Samara Journal of Science

Samara Journal of Science was established in 2012.

The authors of the journal are university academic staff, researchers, postgraduates, candidates for a doctor’s degree, senior students.

By the decision of Supreme Attestation Commission dated of 29.12.2015, the journal is listed in the Catalogue of peer-reviewed scientific publications, where the core scientific results of the candidate and doctoral theses must be published (link).

The journal is registered in the system “Russian Science Citation Index” (RSCI – eLIBRARY.RU).

The journal is registered in the system “CyberLeninka”.

The journal has professional, highly qualified editorial staff consisted of leading scientists (doctors of science, professors, academicians, correspondent members of Russian Academy of Sciences) – representatives of national and foreign institutions of higher education and scientific organizations.

Samara Journal of Science is an open scientific platform for all interested individuals and organizations, which enables authors to publish the results of their research in education as well as biological sciences, historical sciences. The journal promotes an exchange of views on various issues of biology, history and pedagogy between researchers from different regions and countries.


Scientific fields of Samara Journal of Science:
1.5 Biological sciences
1.5.12 Zoology
1.5.14 Entomology
1.5.15 Ecology (biological sciences)
5.6 Historical sciences
5.6.1 Domestic history
5.6.2 Universal history
5.6.3 Archeology
5.6.4 Ethnology, anthropology and ethnography
5.6.5 Historiography, source studies, methods of historical research
5.8 Pedagogy
5.8.1 General pedagogy, history of pedagogy and education
5.8.2 Theory and methodology of training and upbringing
5.8.7 Methodology and technology of professional education


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Current Issue

Vol 11, No 2 (2022)

From editorial board

Oleg Dmitrievich Mochalov – 50th birthday!
Vybornov A.A., Repinetsky A.I.

The paper is dedicated to the rector of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education, doctor of historical sciences, professor and editor-in-chief of «Samara Journal of Science» Oleg Dmitrievich Mochalov. The paper examines the formation of O.D. Mochalov as a scientist, the path from a graduate student and assistant of the Department of Archeology and History of the Ancient World of Kuibyshev State Pedagogical Institute to the head of the university and one of the famous researchers of ceramics of the Bronze Age. Scientific conferences, monographs and papers in leading scientific journals, teaching, archaeological expeditions – this is the scientific daily routine of O.D. Mochalov. In 2013, O.D. Mochalov headed the university. Despite extensive administrative duties, he continued his active scientific and pedagogical activities. Monographs published in this country and abroad, papers in the world’s leading journals, grant management are a vivid evidence of this. Activities of the rector O.D. Mochalov are aimed at turning Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education into a world-class higher education institution while preserving the best traditions of its more than 110-year history. Strengthening the material base of the university, expanding its infrastructure through the commissioning of new facilities, participation of the university in numerous scientific and pedagogical projects allow Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education to be the leading pedagogical university of the country and the Samara Region and look to the future with confidence.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):10-15
pages 10-15 views

Biological Sciences

The flavonoids content in the fruits of some woody introduced species grown in the Botanical Garden of Samara University
Andreeva I.A.

This paper discusses the features of the flavonoid complexes accumulation in the fruits of some fruit and berry crops that have been grown in the conditions of the Botanical Garden of Samara University. The objects of this study are the fruits of such crops as Ampelopsis glandulosa Elegans, Morus alba L., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt.), Sambucus nigra L. Mature fruits were collected in the autumn of 2021 by the staff of the Botanical Garden to study the fruits of these plants for flavonoids. They were kept frozen, the samples were used to prepare an alcoholic extract with the addition of acid according to the appropriate method. This extract was further used for spectrum recording and for the quantitative determination of phenolic compounds by the conventional method using the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent to estimate the content of the substances of phenolic nature in a particular sample. An approximate estimate of the amount of phenolic compounds in the studied extracts showed that the objects differed in the amount of extracted phenolic compounds. Magonia was in the first place both in fresh and dry mass, the second place was shared by ampelopsis and elderberry. And the least amount of phenolic compounds was found in mulberry fruits.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):16-22
pages 16-22 views
Annual and biennial invasive species in the flora of Ivanovo
Borisova E.A., Dmitrieva Z.M.

The paper analyzes invasive plant species in a large regional center of European Russia – the city of Ivanovo. Based on the conducted research (by 2022) a group of 25 annual and biennial invasive plant species were identified in Ivanovo, which belong to 10 families and 19 genera. The authors have established ecopopological features of successfully naturalized of these species within the city limits, as well as their association with certain natural and anthropogenic ecotopes. 4 most active species (Bidens frondosa, Heraculum sosnowsky, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora) are classified as transformers. They form dense monodominant thickets in various parts of the city, successfully compete and displace species of native flora. The largest number of species occurs in ecotopes, which are characterized by a simplified structure and lability. 17 species are in the composition of natural ecotopes, and the most vulnerable among them are water bodies and riparian communities. Among the anthropogenic ecotopes, habitats (24 species), roadsides (20 species) and wastelands (19 species) are more actively populated by invasive annual and biennial species. The problems of control and management of the spread of invasive species, including a large group of annual and biennial plants, should be solved comprehensively, within the framework of general economic and social urban programs based on scientific monitoring data.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):23-28
pages 23-28 views
A zoo visitor effect as a factor of animal welfare in the case of lions Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758)
Veselova N.A., Denisova E.V., Palkina P.O.

The paper is devoted to the study of the influence of visitors (a visitor effect) on the behavior of lions Panthera leo in three Russian zoos (Moscow, Yaroslavl and Sochi). Large aviary and shelters availability have been shown to be important factors of animal welfare. This allows the animals to independently regulate the level of stimulation from zoo visitors. All animals changed their behavior with an increase in the number of visitors near the enclosures. At the same time, the trends of this dynamics differed. Thus, in the Yaroslavl and Moscow zoos, where animals were kept in large enclosures, lions did not show stereotypical behavior, the presence of visitors aroused interest of animals and an increase in their motor activity was observed. In the Sochi zoo, lions were kept in a small enclosure, these animals showed stereotypical behavior, the level of which increased in the presence of zoo visitors. In the temporary budgets of lions in the Yaroslavl (average 82,3%) and Moscow (average 87,5%) zoos, inactive forms of behavior prevailed, while in the Sochi zoo – stereotyped activity (average 46,9%).

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):29-34
pages 29-34 views
Phytoremediation potential of flowering plants in relation to copper under the conditions of a model laboratory experiment
Vityaz S.N., Kolosova M.M., Dremova M.S., Rotkina E.B.

This paper describes the results of studying the phytoremediation potential of flowering plants in relation to copper ions in laboratory experiment conditions. The test crops were tansy-leaved phacelia, white mustard, small-flowered marigolds and a mixture of grasses consisting of red fescue, pasture ryegrass and meadow bluegrass in a ratio of 40%, 50%, 10% respectively. Under experimental conditions copper ions in concentrations of 2 and 10 MPC were introduced into the soil selected from the territory of agricultural lands (leached medium-sized heavy loamy chernozem with a high content of humus, mobile phosphorus and exchangeable potassium and a low content of nitrate nitrogen, gross and mobile forms of copper). It has been found that all the selected crops accumulated copper ions from the soil to varying degrees, which makes them suitable for phytoremediation of agricultural lands planned for organic farming. The ability to accumulate copper ions increases in a row: white mustard < small-flowered marigolds < tansy-leaved phacelia < a mixture of grasses. The maximum effect of phytoremediation of the soil in relation to copper ions has been revealed in the variant with a cereal mixture: the content of copper ions in the soil decreases by 38,8% when applying 2 MPC, by 47,8% when applying 10 MPC.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):35-40
pages 35-40 views
Features of the genotypic structure of Scots pine glutamate dehydrogenase depending on the vital state of the tree
Degtyareva A.P., Vnukova N.I., Kamalova I.I.

In the context of global warming, an important task is to find mechanisms for forest woody plants adaptation to changing environmental conditions. In steppe regions, this issue is particularly acute due to frequent droughts during the growing season. Scots pine is one of the main forest-forming species in Russia and is of great importance. The paper deals with the vital state of Scots pine plantations growing in the pessimal zone of the range in the steppe region, as well as the genotypic structure of the glutamate dehydrogenase locus. The allelic form of Gdh-1¹ of this enzyme is an embryonic semi-lethal for Scots pine and can act as a molecular marker of adaptation of this species to negative environmental conditions. It is known that organisms with semi-lethal genes in their genotype have a complex of compensatory mechanisms, which causes their increased resistance to adverse factors. The study sample was divided into two groups according to the level of living conditions: strong and weak. It was found that in the group of trees in the best vital condition, the proportion of genotypes containing embryonic half-life (Gdh-1¹) of scots pine prevails. Also, in the group of strong trees, the allele, which is an embryonic half-fly, is 79%, and in the group of weak trees – 39%, which is 1,9 times less.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):41-44
pages 41-44 views
The methodology for assessing an integral indicator of the degree of favorable weather conditions for plants
Zhuikova T.V., Meling E.V., Popova A.S.

