Samara Journal of Science

Samara Journal of Science was established in 2012.

The authors of the journal are university academic staff, researchers, postgraduates, candidates for a doctor’s degree, senior students.

By the decision of Supreme Attestation Commission dated of 29.12.2015, the journal is listed in the Catalogue of peer-reviewed scientific publications, where the core scientific results of the candidate and doctoral theses must be published (link).

The journal is registered in the system “Russian Index Science Citation” (RISC – eLIBRARY.RU).

The journal is registered in the system “CyberLeninka”.

The journal has professional, highly qualified editorial staff consisted of leading scientists (doctors of science, professors, academicians, correspondent members of Russian Academy of Sciences) – representatives of national and foreign institutions of higher education and scientific organizations.

Samara Journal of Science is an open scientific platform for all interested individuals and organizations, which enables authors to publish the results of their research in education as well as biological sciences, historical sciences. The journal promotes an exchange of views on various issues of biology, history and pedagogy between researchers from different regions and countries.


Scientific fields of Samara Journal of Science:
1.5 Biological sciences
1.5.12 Zoology
1.5.14 Entomology
1.5.15 Ecology (biological sciences)
5.6 Historical sciences
5.6.1 Domestic history
5.6.2 Universal history
5.6.3 Archeology
5.6.4 Ethnology, anthropology and ethnography
5.6.5 Historiography, source studies, methods of historical research
5.8 Pedagogy
5.8.1 General pedagogy, history of pedagogy and education
5.8.2 Theory and methodology of training and upbringing
5.8.7 Methodology and technology of professional education


No announcements have been published.
More Announcements...

Current Issue

Vol 12, No 1 (2023)

Biological Sciences

Ecology and number dynamics of bezoar goats (Capra aegagrus Erxleben, 1777) in the Mrav Mountain range of Nagorno Karabakh Republic
Hayrapetyan V.T., Minasyan H.J., Avagyan A.A., Ghazaryan A.S.

The mammal fauna of Nagorno Karabakh has 6 orders and 101 species. The three-dimensional location, geographical location and temperate climate characteristic of the mountainous country contributed to the formation of such diversity. For the first time this paper presents the distribution and dynamics of the number of bezoar goats (Capra aegagrus Erxleben, 1777), an ancient inhabitant of the northern, central and southern parts of Nagorno Karabakh, which is an important component of mountain ecosystems, in the Mrav mountain range. As a result of our long-term observations, we have found out the distribution areas of these animals in the Mrav mountain range, the reasons for their distribution in the mountains and their seasonality. We have found out that male and Bemale bezoar goats have their own preferences for slope curvatures, so females prefer to stay at 47° curvatures in winter, while males prefer to stay at 50–55° slopes. Meanwhile, the opposite phenomenon is recorded in summer. We have also studied the distribution of different sexes in the southern, eastern and northern slopes in winter and summer. We have registered the specifics of distribution above the sea level with vertical zoning. As a result of our observations, we have found out the changes and dynamics of the number of bezoar goats in the Mrav mountains, identified some reasons that negatively affect the growth and development of these animals.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):10-14
pages 10-14 views
The content of organic and biogenic substances in the leaves of Elodea canadensis Michx., Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L. and Potamogeton perfoliatus L. and the factors determining their concentration
Alyabysheva E.A.

This paper discusses the peculiarities of changing the content of total nitrogen, proteins and organic substances in the assimilation organs of three species of hydrophytes (Elodea canadensis Michx., Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L., Potamogeton perfoliatus L.) growing at different levels of pollution of the urbanized reservoir. The work presents the results of comparison of the river pollution within the city of Yoshkar-Ola. Local areas of pollution of the urban water body with nitrogenous compounds, suspended solids and iron have been identified (a comparison with the maximum permissible concentration, a calculation of the water pollution index, an analysis of variance). The main sources of pollution of the river were sewage and storm water. The studies have shown that the leaves of submerged rooting hydrophytes have more nitrogen and proteins than the free-floating hydrophyte. In the leaves of H. morsus-ranae, the concentration of organic substances is higher than in E. canadensis and P. perfoliatus, which is a feature of the structure and functioning of plants. With an increase in the anthropogenic load on the urban reservoir, the ratio of biogenic and organic substances in the leaves of hydrophytes changes: the concentration of total nitrogen increases and the content of total protein and organic substances decreases, which, apparently, indicates a change in the direction of transport of organic substances and inhibition of synthesis processes under conditions of pollution of the reservoir. The obtained materials can be used to organize biomonitoring of the state of surface sources subjected to man-made pollution by the effluents of urbanized territories.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):15-20
pages 15-20 views
The spatial placement of the steppe marmot (Marmota bobak Muller, 1776) in the Pervomaisky District of the Orenburg Region
Bezuglov E.V., Leneva E.A.

This paper deals with the spatial placement of the marmot in the Pervomaisky District of the Orenburg Region within the steppe zone of the Southern Urals. The spatial structure of steppe marmot settlements is characterized by a typical ravine-girder (ribbon) type of territorial distribution of family groups and is determined mainly by the presence of habitable areas. The settlements of marmots on this territory are located mainly along ravines and gullies of small rivers and streams, and to a lesser extent on agricultural land. It has been revealed that marmots prefer to settle on the gentle slopes of the southern exposure mainly in the middle part of the gullies occupied by fescue-feather grass steppe, sagebrush-grass steppe and mixed grass communities used as pastures. The results of the research show that the burrow mound of the marmot, located in different parts of the studied territory and having different degrees of anthropogenic load, differ both in height and diameter of the burrows, and the distance between the burrows. At the same time, there is a clear, direct dependence of the degree of anthropogenic impact on the aggregation of marmot settlements. A significant factor in the distribution of marmot settlements and its spatial structure of populations is the degree of impact on the territory of the anthropogenic press.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):21-26
pages 21-26 views
The role of green spaces in the improvement of the urban population health quality (on the example of Nizhny Novgorod)
Bolshakova A.D., Zaznobina N.I., Kovaleva T.A.

Atmospheric air pollution is one of the most serious environmental threats to human health. The implementation of measures to reduce air pollution reduces the risk of diseases. Such measures include the creation of a comfortable environment through the landscaping of urban areas. Green spaces in urban areas perform an important environment-forming function – purification of air from pollutants. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the degree of reduction of non-carcinogenic risk of diseases in the population of a large city (on the example of Nizhny Novgorod) by the level of purification of atmospheric air from pollutants by green spaces. Based on the calculated concentrations of priority pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone and suspended particles (PM₂ˏ₅ and PM₁₀) and green space inventory data for eight major intersections/sites in Nizhny Novgorod, the air quality improvement was estimated up to 42,12%. Based on the created maps of the real landscaping of the surveyed areas in the QGIS Desktop program, projects were developed to expand the landscaping of their areas. The air quality in the surveyed areas of Nizhny Novgorod was assessed. The non-carcinogenic risk of cardiovascular system and upper respiratory tract diseases for the residents of Nizhny Novgorod in the absence of vegetation, with real landscaping and in accordance with the proposed prospective landscaping projects was calculated. With the implementation of the proposed projects of perspective landscaping the risk of respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases in the population of Novgorod can be reduced by 25% on average in the city.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):27-33
pages 27-33 views
Vegetation restoration after a fire on the territory of the Barguzin Nature Reserve
Burdukovsky A.I., Sakhyaeva A.B., Bukharova E.V., Luzhkova N.M., Myadzelets A.V.

Forest fires are increasingly becoming the cause of the destruction of a particular ecosystem or landscape, the restoration of which takes quite a long time. Research on pyrogenic succession is one of the urgent tasks in modern science. In the course of this work, an analysis of vegetation restoration on the territory of the Barguzin Nature Reserve was carried out. After a grass-roots fire on the ecological trails of the Shumilikha River valley and on the Davshinsky pillars, the course of pyrogenic succession was monitored from 2016 to 2019. The study of the progress of vegetation restoration was carried out on the laid test sites on each of the trails. In the course of the work, geobotanical descriptions were made, an abundance of species diversity was revealed, and the total projective cover was also taken into account. In the first year after the fire, such species as Chamerion angustifolium L., Calamagrostis korotkyi L., Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch., Calamagrostis obtusata Trin., etc. were found on trial sites. During the first three years of succession, it was revealed that the species composition and wealth were not constant and changed every year. At the same time, there was an increase in the projective coverage during the first three years (from 10 to 30% in the valley of the Shumilikha River, from 15 to 45% on the Davshinsky pillars). An increase in the total projective coverage in the studied areas indicates a general restoration of the landscape.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):34-37
pages 34-37 views
The effect of short-term cold exposure on the change in the concentration of free proline in various birch species in vitro
Vnukova N.I.

