distant migrants, penetrate high latitudes and contribute to the spread of malaria in Europe and other countries of the northern hemisphere. The results of the studies show that the main role in the choice of prey objects by female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes – birds – is played by the nesting and forage biotopes of birds, which are comfortable for mosquito breeding. Probably, female mosquitoes use non-feathered parts of the body of adult birds for feeding unfeathered or weakly feathered chicks in nests. The circulation of Plasmodium falciparum includes populations of birds, primarily water, near-water and marsh complexes, as well as birds, the development of which takes place in specific conditions of a closed space – in holes, hollows and closed nests. The Anopheles gambiae mosquito in this system plays the role of a carrier of Plasmodium falciparum not only among populations of birds and mammals, but also among humans, which determines the range of tropical malaria, which is a natural focal vector-borne disease. The authors have identified 37 species of birds – carriers of malaria in natural and anthropogenic biocoenoses of Mali (West Africa). The most numerous during the migration and nesting period are birds of the aquatic, near-water and meadow-bog complexes (herons, herons, waders) – distant migrants on the territory of Russia and neighboring countries. The risk areas include, first of all, the southern regions – Astrakhan Region, Rostov Region and Krasnodar Region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):113-116
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The assessment of drought resistance of Hydrangea paniculata Siebold varieties promising for the introduction in the Bashkir Cis-Urals
Murzabulatova F.K., Polyakova N.V.
Abstract

The paper studies the water regime of panicle hydrangea and 16 varieties of this species introduced into South-Ural Botanical Garden-Institute of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences. The purpose of the work is a comparative assessment of hydrangea varieties resistance to drought and the identification of the most promising taxa suitable for cultivation in the Bashkir Cis-Urals. The study assesses the total moisture content, water retention capacity and the content of mobile moisture in hydrangea leaves for the growing season. It has been found that the total moisture content (water content in the tissues) of panicle hydrangea leaves and its varieties is quite high and ranges from 72 to 82%. Certain varieties (‘Bobo’, ‘Levana’, ‘Phantom’, ‘PrimWhite’, ‘Silver Dollar’, ‘Sandy Fraise’, ‘Unique’) have an ability to increase water retention during flowering. The following varieties are most adapted to dry periods under growing conditions in the forest-steppe zone of the Bashkir Urals: ‘Kyushu’, ‘Prim White’ and ‘Wim’s Red’, the least drought-resistant ones are ‘Tardiva’, ‘Sandy Fraise’ and ‘Praecox’; the other 10 varieties are classified as hydrangeas with medium drought resistance. H. paniculata has average values for all parameters of the water regime and their value does not depend on the phenophase.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):117-120
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Vegetation dynamics under non-strong agricultural impact (by the example of Oktyabrsk village environs in the Uchalinskiy District of the Republic of Bashkortostan)
Nazarenko N.N., Batyusheva S.Y.
Abstract

Vegetation and its biotopes that are transitional between ruderal and natural ones have been researched in Oktyabrsk village environs (Uchalinskiy District of the Republic of Bashkortostan). The studied vegetation is characterized by rather low biodiversity values and high values of dominance – 56 species of vascular plants are identified, 10-species plant communities with 2–3 clear identified dominant and co-dominant species prevail. Ruderal species are dominant and co-dominant for the majority of plant communities. Fifteen plant associations and specific biotopes have been defined by multivariate statistics methods. The identified associations are phytometers for detected principal abiotic factors. The detected associations form ordination series – the authors have identified three biotopical centers (ruderal, birch forest and steppe), three biotopical series and three coenotic series, which are associated with high and temperate pasture loading levels and pasture digression series, forming an integrated succession system of the studied territory. It has been established that principal factors of associations forming is pasture loading level and the principal factors of biotopes forming are soil moistening and its variability, ombroregime (humidification level), termoregime and regime of continentality (temperature-varying amplitude).

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):121-127
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Additions to the list of bird species in the Shushensky Bor National Park
Petrov S.Y., Chumakov S.V., Tolmachev A.V., Barabantsova A.E., Pershina L.B.
Abstract

This work includes additions to the existing annotated list of birds of the Shushensky Bor National Park, given in the book by ornithologist S.Yu. Petrov and senior state inspector S.V. Chumakov «Birds of the Shushensky Bor National Park», published in 2020 in an electronic form. The paper provides general data on the avifauna of the national park, as well as the results of recent studies as of early 2021. The paper provides information on the sightings of 11 bird species that were not previously recorded in the park as a whole: Ptyonoprogne rupestris (Scopoli, 1769); Turdus merula (Linnaeus, 1758); Monticola saxatilis (Linnaeus, 1766); Ficedula hypoleuca (Pallas, 1764) аnd on individual cluster sites – Mountain forestry: Podiceps cristatus (Linnaeus, 1758); Crex crex (Linnaeus, 1758); Charadrius dubius (Scopoli, 1786); Turdus obscurus J.F. Gmelin, 1789; Turdus iliacus (Linnaeus, 1766) and Perovsky forestry: Lanius borealis [excubitor] (Vieillot, 1807); Chloris chloris (Linnaeus, 1758), indicating the nature of their stay and biotopic distribution. The paper is illustrated with photographs taken on the territory of both clusters of the national park by employees of the Shushensky Bor National Park and by local birdwatchers.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):128-134
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Materials on the ecology of background species of reptiles in the Tambov Region
Podolsky A.V.
Abstract