The weather and climatic conditions of the periods under study significantly affect the response of biological systems to other environmental factors, including technogenic transformation of the environment. Having a complex of weather factors, it is difficult to unequivocally judge the favorable weather conditions of a particular year of observation. In this paper, an integral indicator of the degree of favorable weather conditions and a technology for its calculation are proposed. The degree of favorable weather is expressed in points on a five-point scale. The calculation uses a set of weather factors that potentially affect the biological object under study (organism, population, community). Weather factors and periods in which they can affect the objects under study are selected taking into account the biological characteristics of the object, for example, in our case, the period of the intrarenal phase (May of the previous year), the stage of active organogenesis, extrarenal growth until the period of collection of biological material (July of the current year). The method of principal components reduces hydrometeorological indicators and determines the factors that make the greatest contribution to weather variability in the periods under study. The absolute values of these factors are converted into points on the basis of a five-point scale for the correspondence of weather factors to the climatic norm and the optimal values of the HTC. Based on the average score for each year, the degree of favorable weather for a particular biological object is determined. The paper contains an example of a technology for calculating the integral indicator of favorable weather for silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), growing in six localities of the Tagil zone of the Middle Urals, in which the variability of leaf morphological features was studied in the period from 2016 to 2019. On the example of the Betula pendula leaf blade shape index, a statistically significant dependence of this feature on the integral indicator of the degree of favorable weather is shown.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):45-51
pages 45-51 views
The influence of the nutrient medium on the morphological features and cell viability of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris Beijer
Zaitsev V.V., Petryakov V.V., Zaitseva L.M., Makhimova Z.N.

This paper discusses morphological features and the nature of the viability of the cell groups of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris Beijer., growing in an artificial nutrient medium. It has been found that in the morphological aspect, the microalgae have a unicellular cell structure of rounded or ellipsoidal shapes with a diameter of cell structures from 2 to 10 microns. The structure of the chlorella cell is represented as a thin shell, in the cytoplasm of which the nucleus with a decorated chloroplast is immersed. The optimal parameters for the intensive growth of chlorella microalgae were temperature values in the range of +27…+29°C. In such temperature values, chlorella microalgae showed the best results in terms of cell growth rate and in the values of its viability index. At the same time, the culture of chlorella cells, having the ability to outstrip cell growth, is able to maintain its systematic variety for a long time. In addition, it has been found that chlorella cells have a pronounced phototropism, expressed in responses to a light pulse and the ability to purposefully move towards it in the form of phototaxis. Further observations showed that the majority of chlorella cells in the visible field of micrometry were about 4–6 microns in size with an average quantitative content of about 4,5 million microalgae cell structures in one milliliter of nutrient (culture) medium. The indicator of the optical density of the studied chlorella cell culture after 14 days of growth in the nutrient medium increased by the end of observations by a little more than 2 times, which indicates a sufficiently high value of the viability of the cell structures of the Chlorella vulgaris Beijer. microalgae culture.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):52-56
pages 52-56 views
Taxonomic diversity of Brassicaceae in the Samara-Ulyanovsk Volga Region
Ivanova A.V., Kostina N.V., Aristova M.A.

In the flora of the Samara-Ulyanovsk Volga region, the Brassicaceae family is one of the leading ones. It is of interest to study the composition of the genera of this family at the level of the territory of the entire Samara-Ulyanovsk Volga region, as well as the physiographic regions included in it. It helps to understand whether there are local features in the composition of the cruciferous flora and what they are. Two natural zones are distinguished in the study area: forest-steppe and steppe; four provinces and 15 physical-geographic regions. In this paper, we consider in more detail 7 floras, they are described most fully. All of them are located in the forest-steppe zone. In the spectra of flora families of the considered physiographic regions, the Brassicaceae family is located on the 4th–5th place. In the spectrum of the adventive fraction of the flora, it rises to the 2nd–3rd position, and in the native fraction it falls to the 7th–9th place. The composition of the complete flora of cruciferous plants throughout the territory of the Samara-Ulyanovsk Volga region contains 40 genera and 89 species. It is not possible to unambiguously single out the head part in the generic spectrum, concentrating in itself a significant part of the flora species of this family. The most numerous genera are Rorippa, Lepidium and Alyssum. The species representation of these genera, as well as those of slightly smaller weight (Cardamine, Erysimum and Sisymbrium), does not differ in the considered physiographic regions. An exception is the genus Alyssum, whose representatives are confined to limestone and chalk substrates, which are not common in all areas. The Brassicaceae family has a fairly wide ecological spectrum; it includes species that grow in different ecotopes.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):57-64
pages 57-64 views
The assessment of the level of environmental pollution at the solid waste landfill of KazEcoProm LLP (Pavlodar, Republic of Kazakhstan)
Kaliyeva A.B., Kabdolla M.O., Sergazinova Z.M., Toleuzhanova A.T., Taskarin A.K.

This paper presents a study of the impact of the KazEcoProm LLP landfill located in the north-east of Kazakhstan (Pavlodar) on groundwater, soil and atmospheric air. Sampling for each environmental component was carried out once per quarter at the landfill site. The amount of pollutants in the components of the environment was determined in a specialized accredited laboratory of KazPII KazakhstanProject LLP. The level of pollution of environmental components by harmful substances of wastes was assessed by the ratio of the total indicator of pollutants for each component to the maximum permissible concentration on the border of the sanitary-protection zone of the landfill. No exceedances of the maximum permissible concentrations were detected. Thus, the conducted investigations have showed that the level of environmental pollution on the territory of the landfill is assessed as permissible. However, further monitoring of the negative impact of the landfill on the environment is required. The received data can be used to estimate a level of environmental pollution and determine an observance of norms and rules of storage and gathering of wastes on a landfill.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):65-72
pages 65-72 views
Ecological aspects of the nesting life of the black-necked grebe (Podiceps nigricollis C.L. Brehm) in the forest-steppe zone of the Trans-Urals
Lamekhov Y.G.

The black-necked grebe (Podiceps nigricollis C.L. Brehm) is a nesting, migratory bird species, the number of which in the Southern Urals reaches 12 thousand individuals. From an ecological point of view, the named bird species belongs to aquatic birds and prefers aquatic and semiaquatic habitats. Being a waterfowl, the black-necked grebe has a complex of diving adaptations and is characterized as a specialized waterfowl. The literature analysis has proved that the knowledge of the ecological aspects of the nesting life of the black-necked grebe is insufficient. The nesting period of the annual life cycle was studied on the Kurlady and Smolino lakes located in the forest-steppe zone of the Trans-Urals. The average date of birds arrival at the nesting area according to 1988–2013 data is 19 April. The choice of breeding site leads to the fact that black-necked grebes form colonies in stagnant water bodies or with a slow flow of water. The water is fresh or brackish, with a certain pattern of overgrowth of vegetation and depth in the area where the nests are located. The presence of nests of black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus L.) plays a special role in choosing a place to build a nest. Black-necked grebes and black-headed gulls form polyspecific colonial settlements. The laying of the first egg is carried out by the black-necked grebe in an unfinished nest, floating on the water and having a flat shape. At the stage of the appearance of the first egg in the nest, the elimination of eggs occurs, which can reach 44,1% (the biological center of the colony, 1989). On the periphery of the colonial settlement, the percentage of dead clutches is significantly higher, which can be caused by unfavorable biotic and abiotic relationships. Nests of black-necked grebes are completed from the moment the first egg is laid until the laying is completed. At a statistically significant level, the diameter of the nest and tray, the height of the nest, and the depth of the tray increase. The nest with completed masonry has a truncated-conical shape with a cup-shaped tray. According to long-term observations, the average value of the completed clutch is 3,8 eggs per nest. The reproduction in the composition of a polyspecific colony is accompanied by the establishment of biocoenotic relationships. The manifestation of topical, phoric and factory relationships, which can lead to individual and group elimination, has been established.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):73-78
pages 73-78 views
The ecological and floristic characteristic of the nature monument «Verkhnezaglyadinsky Kinelsky Yar» (Orenburg Region)
Murzyvanova S.V.