In natural conditions of growth, forest woody plants constantly face negative environmental factors. Environmentally unfavorable impacts certainly affect the physiological and biochemical processes occurring in plants and lead to the activation of their own protective mechanisms. In recent years, methods of biotechnology (cell and tissue selection) have been increasingly used in the study of adaptive capabilities, as well as the degree of tolerance of plants to abiotic stress factors. In our work, we evaluated the specifics of the reaction of Betula pendula Roth, Betula pendula Roth var. carelica (Mercklin) L. Hämet-Ahti and Betula pubescens Ehrh. in vitro, in particular the change in the level of free proline to low-temperature stress (+4°C) of different duration times. It was found that the highest value of the amino acid content in relation to the control was in the Betula pendula Roth var. carelica Merckl. clones and ranged from 163 to 206%, in the Betula pubescens Ehrh. and Betula pendula Roth clones ranged from 103 to 128% and from 101 to 131%, respectively. Uniformity was noted among the clones of Betula pendula Roth var. carelica Merckl. according to the degree of response to stress. The relationship between the ability of plants to produce more proline and successful adaptation to cold shock was revealed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):38-42
pages 38-42 views
The succession system of the Samara botanical and geographical region (district boundaries and territorial structure)
Gorichev Y.P.

Samara district is one of the districts allocated by S.M. Razumovsky in the scheme of botanical and geographical zoning. This area geographically delineates the area of the successional system of broad-leaved forests with key species Tilia cordata, Quercus robur, Acer platanoides, Ulmus glabra. S.M. Razumovsky outlined the boundaries of the district on a small-scale scheme and provided a list of guiding species. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief description of the area, outline its boundaries and identify the features of the territorial structure of vegetation cover. The material was scientific publications on the structure of the vegetation cover of the territory under consideration. The Samara Region covers the eastern part of the East European Plain to the east of the Volga River, including the Volga region and the Urals, as well as the western slope of the Southern Urals. The territorial structure of the succession system can be represented in the form of two structural parts – the core and the periphery. The core of the system is shifted to the northeast, occupies the space of the forest zone and the northern part of the forest-steppe. The periphery covers the space of the forest-steppe zone and the northern part of the steppe zone. In the core of the succession system, zonal vegetation is formed by associations of shade broad-leaved forests with linden as an edifier, on the periphery there are associations of light broad-leaved (oak) forests.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):43-47
pages 43-47 views
Features of craniological signs of Myodes glareolus Schreber in the Kostroma Region
Klimova A.S., Sirotina M.V.

As part of the comprehensive monitoring of the state of the ecosystems of the Reserve «Kologrivsky Les», studies of the Myodes glareolus Schreber population organization were conducted for eleven years (2012–2022). To compare the values of craniological signs of the «control» population, similar measurements were considered in rodents living on the territory of Minskoe forestry in the Kostroma Region (2021–2022). The paper provides data on the size and proportions of the skull of this species. Osteological indices characterizing the nutrition ecology of the studied populations and their «craniometric appearance» were calculated. The variability and correlation of 17 craniometric signs of Myodes glareolus was analyzed in order to diagnose the degree of optimality of conditions for the existence of this species populations, as well as to assess the state of the environment in complex biological monitoring programs. Data were obtained on the patterns of variability of metric and nonmetric features of the skull in a number of years, and the influence of the sex structure of the population, the dynamics of its population, weather and climatic factors on the determinism of craniological measurements was studied. Sexual dimorphism according to these parameters was expressed slightly. There was a positive correlation of signs in rodents living on the territory of the biosphere reserve as the most optimal habitat in comparison with the territory of Minskoe forestry in the Kostroma Region, where a negative correlation was predominantly revealed. A strong correlation was established between some craniometric features characterizing the specifics of nutrition, population density, average precipitation and average air temperature. In addition, weak correlations between the body weight of individuals and the dimensions of the skull were revealed. When studying the fluctuating asymmetry of non-metric features of the left and right sides of the upper and lower jaw, a low level of the FAnm coefficient was found in the studied populations. Dynamic changes in the level of fluctuating asymmetry of rodents were insignificant. A weak negative correlation of the fluctuating asymmetry and the values of the average precipitation during the study periods were established. No significant correlation was established for the other factors. The results of the presented comprehensive study of the craniometric features of Myodes glareolus on the territory of the Kostroma Region indicate a stable state of populations in the considered environmental conditions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):48-56
pages 48-56 views
Specially protected natural area «Sestrinskie okamenelosti» – a promising reference polygon for remote identification of valuable steppe ecosystems
Kuzovenko O.A., Ryazanova Y.A., Prokhorova N.V.

The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the flora of the natural monument «Sestrinskie okamenelosti», located in the Bolshechernigovsky District of the Samara Region. The taxonomic analysis has revealed the growth of 255 species of vascular plants from 49 families within the boundaries of a specially protected natural area. Biomorphological and ecological-coenotic analyses have been used to assess the degree of preservation of the natural steppe communities of the studied territory. The ecologic-geographical characteristics of the natural monument are made in accordance with the classifications of T.I. Plaksina and A.P. Laktionov. The result of the two classifications correlation is the analysis of common types of habitats – pluriregional, Holarctic, Euro-Siberian, European. The study of the natural monument «Sestrinskie okamenelosti» phytodiversity has revealed its unique physiognomic features associated with the dominance of a number of steppe plant species. The results of the analysis allow us to recommend this territory for use as a reference zone (polygon) that provides processing of remote sensing materials obtained using satellite images and UAV. The use of a series of multi-season images will allow us to establish the location and visual characteristics of the dominant steppe species reference zone in order to build classifiers and then use the results for remote identification of the most valuable areas of natural steppes in the Samara Region and adjacent territories. Remote sensing methods allow to monitor the state of virgin steppe areas continuously. Similar work has already begun on other protected areas of the region; the first results have been obtained.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):57-63
pages 57-63 views
The assessment of Kunovat sanctuary natural complexes in the area of the Siberian white crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus) reintroduction
Levykh A.Y., Zamyatin D.O., Morgun E.N.

The paper deals with the research of soils, vegetation, bird and mammal population composition and structure in the vicinity of the white crane field research station in the Kunovat sanctuary (Kunovat Zakaznik), northern taiga subzone, Shuryshkarsky District, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia. The aim of this investigation is to assess the present state of natural complexes in the area of the critically endangered Leucogeranus leucogeranus Ob population reintroduction. It has been established that various components of the natural complexes under study are generally consistent with the zone-and-province landscape, climate and biotope peculiarities of the area, which is a sign of their good health and relative stability. At the same time, in small mammal communities (an indicator group) the resistant sustainability index has been higher than the resilient sustainability index for two years in a row, which is characteristic of disturbed habitats or of early ecological succession stages. Such imbalance may be accounted for by local wild fires and floods in the natural complex under study. Botaurus stellaris’ nests have been registered in different parts of the quaking (white crane) bog, whose breeding grounds used to lie further to the south. This is evidence that the species range moves to the high latitudes and that the global climate change influences the natural complexes in the historic breeding area of the West-Siberian white crane population.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):64-75
pages 64-75 views
Mycobiota of the rhizosphere of vegetable and flower-ornamental crops in the conditions of Surgut
Mantrova M.V.

The paper presents the results of a study of the mycobiota of the control soil and the rhizosphere of 11 vegetable and 6 flower-ornamental plant species. Flower cultures are represented by Gauston ageratum, double-feathered cosmea, erect marigolds and thin-leaved marigolds, hybrid petunia and brilliant sage. Closed-ground vegetable crops are cucumber, tomato, hot pepper and Bulgarian pepper; open-ground vegetable crops are seed peas, radish, garlic, potatoes, sorrel, dill and curly parsley. During the year of the research, fertilizers were not introduced into the soil. Most vegetable crops were grown continuously for several years, flower crops – during the year. In the mycocoenoses of the rhizosphere of most vegetable crops, toxin-forming species of the genus Penicillium are abundant: P. citrinum, P. citreonigrum and P. polonicum. The toxin-forming agent P. citrinum was found in the mycobiota of the control soil and the rhizosphere of most vegetable and flower-ornamental crops. In the structure of the mycobiota of the control soil, mycocoenoses of the rhizosphere of some vegetable crops such as seed peas, curly parsley, Bulgarian pepper and in the mycobiota of the rhizosphere of flower-ornamental crops, saprotrophic micromycetes with a noticeable abundance of cosmopolite Aspergillus phoenicis (from the A. niger group) are abundant in mycocoenoses of the rhizosphere of the double-feathered cosmea, hybrid petunia, marigolds erect and Bulgarian pepper. According to the research results, it can be concluded that the formation of the species composition of the mycobiota of the rhizosphere of vegetable and flower-ornamental crops is influenced by the type of plant, conditions and duration of cultivation. In the future the author is going to study the species composition of the mycobiota of the rhizosphere depending on the duration of plant cultivation, the expansion of their assortment, as well as the effect of fertilizers on the species composition of the soil mycobiota.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):76-81
pages 76-81 views
The diatom analysis of the reservoirs located on the Kalmius River
Mirnenko E.I.