The paper presents data on the ecology of two common species of reptiles in the Tambov Region: the sand lizard, Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758, and the common grass snake, Natrix natrix (Linnaeus, 1758). The material was collected in the Michurinsky, Pervomaysky, Tambovsky and Inzhavinsky (on the territory of the Voroninsky State Nature Reserve) Districts of the Tambov Region during the 2019 field season. Field observations and accounting for the numbers of animals on the routes were carried out in the most typical biotopes for the study sites: in pine forest, deciduous forest, in steppe areas affected to varying degrees by anthropogenic transformation, in floodplains of rivers and along the shores of lakes and artificial reservoirs. Information on the following aspects of the ecology of these reptile species in the region is presented and discussed: habitat distribution and numbers, seasonal and diurnal activity, phenology of reproduction and development and the influence of anthropogenic factors. All materials obtained as a result of our own research are compared with the data of the literature sources cited in the paper. On the basis of wide distribution in the region, relatively high numbers and trends to synanthropy it is stated that the state of the populations of the sand lizard and common grass snake in the region in the present conditions is safe and special measures for their protection are not required.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):135-141
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Ecological and biological features of annual ornamental plants under pre-winter sowing in a continental climate
Sarlaeva M.Y., Vasilyeva O.Y.
Abstract

The paper presents the results of a long-term study of biological features of annual ornamental plants species belonging to the ecological group of therophytes included in the bioresource collection USU 44053 and capable of creating a high ornamental effect after pre-winter sowing in the ground. The hydrothermal conditions of the wintering and subsequent vegetation periods are characterized. The accumulation of snow necessary for successful overwintering of seeds is analyzed. Comparative phenospectra of species under different cultivation methods are presented, with an emphasis on achieving the fruiting phase. Examples of naturalization of these species are given, which characterize their high adaptive potential. The most promising species for use in the urbanized environment of the Siberian region are: Amaranthus caudatus L., A. paniculatus L., Brachycome iberidifolia Benth., Calendula officinalis L., Centaurea cyanus L., Clarkia unguiculata Lindl., C. pulchella Pursh., Eschscholzia californica Cham., E. pulchella Cham., Gilia achilleifolia Benth., G. capitata Sims, G. tricolor Benth., Gypsophila elegans M. Bieb., Helichrysum bracteatum (Vent.) Andrews, Iberis umbellata L., Layia elegans Torr. & A. Gray, Rudbeckia hirta L., Salpiglossis sinuata Ruiz & Pav., Schizanthus pinnatus Ruiz & Pav., Vaccaria hispanica (Mill.) Rauschert.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):142-150
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The assessment of the environmental hazard of isomers of 1,2,4-triazole phenolic derivatives for natural ecosystems
Selezneva E.S., Belousova Z.P., Artyukov R.O.
Abstract

It’s necessary to synthesize homologues of compounds frequently used in practice and to analyze their biological activity in laboratory experiments using screening tests that provide an integral assessment of biological responses to assess the effect of anthropogenic xenobiotics with different structures on ecosystems adjacent to agricultural complexes. We analyzed alcohol solutions of 2-(1H-1,2,4-triazolyl-methyl)phenol (ortho-isomer) and 4-(1H-1,2,4-triazolyl-methyl)phenol (para-isomer) in three concentrations: 0,0001; 0,001; 0.01 mg/ml using the Allium-test. The solvent was 0,1% isopropyl alcohol; the test object was Allium fistulosum L. The duration of the experiment was 5 days. Triazolide solutions significantly inhibited seed germination at all investigated concentrations. However, no significant differences were found between the isomers and the studied concentrations. Both isomers inhibited root growth at all concentrations tested. The toxicity of a triazolide containing an OH group in the para-position didn’t change over the selected concentration range. For its ortho-isomer, toxicity increased with increasing concentration, reaching the toxicity of its homologue at a dose of 0,01 mg/ml. Both tested compounds significantly inhibited the proliferation of meristem cells as compared to the control. At the same time, no differences were observed in the effect of homologues with the OH-group in the para- and ortho-position on the value of the mitotic index. However, we found a paradoxical reaction: both homologues showed maximum cytotoxicity at a minimum concentration of 0,0001 mg/ml, and cytotoxicity decreased with increasing concentration compared to control. A triazolid containing an OH group in the para-position caused a block at the metaphase and anaphase stages at the lowest concentration. The specificity of its action disappeared with an increase in concentration, which was expressed in a general prophase and metaphase block. Its ortho-isomer inhibited cell division at all concentrations at the prophase stage. Both compounds are mutagenic. The number of chromosomal aberrations depended on both the structure of the compounds and their concentration. The para-homologue is less mutagenic than ortho. In the ortho-homologue, mutagenicity decreased slightly with increasing concentration. The highest mutagenicity was found for the ortho-homologue at its lowest concentration. The paper discusses possible mechanisms of action of isomers and their negative impact on plant organisms in ecosystems.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):151-156
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The inventory of vegetation cover of small river valleys in the north-east of the Samara Region
Solovieva V.V.
Abstract

The study covered 10 small rivers in the North-Eastern part of the Samara Volga region. The author studied the vegetation cover, which is understood as a set of phytocoenoses and their constituent plant species. On the territory of Pokhvistnevsky District, there are two groups of river valleys that are heterogeneous in geobotanical terms. The first group includes the rivers with forested valleys (Kutlugush, Murakla, Karmalka). Their slopes are more or less symmetrical and steep. The vegetation cover of an undeveloped floodplain is usually uniform, and there is usually no belt. The valleys of the second group are treeless; their slopes are sharply asymmetrical (Amanak, Tergala, Talkish). The right-bank tributary of the Maly Kinel River – the Lozovka River with its length of 20 km and the left tributary – Kuvayka River with its length of 16 km were studied on the territory of Kinel-Cherkassky District. The Padovka and Zaprudka rivers and the right tributaries of the Bolshoi Kinel River (Kinelsky District) were also studied. The most common associations are (Salix fragilis – heteroherbosa, Scirpus sylvaticus purum, Agrostis stolonifera – Amoria repens, Elytrigia repens + Poa angustifolia – heteroherbosa). In total, 19 types of phytocoenoses were noted, 4 of them are found in half of the studied rivers. In the plant communities of small river valleys there are 232 species of higher wild plants, which belong to 139 genera from 48 families. This is 60% of the total number of higher plants registered in the flora of small river valleys of the Samara Region. Rare protected plant species are registered here: Adonis volgensis Steven ex DC., Cacalia hastata L., Delphinium cuneatum Stev. ex DC., Globularia punctata Lapeyr.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):157-162
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Biotopic distribution and abundance of the Altai mole (Talpa altaica Nikolsky, 1883) on the left bank of the Middle Ob
Starikov V.P., Vaganova E.A., Bernikov K.A., Shemyakina N.S.
Abstract