The paper presents a floristic analysis of the nature monument «Verkhnezaglyadinsky Kinelsky Yar». The taxonomic analysis showed a growth of 107 species of vascular plants from 83 genera from 29 families on this territory. The analysis of life forms according to I.G. Serebryakov showed a predominance of herbaceous perennials, namely short-rooted (24 species) and rod-rooted (19 species) grasses. According to Raunkier’s classification, hemicryptophytes (77 species) are the predominant life form. The ecological and geographical analysis showed that the forest-steppe (40 species) and mountain-steppe (20 species) groups were represented by the largest number of species. According to the method of N.M. Matveev a complete ecomorphic analysis was carried out. The chorological analysis showed a predominance of plants with the Eurasian type of habitat in the flora (47 species). Plant species with endemic habitats (18 species), as well as relic plants (5 species) have been noted, which raises this natural monument to a considerable height. The flora of the Verkhnezaglyadinsky Kinelsky Yar includes 3 species from the Red Book of the Russian Federation and 7 species from the Red Book of the Orenburg Region. The studied natural monument is well described from a geological point of view, and our work has expanded its floristic study. In conditions of anthropogenic load caused by the proximity of highways and settlements, it is necessary to organize constant monitoring of the state of the nature monument «Verkhnezaglyadinsky Kinelsky Yar».

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):79-84
pages 79-84 views
Ecological and coenotic groups of Southern Trans-Urals vascular plants flora and biotopes phytoindication
Nazarenko N.N., Pokhlebayev S.M., Malaev A.V., Deryagin V.V., Anukhina A.V.

The expert and statistical assessment of ecological and coenotic groups of Southern Trans-Urals vascular plants flora has been done for A.L. Belgard’s coenomorphs scheme and scheme of vascular plants flora of temperate forest zone of European Russia. Both suggested schemes of groups give adequate and similar assessment of biotopes. The proposed groups of vascular plants flora are identified in phytometer scales space definitely and can be used for regional assessment of biotopes. The best assessment of ecological flora of region is realized by combined coenomorphs and coenotic group schemes approach at the same time. The authors have established regimes of principal ecological factors that identified differentiation flora by coenotic groups and ultimate for specific groups forming in Southern Trans-Urals habitats. Sylvant coenomorph has been formed by boreal (acidic soils phytometers) and nemoral sciophytes and heliosciophytes, moreover a nemoral group must be understood as a group of shady forests on rich soils. The sylvant pine forest group is heterogeneous and not coenoticaly specific. The steppe coenotic group has been formed of obligate and facultative heliophytes of mostly dry biotopes, pratal coenomorph is heterogeneous and not coenoticaly specific and made up of humidity-meadow flora, dry-meadow coenotic group is not specific. For Southern Trans-Urals region it is recommended to use unite paludal coenomorphs but with a separation of coenotic group of oligotrophic bogs. The separation of ruderal coenomorph (phytometers of dry-meadow moistening and rich of nitrogen soils) is confirmed statistically. The authors have established regimes of principal ecological factors for stenotopic ecological and coenotic groups of Southern Trans-Urals region. For coenotic groups of Southern Trans-Urals region the authors have identified biotopical «centres» and biotopic and coenotic series which are associated with moistening, aeration and saline soil conditions and brightness regime.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):85-96
pages 85-96 views
Taxonomic composition of dry and floodplain meadows of the Bolshaya Kokshaga nature reserve
Osmanova G.O., Firulina I.I.

The paper deals with the study of the taxonomic structure of floodplain and dry meadow communities of the Bolshaya Kokshaga State Nature Reserve of the Republic of Mari El. The dependence between the meso- and microrelief of the territory and the conditions of plant growth is revealed. It has turned out that the flora of the studied 12 meadow phytocoenoses (6 floodplain and 6 dryland) includes 174 species of vascular plants belonging to 110 genera from 36 families. The leading families with the greatest species diversity include 6: Compositae (23 species), Poaceae (19), Fabaceae (15), Rosaceae (15), Scrophulariaceae (12), Caryophyllaceae (11), which include 55,17% of the total flora of the meadows studied. The Jacquard coefficient revealed the similarity of the species composition of dry and floodplain meadows. Both types of meadows are dominated by species of the family Compositae and Poaceae. The studies have shown that in the absence of anthropogenic load, processes of transformation of meadow communities into forest communities are observed. The most intensive processes of overgrowth are in forest hayfields, due to the proximity of forest phytocoenoses, the possibility of invasion of seed and vegetative diasporas. One of the common variants of overgrowth observed on the territories after the cessation of economic activity is a gradual reduction in the area of meadow communities along the edges from bordering forest communities. In this case, explerent species of trees and shrubs growing in forest coenoses are introduced. After a certain period of time, meadow communities are replaced by aspen, birch, and pine forests. As long as the meadows are regularly mowed down, the restoration of woody vegetation is not possible.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):97-102
pages 97-102 views
Nesting of the osprey (Pandion haliaetus Linnaeus, 1758) in the Shushensky Bor National Park
Petrov S.Y., Chumakov S.V.

The paper deals with the dynamics of nesting of the osprey (Pandion haliaetus Linnaeus, 1758) in the Shushensky Bor National Park and on adjacent sites in the valley of the Yenisei River, associated with the emergence of the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station reservoir. The paper contains data on the nesting of the osprey directly on the territory of the Mountain Forestry of the National Park. Special attention is paid to one of the discovered nests. To build nests, the osprey in the Siberian region usually chooses high-stemmed dry or semi-dry trees with broken tops, and one of the tricks when choosing a nesting site is the elevation above the general level of the surrounding forest to provide a circular view. In this case, the nest was located on the broken top of a live cedar growing on a steep slope in a fir-cedar forest. There were taller trees nearby, i.e. the nest did not dominate in height. During observations of osprey nests, it was found out that they reacted very negatively to the appearance of any watercraft in the bay. If the adult birds were in or near the nest, they flew from a great distance and did not fly close until the boat or motorboat was removed, which, of course, threatened the eggs (when incubating) or chicks during the first weeks after hatching, hypothermia and possibly death. Recommendations are given for the conservation and study of the biology of this rare red book species in the habitat conditions on the mountain-taiga coast of the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station reservoir within the national Park.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):103-107
pages 103-107 views
The evaluation of the effectiveness of various agricultural products on the sunflower productivity in the Central Black Earth region
Piskareva L.A., Cheverdin A.Y., Bocharnikova I.I.

This paper discusses the establishment of the biological effectiveness of agricultural products used for sunflower of domestic varieties and foreign hybrids. The scheme of the experiment presented in 2019–2021 provided for the inclusion in the technology of cultivation of two non-root subcortures of plants with agro-products of various spectrum of action. The paper identifies the most effective agricultural products for their targeted inclusion in the cultivation technologies of specific varieties and hybrids of the sunflower. The most acceptable hybrids of sunflower for cultivation in the Voronezh Region have been selected. Experimental studies were carried out during a three-factor stationary experiment in the field of the Voronezh Federal Agrarian Research Center named after V.V. Dokuchaev. The conducted studies have shown that the Voronezh variety 638 is significantly inferior in its productivity to the hybrids of foreign selection of the Limagrain company (LG5478, LG50270, LG5377). The effectiveness of various agricultural products when used in the cultivation technology of sunflower varieties and hybrids was not the same. Polydon Amino Mix proved to be the best product. The increase in yield from double application with foliar top dressing was 0,80 t/ha. Agro-products Aquadon-Micro (0,58 t/ha) and ZSS (ZSB) – 0,41 t/ha were somewhat inferior to Polydon Amino Mix in their effectiveness. The most responsive to agricultural products were hybrids LG5478 and P64LL125.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):108-112
pages 108-112 views
The nidicolic group of gamase mites on the territory of Eastern Transbaikalia and their biocoenotic relationships
Poletaeva T.G., Kleusova N.A., Larina N.P., Chistyakova N.S., Plyaskina I.N.