The paper examines biodiversity of diatoms in artificial reservoirs of the Kalmius river basin, as well as the degree of impact of industrial enterprises on water resources by bioindication. The author has established the current state of the water balance of rivers, and the use of water resources in the industry of Donbass. Thus, the water balance is formed due to a part of the inflow of water from the Seversky Donetsk river basin and the waters of the main Kalmius River basin. Agriculture and industrial enterprises in total consume 77% of the water resources of the entire region, which is an extremely high degree of involvement in the overall balance of water resources. To assess the condition of reservoirs, the method of determining the species diversity and biological analysis of diatoms DAIpo was chosen. As part of the study, it was found that the flora of diatoms according to the Shannon–Weaver index varied from 1,98 to 4,65 bps, while only 11 species of diatoms were massively distributed in reservoirs. The coefficient of growth of species diversity (r) varies (from 0,2135 to 0,9522 bps) depending on the season of the year and the place of selection. It was found that the increase in the DAIpo index occurred during the transition from the Nizhnekalmius reservoir to the Starobeshevsky reservoir, due to the presence of a larger number of saproxene species Achnanthes andicola, Fragilaria virescens, Navicula viridula var. viridula. Nitzschia sigmoidea var. sigmoidea, Navicula radiosa var. radiosa. Consequently, the paper traces the level of pollution by the presence of indicator species and the degree of tolerance of diatoms to environmental conditions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):82-86
pages 82-86 views
Morphogenesis features of Hedysarum alpinum L. in in vitro culture
Mikhovich Z.E., Skrotskaya O.V., Portnyagina N.V.

The plants of Hedysarum alpinum L. in the North are characterized by a long pregenerative period, the laboriousness of seed propagation, low field germination of seeds, rare self-sowing, and the impossibility of vegetative propagation. In connection with this, it seemed relevant to introduce this rare species (included in the Red Book of the Komi Republic) into aseptic culture to preserve and maintain the gene pool, as well as to further develop the technology of its cultivation to obtain medicinal raw materials. The morphogenesis was studied, and the peculiarities of the regeneration of adventitious shoots of Hedysarum alpinum in in vitro culture were revealed. During three subcultivations, the influence of two cytokinin growth regulators, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and kinetin (KIN), at concentrations from 0,5 to 1,0 mg/l, on the regeneration potential of different explants of Hedysarum alpinum in in vitro culture was determined on the WPM environment. A high frequency of regeneration of shoots from single-node segments and cotyledon nodes was obtained – 79% and 65%, respectively. In the second and third passages, there was an increase in the regenerative activity of the cotyledon node explants and an increase in the multiplication factor to 5 shoots per explant. It was shown that relatively high concentrations (1,0 mg/l) of BAP and CIN increase the number of shoots per explant but inhibit their growth and development. For the reproduction stage proper, the medium containing BAP 0,5 + CIN 0,5 + IAA 0,1 mg/l is optimal. It was shown that the initiation of rhizogenesis actively took place on the WPM medium supplemented with IAA 0,5 and IBA 0,5 mg/l, on which the proportion of rhizogene explants was 77%. The maximum values for the length and number of roots were obtained on the medium with IAA 1,0 mg/l and with the combined use of two auxins (IAA with IBA at 0,5 mg/l). The regenerated plants were transplanted into non-sterile conditions, and their survival rate under ex vitro conditions was 50%.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):87-92
pages 87-92 views
Modern forest climatopes and forest typological zoning of the southern part of the plain territory of European Russia
Nazarenko N.N.

The paper considers the current status of forest typology in Russia and methods of forest typological assessment of forest climatopes and forest typological zoning. For the southern part of the plain territory of European Russia at the beginning of the 21st century, the climates of forest thermotopes, contrastotopes and hygrotopes, their spatial distribution, latitudinal and meridional stretching and zoning were determined by classical forest typological methods. Five zone of forest climatopes (three of them have latitudinal zoning), nine zone of forest hygrotopes and six zone of continentality (zones of forest contrastotopes) have been ascertained. A new, previously undescribed climate of the contrastotop of the mild (seaside) forest climate has been identified, requiring an assessment of the forest-growing effect. It has been established that the modern zones of forest thermo-, contrast- and hygrotopes have a different nature of geographical extent, and the zones of climates of hygrotopes advance the zones of thermotopes, thus forest typological zoning and allocation of forest typological areas are proposed according to three equivalent climatic regimes. The modern forest typological zoning of the southern part of plain territory of European Russia is proposed, it is established that the Krasnodar Krai and the Orenburg Region are characterized by the greatest diversity of forest typological areas. The question is raised about the assessment of the actual existence of some selected local forest typological areas as geographical ecotones.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):93-100
pages 93-100 views
The impact of anthropogenic activity on the heat resistance and condition of green spaces in the Central and Kirovsky Districts of Volgograd
Nerushaeva T.B., German N.V.

This paper examines the impact of anthropogenic activity on the heat resistance and condition of green spaces in the Central and Kirovsky Districts of Volgograd. The method of the analyzed diagnostics of the state of green spaces used in the experiment is described – the determination of heat resistance by the degree of damage to chlorophyll-bearing tissues according to F.F. Matskov. The role of the impact of motor transport on the degree of endurance by green spaces of high atmospheric temperatures is considered. The paper presents the results of a study of the heat resistance and state of trees under conditions of various levels of anthropogenic load. The study of the negative human impact on the state and degree of resistance to the action of high temperatures was carried out in the Central and Kirovsky Districts of the city of Volgograd. The studied territories belonged to a residential or park area, as well as transport. The experiments have shown that the indicators of the stability of tree plantations located near the highway and the residential area differ in terms of indicators. Exhaust gases from vehicles reduce the heat resistance of vegetation and their productivity. The obtained materials can serve as a basis for further monitoring of the state of green spaces in Volgograd and carrying out further measures of greening the city.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):101-104
pages 101-104 views
The results of the study of vertebrate fauna from the Late Neolithic site Pomazkino IV (the Kolyma River, Yakutia, Eastern Siberia)
Ponomarev I.V., Boeskorov G.G.

The taxonomic composition of bone remains from the Neolithic site Pomazkino IV, located in the middle reaches of the Kolyma River, has been determined. The material is the result of excavations by archaeologist V.A. Kashin. We have identified bone remains lying together with artifacts of the Late Neolithic Ymyyakhtakh culture. The species composition is represented by typical representatives of the East Siberian fauna. The osteological material of fish, birds and mammals has been determined. It has been established that most of the bone remains belong to birds, among which representatives of the order Anseriformes, swan, bean goose and geese of indeterminate species were reliably identified. These birds could be caught in the summer during molting. Birds played an important role in the nutrition of the people who lived on the territory of this site. The main game mammals were artiodactyl elk and reindeer. At the Pomazkino IV site, there are also numerous bone remains of a mountain hare. Among the representatives of the order of carnivores, a single bone of a wolverine has been identified. An abundance of fish bones has been found, among which crucian carp has been identified. Apparently, on the territory of the Middle Kolyma, as well as in other regions of Eastern Siberia, active fishing began only from the Late Neolithic.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):105-110
pages 105-110 views
A comparative characterization of recording devices for vibration signals on the example of Heterocerus fenestratus (Thunberg, 1784) (Coleoptera: Heteroceridae)
Rodionova E.Y.