The studies were conducted on the territory of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Yugra (Surgutskiy District) in 2018–2020 in the Surgut natural wildlife reserve and in 2020 in the vicinity of the Kamennyi Cape ski resort on the left bank of the middle Ob. The paper notes the poor knowledge of the distribution of the Altai mole in the forest zone of Western Siberia, especially on the northern and western borders of the range. Hence, there is almost complete lack of information on its biology and ecology in the area. The Altai mole was collected while counting other small mammals using trapping grooves and guiding fences made of polyethylene membrane; a total of 43 individuals were counted. As in other parts of the forest zone of Western Siberia, the Altai mole near the northern border of the range – the left bank of the Middle Ob is confined to mixed and small-leaved forests with rich undergrowth and grassy layer. During the observation period, the maximum abundance of the Altai mole was in 2019. In 2018 and 2020 its abundance was 2–6 times lower. One of the reasons for such fluctuations can be abiotic factors, in particular, the difference in winter temperature conditions, the height of the snow cover and others. Information about freezing of both Talpa europaea Linnaeus, 1758, and Talpa altaica Nikolsky, 1883, moles during little snowy harsh winters is known.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):163-166
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Seasonal antimicrobial activity of volatile substances emitted by the representatives of Begonia L. genus (Begoniaceae)
Tsybulya N.V., Fershalova T.D.
Abstract

The paper continues multi-year integrated studies of the numerous taxons of tropical Begonia genus, which allowed us to evaluate the adaptive capacity of the representatives of this genus relying on the revealed morphological, rhythmological and biochemical features. The investigation of antimicrobial activity of intact plants and different fractions of plant extracts allowed us to distinguish several promising representatives of this genus exhibiting activity against a broad range of test microorganisms. The involvement of these plants within phytomodules in child care centers caused a substantial decrease in total microbial contamination of the air. The paper contains results of the experimental investigation of seasonal antimicrobial activity of 13 species, 8 hybrids. The phytoncide activity was measured by exposing the streak cultures of microbial test species – bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis, Esсherichia coli and yeast-like fungi Candida albicans to the volatile emissions of plants. It has been established that 95% of begonias are distinguished by the pronounced activity against S. epidermidis bacteria, 48% – against E. coli bacteria and 43% – against fungi Candida albicans. The seasonal specificity of the antimicrobial action of begonias was detected: the growth of the colonies of S. epidermidis bacteria is inhibited to the highest extent during spring and summer, at the phase of intense growth, while the activity against E. coli is the highest during autumn and winter at the phase of moderate growth. The taxons with clearly pronounced, long-term and universal antimicrobial action to the studied test objects were revealed and recommended for practical planting in various types of indoor environments. The data obtained in the study may serve as the basis for further investigation of the chemical composition of volatile exometabolites by the example of the representatives of Gireoudia and Coelocentrum sections that have exhibited high antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis and E. coli.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):167-172
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Historical Sciences and Archaeology
Dwellings of the late Mesolithic and early Neolithic in the Mari Volga Region
Kudashov A.S.
Abstract

The paper studies the construction of residential buildings in the Stone Age of the Mari Volga Region. We have analyzed buildings on the settlements of the Mesolithic and Early Neolithic periods of the Mari Volga Region. The main principles of house building of the Mesolithic era of the Mari Volga Region are highlighted. In view of the fact that the complexes under consideration are located in the same landscape zone, a number of indicators may be similar. However, there will be differences on several points of comparison that may lead to discussions. For example, such an indicator as the prevalence of finds in the inter-dwelling space or their absence. In total, 38 structures of the Mesolithic and 35 structures of the Early Neolithic era were analyzed. To summarize, seven indicators of housing construction were selected. It is characteristic that in the Mari Volga Region most of the Neolithic sites are multilayered, however, none of the Mesolithic sites in the region has yet been found to contain early Neolithic ceramics. You can trace the difference in buildings more clearly. The presence of ground structures on the Neolithic settlements is obvious, while the local Mesolithic ones are ubiquitous semi-dugouts. Having a topographic distribution of settlements and short-term sites, a planigraphy of dwellings, as well as a presence of separate industrial and residential buildings in the Early Neolithic and Late Mesolithic, we face the problem of chronological division of the Neolithization process in the forest belt.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):173-176
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Construction features of the dwelling at the early Neolithic site Baibek in the North Caspian Sea Region
Grechkina T.Y., Vybornov A.A., Lebedev Y.S.
Abstract