This paper summarizes the results of studies on the fauna of gamas mites of the nidicolic group. On the Eastern Transbaikal Territory, 68 species have been identified as part of the nidicolic group. They belong to nine families, most of them have been found in rodent nests. The largest number of species belongs to the families Parasitidae, Laelaptidae, Rhodacaridae. Many species have been found in the soil, where they form micropopulations. Of the 68 species 19 have not been found in the soil: six species of Euryparasitus, three species from the genera Poecilochirus, Ameroseius, Macrocheles, one species – Parasitus (Coleogamasus) tichomirovi, Veigaia beklemischevi, Pachylaelaps siculus, Hypoaspis krameri. In the biocoenosis of the vegetable storage, H. timofejevi have had the highest rates, its reproduction and development have taken place here. We have detected all stages of development. The main parts of the population have been represented as follows: females – 48%, males – 11,8%, larvae – 1,2%, protonymphs – 7%, deutonymphs – 32%. Females in each hamazid population numerically have predominated over males. Drawings of the preimaginal stages of development as well as its topical and phoric connections have been described. The nidicoles of the forest-steppe zone of Transbaikalia have demonstrated a tendency to synanthropization. The tendency has been noted in 21 species of nidicoles from six families: eight from the family Parasitidae, five from the family Laeleptidae, three from the family Macrochelidae, two species from the family Ameroseidae, Aceosejidae and one species from the family Rhodacaridae. Interspecific relationships have been established for H. timofejevi, E. emarginatus.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):113-119
pages 113-119 views
The assessment of the ecological state of the reservoir in the Spring Valley of Volgograd
Slaykovskaya E.S., German N.V.

This paper presents a biological method for assessing the ecological state of a water body. The reservoir «Gypsy Pond», located in the residential complex «Spring Valley» of the Sovetsky District in Volgograd, was chosen as the object of research. In the process of assessing the ecological state of the reservoir, a method of bioindication of water quality using algae according to T.Ya. Ashikhmina was used. This method is quite simple and accessible in its application. The definition is based on establishing a degree of organic pollution of a water body by identifying algae indicators for a specific state of the environment. According to the conducted biological studies, the following species were found: Reinhardt’s Chlamydomonas (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), diatoms (Diatomeae), green euglena (Egulena viridis), Ulothrix (Ulothrix), navicula (Navicula rhynchocephalia), chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris). As a result, the analyzed reservoir can be attributed to a highly polluted one, since the dominant species indicate a strong contamination of the reservoir and belong to polysaprobic species. In addition, as a result of the mixotrophic feeding of green euglena (Egulena viridis) and Reinhardt’s chlamydomonas (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), the water body is experiencing a lack of oxygen supply, the production of which occurs during photosynthesis, which causes the formation of unfavorable conditions for the existence of hydrobionts. It is also important to note that a project is currently being planned to fill up the studied water body, which can have a particularly negative impact in the current situation of shortage of fresh resources.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):120-123
pages 120-123 views
The effect of modified mineral fertilizers on the productivity of agrobiogeocoenoses
Sukhova N.V., Efremova S.Y., Vizirskaya M.M., Zinoviev S.V.

Due to the long-term use of the soil as a resource, the natural balance of microorganisms necessary for the normal functioning of the plant is disrupted. The trophic structure of agrophytocoenoses is unstable, the circulation of substances in them is incomplete, it requires regulation – fertilization to restore fertility. Mineral fertilizers as an important component of agriculture, which determines the yield and quality of products, are not fully absorbed by plants. The aim of the study was to study the effectiveness of a modified mineral fertilizer (nitroammophoski NPK = 17–17–17) by Bacillus subtilis H–13 bacteria, when cultivating carrots of the Abaco variety. The results of the effectiveness of biomineral fertilizers on salty light chestnut soil in combination with salts with a heavy granulometric composition, in the agrocoenosis of carrots in the conditions of the Volgograd Region are presented. The effect of biomineral fertilizer has shown a high effect and can be considered as a method of complex biologization of crop cultivation technology in agriculture of the Russian Federation. The essence of the reception is the processing of mineral fertilizer granules with a microbiological preparation «BisolbiFit». This technique makes it possible to form stable agrobiogeocoenoses by improving the growth conditions, accelerating the development of plants. The use of biomodified mineral fertilizer, improving the mineral nutrition of plants, allowed to obtain an increase in the yield of carrots – 35,4%. It also helped to improve the quality of root crops – the sugar content increased by 35,2 mg/g of raw mass.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):124-129
pages 124-129 views
Some features of small mammalian’s ectoparasite communities formation in the mixed forests of the Nizhny Novgorod Region
Fadeeva G.A., Boryakova E.E.

The paper deals with some features of small mammalian’s ectoparasite communities formation in the mixed forests of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. It has been shown that on rodents and insectivores in the mixed forests and in the ecotone community from forest to agrocoenosis typical ectoparasite communities are observed. Only rare species demonstrate specificity in the choice of hosts. Two species of rodents – Myodes glareolus and Apodemus flavicollis, being typically forest species, are characterized by the highest biodiversity of ectoparasites and high rates of their abundance. The presence of the same species of ectoparasites on the different species of small mammals indicates possible contacts between rodents and insectivores in the ecosystem and exchange of parasites. Using the method of principal components (PCA), the factors influencing parasite community have been identified. It has been shown that out of 10 factors influencing the small mammalian ectoparasites community, 5 are the most significant. Many factors influence the communities of ectoparasites of small mammals. The degree of that effect depends on different mammalian and mites biology. Factors regulate the number of parasite populations, and as a result, stable communities functioning for a long time are formed. Parasites, not showing specificity in the choice of hosts during interspecific contacts of animals in biocoenoses, spread from forest habitats to neighboring territories.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):130-135
pages 130-135 views
A comparative analysis of stray dogs color in Yakutsk
Yakovleva M.L., Shadrina E.G.

In this study we consider the frequency of coat color variation among Yakutsk stray dogs. The study was carried out at the same time in three city districts: Centralniy, Saysarskiy and Stroitelniy. The districts differ in urban development and population density of stray dogs. The Stroitelniy and Saysarskiy Districts belong to a one-two-storey residential type of the building, the Centralniy one – to a multi-storey residential type. 8 types of colors were distinguished: black, white, red, wolf-gray (agouti), yellow with a mask, black-backed, white large-spotted and black with white spots. The analysis of the morphs was carried out in percent, as well as Zhivotovsky’s indications: the average number of morphs (µ), proportion of rare phens (h), phonetic similarity of groups (r). The most frequent is a black-backed color – 21,42% (95% confidence interval: 17,33–26,92). The wolf-gray type of color – 18,56% (CI: 14,00–25,00) and the black with white spots type – 15,62% (CI: 11,54–20,00) are also very frequent. The white large-spotted color (4,62% CI: 3,33–6,67) is the least frequent among the selected types. It is proved that the population of stray dogs in Yakutsk is quite homogeneous. One-to-one comparison of stray dog groups from different districts of Yakutsk showed that the groups from the Centralniy and Stroitelniy Districts turned out to be the closest (r = 0,972 ± 0,024). The lowest connection between dogs groups were observed in the Saysarskiy and Stroitelniy Districts (r = 0,933 ± 0,029). The collation of the Centralniy and Saysarskiy Districts also revealed an analogy between these groups of stray dogs (r = 0,956 ± 0,034). Therefore, the morphotype of stray dogs in Yakutsk is formed mainly without any human influence, mostly have a random pattern. Conditions of life can impact to the selection; as a result the most accommodated individuals survive on the street in the region with a severe climate.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):136-144
pages 136-144 views

Historical Sciences

Ceramics from the dwellings at the Neolithic site Kairshak III in the northern Caspian Region
Vybornov A.A., Vasilyeva I.N., Laktaeva E.M., Frolov I.K.

The paper presents the results of ceramic inventory study at Kairshak III site in the northern Caspian region. The relevance of the research is defined by the role of the Neolithic of this region in the adjacent territories’ cultures. The pottery of the Kairshak type is one of the oldest in Eastern Europe. The analysis was carried out separately for each dwelling. The distribution of vessels across the cultural layers was compared. Its corollas and walls of different shapes were typologically identified. Special attention was paid to fragments of ceramics without ornament. Its features in various constructions were revealed. Ornament application techniques and their correlation were characterized. Ornamental compositions on different vessels in each object were compared. Its peculiar features were found. The reasons for the differences were interpreted. The presence of a time later than the main materials in the upper levels of the vessels was established. Technical and technological analysis of vessels from dwellings was carried out, and their features were revealed. According to radiocarbon dates, the chronological period of the functioning of each dwelling was determined. The absolute chronology of the human inhabitation on this monument was corrected. A different time of existence of the population in various complexes on this monument was confirmed. This makes it possible to reconstruct the appearance, development and final period of operation of Kairshak III site.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):145-163
pages 145-163 views
Neolithic materials from the settlement and burial ground of Vasilievsky Kordon 27 on the Upper Don (research in 2020-2021)
Yurkina E.S., Kulichkov A.A.