Works on vibration communication for Orthoptera and Hemiptera are widely known in Russian literature. Basically, the piezoelectric adapter GZK-661 or the electromagnetic transducer GZM-105 are used for recording this communication. The use of these devices does not give satisfactory results when recording insects smaller than 1 cm. In this paper we consider a comparative characteristic of recording devices based on the piezoelectric transducer GZK-661, electromagnetic transducer GZM-105 and electrodynamic head eas15s02m when recording vibration communication of near-water rigid-winged Heterocerus fenestratus (Thunberg, 1784) (Coleoptera: Heteroceridae). A comparative analysis of the efficiency of the three transducers considered in this paper shows that the transducer based on the electrodynamic loudspeaker head used as a signal source (reverse mode of operation) has the best characteristics. In addition, the shielded magnetic system of the dynamic head provides high magnetic induction in the working gap and insensitivity to inductions from external electromagnetic fields. 176 stress signals were recorded for males and 189 for females. The range of dominant frequencies ranged from 857,29 to 1002,01 Hz for males and from 898,04 to 1189,12 Hz for females.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):111-116
pages 111-116 views
The availability of specially protected natural areas of regional importance in municipal districts (on the example of the Samara Region)
Sidorov A.A., Vasilieva D.I.

At present when legislative requirements are strengthening, local administrations are empowered to do ecological activities, the demand for ecological tourism is growing, which is reflected in strategic documents of territorial development etc., the necessity to preserve natural diversity at the municipal level is increasing. In the paper on the basis of analysis, logical presentation, statistical research the dynamics, peculiarities of creation and provision of Samara Region’s municipal districts with specially protected natural territories of regional importance are established. On the territory of the studied region there are 211 protected areas of regional importance, as well as three objects of federal importance: Zhigulevsky State Nature Biosphere Reserve and two national parks (Samarskaya Luka and Buzuluksky Bor). The paper shows a significant variability of areas, specific size and provision of local population with protected areas, the relationship between individual parameters, a rating and classification of municipal districts according to the given indicators. The categories of municipal districts with high, medium and low shares of protected areas in the total area of the sub-regional area and the provision of the population with protected areas have been identified. Various options or models of compensatory benefits and environmental costs of municipal districts have been considered, taking into account specially protected natural areas of federal importance and the influence of the urban environment. The results of the analysis allow us to use the materials obtained to make current management decisions and modernize the development strategies of the territories.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):117-124
pages 117-124 views
The role of Glory Square in the system of ecological spaces of Novosibirsk
Fershalova T.D., Solovieva Y.V., Lugovskaya A.Y.

One of the important elements included in the ecological framework of the city is city squares. The square of Glory of Novosibirsk is a unique, multifunctional object. On the territory of the square there is Memorial Ensemble dedicated to the feat of the Siberians in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945, which is an integral part of patriotic education. Along with the social, transit and architectural and decorative functions, the square of Glory, due to the large area of green spaces, performs a medium-improving function. 89 species of woody plants grow on the territory. The studied plants belong to 25 botanical families. Of the conifers, the largest is the Pinaceae family – 7 species, and of the deciduous Rosaceae family – 28 species of trees and shrubs. Lianes are isolated: Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch., Clematis terniflora L. The largest number of woody plants belong to mesophytes – 84,0%, while 16% belong to xerophytes. There are several areas with elements of natural landscapes of the Novosibirsk Region. 38 species of wild-growing species of herbaceous plants, representatives of 16 families, grow on the territory of the park. It has been concluded that the square of Glory is an important element in the system of ecological spaces of the city.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):125-129
pages 125-129 views
Environmental aspects of improving the indoor air environment using Chlorophytum comosum (on the example of preschool educational institutions)
Chuenko N.F., Novikova I.I., Tsybulya N.V., Novikov E.A., Savchenko O.A.

In this paper, the houseplant Chlorophytum comosum is considered as one of the main plants in improving the quality of the indoor air environment, having phytoncidal, gas-absorbing and transpiring properties. Chlorophytum comosum is an unpretentious and shade-tolerant houseplant that moisturizes the air, increases the concentration of oxygen in closed rooms; volatile substances of leaves have long-term antimicrobial activity. This plant is also unique in air purification, from formaldehyde, which comes from furniture made of chipboard. The paper presents the results of an experimental assessment of the antimicrobial activity of the leaves of Chlorophytum comosum, as well as the relative humidity in the group cells of the «observation» group (where there were plants) and the «control» group (where there were no plants). The studies have shown that this houseplant has a number of positive properties that favorably affect the indoor air environment. When choosing the landscaping of premises, it is worth considering many factors that affect a person’s well-being. It is recommended to place Chlorophytum comosum indoors in the form of a phytomodule (composition) both horizontally and vertically, regardless of sunlight.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):130-134
pages 130-134 views

Historical Sciences

The experimental modeling of asbestos-tempered vessels
Kholkina M.A., Zhulnikov A.M., Muravyev R.I., Kulkova M.A., Kulkov A.M., Danilov G.K., Gerasimov D.V.

The tradition of mixing asbestos into pottery clay originated near the deposits of this mineral on the lake Saimaa (Finland) in the 5th millennium BC. By the second half of the 4th millennium BC its area reached the Arkhangelsk and Vologda Regions of Russia in the east. The aim of the work is to review the «functional» hypothesis, according to which the widespread use of asbestos as an admixture is due to its advantages over other additives – facilitating the process of molding and drying, preventing flaws during firing, making the vessel durable and easy to use. According to the results of our experiments on the making of vessels and model samples with asbestos it turned out that the used asbestos of the Chevzhavara deposit (tremolite-ferroactinolite) does not have such advantages. The most important problem was the dissociation of asbestos at temperatures above +700°C. After such firing, the vessels were destroyed, and the asbestos itself became brittle. It can be assumed that in order to minimize losses during the firing, the ancient potters could beforehand hold the asbestos at a high temperature so that it would lose the main amount of water but keep its stability. It can be preliminarily concluded that asbestos admixture at an early stage of use did not have clear advantages over other additives. The reasons for the initial interest in asbestos as an additive could be other, e.g. socio-cultural. A special developed technology for processing asbestos, which made it possible to use its advantages, spread around the beginning of the Bronze Age and may be associated with the beginning of metalworking.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):135-148
pages 135-148 views
The main features of the eneolithic cultures of the forest zone in Eastern Europe
Smertina A.Y.

The aim of the study is to identify universal features in the most studied Eneolithic cultures of the forest zone (asbestos-tempered pottery culture such as Voynavolok, Orovnavolok and Palayguba, the Volosovo, Choynovtin, Chuzhyayel, Garin, Bor cultures). The territorial limits are from Finland and Karelia to the Urals. The chronological framework of the study is IV–II thousand BC, since the cultures of the Eneolithic of this territory date from this period. The signs of the transition from the Neolithic to the Eneolithic include significant innovations in the creation of metal, a change in the approach to the production of ceramic tableware and the widespread use of objects with bifacial refinement, an increase in dwellings, the appearance of non-utilitarian items and the development of local production focused on mutually beneficial exchange with neighboring regions. Based on the analysis of the cultures, we can conclude that the most developed ones are the Volosovo, Choynovtin, Garin cultures and the culture of asbestos-tempered pottery ceramics, in which all the indicated signs are present. The less developed ones belong to the Bor and Chuzhyayel cultures. It is not excluded that the results obtained can be adjusted with further studies of these territories.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):149-152
pages 149-152 views
The chronology of the Liventsovka-Karataevo fortress: from their North Caucasian origins to the military confrontation
Larenok O.P.

The paper substantiates the chronological affiliation of the Liventsovka-Karataevo fortress located in the lower reaches of the Don River. The fortification consists of two parts, situated on two promontories separated by a ravine, and is a single settlement complex. The period of its existence is defined by a boundary between the Middle and Late Bronze Age. The first researches of the fortress date back to the 1960s, conducted under the supervision of S.N. Bratchenko. The initial comparison of the material obtained allowed the scientist to draw the lines of synchronization between the Lower Don fortress and North Caucasian monuments as well as to determine the time of existence within the framework of the Late Stage North Caucasian culture. Further research showed that the final stage in the life of the fortress was connected with its military defeat. The relative date of the event was determined as the second stage of the Baba culture. At the present stage of the development of scientific thought, various versions of the reconstruction of the fortress as a ruin exist; however, there is no summary work to establish the chronology of the complex in the light of the new discoveries. Contemporary archaeological studies of monuments in the North Caucasus and on the Northeast Black Sea coast have made it possible to consider both the formation of the fortress and its final existence from a different angle.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):153-156
pages 153-156 views
Age and sex structure of the population of the Srubnaya culture in the late bronze age (on the materials from the Samara Volga region)
Bogdanash A.V.