This work studies construction features of the dwelling discovered at the Neolithic site Baibek. Detailed recorded data made it possible to determine its dimensions, shape and structural components. The layer by layer analysis gave grounds to reconstruct its origin and development. Pottery and stone tools, as well as other materials of the cultural layer found in the dwelling pit are similar to the materials of the Kairshak type of the Neolithic in the Northern Caspian Sea Region. A series of radiocarbon dates establishes the chronological interval of the dwelling functioning: the first quarter of the VI millennium BC. The results of spores and pollen analysis indicate the paleogeographic background at that time. The definition of faunal remains indicates the leading hunting species: onager, red deer, corsac, saiga; fish (sterlet, perch, pike, common carp, pike perch) were caught both in open and in closed reservoirs. Judging by the analysis of the crust on the inner side of the vessels, signs of animal and plant food preparation have been established. The studied dwelling complements the characteristics of the Neolithic culture of the Kairshak type bearers and possibly marks the beginning of the transition of the population to a certain sedentary life. In addition, the information obtained gives reasons to speak about the appearance of dwellings in the region of interest starting from the early Neolithic.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):177-191
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Traces types in the deposits: case study of V–II millennium BC sites in the far northeast of Europe
Karmanov V.N.
Abstract

The author publishes data on the main types of traces of human activity, revealed in the deposits of the sites with sub-terrain dwellings of the Neolithic and Eneolithic, modern territories of the Komi Republic and the eastern part of the Arkhangelsk Region. The description, expertise, analysis and interpretation of such evidences are an argumentative basis for further reconstruction of specific archaeological situations. The sequence of their development – «project – creation – use – abandonment – taphonomy» determined the range of methods; the involved facts and the structure of the study. The author uses planigraphic and stratigraphic observations collected by researchers in the region; geomorphology; pedology; chemical and mineral composition of soils. These methods made it possible to determine the creation and the appearance of traces, as well as to identify problematic situations for which the data are still insufficient. The sediments are classified into four groups: original soil; sediments modified by mechanical and geochemical influences; and soils formed after the abandonment of the sites, including modern soil. As a result, it is determined that for research in archaeology, the entire complex of deposits, including modern soil, is of significance as evidences. The author therefore proposes to go beyond universal definitions of cultural layer, cultural or culture-bearing deposits, and to study and describe specific contexts of traces and remains under research. The available experience is predominantly the results of purely archaeological research with occasional use of science data. It is obvious that the traces of prehistoric life were created under complex conditions with the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Therefore, to further accumulate the evidence base of archaeological research, experiments in systematic comprehensive analysis of deposits of sites, buried in the ground are necessary.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):192-204
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Dwellings of the Kama culture in the Middle Cis-Urals
Lychagina E.L.
Abstract

The paper describes the dwellings of the Kama Neolithic culture, which were studied on the territory of the Middle Cis-Urals. In total, six dwellings are known in the region at the sites of Ust-Bukorok, Khutorskaya (2 dwellings), Levshino, Chernashka and Ust-Zalaznushka II settlements. They belong to different stages of the Kama Neolithic culture. The huts were located either on terraces or in the floodplain. All dwellings had a quadrangular shape. Inside the dwellings, 1 to 6 household pits of the sub-oval or sub-circular shape are distinguished. Hearths are known only in dwellings of the early and Khutorskaya stages Kama Neolithic culture. All huts had no more than one exit. As a rule, it was located on the longitudinal axis of the structure. Dwellings belonging to the Kama Neolithic culture are known on the territory of North-East Europe, the Kama-Vyatka interfluve, the Lower Kama and the Middle Volga Region. The main type of dwellings are structures under a quadrangular shape, deepened into the mainland by 0,2–0,6 m, with 1–2 exits, 1–3 hearths, 1–6 household pits.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):205-210
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Kargopol ceramics: a separate type or a variety of pit-comb ceramics (on the example of materials from the settlements of Karelia)?
German K.E., Lobanova N.V.
Abstract

The purpose of this study is to consider the phenomenon of Kargopol ceramics in Karelia, which is manifested in its bright originality, sharp difference from other types of Neolithic ware and the vastness of the area-from Lake Onega in the west to the Pechora River in the east and from the Southern White Sea in the north to the southern limits of the Vologda Region in the south. There are 20 known settlements in Karelia, the complexes of which contain Kargopol ceramics with a total number of 275 vessels. The center of this layer of antiquities is Lake Vodlozero, located near the border of Karelia with the Arkhangelsk Region. Most Kargopol vessels have a straight flat-cut corolla with short and shallow notches applied from the outer and inner edges, below there is a horizontal belt of pits or punctures. There are six variants of ornamentation, three of which include elements of pit-comb and comb dishes. The authors think that the concentration of Kargopol vessels on the monuments of eastern Karelia, mainly in the complexes with pit-comb ceramics of the middle stage of development in the lake basin Vodlozera, and its almost complete absence in other areas of Karelia indicates the penetration of a similar ceramic tradition from the Eastern Prionezh Region, where it was first isolated. Based on the available modern data, it is still difficult to talk about the independent existence of Kargopol ceramics in the Neolithic of Karelia.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):211-217
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The Late Neolithic of Trans-Urals: Poludenka issues
Yakovleva E.S.
Abstract

The paper examines the Poludenka discourse in the context of historiography and modern research practices. It analyzes changes in attributive characteristics and essential interpretation of Poludenka ceramics (culture, traditions) and the associated empirical and theoretical difficulties. It is noted that the problem of typological criteria is associated with the periodization paradigm – the use of three- or two-stage periodization, which includes or excludes a transitional stage in the material culture of the Trans-Urals Neolithic between the early and late stages of development. The issue of the genesis of the Poludenka tradition and foreign cultural influence, as well as its local isolation on the southern periphery of culture, is also considered. It is assumed that the ornamental originality of the Poludenka pottery in the forest-steppe Pre-Tobol Region is associated with the interaction of the Trans-Urals population at the end of the Early Neolithic with the bearers of the Makhanjar tradition; emphasizes the participation of the Koshkino component in the Poludenka tradition creation at the previous stage. As a solution, it is proposed to return to the notion of a transitional stage between the Early and Late Neolithic, probably at the interval that coincides with the period of coexistence of all traditions, using the established term – «Kozlovo-Poludenka»; the author also notes the perspective of material complexes analysis taking into account the geographical factor.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):218-225
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Criteria for frame-and-pillar dwellings selection in Russian archeology
Polovnikov L.V.
Abstract