The purpose of the paper is to publish ceramic and stone collections of artifacts from the Neolithic era from the multilayer settlement and burial ground Vasilievsky Kordon 27. The settlement is located on the right bank of the Voronezh River (Don Basin) within the Dobrovsky District of the Lipetsk Region. Excavations of 323 m² have been explored in the settlement. Previously, a large amount of Eneolithic ceramics was discovered: the Srednestogovskaya and Volosovskaya cultures, and Ksizov-type utensils. For the first time in 2020, an economic object with only Early Neolithic materials was discovered at the site. We have received a collection of Early Neolithic pottery, which, undoubtedly, has similarities in various ways with the dishes of the Elshanskaya, Karamyshevskaya and Srednedonskaya early Neolithic cultures. Preliminarily, we are inclined to attribute this collection to the earliest stage in the formation of the Srednedonskaya culture in the first half of the 6th millennium BC. Most of the stone collection of the monument can be attributed to the Neolithic period: chopping tools, a fragment of an arrowheads, a stone shuttle. The final cultural and chronological attribution of the stone inventory is difficult in view of the fact that the excavations of 2020–2021 were laid on the outskirts of a multi-layered monument, which suffers most from the annual fire plowing.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):164-170
pages 164-170 views
Ceramics of the early-middle Neolithic of Vodla V settlement in east Karelia
German K.E.

The purpose of this study is to consider the contacts between the carriers of Sperrings ceramics, pit-comb ceramics and Kargopol type ceramics on the example of materials from the early – Middle Neolithic settlement of Vodla V. Sperrings ceramics dates back to the beginning of the IV millennium BC, as indicated by ornamentation, as well as traces of the influence of Karelian pit-comb ceramics and Kargopol ware. The complex of pit-comb ceramics can be attributed to the early phase of culture, however, based on new AMS definitions, the time of its existence can be dated to a later time – the second quarter – the middle of the IV millennium BC. The presence of vessels in the complex of Karelian pit-comb ceramics with traces of the influence of the Kargopol ornamental tradition on it also indicates the penetration of the territory of Eastern Karelia in the Neolithic of alien groups of the population with Kargopol type dishes, which is an independent type of ceramics based on its large number and presence in twenty settlements of Vodlozero Lake. In general, questions remain open about the territorial boundaries of the distribution of Karelian pit-comb ceramics and Kargopol ware, their interactions and chronological frameworks, which require processing and research of a huge block of ceramic materials of Eastern Karelia and the Southeastern Prionezhye.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):171-178
pages 171-178 views
New data on the absolute age of the Eneolithic complexes of the forest-steppe Volga region
Korolev A.I., Kulkova M.A., Shalapinin A.A.

The paper is devoted to the publication of a series of radiocarbon dates obtained for the Eneolithic complexes of the forest-steppe Volga region. The paper provides a description of the dated samples, the context of their finding and cultural attribution. The materials from the Bolshaya Rakovka II site, the Lebyazhinka VI settlement and from the Maksimovka I burial ground were subjected to radiocarbon dating. In total, thirteen radiocarbon dates were obtained; they belong to various Eneolithic cultural-chronological groups, namely, the complexes of the Samara culture, Lebyazhinsky, Alekseevsky, Chekala types, ceramics «with an inner edge». The new dates do not go beyond the previously defined chronological framework of the Eneolithic of the forest-steppe Volga region, however, they make it possible to correct the existing ideas about the time of existence of individual ceramic and economic complexes of this region. The most representative series of radiocarbon dates was obtained for ceramics of the Chekala type from the Bolshaya Rakovka II site. New data on the absolute chronology of materials of this type make the time of existence of these complexes somewhat older. The ¹⁴C determinations for ceramics «with an inner edge» from the settlement of Lebyazhinka VI turned out to be somewhat older than the existing dates. For ceramics of the Samara culture, Lebyazhinsky and Alekseevsky types, one radiocarbon date was obtained.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):179-182
pages 179-182 views
Equestrian cohors amicorum in the system of social ties in the early Roman Empire
Telepen S.V.

The paper analyzes cohors amicorum («cohort of friends») as one of the institutions of social organization and political system of the early Roman Empire. Based on the study of mainly literary sources, the origin of this institution and its role in strengthening the social positions of the equites, that is, Roman horsemanship, are investigated. The ambiguity of the concept of cohors amicorum is argued, which is considered in connection with the analysis of such concepts as amici («friends») and comites («companions») of the princeps, as well as amicitia («friendship») in their specific Roman sense. The paper substantiates a largely informal nature of the cohors amicorum , which was determined by a specific system of social ties during the period of the Principate. This system did not imply the formalization of all forms of social life, as it was based on polis traditions. Based on the results of the study, it is concluded that in the early Roman Empire, clans and groups formed, only partially formalized, where complex relations intersected, not reducible to their official forms. The principle of personal and moral (in the Roman sense) responsibility determined the fulfillment by all parties of amicitia of traditional duties, in connection with which the members of the cohors amicorum had the opportunity to strengthen their social status, which during the period of the Principate was most relevant for the equites, who gradually became the main personnel resource of the princeps.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):183-188
pages 183-188 views
Job requirements for tax inspectors: legislative framework and reality (based on the materials of the Pskov Governorate)
Vladimirova N.A.

The paper considers the requirements of the laws of the Russian Empire for tax inspectors and the implementation of these requirements in practice. The duties and responsibilities of the assistant inspectors are quite well researched in the modern scientific literature. However, the researchers of the issue have not revealed the real state of situation, concerning these civil servants. The main attention of this work is focused on the information contained in the «Regulations on the establishment of the position of tax inspectors of April 30, 1885» and in the «Highest approved Regulations on tax inspectors and their assistants of May 24, 1899». These laws thoroughly describe the competencies that tax inspectors should have when they began their service, and whether they had an appropriate rank for the applied position. Meanwhile, while studying commemorative books and materials from the State Archive of the Pskov Region (SAPR), it turned out that not all of them had the required rank or education level. Most of the inspectors who applied were well below the required rank, and a certain number of employees did not have proper education to hold the post. Subsequently, they could (and did) raise these statuses, but the practice of hiring a person (people), taking a lower position than it was formally needed, requires detailed consideration and explanation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):189-194
pages 189-194 views
The Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922: the formation of new Turkey and the collapse of the idea of Great Greece
Tovsultanov R.A., Tovsultanova M.S., Galimova L.N.

The paper deals with the history of the Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922. As a result of the defeat in the Ottoman Empire in the First World War, the country became the object of the division of the Entente countries and their satellites. The Turkish sultan became a puppet of the leadership of the British Empire. In May 1919, a large-scale Greek intervention in Anatolia began. In 1920, the Sultan’s government recognized the imposed humiliating Treaty of Sevres, which divided the territory of Turkey between neighboring states and great powers. However, a powerful patriotic movement arose in Anatolia, led by Mustafa Kemal. Playing on the contradictions between the Entente countries and at the same time on their confrontation with Soviet Russia, M. Kemal led Armenia out of the war, deprived the Greeks of support from France and Italy, re-equipped the Turkish army and gained time to prepare for the defeat of the Greek military forces. The successive victories of the Turks in 1921-1922 near the village of Inonu, the Sakarya River and the town of Dumlupinar caused the final collapse of the idea of Great Greece. The results of the national liberation struggle of the Turkish people were fixed by the Lausanne Treaty of 1923. The final results of the Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922 determined the geographical boundaries and political system of the modern Turkish Republic.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):195-199
pages 195-199 views
Transformation of work relationships in the 1920s-1930s (by the materials of the Samara Governorate)
Alekseenko E.V.

The paper deals with changes in labor relations in the period of 1920-1930s in the context of the transition of the country’s economy from war communism to the NEP and planned economy. During the period under study, new forms of interaction between power and man emerged. An important aspect of studying the transformation of labor relations is the method of including the working masses in the restoration of industry, stimulation and motivation to work. Another important aspect of this study is the analysis of forms and methods of education and upbringing of workers in the USSR. Research interest in the problem of the existence of «man in labor» made it possible to turn to the principles of the history of everyday life and social history. The study is based on archival materials from the Samara Governorate and the Middle Volga region. Published sources were also used (documents and legislative acts of the ruling party, which were administrative and regulatory in nature). It should be noted that the paper examines the role of trade union organizations in improving the quality of the qualifications of Soviet workers, as well as their role in increasing efficiency and improving the production process. The paper presents a content of some curricula aimed at improving the quality of education of Soviet specialists.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):200-206
pages 200-206 views
An attempt to close the Orthodox Renovation Cathedral in Sretensk in 1930 as an example of the anti-religious activities of local authorities
Drobotushenko E.V., Lantsova Y.N., Kamneva G.P., Sotnikov A.A., Sotnikov S.A.

The paper describes an attempt to close the Orthodox religious building - the cathedral of Sretensk in the Sretensky District of the Far East (since July 1930 in the East Siberian Territories). The decision of the local authorities, approved by the Far Eastern Regional Executive Committee, was canceled by the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. The funds of the State Archives of the Russian Federation (SA RF) contain a separate voluminous file dedicated to this event. It becomes possible, using the example of a specific cult building, to trace the mechanism or procedure of closing from beginning to end. It is concluded that the initiative came from the budgetary authorities, who used two methods of work: intensifying the anti-religious activities of the public and increasing the rent for the land under the cathedral and taxes from the building. The decision of the Sretensky District executive committee was supported by the authorities of the Far Eastern Territory, which in 1930 were aimed at the massive widespread closure of religious buildings of all religious teachings for services. The cancellation of the decision to close the Sretensky Cathedral and leaving it to the community of believers, according to the authors, is predetermined, on the one hand, by the violation of Soviet legislation on cults by local and regional authorities, and on the other hand, by the personalities of individual statesmen who often spoke on the side of believers. The issues under consideration require further study, which implies serious work with sources.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):207-211
pages 207-211 views
The history of the study of bacteriophages by the Soviet microbiologist Zinaida Vissarionovna Ermolyeva in the 1930s
Gorshenin A.V.

2022 marks the 130th anniversary of the discovery of the first virus. It was the tobacco mosaic virus, which was described by the Russian botanist D.I. Ivanovsky in 1892. Following the discovery of the plant virus, animal and human viruses were discovered. A little more than two decades later, after the publications of D.I. Ivanovsky, bacterial viruses called bacteriophages were discovered and described. The doctrine of the bacteriophage, which first appeared as a particular problem of microbiology, after several decades acquired great importance in the study of the most important issues of biology and medicine. In recent years, the interest of various specialists in bacterial viruses has not just not weakened, but is gaining strength. In this regard, in our opinion, it is important to turn to the historical analysis of the first decades in the study of bacteriophages. In the USSR one of the prominent scientists involved in this topic in the 1930s was microbiologist Zinaida Vissarionovna Ermolyeva (1898-1974). Based on the material of scientific works on biology and medicine published during the period under review, involving documents from the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the Russian State Archive of Economics, in this publication we analyze the participation of Z.V. Ermolyeva and her laboratory staff in studying the phenomenon of bacteriophagy, conducting clinical trials and establishing the production of various drugs based on phages. Attention is also paid to Zinaida Vissarionovna’s speeches at major scientific forums of the 1930s with reports on the results of the study of bacteriophages.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):212-216
pages 212-216 views
Solovetsky cabin boy from the city of Kuibyshev: Ivan Pavlovich Zorin (1925-1987), a participant of the Great Victory parade of 1945
Sheremeev E.E.

The paper, based on a wide range of sources, shows courage and heroism of Soviet youth during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, using the example of the biography of the Solovetsky young man from the city of Kuibyshev (Samara) - Ivan Pavlovich Zorin (1925-1987). The School for cabin boys of the Training Detachment of the Northern Fleet of the USSR Navy 1942-1945 (Solovetskaya School for cabin boys) - was a grotesque military educational institution. As for its students, it was the youngest school among the countries participating in the Second World War. Largely because of this, its graduates gained the status of veterans of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 - only in 1985, thanks to the chief of the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces in 1984-1988, Marshal of the Soviet Union S.F. Akhromeev. Among 4111 specialists trained in the Solovetskaya School for cabin boys there were 3 Heroes of the Soviet Union and 3 Heroes of Socialist Labor, 3 laureates of the State and 1 Lenin Prizes of the USSR, admirals and scientists, honored teachers and artists as well as production leaders. The author emphasizes the task of genetic continuity of modern Russia with the Generation of Winners; the goal is patriotic education of youth and creative development of society.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):217-221
pages 217-221 views
Problems of historical research methodology in G.S. Fridlyand’s publications
Mochalov D.P.

The purpose of the paper is to consider methodological issues in the works of the Soviet historian Grigoriy Samoylovich Fridlyand. Based on the material of his journal publications, a number of topics are traced that represent an original development of the provisions of historical materialism in relation to historical science and specific problems of historical research. The influence that participation in philosophical discussions of the 1920s could have on G.S. Fridlyand’s conclusions is indicated. The author traces Fridlyand’s attitude to the problems of the categorical apparatus, the theory of socio-economic formations, the question of the role of personality in history and the influence of the researcher’s methodology on determining the range of historical sources involved. In all the questions raised, both the concretization of the general provisions of the materialist understanding of history, characteristic of that time, and the entry into new frontiers, which represent an original attempt to develop Marxist constructions, are demonstrated. Special attention is paid to the prognostic elements of Fridlyand’s constructions, in which he foresaw the future vector of the development of historical science. The conclusion is made about the need to study the formation of the Soviet methodology of history as an important stage in the development of historical science in our country and overcoming nihilism towards it, formed by the historiographical situation of the perestroika period.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):222-227
pages 222-227 views
Traditional rite culture in the context of natural and social cataclysms (on the example of Trans-Kama Udmurts)
Sadikov R.R.

This paper, based on published, archival and field ethnographic materials, considers the state of ritual and ceremonial sphere of ethnic culture under the conditions of natural and social cataclysms on the example of the Trans-Kama Udmurts living in the Republic of Bashkortostan and Perm Krai, who didn’t undergo baptism and preserved their traditional religious rites. It is shown that the calendar of agrarian ceremonies implied rituals aimed at preventing emergency situations (frost, strong thunderstorms and wind, hail, drought, etc.), preventing crop failure and the onset of famine. There were also special rituals to ward off epizootics and epidemics, which often occurred in the past due to unsanitary conditions and almost complete absence of veterinary and medical care. At the onset of natural calamities, the occasional rituals were actualized to eliminate or minimize their consequences. The harvest and the very life of the members of the rural community depended on their exact and timely execution. In this connection, rites to «expel insects», «call for rain», etc., were conducted. Epidemics were curbed through propitiatory sacrifices or their «expulsion» of diseases. Social disasters, such as famine and wars, due to the scarcity of vital resources, led to the minimization of rituals. At the same time various magical practices (fortune-telling) became more active. Extreme situations of the last years (pandemic COVID-19 and drought) have led to the development of new forms of carrying out rites and customs or have revitalized obsolete ones.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):228-234
pages 228-234 views
Gravestone monuments of unbaptized Chuvash: traditions and innovations (on the example of Staroe Surkino village in the Almetyevsk District of the Republic of Tatarstan)
Petrov I.G.

The population of Staroe Surkino village, which is part of the Almetyevsk District of the Republic of Tatarstan, is one of the largest religious communities of unbaptized Chuvash on the territory beyond the Kama. The villagers have preserved the ancestral religion of their ancestors, a special ethnic identity, as well as many features of traditional culture associated with the so-called «paganism». One of the most striking and revealing elements of religion, ancestor worship and funeral and memorial rites of the villagers are gravestone monuments. Especially valuable in this regard are the old tombstones, which were erected in the second half of the 18th - early 20th centuries, because many canons of Chuvash folk cult sculpture have been preserved in them. First of all, this is the anthropomorphism of tombstone monuments, the differentiation of monuments by gender and socio-age characteristics by applying images of female breast jewelry to female monuments, drilling or hollowing out depressions or dimples on the upper arches of monuments for the installation of candles and the accumulation of «heavenly» or rain water. However, over time, under the influence of various factors, some innovations and changes have emerged in this area. That is why this problem is of deep scientific interest to researchers.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):235-244
pages 235-244 views
Confessional identity and modern religious practices of the Chuvash
Iagafova E.A.

The paper discusses the conformity of the declared confessional identity of the Orthodox and unbaptized Chuvash with actual religious practices common for both groups. The paper reveals features of ritual practices, shows their role in the formation of the confessional identity of the group and its members. In accordance with the tasks, specific ritual practices that exist in various confessional environments are analyzed, the state of religiosity of individual local groups of the Orthodox and unbaptized Chuvash is characterized. The research is based on the author’s field materials collected in rural settlements of the Samara Region, the Republics of Tatarstan and Bashkortostan and the Chuvash Republic in 2020-2021. The results of the study showed that the religious practices of both groups do not fully correspond to the declared religious identity. In the practices of the Orthodox Chuvash, a significant layer of views, prescriptions and behavioral practices dating back to the traditional religion is preserved, while the unbaptized Chuvash have Christian elements that have penetrated in the course of interaction with the Orthodox environment, which makes it possible to determine the religiosity of these groups, in some cases, as syncretism, in others as dual faith. Differences in confessional identity with current religious practices are due to the partial blurring of confessional «borders» as a result of religious conversion, transformation of ritual practices, and perception by communities of both religious systems as a common ethno-cultural heritage.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):245-251
pages 245-251 views
Ethnofuturism and myth-making in the fine arts of the peoples of the Ural-Volga region
Rogovoy A.S.

This paper discusses the manifestations of ethnofuturism in the visual arts of the peoples of the Ural-Volga region and their relationship with myth-making. The results of the study showed that ethnofuturists, like myth-makers, touch upon the main periods in the history and culture of the people and strive to creatively rethink, interpret and evaluate the role of this or that event or cultural phenomenon in its fate, thereby creating a new version of ethnic history and / or a new model of the cultural system, different from the accepted scientific version. The multitude and variety of creative interpretations of the same images and plots leads to a large number of meanings and subtexts in the works of artists, which in no way can fully contribute to the revival of ethnic identity. A great creative flight from realism to surrealism is a consequence of the absence of clear stylistic boundaries in ethnofuturism, which were not laid down by the founders of the direction. The absence of boundaries and the will of creative flight introduce ethnofuturism into the sphere of myth-making, which manifests itself in the creation of images and plots not on the basis of folk ideas and images, but mostly on the basis of images rethought and interpreted by artists, which in some examples do not even allow identifying their belonging to a certain ethnic group.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):252-256
pages 252-256 views
Anthropological aspects of the problem of immortality in modern science fiction literature
Kazakova I.B.

The paper deals with the peculiarities of the interpretation of the problem of immortality in the English-language science fiction literature of the late 20th - 21st centuries. On the example of the works of R. Sawyer, P. Watts, G. Egan, N. Stevenson, V. Vinge, the author analyzes various ways of considering anthropological aspects of the problem of immortality in science fiction, related to the rethinking of the goals and meaning of existence in the case of the implementation of a transhumanist project to extend the human life. The author concludes that in modern science fiction the theme of immortality is presented in the form of two main options: physical immortality, which implies the impossibility of separating human consciousness from the brain as its material carrier, and digital immortality, associated with a hypothetical technology for scanning consciousness and moving it into a virtual world. Considering these options for immortality, science fiction writers discover in them both technological and humanitarian problems: firstly, it is the unattainability of real immortality, associated with the finiteness of the existence of the universe and (in the second version) with the technical impossibility of eternally ensuring the functioning of the virtual world. Secondly, this is the problem of the semantic fullness of immortal existence, recognized by all the listed writers, associated with the need for a person to set new long-term goals, and, in the case of digital immortality, the problem of rethinking by a person who has turned into pure consciousness, his own nature and acceptance of virtual reality as the only option for him. In general, the ways of revealing the theme of immortality in modern science fiction literature make it possible to see in the transhumanist concepts of immortality a serious anthropological problem related to the fact that the improvement of a person’s physical and intellectual abilities will have to entail a change in his consciousness and self-awareness, but to predict the character and the result of such changes is much more difficult than to predict the results of physical modifications of the human body.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):257-261
pages 257-261 views
Museums of death as a modern trend
Danilko E.S.

The paper analyzes Museums of death, which in recent decades have appeared in many countries of the world, including Russia. The popularity of museums that bring death out of the private and into the public sphere, removing the social taboos associated with it, testifies to a shift in public consciousness that is taking place before our eyes, which will require anthropologists to pay closer attention. Turning to their experience, on the one hand, is interesting as another attempt to answer the question - why does the topic of death look both frightening and attractive at the same time? On the other hand, it will allow us to analyze the possibilities of museification of the idea of death, taking into account its social taboo. In this paper methods of digital ethnography were used, the sources were materials from the Internet - official websites of institutions, their pages on social networks, reviews of visitors on various platforms. Materials of the author’s observations and field studies in Russian museums, primarily in the Novosibirsk Museum of World Funeral Culture, were also partially involved. This paper also considers stages of international museum community formation associated with the presentation of the theme of death in public space, museum practices and development strategies, as well as the problems of exploiting the theme of death in the entertainment industry.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):262-268
pages 262-268 views

Pedagogical Sciences

Student’s educational geological practice in the COVID-19 epidemic
Vasilieva D.I., Baranova M.N.

Teaching students under the conditions of COVID-19 epidemic requires fundamental changes in the system of education, the use of new technologies, approaches and facilities. The paper deals with the experience of implementing hybrid learning when conducting educational geological field practice for students majoring in construction at Samara State Technical University, which took place in the summer of 2021. In the case of mixed training lectures are realized in the online format, and laboratory, seminar classes and practical training are conducted face-to-face, with the obligatory observance of safety measures and in small groups. A new geological route for the geological training practice within the central part of the city on the fourth stage of the embankment of the Volga River was developed. The use of the new route will allow to study the properties of magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, features of the course and results of exogenous geological processes (gully formation, landslides, karst formation, abrasion, weathering, etc.) and the geomorphological structure of the Volga River valley. The location of the route within the city center, not far from the university buildings will allow to carry out educational geological practice in small groups, without any organization of trips and study tours to geological sites, which is relevant during the pandemic.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):269-275
pages 269-275 views
The potential of a personal educational environment in the development of information and communication competence of a university teacher
Garaeva E.A.

In modern conditions, significant changes are taking place in the functional components of the university teachers activity, due to the influence of many factors of the transforming digital educational reality. The paper actualizes the problem of detailed study at the theoretical and practical level of the process of developing information and communication competence of a teacher, as a personal quality manifested in the willingness and ability to work with information, the main types of software and hardware and to carry out productive interaction in the digital educational space, due to the capabilities and resources of personal educational environment. The author of the paper defines the possibilities (filling with various structural components depending on the goals, objectives, content of activities and planned results; adaptation to the abilities, needs, interests of the teacher; providing conditions for achieving the necessary level of personal self-organization of the individual; creating a space for effective online communication; integration of formal education and education outside the formal system; implementation of individual models of pedagogical activity) and resources (functional technical and software tools: gadgets, services, programs, platforms, as well as their interrelations; electronic information and educational resources used to solve educational and professional-pedagogical tasks, as well as contributing to effective personal and professional development) of the personal educational environment in the development of information and communication competence of a university teacher.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):276-281
pages 276-281 views
The use of learningmetry in the study of probability theory and mathematical statistics at a university of economics with a point-rating system for assessing knowledge
Zaychikova N.A.

The paper considers the use of the learningmetry method as a tool for measuring the performance-motivation scale of the results of work on control points in a digital educational environment within the point-rating system for assessing students’ knowledge at a university of economics. The author have analyzed data on the results of mastering the course «Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics» in the third semester of the 2021/2022 undergraduate program. Tabular and indexological stages of data analysis are carried out. The following personal and group indices were calculated: the student’s progress index, the student’s motivational activity index, the student’s learningmetry index by the test, the student’s learningmetry index; group success index, group motivational activity index, group learningmetry index. Indices of evaluation of the tests are also calculated: index of evaluation of the test, learningmetry index of the test. A feature of the work is the calculation of learningmetry indices under conditions of a different maximum number of points obtained in the assessment at different control points, as a result of which a preliminary transfer of data into a five-point evaluation system is proposed. The implementation of the presented methodology can be useful for assessing the effectiveness of students’ learning in mastering the course in the conditions of a point-rating system for assessing students’ knowledge and in a digital educational environment.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):282-286
pages 282-286 views
The role of podcasts for students’ communicative competence development in teaching a foreign language at a technical university
Kolesnichenko A.N.

This study is devoted to a topic that is relevant today - students’ communicative competence development at a technical university through the use of digital resources in the process of teaching a foreign language. The relevance of the topic is due to the process of digitalization of the higher education system in modern society and the active introduction of information technologies into the educational process. The paper gives a definition of «communicative competence», considers different scientific approaches to this concept and its structure. In addition, an analysis of modern educational Internet resources aimed at developing students’ listening comprehension skills is given. Such a comprehensive analysis presented in the paper allows us to conclude about the practical significance of the study, since teachers can use it when teaching a foreign language at a higher education institution. Using the example of «the British Council» website, podcasting methods are considered as one of the most convenient and productive ways to develop the necessary skills - listening, speaking, reading and writing. The conducted research allows to draw a conclusion about the significant role of podcasts for students’ communicative competence development in teaching a foreign language at a technical university.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):287-291
pages 287-291 views
Scientific and methodological interaction of school and university: organization of school research conferences
Kulaeva O.A.

The paper considers the interaction between the university and general education organizations (schools) in the implementation of teaching students to take part in project and research conferences. Each student is required to write and defend a project in accordance with the FSES SVE. The expected result is the possession of universal ways of knowing. The research type of socialization, developed in modern society, sets a person to treat the world as a volatile new, requiring search methods of thinking. The teacher often acts as the mentor in group «the pupil - the teacher - the teacher of higher education institution». The author selected two institutions in Samara as general education organizations. Project and research works performed with the curatorial support of the teacher and the scientific leadership of the university teacher provide an opportunity for the student’s self-realization and self-education. The choice of subject areas for research among students corresponds to their major and further professional interest. An important factor determining the success of research activities is the research and training motivation of students. Project and research works performed with the curatorial support of the teacher and the scientific leadership of the university teacher provide an opportunity for the student’s self-realization and self-education.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):292-295
pages 292-295 views
The development of the prospective teacher’s communicative competence as an indicator of successful professional activity
Markova N.G., Ishimova A.I.

In this paper the authors reveal a relevance of the prospective teacher’s communicative competence development as a basic component and requirement for professional activity. The professional standard requires readiness for pedagogical activity, the basis of which is the development of communicative competence of a prospective teacher. The authors distinguish ways for communicative skills development among students in the process of studying a set of pedagogical courses while receiving pedagogical education. The paper states the need to adhere to a systematic approach to communicative competence development as the dominant component of the professional competence of a prospective and novice teacher. The authors emphasize that the effectiveness of his or her pedagogical activity is determined by the content of the «communicative portrait» of students - prospective teachers, and the effectiveness of the educational process will depend on this. Namely, communicative knowledge, the skills and abilities of a prospective teacher will build a trajectory of object-subject and subject-subject interactions in the holistic educational process. The key component of communicative competence is the communicative culture of a teacher, which ensures an effective construction of feedforward and feedback with the participants of the educational process. Professional activity always requires from a prospective teacher an ability to build a strategy, tactics and technique of subject-subject interactions, organize joint activities with students to achieve learning goals.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):296-301
pages 296-301 views
A model of environmental consciousness development among university students in the framework of extracurricular activities: structure, features of implementation in the pedagogical process
Nikitin N.A.

The paper contains results of the development and implementation of a pedagogical model for the environmental consciousness development among students in the framework of extracurricular activities on the example of organization and functioning of the Ecoclub in Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education. Within the framework of solving the set tasks and during a comprehensive analysis of psychological, pedagogical, sociological literature, the ecological consciousness of students is considered to be a system of interaction of figurative-sign concepts, ideas, views and judgments of an individual, undergoing comprehension in the course of mental processes that find their expression through its interaction with the environment habitations regulated by means of cognitive functions and emotional-personal attitudes. The structural components of ecological consciousness are: 1) a conceptual and sign component - contains concepts and ideas of the individual about the habitat and the patterns that make up its main features; 2) an emotional-personal component - contains individual characteristics and the emotional component of the relationship to the natural environment, compliance with certain norms of human relations with nature; 3) a cognitive-activity component - contains meaningful representations of the individual aimed at observing environmental standards in the course of the implementation of personal attitudes; 4) a coordinating-behavioral component - determines the behavior corresponding to the scientific picture of the world and decision-making aimed at minimizing environmental harm, based on the knowledge and ideas received.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):302-309
pages 302-309 views
The development of artistic and creative abilities of students on the basis of the academic system of artistic training
Petrova L.E., Fitmov E.A.

In this scientific paper the authors express some critical thoughts about the situation that has developed in recent years in the field of training teachers majoring in art education. The authors raise the question of the need to return to the basics of academic art education of artists and teachers in connection with the problems associated with the adoption of the Bologna education system. Having studied the publications of famous Soviet and Russian artists-teachers and considering personal observations, the authors of the paper substantiate the need to develop artistic and creative abilities of students using the best traditions of Russian academic art education, which is based on the decisive importance of working from nature. The peculiarity of the courses is the unification of educational-cognitive and artistic-creative tasks in the educational process. The concept of artistic and creative abilities as a complex of individual personality traits, the concept of individual manner in artistic creativity is clarified. Special attention in the paper is paid to the pedagogical interaction of the subjects of the educational process, to the disclosure of the individuality of the individual. The development of artistic and creative abilities of students at the lessons of academic art courses must be solved by the purposeful guidance of a teacher-mentor. The authors analyze possible ways to solve the problem of the development of artistic and creative abilities of prospective artists-teachers.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):310-314
pages 310-314 views
Application of probability theory elements in solving electric power problems
Ran N.A., Antipov A.V., Gorodnicheva E.V.

The paper discusses methods of probability theory used in the educational process for training specialists majoring in engineering. Random events can be found in energy as much as in other human activities. Energy systems include many energy-generating and energy-transforming apparatuses; the number of energy-transforming devices is particularly large. The operating conditions of a large set of even homogeneous technical devices differ from each other and are random. A device (electric motor, lighting fixture, heater) may be randomly switched on or off, operating at different outputs. As a result of the superposition of such random events you get a particular value of power demand in the power system, depending on the set of random events. Failures of individual elements or reduction of the available capacity from contamination of boiler heating surfaces, turbine flow parts, etc, are also accidental events resulting from the superposition of unfavorable conditions. Failures can create interruptions in the power supply if there is no reserve capacity available in the required size.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):315-319
pages 315-319 views
Ethno-cultural education in a multiethnic region (on the example of Samara Region)
Safonova E.V.

The paper is devoted to the problems of regional ethno-cultural education. The ethnopolitical, multicultural situation on the territory of Samara and the Samara Region largely coincides with the general socio-economic trends taking place in Russia, which gives reason to consider the region as a region where important ethnopolitical processes are taking place. The educational environment is becoming more polyethnic and requires attention to the issues of ethno-cultural and multicultural education of students. Based on the conducted field research, the paper actualizes the issue of interaction between school and family in the processes of ethnic inculturation and all-Russian socialization of the child’s personality. The ethno-cultural socialization of the child takes place in the family, and it is important for the teacher to provide professional support to parents in integrating students into the culture of their community, in forming a positive identity in combination with the all-Russian identity, a sense of personal responsibility for preserving the cultural and historical memory of their people. Ethnic tolerance is high in those schools where the process of ethno-cultural education is carried out within the framework of a well-thought-out multi-stage system of interaction with the parent community. The anthropological approach, therefore, studies the «meeting of education with traditional culture» and actualizes the issues of ethnoculturality-multiculturality of the modern educational process.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):320-324
pages 320-324 views
Digital reform of higher education: implementation experience
Fedorov A.A., Budarina A.O., Polupan K.L., Zhitinevich D.G.

The study examines the existing experience in implementing digital reform in higher educational system, and outlines the prospects for its further development. The philosophical and pedagogical issues of different approaches to implementing educational trajectories and customized lifelong educational routes are tackled and substantiated. The main aim of underpinning the existing steps of implementing the reform is proved to be the advancement of student self-development. The practical significance of the research lies in the attempts of designing a matrix of competencies underpinning the possibility of building up individual educational routes. The main results comprise the introduction of 16 main industries of higher education for the future. Further development of this topic is seen in the study of the interdisciplinary and cultural aspects of interaction in the educational process, implemented in digital management of the stated industries, such as Industry of Cognition, Industry of Thinking and Design, Industry of Health Preservation, Industry of Knowledge, Neuro Industry, Industry of Management, Industry of Law, Industry of Culture, Industry of Hospitality, Industry of Territories, Industry of High Technologies, Industry of Logistics, Industry of Production Systems, Industry of Resource Conservation and Efficiency, Industry of Research, Industry of Transfer, Industry of Social Initiatives.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):325-331
pages 325-331 views
Technological skills of English teachers: the definition
Fokina K.A., Levchenko V.V.

This paper discusses various approaches and definitions of the concept «skill» on the basis of which the concept of «technological skill» is developed and highlights the components that make it up. The authors of the paper talk about the process of developing a technological skill of an English teacher. Based on the general scientific, in particular scientific, socio-cultural aspects of the society life, the need for additional skills development in the vocational education system in the modern environment is revealed. That is aimed primarily at training highly qualified specialists who perform their official duties in full accordance to the level established by myrtle standards, ready for continuous professional growth and development of various skills that are necessary for the implementation of successful teaching activities. According to the new circumstances for the introduction of modern technologies in the educational process, the components, which are necessary for technological skills development, have been identified, and the particular concept of «technological skill» for teachers of the English language has been defined.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(2):332-336
pages 332-336 views

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