The demographic structure of the population is reconstructed on the basis of 866 sex and age definitions of the skeletons of the late Bronze Srubnaya culture of the Samara Volga region. The historiographical information on this aspect of paleopopulations life in the region is given. The analysis of the materials of the early and developed stages of this culture is carried out both on the basis of traditional approaches and using the principal component analysis of multidimensional statistics. There is a high mortality rate of the children’s share of the population of the Srubnaya culture, approximate equality in the maintenance of representatives of both sexes, a somewhat longer life expectancy of the male part of the population. These characteristics are relatively close to those of the carriers of the Potapovka culture type who lived in the region in the previous time and sharply differ from the demographic indicators of the Yamnaya culture tribes of the early and Middle Bronze Age, leading a mobile cattle-breeding type of economy. In this line of historical ties, the early Srubnaya culture groups by gender and age structure, taking into account the presence of their settlement monuments, already represent a relatively settled population, with the development of domestic cattle breeding. At the developed stage of the existence of the Srubnaya culture, there is a slight decrease in the overall infant mortality, and especially among adolescents, the overall demographic indicators are more stable. Apparently, this is the time of the maximum adaptation to the natural conditions of the forest-steppe Volga region, the time of the use of their resources for the life support of the population.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):157-165
pages 157-165 views
The province authorities influence on the creation of the research program of the Orenburg department of the Imperial Russian Geographical society (1868–1881)
Legostaev A.S.

The following paper reveals the role of the regional imperial authority in creating and functioning of the Orenburg department of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society. The decisive role of the Orenburg Governor-General Nikolay Andreevich Kryzhanovsky was shown not only in founding the Orenburg department, but also in creating a research program. One of the key areas of the program was a comprehensive study of Central and Middle Asia in order to produce reliable knowledge which was necessary for an effective policy implementation in the named region. The content study from 1870 to 1881 shows the uneven proportions of publications devoted to Central and Middle Asia. Therefore, in the first years of the organizational activity, the Orenburg Department devoted 60% of its publications to Central and Middle Asia, which corresponded both to the historical situation and to the interests of the regional imperial authorities in many aspects. A decrease in researchers’ interest from 1875 to 1881 is thoroughly explained by the fact that after the annexation of new territories, the Orenburg Region turned into an internal province of the Russian Empire.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):166-169
pages 166-169 views
Socio-natural aspects of the causes and consequences of the famine of 1921–1923 in the Volga region
Makeeva E.D.

This paper analyzes socio-natural aspects of the causes and consequences of the famine in the early 1920s in the Volga region. Ecological problems of anthropogenic nature, which appeared in this region in the second half of the 19th century, are considered as an essential cause of famine. It was those problems that largely caused periodic droughts and crop failures that led to famine. The author considers large-scale irrigation and land reclamation, construction of waterworks and reservoirs, as well as afforestation, which began in the Middle Volga region in the 1930s, to be important consequences of the famine. Thanks to the interaction of the authorities and society in the implementation of state programs to combat drought and crop failures, in the second half of the twentieth century, it was possible to eliminate the threat of food shortages and the emergence of severe social problems in this regard. The research is based on a number of published and unpublished documents, including archival materials, which contain evidence of contemporaries of the events and processes described. The content of the paper and the conclusions formulated by its author correspond to the current trends in the development of socio-economic and environmental history of Russia.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):170-175
pages 170-175 views
The final period of G.Kh. Chalkushyan’s public activity (1918–1930)
Papazyan K.L.

The paper is devoted to the final period of charitable and social activities of the famous public figure of the Armenian city of Nakhichevan-on-Don Grigory Khristoforovich Chalkhushyan (1861–1939). Chalkhushyan’s activities were truly multifaceted. As a member of the city Duma, he actively participated in solving city affairs. His activities covered issues of charity, education of the younger generation. However, after the outbreak of the First World War and the genocide of the population of Western Armenia, they acquired other features. When the flows of refugees poured into the South of Russia, he had to deal with the settlement of refugees, which included their resettlement, provision of clothing, medicines, and even their employment. He repeatedly happened to travel to the Caucasus, and on the spot to solve urgent issues of saving refugees. From the pages of the periodical press, he appealed to the feelings of those in power, urging them to donate funds in the name of saving the destitute. With his active participation, Armenian refugees who ended up in the South of Russia returned to the liberated regions of Armenia. For a short period of time, he served as the Consul of the Armenian Republic in Nakhichevan-on-Don. He became an active member of the Red Cross Society, helping the Armenian refugees in Romania. In the last years of his life, he returned to his native Nakhichevan-on-Don, where he took up advocacy.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):176-179
pages 176-179 views
The former merchants of Tomsk in the struggle for electoral rights in the period of the 20s – 30s of the 20th century: classification of behavior tactics
Lyagaev V.V.

The issue of deprival of electoral rights of the pre-revolutionary business elite representatives is considered on the example of the former merchants of Tomsk. The institution of disenfranchisement, which continued to evolve during its existence from 1918 to 1936, in 1926 turned from a restrictive measure into a measure of social pressure of non-proletarian classes. According to the new instructions, activities related to the receipt of non-labor income, with the use of hired labor, now had no statute of limitations. From now on, all private traders were deprived of voting rights, regardless of the type of patent they chose. Such changes entailed an increase in the total mass of «nonvoters» representatives of the former merchant class. The last hopes of the pre-revolutionary business elite for adaptation in the new society were destroyed. Based on the statements of the «nonvoters», the author reconstructed the most typical behavioral practices of former «nonvoters» merchants in the struggle for their civil rights. The author proposes a classification of tactics of former merchants’ behavior as a separate group among the «nonvoters». In the future, a more extensive selection of cases of «nonvoters» belonging to this group is expected as well as the use of the content analysis method in the study in accordance with the identified criteria.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):180-183
pages 180-183 views
The new reality of the industrialization era: socialist emulation in the anti-religious struggle
Gulina A.E.

This study analyzes the influence of the ideologeme «socialist emulation» on the anti-religious struggle in the late 1920s in terms of the campaign to close the Roman catholic temple in the city of Samara. The main source of the study is official regulations, business documentation and press materials. The author has shown that the campaign to close the catholic temple began as part of the socialist emulation between German and Polish-origin activists after the closure of the Lutheran temple. The closure of the Samara temple took place with the active participation of the Poles-workers, who, within the framework of the Soviet ideology, opposed the Poles-believers. The usage of the ideologeme «socialist emulation» in this campaign shows that, having initially emerged in the sphere of labor relations to encourage labor activity, «socialist emulation» penetrated into other spheres of public life. The author assumes that the soviet authorities indoctrinated most important elements of ideology in order to manipulate the consciousness of the population. Thus, the ideologeme «socialist emulation» contributed to the intensification of the struggle against religious associations of believers in the framework of public work. At the same time, while in production it was easy to determine the winner of the socialist competition, within the framework of the antireligious struggle, it was not so much victory that was important as participation. Otherwise, the refusal to compete could become the basis for accusations of counter-revolutionary actions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):184-187
pages 184-187 views
World War II in John Ford’s films
Buranok S.O., Surzhik D.V.

John Ford’s films show how the cultural context of the Pacific War and the image of the war in combat films of 1941–1945 change. By the time the USA entered the World War II, Hollywood and Washington had a long if not estranged relationship. They were both well versed in the use of propaganda and had readily employed it on the citizens of the United States. J. Ford’s films are a good example of this cooperation. This paper is about a «reflection» of the image of the Pacific war, and about the key moments of glorification of the World War II history in the USA cinema and media. The paper analyzes the connection between the images of the war in the film «December 7» with the images of the war in newspapers, cartoons, politicians’ speeches – this will help to study the problem of visualizing the war in a wide socio-cultural context rather than in isolation. The nature and mechanisms of mutual influence of these images of the war have been determined: for example, how the materials of periodicals influenced the film; how the speeches of American politicians were refracted and reflected in Ford’s film; how the visual images of cartoons influenced the director’s work.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):188-191
pages 188-191 views
FBI and Ku Klux Klan: the main factors and features of countering extremism in the United States of the 1960s and 1970s
Selifontova D.Y., Levin Y.A.

The period of the 1960s and 1970s in the United States of America was saturated with rallies, murders and terror on racial grounds. The Ku Klux Klan, a national terrorist organization that has been reborn in the United States more than once, is most responsible for this. The national security of the United States was under threat, the FBI, the CIA and the government, interacting with each other, tried their best to stop such incidents. The paper examines the activities of the FBI, its director John Edgar Hoover, in the United States to counter the Ku Klux Klan from the moment of their third revival in 1960 to the end of the 1970s, when the activities of the Klan had already been discontinued: thanks to FBI agents who infiltrated the headquarters of the key figures of the Klan, which, in particular subsequently, for years were introduced into large groups of the Klan, it was possible to eliminate one of the largest problems that violated the security of citizens of the United States of America in this period of time. The paper also examines specifics of the interaction between the FBI and the government, which largely affected the activities of the former in the fight against the Ku Klux Klan, where the shift in emphasis of domestic policy and the confrontation between the cabinets «untied the hands» of the Klan members.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):192-197
pages 192-197 views
Mechanisms of cultural and educational interaction between the USSR and foreign countries in 1960–1980
Samsonova I.С.