The work is devoted to the study of various types of post-frame structures based on archaeological and ethnographic data. The analysis of the structural features of dwellings of different eras and archaeological cultures is carried out. Ethnographic parallels are also drawn. The main attention was paid to the study of the bearing elements of the buildings – the pillars that were dug in along the perimeter, and on which the roof rafters rested. This made it possible to single out the criteria by which Russian researchers ranked household and residential buildings as frame-and-pillar type. This study showed that initially archaeologists attributed the buildings to the pillar type. This trend continued for several decades. But with the beginning of the 21 century modern researchers were increasingly attributing such structures to the frame-pillar type. Sometimes an equals sign was put between the two types of buildings, which could lead to confusion in the scientific community. There are two options for identifying the types of buildings: on the basis of their own clear criteria, or the use of already established concepts in architecture and construction practice. The author is inclined to believe that the medieval buildings of the Perm Cis-Urals of the Lomovatovskaya and Rodanovskaya archaeological cultures should be classified as frame type.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):226-229
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The policy of Catholic Monarchs and Popes in the New World on the Christianization of the population and the policy of local authorities (1492–1513)
Ashrafyan K.E.
Abstract

The aim was to study the attitude towards slavery and freedom for the natives of the open lands of America on the part of the Spanish Crown, on the one hand, and Christopher Columbus in 1491–1504, and then his son Diego Columbus, appointed governor of Hispaniola in 1508 and became viceroy of the West Indies, on the other. As a result, the texts of the bulls of Pope Alexander VI for May 3 and May 4, September 26, 1493, letters of Catholic Monarchs, letters of Christopher Columbus, letters and orders of Bobadilla and Nicholas Ovando and the events of 1511 in Hispaniola described in the book of Las Casas, as well as documents on the results of the work of the Junta of Burgos in 1512 and the Junta of Valladolid in 1513 were studied and analyzed. The study showed the true and humane attitude of Catholic Monarchs towards the natives of America and the emergence of laws under which the natives of America were granted freedom and equal rights with the Castilians. It also shows the policy of slavery and exploitation set up by the «House of Columbus» against the Indians, and the political battles with the defenders of the Indians from the Dominican Order, that made possible Burgos Laws of 1512 and their amendments – Laws of Valladolid laws of 1513 and their consequences for the freedom and life of the natives.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):230-236
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The position of the French aristocracy on the reform projects presented at the Assembly of notables in 1787
Koutseva E.A.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to the position of the French aristocracy regarding the projects of the Controller General of Finance Calonne, presented for discussion at the Assembly of notables in 1787. The budget deficit by the end of the 80s of 18th century reached over 80 million livres a year, the country was on the verge of an economic crisis. The Controller General of Finance Calonne proposed to the king to convene in 1787 an Assembly of notables, prominent representatives of the French nation, to approve a plan of government reforms. Although the Assembly included notables from the three estates of the kingdom, the aristocracy, which was widely represented in it, played an important role. The titled French nobility at the end of the Old Order still retained influence in the state, thanks to their economic position, social status and positions at court, in the army and in the state apparatus. The Assembly of notables had no legislative force, but Calonne convinced the king that the reform plan approved by the assembly would break the resistance of parliaments and gain the approval of the whole society. The presented reforms affected the interests of the privileged estates, but the government expected that the notables would accept the proposals and vote for the reforms, which according to Calonne contributed to the huge budget deficit, educational ideas about equality, physiocrats’ projects announced earlier and the chosen composition of notables, many of which were occupied by liberal and pro-government position. The Notables put forward their ideas on taxation and the creation of provincial assemblies and expressed the idea of convening the States General as a body competent to adopt such significant reforms for French society.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):237-244
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Everyday business activity of Orenburg post-reform merchants engaged in trade at fairs
Abdrakhmanov K.A.
Abstract

The paper examines specifics of the business activity of Orenburg merchants during the post-reform era in the area of trade at fairs. The paper analyzes the conditions of this branch of commerce, including how comfortable the premises used for trade were, what features the nature and climate of Orenburg Region had, how the goods reached the consumer and what the internal atmosphere of major All-Russian fairs was. The study reveals the attitude of provincial entrepreneurs of the Great Reform period towards seasonal itinerant trade within their region. The narrowness of the domestic market, the difficulty of transporting goods by horse-drawn transport, the periodic cycle of operation of fairs, which didn’t allow merchants to receive profits consistently, and the lack of comfortable retail outlets were the reasons why Orenburg merchants eventually abandoned intraregional seasonal trade. Since the 1880s, active construction of railways began throughout the empire, which made the Nizhny Novgorod Fair one of the centers of the empire’s commercial life, more available to the provincial merchants, and Orenburg entrepreneurs continued to visit it in the first decade and a half of the 20th century. However, one of the main reasons why merchants were interested in traveling to the Nizhny Novgorod Fair was the fact that all sorts of entertainment and pleasures were available at the fair, which were more difficult to enjoy at home due to family and marital obligations. The source base of the study consists of documents from the archives of Orenburg and Chelyabinsk Regions that reflect the problems of organizing fairs during the post-reform period.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):245-252
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Preparation of medicinal plants by the pharmaceutical industry in the Kuibyshev Region during the Great Patriotic War
Gorshenin A.V., Ruderman V.I.
Abstract