This paper attempts to study the problem of intercultural interaction between the USSR and foreign countries in 1960–1980. Attention is drawn to the need to establish a constructive dialogue between cultures in the context of strengthening integration ties. The paper presents the results of research on the development of cooperation in the sphere of culture, examines the strategies and practices of the Soviet peace movement, describes the ways and means of strengthening informal interaction with representatives of the educational system and maintaining professional contacts, characterizes the process of interaction between the USSR and citizens of foreign countries. The interaction with the foreign public in the USSR during the period under study was carried out through a number of organizations of various levels: from the central party bodies to individual regional enterprises and institutions. It is particularly noted that the ideological control over their activities existed at virtually all levels of the party apparatus: from the Central Committee of the CPSU to party committees in public organizations, unions and cultural institutions. The author concludes that the existing problems in the sphere of intercultural communication are closely related to the implementation of effective intercultural interaction, and the role of culture in the development of international interaction is not limited to the foreign policy of states and is characterized by autonomy in the organization of the dialogue of cultures.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):198-206
pages 198-206 views
Environmental knowledge popularization among students in the 1980s (on the example of the Kuybyshev Region)
Avetisyan V.R.

The twentieth century in the history of mankind is rightfully considered to be the epoch of the beginning of an intense negative anthropogenic impact on nature. During this period, awareness of environmental education of the population becomes particularly relevant. They were beginning to pay special attention to it in the educational system. This paper discusses the general state policy of the Soviet leadership in the development of school environmental education. Using the example of the Kuybyshev Region, the analysis of various approaches and methods to environmental knowledge popularization among students in the 80s of the 20th century is given. The choice of such a short time interval is explained by a special attention of state bodies to environmental culture improvement. The paper describes the role of outstanding teachers in the development of school programs on ecology. The author pays special attention to periodicals and journals of bioecological content, which were a worthy help for environmental literacy development among students. The publication is based on archival materials from the funds of the Central State Archive of the Samara Region that most reveal the problems of the study. The information presented in the paper is aimed at studying some issues of the environmental education formation in the Samara Region. The materials obtained can serve as a basis for further study of the issues under consideration.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):207-210
pages 207-210 views
«It was a great, noble work of a selfless worker» (to the biography of P.A. Preobrazhensky)
Sumburova E.I.

The paper examines the main stages of the life path, scientific and socio-pedagogical activity of Pavel Aleksandrovich Preobrazhensky, a teacher, historian and public figure who lived in Samara at the turn of the 19–20 centuries. The biographical study was built with the involvement of archival materials, published sources and memoirs of P.A. Preobrazhensky’s students. The author notes the circumstances of the formation of the character and life principles of the future teacher, and the significant role of the family and the father-priest in this. The half-century pedagogical practice of P.A. Preobrazhensky left a memory of him not only in the hearts of the students, but also among their parents and colleagues, as evidenced by the statements given by the author. The paper also examines socio-cultural activities of P.A. Preobrazhensky, who during his life was a member of many scientific and cultural societies and actively worked in the field of education and dissemination of scientific knowledge among the Samara population. The author highlights the university period in the biography of Pavel Aleksandrovich, noting that it was the heyday of his scientific and teaching career. It was during this period that his life was filled with various types of activities – scientific, teaching, administrative and social.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):211-215
pages 211-215 views
Eurasian dialectics of history in the views of G.N. Polkovnikov
Bystryukov V.Y.

On the turn of 1920–1930s the Eurasian movement was experiencing a crisis. Clamart Schism and financial problems hindered the ability to publish new books and attract new supporters. For various reasons many notable figures such as N.S. Trubetskoy, L.P. Karsavin, P.P. Suvchinsky, were distancing themselves from the movement. Eurasianism lasted until the second half of 1930s, largely due to the vigorous activity of P.N. Savitsky, and his associates in the Eurasian Group in Prague. During financial and personnel crises, one of the most important tasks was to preserve the publishing activities of the movement. It was in such conditions, in the early 1930s, that the book by Georgy Nikolaevich Polkovnikov, called «Dialectics of History» appeared. In it, the author made an attempt to describe a complex vision of the evolution of human society and its patterns in the West and in the East. Extensive attention was given to the problem of determining the place and role of Russia in the world community of nations and polities. Suffice to say that even the people who supported the movement had contradictory responses to the book. In 1930s only a few works of this volume were produced by Eurasian Publications, but in modern historiography it remains virtually unexplored and not inscribed in the history of the movement. The paper examines the role of the book and its significance in the evolution of the ideology of the Eurasian Movement.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):216-222
pages 216-222 views
The Great Patriotic War in V.N. Paramonov’s research: in memory of the historian (1957–2022)
Khramkova E.L., Tuzova O.V.

The paper is devoted to the scientific activity of Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Paramonov in the study of various aspects of the Great Patriotic War. Using classification methods, comparative historical and biographical methods, more than 100 publications (1985–2020) have been analyzed: monographs, textbooks, articles and theses, a doctoral dissertation and an abstract, reviews by V.N. Paramonov on the manuscripts of monographs, dissertations and abstracts of dissertations, as well as materials of the scientist’s personal file. The main thematic directions of his publications on the problem are singled out: the state of the regional and republican industry; labor sphere; rear everyday life; public consciousness, moods, mentality; gender history; information control; scientific research; interfaith relations; questions of historiography and source studies; historical memory of the war. An attempt has been made to determine their development in relation to the empirical base being mastered, the novelty of the plots and the results of the research. The contribution of the historian to the formation and introduction into scientific circulation of sources on the military period, the appeal to little-studied subjects, the presence and argumentation of the author’s position on some issues are emphasized. The significant contribution of V.N. Paramonov to the development of the economic and social all-Russian and regional history of the war period is revealed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):223-229
pages 223-229 views
The cult of birds in the religious and mythological system of the Bashkirs
Ilimbetova A.F.

The image of a bird is of great importance in the traditional worldview of the Bashkirs. The most revered Bashkirs in their mythological and ritual traditions are the crow, the magpie, the eagle, the cuckoo, the dove, the crane, the duck, and the swan. In the cult of birds among the Bashkirs, one can find various stages in the development of social consciousness. The earliest period includes mythological and ritual plots reflecting the survivals of totemic representations. Their remnants appear in the identification of man and bird, in endowing birds with human qualities. In the tribal nomenclature of the Bashkirs, relics of faith in the origin of their individual tribal groups from birds have been preserved. In folklore, rituals and customs of the Bashkirs, revered birds act as totemic ancestors, patrons and helpers of people, family and marriage relations, women in labor and children. In the religious and magical practice of the Bashkirs, totem birds and their individual parts have miraculous, healing powers. In everyday rituals, folklore and ethnographic sources, there are arguments proving that the Bashkirs used to have holidays in honor of certain totem birds in the past. The remnants of religious and mythological beliefs about birds today form an organic part of the national tradition of the Bashkirs.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):230-234
pages 230-234 views

Pedagogical Sciences

Continuity of different levels of medical education in the training of doctors for primary health care (preventive aspect)
Astanina S.Y., Shepel R.N., Drapkina O.M.

Currently, the training of doctors to provide primary health care is one of the priority areas of medical education. In the paper, from the standpoint of the requirements of the continuity principle, the results of the analysis of the academic courses programs content are presented. They ensure the development of students’ skills to perform labor functions in the preventive activities of a doctor. They are implemented at the faculties where the major is 31.05.01 «General Medicine» and 31.08.49 «Therapy» in medical universities subordinate to the Ministry of Health of Russia, included in the top 20 best medical universities, according to the RAEX ranking (March 2022). A comparative analysis was carried out between the content of academic courses and the content of the labor functions of doctors: «Conducting medical, preventive medical examinations, medical examinations, dispensary observation of patients with diseases and (or) conditions in the "therapy" and monitoring the effectiveness of dispensary observation measures» and «Carrying out measures for the prevention and formation of a healthy lifestyle and sanitary and hygienic education of the population». The criteria for assessing the compliance of the content of the programs with the requirements of the above-mentioned labor functions of the professional standard «Therapist» were: 1) the presence in the curriculum of the courses that provide training of students to perform the specified labor functions; 2) the presence in the content of academic courses of knowledge that ensures the development of the necessary skills of a doctor in the performance of these labor functions; 3) the structure and content of the programs for preparing students for preventive activities are developed in accordance with the requirements of the principle of continuity. According to the results of the study, it has been revealed that general theoretical knowledge of prevention, as a set of measures aimed at maintaining and strengthening the health of the population, promoting a healthy lifestyle and preventing the occurrence and (or) spread of diseases, are included in the training programs for doctors majoring in 31.05.01 General Medicine. However, the development of students’ skills in performing the above labor functions is unsystematic, which leads to a violation of the continuity of different levels of medical education in preparing doctors for primary health care.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):235-243
pages 235-243 views
V.G. Belinsky’s ideas on dignity as a subject of contemporary pedagogical reflection
Bezdukhov V.P., Bezdukhov A.V.

The relevance of the paper is motivated by the socio-pedagogical significance of the problem of educating the human dignity among young students, the solution of which depends, in particular, on the teacher’s knowledge of the meanings of the concept of «dignity». It is indicated that Russian philosophers comprehend the category of dignity in the ethical-aesthetic, philosophical-ethical rather than in the ethical-pedagogical sense. Historians of pedagogy do not include the idea of human dignity into Belinsky’s pedagogical ideas. The paper analyzes the meanings of the word «dignity» in Belinsky’s texts; the critic’s ideas of dignity are considered significant for solving the issues of education that are relevant for our time: What does it mean to be worth to be called a person? What is the person’s destiny? What is the purpose of education? It turns out that V.G. Belinsky understands dignity as: a) the dignity of everyone belonging to humanity («a person is born not for evil, but for good …»; «respect for a person’s dignity <…> first of all for the fact that he/she is a person, and only then for his/her personal accomplishments»); b) moral quality («beauty inspires moral virtues»); c) value («the dignity of a phenomenon of reality, a work of art», «the dignity of science», «the dignity of a historical textbook»); d) self-respect («he looks at the inferior with self-respect»; e) the dignity of a model of morality, humanity («to be worth to be called a person»). In the course of educating human dignity of school students, it is important to consider the meanings of the concept of «dignity», which reflect various aspects of the phenomenon denoted and are used in different situations. In a certain pedagogical situation, the teacher selects methods for educating the human dignity of school students, focusing on the specific meaning of the named concept. Interpretations of dignity by Belinsky, made in an intelligible and vivid form, can become material for discussing the issue of dignity with students.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):244-249
pages 244-249 views
The educational environment as a way of prospective teachers’ ecological culture formation while studying natural science courses
Busygina A.L., Bakulina S.Y., Lizunova E.V., Vershinina L.V., Busygin A.G.

Currently, the problem of ecological culture is becoming generally recognized. The ecological direction in the system of higher professional education in the process of prospective teachers’ ecological culture formation is a noticeable factor. There is a need to systematize ecological and natural science pedagogical education: there is a change of axiological systems, cultural norms and values among the modern younger generation, the issues of ecological culture formation among students of pedagogical universities are not fully considered. The state educational standard of higher professional pedagogical education emphasizes the primary task – to form the teacher’s personality with a high ecological culture, striving for harmonious interaction with the natural environment, a personality that is distinguished by the presence of attitudes, beliefs, and the need for activities to preserve and improve nature. There is a need for the dominant role and responsibility of prospective teachers in solving the issues of ecological culture formation among young people who are able to form a personality that is distinguished by the presence of beliefs of a conscious, careful, responsible attitude to the natural environment. In this regard, the need to increase attention to ecological culture formation among students of pedagogical universities becomes significant at the socio-pedagogical level. Ecological culture is not a specific type, but an integral part and level of human culture as a whole. The priority role in ecological culture formation among students belongs to the natural sciences, which form the foundation of the scientific understanding of the world. At the stage of modern university education, the ecological culture of youth develops on the principles of unity of the historical relationship between the natural environment and society, the social conditionality of the individual’s relationship to nature, and the desire to harmonize these relations. The diversity of interaction between society and nature determines the complexity of environmental education, its main principles: a transdisciplinary approach to ecological culture formation, systematic and continuous study of scientific material, the unity of mental and emotional-volitional principles in the activities of students to study and improve the natural environment; the relationship of global and local environmental problems. This is emphasized by many scientists. The leading role in prospective teachers’ ecological culture formation is played by the educational environment of the university.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):250-255
pages 250-255 views
The ethnocultural aspect in the educational process of a pedagogical university
Gokina A.G., Safonova E.V., Iagafova E.A.

The paper considers ethnocultural aspects in the educational activities of the university in the process of training bachelors of education. The authors show the place and role of ethnocultural courses and practices in the educational process of a teacher’s training university on the example of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education. The paper substantiates theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of the problem of ethnocultural and multicultural education in modern Russian society, characterizes current requirements of educational standards of the school and higher pedagogical education in terms of achieving personal results by students, regarding the main areas of extracurricular activities in an educational institution; describes the experience of introducing ethnocultural courses and practices in the educational process of a teacher’s training university, substantiates their relevance in the process of training teaching staff, identifies problems in the content and learning process within the framework of these courses and practices. The main purpose of the research is to identify the place and role of ethnoculturological courses and practices in the educational process of a teacher’s training university. The study has shown that the ethnocultural aspect is relevant in professional training of bachelors of education, regardless of the major, since it prepares a prospective teacher to conduct educational and extracurricular activities in the Russian secondary school, especially in regions with a complex ethnic confessional composition of the population. Ethnological knowledge and skills in the ethnocultural sphere are in demand, first of all, in the organization of extracurricular activities, but are also necessary in teaching certain courses and for an interpersonal dialogue with students.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):256-261
pages 256-261 views
The development of skills for processing different types of information among schoolchildren at humanities lessons
Kulaeva G.M., Zhuleva M.I.

The practice of teaching humanities courses includes working with information as a meta-subject result of training. The purpose of the study is to find methodological ways to develop students’ information skills at humanities lessons. The subject of the study is methods and techniques for the development of skills for processing different types of information – verbal (textual), non-verbal (visual-graphic). The paper presents an analysis of the level of students’ information skills development based on the material of the control and measurement materials of the unified state exam at humanities lessons (Russian, foreign language, literature, history, social studies). Based on the analysis, the authors have developed tasks designed to develop students’ ability to determine the properties of information based on its properties: reliability (reliable/unreliable), sufficiency (excessive/insufficient), significance (primary or secondary). Using the example of the course «Russian language», tasks based on authentic verbal material, which is used in school teaching practice, are proposed. Authentic texts, a discussion in chat rooms, correspondence in messengers, a ticket to a performance and student essays are offered. The tasks reflect questions to determine the reliability, sufficiency of information, which can be similarly posed when analyzing verbal and nonverbal information in other humanities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):262-265
pages 262-265 views
The interdisciplinary approach to the study of speciation methods within the university course «Theory of Evolution»
Lamekhova E.A., Lamekhov Y.G.

The methodology for evolutionary thought study at universities is an urgent problem, since, unlike school biology, the university version lacks unified methodological approaches that allow the most effective organization of the learning process. This paper discusses the development of a methodology for studying the mechanisms and methods of speciation in the implementation of an interdisciplinary approach. When considering the problem of development of the doctrine of species and speciation, one should be guided by such a category as interdisciplinary. The concept of interdisciplinarity is applicable to the sciences and at the same time applicable to philosophy, in particular, to the philosophy of knowledge. Interdisciplinarity is an epistemological mechanism for substantiating the materialistic approach in studying the methods of speciation and the nature of species. This approach is indispensable in proving the reality of the existence of species in the biosphere. The recognition of species existence reality and supraspecific taxa makes it possible to study the structure of species and methods from education, based on the data of a number of sciences. In connection with the development of the content of the subject-content module in biology as part of the transition to the implementation of the Fundamental Core of Pedagogical Education, university professors should provide fundamental subject training for university graduates based on meaningful study by students of the fundamental laws of science, the hierarchization of knowledge and the inseparability of the educational process and scientific knowledge.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):266-272
pages 266-272 views
Secondary vocational school of the Kazan Educational District in the process of modernization of Russian education in the late 19th – early 20th centuries
Magsumov T.A.