In the conditions of the Great Patriotic War, there was a problem of shortage of medicines, caused by the partial loss of pharmaceutical industry enterprises due to the occupation of large territories of the Soviet Union. In this situation the solution was the use of medicinal plants, which attracted attention in the 1920s and 1930s, but in the conditions of war it became much more important. The paper deals with the activities of the Main Pharmacy Department and the inter-regional office of the All-Union Trust for the procurement of medicinal plants for the cultivation, collection and procurement of plant raw materials used in medicine. The structure of the pharmaceutical industry of the region is analyzed and the ways of harvesting cultivated and wild medicinal plants are characterized. The authors analyze the dynamics of medicinal plants harvesting on the territory of the Kuibyshev Region using the documents of the Central State Archive of the Samara Region and the State Archive of the Russian Federation, as well as periodicals of the war years. The paper reveals the reasons for non-compliance with the planned indicators for the delivery of plant raw materials established by the government, as well as the measures taken by local authorities to correct this situation. The enthusiasm of the public – the help of schoolchildren, teachers and housewives – played a great role in increasing the volume of harvesting plants.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):253-257
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The policy of the separatist regime of Chechnya in relation to the war in Dagestan in August-September 1999
Tumakov D.V.
Abstract

This article attempts to analyze the policy of the Chechen separatist regime in relation to military actions between the Federal Center and radical Islamist groups in Dagestan and the high-profile terrorist attacks in Russian cities in August-September 1999. It was based on the data of typical articles of the central periodical print, as well as the memories of key participants of those events on both sides and research literature. As the militants invaded Dagestan from the territory of Chechnya, the Russian side first hinted, and then demanded from the official Grozny immediate take decisive measures to curb this activity. However, the president of the self-proclaimed republic A.A. Maskhadov behaved contradictorily. On the one hand, his government denied or downplayed the Chechens' involvement in the war, and blamed Russia itself for the tragedy and publicly suggested that the Kremlin wanted to take advantage of Dagestan's and a surge of terrorism to disrupt parliamentary elections. On the other hand, Grozny sought to deflect any accusations of political extremism or involvement in terror, and therefore demonstrated a willingness to compromise with the central authorities. However, due to the separatist sentiments of the leaders of Chechnya, the bombing of its territory and the rigid mood of the Russian military and most of society, dialogue between Moscow and Grozny was impossible, and the parties were involved in a new war.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):258-264
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Noble associations in modern Russia
Trubitszyn I.O.
Abstract

The author made an attempt to study the role of the descendants of the nobility in the new socio-economic and political realities of Russia at the end of the XX - first decades of the XXI century. The author focuses on the processes of recreation and subsequent activities of noble societies. The basis of the source base was a series of interviews with the descendants of the nobility living in the territory of the Russian Federation and in the countries of the post-Soviet space. The research identified the stages of development of the noble organizations, the main aspects of their activities. A comparative analysis was carried out with the pre-revolutionary noble corporate organization, which made it possible to characterize the main ideals of this social group and to make a comparative analysis with the value system of the class of the pre-revolutionary period. The range of problems faced by noble societies in modern Russia is highlighted. The results of the study can be used to comprehensively characterize the activities of corporations of the nobility in Russia, as well as the activities of the descendants of the nobility in the modern world.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):265-270
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The «Khazar myth» as perceived by the Eurasians and L.N. Gumilyov
Bystryukov V.Y.
Abstract

A problem of continuity has always been a topical subject in Eurasian historiography and the name of L.N. Gumilyov appeard in this context most often. Some researchers recognized the ideological connection between the concept and Gumilyov, while the others rejected continuity and divided them: Russian philosophy of the early 20th century and Soviet scientism of the middle of 20th century. One of the plots is usually used to compare the ideas of the Eurasians and L.N. Gumilyov – it is an assessment of the role of the Khazar Kaganate in the history of the Eastern Slavs. Moreover, it was reviewed by the Eurasians and L.N. Gumilyov. G.V. Vernadsky presented the history of Eurasia as a consistent set of attempts to create a unified state. Khazaria existed in the era of disintegration in the context of the state-forming process in Eurasia, based on the principle of rhythm. According to L.N. Gumilyov, the Khazars were colonized by representatives of the Persian and Byzantine branches of the Jewish people. The mix of the Khazar and Jewish ethnic groups was weighed down by the national traditions, which became the determining aspect of their different destinies. The Khazar Kaganate established political power in the Volga Bulgaria and Kievan Rus, had benefited from the intermediary trade between Europe and China, and only Svyatoslav’s campaign became a closure of existence of this «ethnic chimera». It can be said that the methodological approach of the Eurasians and L.N. Gumilyov to the problem of Khazaria was fundamentally different and the only unifying factor was that these events were unfolding in the space of Russia-Eurasia.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):271-276
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Sandor Varjas and debate about historical materialism
Mochalov D.P.
Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to study the relationship between historical methodology and philosophy on the basis of early Soviet discussions about historical materialism. The appeal to this topic is considered as a generalization of the experience passed by the Russian methodology of history and at the same time as an attempt to rehabilitate the idea of the relationship between philosophy and private sciences after the historiographical situation of perestroika and the post-Soviet period. Interaction with philosophy is considered as a solution to the methodological crisis in historical science. In this study, based on the discussion between the «mechanist» philosopher A.I. Varjas and the «dialectical» philosophers N.A. Karev and V.F. Asmus, various approaches to the implementation of Marx’s methodological propositions in relation to historical and philosophical research are considered. The discussion is considered using a number of materials that provide an understanding of the context of intellectual thought of those years. The conclusion is made about the dependence of the meaning of specific methodological provisions on one or another interpretation of general philosophical questions by the researcher. The relationship between ontology and the subject area of science is illustrated, and the significance of this area for the correct application of the method is shown. Special emphasis is placed on the interpenetration of the positions of the debating parties and their evolution in the time perspective. The conducted research allowed us to outline further prospects for generalizing the experience of the national methodology of history and confirm a number of previously put forward provisions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):277-282
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Electronic folklore archive in the modern sociocultural space
Zhirov M.S., Zhirova O.Y., Kuznetsova N.S.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to the problem of creating an electronic version of a folklore archive and finding ways to present it on the Internet. A preliminary review of the electronic archives of folklore materials posted on the Internet indicates different approaches to their implementation. In the category of archives containing information about folk songs, various methods of classifying musical genres are used, as well as ways of organizing them, which in general makes it difficult for the user to work with resources. The authors of this study propose their own development of a draft electronic map «Ethno-cultural heritage of Belgorod Region». This information resource is aimed at both professional figures in the field of folk music and a wide range of amateurs. The basis of the electronic map was made up of expeditionary materials from the archive of Folk Singing Art Department of Belgorod State Institute of Arts and Culture. While developing the project, modern trends in the presentation of archival materials on the Internet were taken into account, which made it possible to fully reveal the traditional culture of the region. The proposed method of presenting information allows you to maximally illuminate the musical genre composition of folk singing, get acquainted with the creative heritage of outstanding performers, as well as greatly facilitates the search for specific song samples, both among the archive materials and in existing publications.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):283-286
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Pedagogical Sciences
Information transformation as the basis for probabilistic thinking development of biology students at a pedagogical university
Azizova I.Y.
Abstract

In the conditions of an intensive information flow and the expansion of the author’s rights, there has been a change in the ways of working with scientific texts, in filling them with meaning. Working on text transformation, in whatever forms it may take place, is the most important activity for mastering the scientific language. Sketching (the method of visual notes) can be successfully used in teaching at a higher school, since it stimulates the cognitive activity of students – from understanding the author’s intention of the text to its transformation and giving personal meaning. Sketching is a convenient tool for the perception and processing of scientific information. These are polycode texts in which information is transmitted by verbal and non-verbal figurative and pictorial means. It is also a method for rendering the content. These are also techniques for working with texts that make it easier for students to work with complex information (facilitate the perception and understanding of their content). This paper gives recommendations on the use of sketching for students to study texts on the history and methodology of biology. Mastering the basics of in-depth understanding and creative reproduction of the text, their repeated playback provides the basis for the development of the teacher’s professionalism.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):287-291
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Psychological and pedagogical aspects of chemistry distant teaching to foreign university entrants
Afanasyeva O.Y.
Abstract

Chemistry is one of the most important courses in the system of pre-university training of prospective specialists with higher medical education. During the pandemic, we had to face some problems when organizing chemistry distance learning. There was a lack of data and opportunities for out-of-class interaction with students, since it was necessary to switch to the remote format in a very short time, literally within a few days. It was necessary to develop a model and methodological support to teach chemistry in the distant format and develop relevant professional competencies. The theoretical basis of the research is the theory of the planned development of mental actions and concepts and activities. Analyzing the results, we came to the conclusion that the implementation of this approach increased the motivation of university entrants to study chemistry. Methodological materials helped to improve the quality of training specifically for foreign entrants who did not know Russian well. The results of the final testing made it possible to conclude that the use of distance education or its elements in pre-university chemistry training is promising, necessary and expedient. All students in one way or another coped with the final certification and received certificates that allow them to continue their studies at a medical university.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):292-296
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E-learning in a modern university (case study of Samara State Transport University)
Bakanova I.G., Kapustina L.V.
Abstract

The changes that are taking place today are a real challenge to education, and they require transformation of the traditional education model. We are focused on positive opportunities in education that were insufficiently developed. There is a new reality based on the technological revolution and the achievements of 4.0 industry. E-learning is becoming one of the most significant functional technologies. The problem is that the unified e-learning paradigm has not yet been fully developed from the scientific point of view. Effective management of the e-learning process can contribute to high-quality implementation of such training in higher education institutions. The paper discusses the relevance of e-learning and its possibilities to build a large number of students’ general competencies which are necessary for their successful professional development. The possibilities of LMS Moodle for effective management of students’ educational activities and their personalization are presented in the paper. The necessity of using the e-learning management system in order to provide high-quality education is shown through the E-course «Foreign Language» for students of Samara State Transport University.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):297-296
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Features of biology education research organization in schools
Borisenko E.Y., Maksimova E.N., Makarkina N.V., Gavrikov D.E.
Abstract

The paper discusses the features of school biology education research organization in the context of the implementation of the Federal State Educational Standard of General Secondary Education. It is shown that the specificity of Biology as a school subject provides enormous opportunities to research activities for schoolchildren. It contributes to the results that comply with the Federal State Educational Standard, improves critical thinking and learning ability developing. This study shows the most common areas of biological research presented at school scientific conferences and olympiads of various levels. New and rarely used topics are proposed for education research in Botany, Zoology, Human Anatomy and their subsections. When choosing topics for their studies, authors recommend taking into account the student’s interests, age, ability to complete the research within a relatively short time at school or in other education organizations, scientific relevance and usefulness for the participants and regional approach. It is stated that the organization of theoretical and experimental research should be based on the scientific logic, which will improve students’ research abilities. The paper reveals typical problems of teachers associated with the choice of research topics, problem statement and choice of methods for studying natural objects.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):302-307
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An imitation-game approach to the development of a humanistic attitude towards a person among cadets – prospective employees of the penitentiary system
Vdovin S.A.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to the problem of training a cadet – a prospective employee of the penitentiary system (PS), capable of realizing a humanistic attitude towards a person, regardless of his social status, personal characteristics, etc. This problem is urgent since willingness to recognize the value of another person as a person, tolerance in relation to another person, ability to show empathy, ability to look at the situation from the perspective of another person, ability not to show anger, irritation, aggression towards people, ability to find positive traits in each person, implemented in a humanistic attitude to a person, prevent personal and moral deformation of penitentiary system employees. The provisions on the essence and characteristic features of the imitation-game approach in training are extrapolated to the problem of a humanistic attitude development among prospective employees of the penitentiary system to a person. The author has revealed some possibilities of an imitation-game approach to the development of a humanistic attitude towards a person among cadets. The unification of the game and simulation technologies in the simulation-game approach is substantiated. The paper also contains the principles of imitation-game approach implementation, they become the principles of simulation technology implementation: a problem principle, a personal interaction principle, a principle of each participant and group development, a self-learning principle based on reflection. The role of these principles for humanistic attitude development among prospective employees of the penitentiary system to a person is revealed. The value of play and the significance of non-play methods in the context of imitation-play approach implementation to the development of a humanistic attitude towards a person among cadets is grounded. An example of simulation-role approach implementation is also given.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):308-312
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Sociosemiotic approach to teaching foreign language listening: linguodidactic implications of adopting views on interrelation of verbal and non-verbal semiotic resources in communication.
Danilin M.V.
Abstract

The following article raises the issue built around teaching foreign language listening by the restrictions imposed by the theory of oral activity that influences the view on the nature of communication and human social behavior. In particular, the conducted analysis of the theoretical underpinnings of social semiotics and multimodal approach to human communication gives scientific credence to assuming the meaning-making potential of non-verbal language comparable to the one of verbal language. In addition to that, it becomes evident that non-verbal language has a tendency to complicate inferencing the meaning of the verbal activity rather than merely simplify it. As a consequence, the linguodidactic basis of teaching listening necessitates revision in this vein. Grounded on multimodal and sociocognitive approaches, the idea is put forward to interpret foreign language listening as a constituent part of sociocognitive activity, the distinguishing features of which are embodied perception and orientation to embodied meaning-making. On the basis of aforementioned, the article enriches psycholinguistic theory of listening with aspects of aural-visual (multimodal) perception as well as offers a view on the alignment of semiotic resources to produce meaning. As a result, there were formulated a set of specific methodological principles intended to govern the teaching process of intertwined aural-visual perception and inferencing of cross-mode meanings and subsequently ensure high performance in foreign language listening in the context of multimodal communication.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):313-320
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The concept «ethical responsibility of the penal system employee»: a pedagogical aspect
Zhalmurzin R.B.
Abstract

The paper substantiates the importance of ethical responsibility of the penal system employee in the context of his professional activities. It is substantiated that moral choice is common to ethics, psychology and pedagogy in the understanding of responsibility: moral choice as an ethical category, psychological mechanisms for making a choice, formation of ethical responsibility for choice. The status of responsibility is concretized within the framework of the concept «ethical responsibility of the penal system employee». The paper analyzes this concept at the ethical (description of the content in the categories of ethics), psychological (defining the mechanisms for such responsibility formation) and pedagogical (disclosing the content in the context of pedagogical knowledge) levels. The author proves that the responsibility in general and the ethical responsibility of the penal system employee in particular can be considered both a value and a personal quality. It is substantiated that the ethical responsibility of the penal system employee is a systemic personal formation that has a value as a set of relations of the penal system employee (to professional activity, to people involved in the sphere of his professional activity, to himself as a subject of such activity), implemented in his activities through personal qualities that determine the implementation by the penal system employee of a moral choice in the process of professional activity and form the content of ethical responsibility as a personal quality. The content of the ethical responsibility of the penal system employee is revealed through the attraction of the values «duty», «dignity», «honor», «good», «virtue», «justice», «freedom», «conscience» and personal qualities «perseverance», «efficiency», «organization», «exactingness», «obligation», «initiative»

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):321-325
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Profiled physical education: methodological basis
Korovin S.S.
Abstract

The relevance of the presented material is due to the need to resolve the contradiction between the social need for «human capital» reproduction and creation and the insufficient methodological substantiation of the value potential of professional physical culture and profiled physical education in the upbringing of the essential cultural characteristics of the professional’s personality as a subject of «human capital». The subject of the research is the characteristics of profiled physical education components, while the goal is the methodological substantiation of profiled physical education in the upbringing of culturological characteristics of the professional’s personality. It is shown that the methodological basis was formed by the personality-oriented and cultural approaches to the organization of educational processes. It has been substantiated that in the reproduction of «human capital» one of the leading places is given to the values of professional physical culture with the targeted use of which an optimal ratio is achieved in correcting the bodily-mental-spiritual conditions of a person, his professionally important motor and personal needs and abilities. The author approves the statement that their quality-quantity reflects the development of the individual’s professional physical culture, the manifestation of the basic culture of the subject and, in general, characterizes the quality of «human capital». It is shown that one of the fundamental types of professional physical culture is profiled physical culture education as a specially organized and specific pedagogical process of development, training and education of professionally significant value orientations, motor and personal needs and abilities of the professional’s personality. It is substantiated that the structure of profiled physical education is represented by the following components: profiled physical education, upbringing and development, the implementation of which ensures the proper complexity and comprehensiveness in the development of the essential culturological characteristics of the professional’s personality as a subject of «human capital». The author claims that the main tasks of profiled physical education are the development of socially correct behavior experience; teaching professionally important (applied) motor skills and abilities; mastering the system of professionally oriented physical culture and sports knowledge and skills of physical culture self-improvement. Profiled physical education has the task of bringing the system of professionally important motor qualities to the proper state; reproduction and maintenance of professionally important personal properties and qualities; formation of a system of needs and motives in professionally oriented physical culture and sports self-improvement. Profiled physical culture development provides a solution to the problems of optimizing the main professionally important adaptive capabilities; correction of physical development and professionally important functional capabilities; development of professionally important mental processes and their types.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(1):326-330
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