The paper presents the main results of the author’s research in the field of the history of the formation and development of the Russian pre-revolutionary secondary vocational school. The research was carried out on the materials of educational institutions of the Kazan Educational District. The historical reconstruction is carried out in the context of the specifics of modernization and the educational revolution that took place in the country. The basic method was a generalized historical and genetic description of the results of the author’s research, and the source was the totality of these studies. The role of secondary vocational schools in the educational system of the Kazan Educational District greatly increased at the turn of the 19–20 centuries. The secondary vocational school became a part of the educational revolution taking place in the Russian Empire, acted as a bearer of traditions and a conductor of innovations, a channel and an active participant in modernization changes. The development of secondary vocational education clearly reflected the modernization processes taking place in the country. The author reconstructs a picture of the initial stage in the history of secondary vocational education; reveals the attitudes and practices of state and public, private and state interaction in education; reveals social characteristics of students and teachers; restores the process of expanding the number and range of social agents of educational institutions; reveals the main directions of secondary vocational schools. Despite the serious problems caused by attempts to implement its development on a traditional basis, the vocational school, largely due to the partnership of the state and society, made a significant contribution to the education of qualified personnel for the economy of the region. The results of the study are to increase scientific knowledge about the development of education in late Imperial Russia. The research materials can be used for the subsequent scientific study of the problem, as well as in the theory and practice of secondary vocational education at the present stage.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):273-280
pages 273-280 views
Features and prospects for the introduction of mobile technologies in the process of teaching a foreign language in a non-linguistic university
Nikolaeva E.A., Kotliarenko I.Y.

This paper discusses the possibilities and prospects for the introduction of mobile learning technologies in the practice of teaching a foreign language to students of non-linguistic universities. The relevance of the study is due to the fact that the use of mobile devices is a natural process in the field of teaching foreign languages, and modern students have organically moved from listening and viewing foreign-language artifacts of mass culture to the purposeful use of mobile devices for learning foreign languages. The introduction of mobile technologies into the practice of learning foreign languages has formed a natural learning environment adapted to the interests of students. This state of affairs suggests that the process of teaching a foreign language using mobile devices should solve a number of serious problems, starting with issues related to the development of a motivation system for students to learn a foreign language, cognitive activity, and ending with the problems of forming a multilingual personality. On the other hand, new generation education standards require the development of IT competencies that allow introducing new formats into the traditional teaching practice, providing interactive support for the learning process and developing students’ communication skills in accordance with the requirements of the time. In this context, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the possibilities of introducing mobile learning technologies into the practice of teaching a foreign language to students of a non-linguistic university. The paper presents the results of a field study of the level of readiness of foreign language teachers to introduce mobile technologies into the practice of language training for students of non-linguistic universities. The conducted studies have shown that the main feature of the process of introducing mobile technologies into the practice of language training is its spontaneity and disorganization, and the prospects for their active use are limited by the level of mobile competence development among teachers. The results obtained can serve as a basis for further research into the problems of achieving the level of compliance of the IT competencies of foreign language teachers with the social orders of modern society.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):281-287
pages 281-287 views
The devolution of higher education among modern youth as a pedagogical problem
Novoderova A.P.

The paper is devoted to the current problem of devolution of higher education among modern youth. The work analyzes the prerequisites for the development and dissemination of this tendency in education. First of all, these are new directions for the development of the market and modern professions that are based on the combination of various activities. New specialties and educational programs, which may appear in the next decade are considered. The study includes an analysis of the demographic statistics of the Russian young population for 2013–2021 and the student population dynamics enrolled in higher education programmes during this period. Scientific papers and articles devoted to the phenomenon of self-employment and factors influencing the choice of school graduates and university students were also analyzed. The study identified the causes of the devaluation of higher education among the youth. The following points were highlighted as the key ones: the low level of students’ knowledge and disadvantages in the rating system; the declining popularity for vocational education; the high cost of education in universities; the lack of relevance of educational programs. All of these factors have been substantiated and studied in detail, as each one is a problem of the modern educational system and requires the attention.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):288-292
pages 288-292 views
Scribing as an innovative technology in teaching oral foreign speech to students majoring in engineering
Odaryuk I.V., Gampartsumov A.S.

The purpose of this research is to study the features, forms and structure, as well as the possibility of practical application of scribing in the process of teaching foreign language speech to students of technical universities. Scribing is considered to be a technology that has great didactic potential and contributes to the solution of pedagogical problems in various fields of knowledge. Having come to pedagogy from the business environment, this technology can also be used to develop oral speech skills in foreign languages. The main stages of scribing have been defined. It is noted that scribing technology can be considered as a type of project activity. The main advantages of this technology are highlighted. Paper versions of scribing on several topics have been developed and presented in accordance with the Foreign Languages Work Programs of the Rostov State Transport University. Methods of description, analysis, systematization and generalization of theoretical material have been used, as well as practical application of the studied technology during the classes of foreign languages. The analysis of the obtained results has been carried out. The results of the work will be of interest, first of all, to the tutors and teachers who are trying to apply innovative teaching technologies in the classroom. In future work, it is planned to develop and apply scribing for the presentation of other educational topics using online platforms.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):293-297
pages 293-297 views
Urgent problems of teaching translation with the emphasis on actual sentence division
Stoikovich G.V., Magazirova M.V.

The paper is devoted to the description of the teaching process at the Foreign Language Faculty of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education, concerning students of Linguistics, namely, the experience in teaching translation activities with the emphasis on the actual division of the sentence. The authors state the importance of taking into account the actual division of the sentence for correct rendering of the statement meaning in another language, relying on the experience of prominent scientists and specialists in the sphere of syntactic interference and syntactic calque, outline the existing common problem that arises in translation and teaching this subject, and point out the importance of paying attention to this complex aspect in a comprehensive manner, that is not only in translation classes, but also within both practical and theoretical grammar lessons. The authors present a number of exercises, which contribute to solving of the problem, provide examples of exercises aimed at the analysis and understanding of the thematic-rhemetic division of the sentence and, therefore, improving the quality of student translations. The paper also provides a number of typical translation models with different types of thematic division, using various morphological means and syntactic constructions, and analyzes students’ mistakes. The authors’ conception is based on authoritative sources in the spheres of linguistics, translation study, while the paper includes both the authors’ and authentic language material.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):298-302
pages 298-302 views
The specifics of volunteer activities organization among students at the University of culture
Taratorin E.V.

This paper discusses volunteer activity as a promising direction of the state youth policy in the Russian Federation. The paper presents normative acts and state programs regulating the relevance and expediency of the implementation of the volunteer movement in Russia. The text provides a detailed analysis of the scientific research of domestic and foreign scientists concerning the issues of volunteerism. The paper focuses on the students of the University of Culture as an initiative part of Russian society, which has a special worldview and creative attitude to reality. The paper describes the process of organizing volunteer activities at Orel State Institute of Culture as well as reveals the main stages of the implementation of the socio-cultural project «Kind Heart» (educational, motivational, active, productive) with 1–3-year-students of all bachelor’s degree courses of full-time study at the university for conducting socially significant actions and creative charity events with various categories of the population. In the course of the research, the author of the paper identifies the positive aspects of students’ volunteer work at the University of Culture and outlines promising areas of work of the creative educational institution for the organization and conduct of volunteer activities for the period from 2023 to 2025. The obtained research results can become the basis for the implementation of pedagogical programs and creative charity projects in educational organizations of middle and senior management, institutions of the socio-cultural sphere.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):303-309
pages 303-309 views
The problem of choosing methodological bases in developing modern learning materials for students of higher education institutions
Khismatulina N.V., Pugacheva S.A., Malkova T.V.

The present research deals with the problem of developing modern learning materials for students of higher education institutions. The authors emphasize that in the traditions of the Russian educational system, the pedagogical staff itself is charged with implementing this educational and methodological direction, that is why textbooks are often created intuitively, based on personal professional experience, sometimes with no scientific basis. This fact raises the question of the need for a deep analysis of scientific researches in this sphere to determine the principles in designing a particular educational publication and reasonably choose methodological bases. The authors have attempted to structure the revealed methodological bases (pedagogical approaches) depending on the idea and the functional strategic goal of education itself. Two groups of basic approaches and their derivatives are singled out and described: competence approach, aimed at the formation of a standard specialist in the professional sphere and implemented mainly through activity-based educational technologies – contextual approach, problem-based learning, task-based approach; and humanitarian and anthropological approach, aimed at personal growth of a student in his entirety (personality-oriented approach, andragogical approach), disclosure of his potential, his work with personal meanings (hermeneutic approach, euristic approach), formation of his own world picture, realization of his individual educational trajectory. In the end, the authors make a conclusion that it is necessary to combine the approaches of different nature in developing the concept of learning materials, as the exclusion of one of the components will significantly limit the potential opportunities in the personal and professional growth of students.

Samara Journal of Science. 2023;12(1):310-314
pages 310-314 views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies