Vol 4, No 1 (2015)

Articles

ENGLISH PUNCTUATION MARKS IN THE TEXTS BELONGING TO DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL STYLES

Adaeva O.M.

Abstract

The article deals with the problems connected with segmentation of the flow of speech. English speech is divided into segments with the help of the complex and specific semiological system - the system of punctuation. Thus, the research conducted contributes into the solution of a more general problem - the dialectal unity of the oral and written forms of English. The peculiar feature of English punctuation marks is that, in contrast with Russian, this system is based on the declamatory-psychological principle. It reflects the semantic and stylistic content of the utterance, rather than its grammatical structure. The way an author uses punctuation marks depends mainly on his/her intention. In other words, English punctuation marks are put semantically-stylistically. The input of the researchers of Speechology linguistic school (Moscow State University) into the theory and practice of English punctuation system can hardly be overestimated. It is stated, in particular, that each punctuation mark corresponds to a certain complex of prosodic features. According to their function and prosody, they are divided into the marks for vertical segmentation of speech and the marks for horizontal stratification of speech. English punctuation marks should evidently be studied through the prism of functional stylistics. In this respect, the italics functions have been defined in the texts belonging to two main functional styles. The italics have been proved to function differently in scientific texts and those of fiction. In the former the punctuation mark is used in accordance with the semantic level of realization of language units which demands the use of syntactic or logical suprasyntactic prosody features. In belle-letter style the italics help, mainly, to create the character speech portrait; to achieve that the italicized units are brought out in speech by means of timbre suprasyntactics.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):13-16
pages 13-16 views

ACADEMIC AND METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK OF TRAINING SENIOR STUDENTS FOR A FINAL COMPOSITION

Arteshina L.V.

Abstract

To develop a methodological system of teaching composition writing in senior school a teacher should employ academic and methodological principles of training students’ coherent skills - writing skills important for speech and communication. It is considerable that students should know the requirements and the most frequent errors in peers’ works. Taking these factors into consideration will be of help for teachers in overcoming difficulties in the process of developing students’ communicative skills and providing them with functional literacy. Programs on the Russian language are aimed at work on speech development that results in students’ communicative competence development. Developing coherent speech means teaching students to perceive and create communicative texts. It is the main features of the text, text genres and their compositional forms, functional and stylistic varieties that serve the basis for students’ universal communicative learning skills development. In this aspect, a composition plays a very important role, because when creating it, students reveal their inner world, build their own worldview and identify their interests, develop their abstract thinking. Professional training for writing a composition introduces the cultural and historical experience of the mankind, reveals the spiritual legacy of Russian culture, contributes to personality socialization. Work on texts created by the great classics first and students’ ones afterwards leads to philological competence development. Practising composition writing is of importance in speech development. This is a specific type of work the essence of which is creating an independent text on the given or free topic.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):16-19
pages 16-19 views

AXIOLOGICAL APPROACH IN TEACHING THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE IN MULTIETHNIC EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

Arkhipova Y.V.

Abstract

Linguomethodological aspects of the value approach in the Russian language teaching in multiethnic classes are analysed in the article. The experience of surveys held in the Laboratory of linguodidactics and innovative technologies of the Russian language teaching and in the Centre of slavonic philology and culture named after I.I.Sreznevsky of the Ryazan State University named after S.A.Esenin is revealed. Three main lines of axiological approach in the Russian language teaching in multiethnic environment are considered. The first line is a traditional one. It presupposes first of all aspect work on learners' vocabulary enrichment with words that reflect Russian people linguistic worldview, and moral and ethical lexical units come first in this case. The work on students’ vocabulary activation through creative tasks as well as while preparing for final certification in the form of USE-11 and GSE-9 belongs to this line. The second line presupposes special work in speech development classes where value concepts of Russian culture are acquired on the basis of the texts sorted out. Thus, broadening and intensifying ethnic cultural component in the Russian language teaching is achieved by acquiring value notions of Russian national culture - concepts. The third line is aimed at fulfilling important for contemporary school language adaptation of foreign students who study at Russian schools. On the one hand, this line realizes the value approach in the Russian language teaching to the students of the Crimea (who previously studied the Russian as well as the official Ukrainian language) and, on the other hand, it is aimed at developing effective methods and technics of teaching foreign students in Russian schools.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):19-21
pages 19-21 views

CRIMEAN TATAR FOLKLORE AS A MEANS OF EDUCATING THE YOUNGER GENERATION

Asanova Z.R.

Abstract

The article deals with the Crimean Tatar folklore as a means of educating the younger generation. Folklore refers to ethnopedagogical means of promoting not only love towards the native language, but it also contibutes to development of personal qualities and competencies. Folklore of the Crimean Tatar people contains a variety of proverbs, tongue twisters and riddles, songs and recitations, tales and legends, stories and epics. Folcloric works contain elements of ancient Turkic Muslim stories and beliefs. The characters are unique and non-plain: historical (Mengli Giray. Sultan Suleiman the Great), mysterious (Adzherkha - a giant serpent, the dragon), the ones associated with the Muslim religion (Luqman Hakim - sage, Shaitan - hell, Iblis - gin), animals (Tilke - sly fox, Kashkyr - brave wolf, Yilan - wise snake). Folklore as means of education contains a huge educational potential to be referred to in the modern educational process, for example in the schools with the Crimean Tatar language as the main language for introducing the national and universal culture. In the future, the Crimean Tatar folklore should become part of each class. In this aspect it is necessary to solve the following problems: collecting the Crimean Tatar folklore, most of which was lostin the period of the deportation; providing students - future teachers - with folkloric material; development of methodology for application of knowledge about oral folk art in the educational process. Only then folklore as a means of education will help restore the moral and personal value of education, as well as personal features based on the tradition of spiritual education of people and the preservation of national identity.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):22-26
pages 22-26 views

ABOUT SOME FEATURES OF METAPHOR IN YE.I. ZAMYATIN’S PROSE IN THE TWENTIES

Astashina Y.I.

Abstract

The article touches upon the idea of analysing the language of Ye.I. Zamyatin's prose of the 20s in comparison with the method of neorealism and stylistic synthetic preferences that are defined theoretically and realised in practice by the author in his literary and critical works as well as in fiction (in the articles "About synthethism" (1922), "New Russian Prose" (1923) and others, the stories of the twenties, the novel "We"). Neorealism is understood as the category of the author's comprehension of the history of development of literary and cultural process in general, as the stage of this development which implies actual witticism, psychological character of realism and semantic and stylistic transcendentalism of symbolism. Synthethism is treated as the artistic form of neorealism. Synthetic aesthetics of Ye.I. Zamyatin's prose is revealed in extended metaphors of Zamyatin's works, they are characterized by the aspiration for marginal assymetry of their sign form, being increasingly reduced, and by metaphorical contents, being totally profound, complicated by semantic clashes - abstract projections of syntagmatic relations between lexems of the prose text of the author. This syntagmatic character is provided with occasional collocations of common Russian vocabulary which recursively transform in the metaphors of Ye.I. Zamyatin's text extracts of different length. So, the article presents one of numerous aspects of linguistic analysis of Zamyatin's text, partial so far. In general, Zamyatin’s writing manner is defined as perceptually complicated due to the author's language and mental uniquiness which is expressed in the intellectual artistic value of the text. The article briefly presents terminological toolkit that includes such linguistic and stylistic concepts as language of work of fiction , language of fiction, poetic language, expressive langiage .

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):26-29
pages 26-29 views

LINGUISTIC GEOGRAPHY IN THE RESEARCH OF SAMARA DIALECTOLOGICAL SCHOOL

Bazhenova T.Y.

Abstract

The article presents the stages of linguistic geography development in the Samara region. Volga’s dialects in the aspect of linguistic geography have been studied insufficiently for a long time. For refining the linguistic landscape of our region the linguists of Samara suggested the idea of a regional atlas. To promote the idea, the dialectologists employed both theoretical and practical experience of the compilers of foreign and Russian linguistic atlases. The main results of long-term work are identification of structure and dialectal distribution of Samara accents of later development, refining the linguistic landscape of peripheral areas. The most objective idea of dialect landscape in the Volga Region of Samara can be obtained with the aid of the method of the marks cartography of dialect phenomena in each separate populated area. In 2009 linguistic and geographic research in Samara resulted in publishing the atlas, which contains 63 phonetic and morphological maps and the typological map. The lexical volume of the regional atlas is being created now. For “Lexical Atlas of Samara Dialects” more than 60 e-maps on the themes “Material Culture”, “Animals”, “Farming and Vegetable Growing”, “Natural Phenomena”, “Wedding”, “Verbs”have been elaborated. The method of marks is employed in lexic cartography. Regional atlases elaborated as a supplement to the general Russian atlas is also an example ofmethodology of identifying language varieties - the main characteristics of Russian migrant accents. The maps of linguistic atlases reflect the realia of traditional material and spiritual culture.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):29-34
pages 29-34 views

ON THE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN INSERTED CONSTRUCTIONS AND THE BASIC SAYING (BASED ON THE NOVELS OF I.S. TURGENEV OF 1850S)

Balyagina I.Y.

Abstract

It is now recognized that there are two types of inserted constructions: unconstructive and constructive type. The former can be linked to the basic statement by grammatical and lexical means, the latter are considered to be isolated from it. We suppose that the unconstructive insertions are also associated with the basic statement, but mainly by dint of lexical and lexical-grammatical means, and we check it on specific material. The analysis showed that there were found means of communication with the context - usually narrow (statement in which the insert exists), less often wider (the dialogue replica, complex syntactic whole) in the vast majority of the inserts used in the novels of I.S. Turgenev of 1850s. The constructive inserts dominate in the researched works and therefore the grammatical means (conjunctions, introductory words, structural incompleteness) are rarely used for communication with the main statement. Often various lexical means serve this purpose, including lexical and paradigmatic repetitions; words-realia that belong to one situation or are correlated otherwise in their sense; words included in one thematic group; paronyms; categorematic words that reveal the real meaning of asemantic pronouns or words with a broad abstract meaning; words with a broad abstract meaning summarizing the content of the preceding statements. The most frequent communication means of inserted units with the context are lexical-grammatical ones - pronouns and pronominal adverbs, as well as their combination with categorematic words. Several communication means with the context are used in many inserts.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):34-38
pages 34-38 views

FORMATION OF STUDENTS’ PROFESSIONAL RHETORICAL COMPETENCE IN THE COURSE OF PEDAGOGICAL RHETORIC

Belkina J.A.

Abstract

This paper discusses and analyzes the basic concepts of pedagogical rhetoric, the first of which states that pedagogical rhetoric is a kind of special rhetoric, and its course can solve one of the most important tasks of teacher training - formation of communicative competence. Within this approach the concepts of communicative speech skills and rhetorical skills are understood as identical. The second approach to understanding of pedagogical rhetoric was worked out by A.K. Mihalskaya. In several of her works A.K. Mihalskaya defines the boundaries of the discipline as history and theory of the pedagogical rhetoric ideal. The concept proposed by E.A. Yunina treats pedagogical rhetoric a technology of developmental teaching. Obviously, each of the three concepts does not exclude others. In the paper we consider a system of original assignments for undergraduate students, which includes rhetorical exercises and tasks aimed at the formation of the communicative competence, namely development of communicative speech skills by means of language drill (stage 1), speaking activities (stage 2) and rhetorical tasks (stage 3). The paper outlines prospects of further research: effectiveness of workshops on pedagogical rhetoric in schools; collection of visual aids illustrating teacher-student communication in films and books; holding extracurricular activities on rhetoric such as students’ olympiads, tournaments and contests. The paper summarizes the author's experience in teaching pedagogical rhetoric in the PGSGA and throws light on some of the issues raised by the author at the conference “Rhetoric in the context of education and culture” held on 29-31 January 2015

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):38-41
pages 38-41 views

LITERARY TEXT INTERPRETATION BASED ON THE ANALYSIS OF INTERTEXTUAL CONNECTIONS

Bogdanova (Simakova) E.S.

Abstract

The article shows the role of teaching analysis of the text with regard to its intertextual relations in shaping students’ interpretation activities. Intertextuality refers to the properties of texts to form links between them, through which the texts (or parts of them) may in many diverse ways, either implicitly or explicitly refer to each other. The concept of "intertextuality" can be defined as two types of interaction between texts in the common space of world culture: the interaction between the structures of texts, genres, themes, stylistic features, the interaction of the type "text inside text”: partial inclusion of already known texts in the content of the new text in the form of borrowing, epigraph, imitation, parody, allusion, hint, citations. During intertextual analysis, the researcher finds that the original text in a new text is transformed. Recognition of intertextuality as one of the dominant categories leads to the recognition of the semantic openness of the text, and the necessity of its inclusion in the broader cultural space. On the understanding of the intertextual relations are based to a certain extent, one of the tasks of the Unified state examination; a school leaver should be able to see the common problems of texts and use a reference to his well-known story, the episode, the image of the characters, the author's idea as an argument. Contemporary students’ limited reading horizons do not always let them draw a parallel between the problems of two or more texts, and the study of intertextual relations is not part of literature and Russian language syllabus. The author of the article defines the types of tasks and questions for the planned analysis.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):42-44
pages 42-44 views

METHODS OF STIMULATING STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION TO STUDY RUSSIAN LANGUAGE

Bondarenko M.A.

Abstract

The most important condition in the modern school education is to improve the motivation to study the Russian language. The motivation development mechanisms are considered in the works by Russian methodists and in the works of modern scientists. The author analyzes the modern state of the problem and proposes ways to improve student’s motivation. The base of internal and external motivation to study the Russian language is laid in the early adolescence. The base for efficient forming of motivation are curiosity, resourcefulness, the need of communication with peers, leadership development, individual mindset, creativity, characteristic for this age. It is stressed in the article that the rising motivation methods used by teacher must interact with the test material, comply with the educational goals and tasks, and reflect the correlation of all language elements. Active work forms of pupils at all stages of the lessons are very efficient in stimulating students' interest in the cognitive process. The initial stage of the lesson is particularly important for this. It is recommended to conduct using the intellectual training for overcoming the stereotype mentality. The author details the organization of linguistic training in the form of the game "find the fourth extra word". All the possible answers are analyzed, the correlation of tasks with a specific theme and previously studied material is examined. The offered method of lesson construction assists in developing the creative initiative of students, using the competitiveness, which is important for this age, improving communication skills, regulating the self-esteem during the educational process. All noted things become the important mean of increasing motivation to study the Russian language.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):44-48
pages 44-48 views

REMEDIAL AND DEVELOPING ACTIVITY MANAGEMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

Brazhnik O.Y.

Abstract

This article contains psychological and pedagogical characteristics of children with mental retardation, goals, tasks, principles, contents of remedial and developing activities management in educational institution. Actuality of this article is caused by the fact that the head of modern comprehensive school is faced with the most important problem of creation the favorable environment for the maximum self-realization and development of the each pupil personality. The thesis on effective management in the formation process of personality-oriented adaptive educational environment is particularly relevant in relation to children with developmental disabilities. The present stage of educational modernization is connected with active transition from the totalitarian, unified education system to variable one, from a "school for all" position to a "school for everyone" position. It is provided by the new educational policy focused on education availability, adaptability of its system to the levels and features of development of the trained. This article will be useful for teachers who work in the remedial and developing training, as well as for directors of educational institutions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):48-50
pages 48-50 views

ECOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF SOME FERN SPECIES WHEN INTRODUCTING IN BOTANICAL GARDEN NAMED AFTER PROFESSOR B.M. KOZO-POLYANSKY OF VORONEZH STATE UNIVERSITY

Voronin A.A., Serikova V.I.

Abstract

The article represents the results of studying the introductory stability of some fern species in the regional flora. The scientists worked out special features of cryptogamous reproduction, development and cultivation in Botanical garden named after Professor B.M. Kozo-Polyansky of Voronezh State University. The work shows basic ontogenetic stages of forest fern species: male shield fern Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott. and female spleenwort Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth at their initial developmental stage. The viability scale modified for cryptogamic plants is developing in terms of traditional methods. So the state of the studied species will be assessed during the experiment of their introduction. A number of options are selected for determining the ability of ferns introduction which characterize the general state of plants. Integral estimate of successful fern cultivation is made in the Botanical garden named after Professor B.M. Kozo-Polyansky of Voronezh state university.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):51-55
pages 51-55 views

SUCCESSION OF ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC EDUCATION IN SECONDARY AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS

Gaisin R.I., Saraçoglu Z.

Abstract

This article describes the succession problems of ecological and economic education among students of comprehensive secondary schools and vocational schools. Ecological and economic problems of education were considered in the natural geographic study in out-of-class time in secondary and grammar schools of Kazan. Moreover, those problems were examined in supplementary education establishments of Republican ecological and biological methodical center controlled by Ministry of Education and Science. The author carried out continuous ecological and economic education state monitoring of students in secondary schools of Kazan, Naberezhnye Chelny, Nizhnekamsk and Almetyevsk, Apastovo, Kukmorsk, Leninogorsk, Mamadysh and other municipal districts of Tatarstan. The work on ecological and economic education is conducted through holding elective courses, various sections and associations, scientific societies for students, groups and clubs, ecological camps, school forestries, training and test sites , etc. In educational institutions of secondary and higher vocational education also considerable attention is devoted to the problems of ecological and economic education. Following elective courses and electives have been developed for students of colleges: "Economy and Nature Management", "Ecological and economic features of the region", "Geography and economy of Tatarstan". A variety of elective courses and extracurricular activities of environmental and economic content was introduced to the educational process for students and masters in the institutes and departments of natural science in KVRFU, Naberezhnye Chelny ISPTR, KIFEI, KSTU. For example, such as "Ecological and economic culture", "Ecological and economic features of cities in RT", "Ecological and economic problems of the Volga Federal District "and others.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):55-59
pages 55-59 views

THE CULTURAL GAPS DURING THE TRANSLATION OF LITERATURE FROM RUSSIAN TO TURKISH

Gamze O.

Abstract

Nowadays, the concept and the term "gap" occupy a very important place in comparative cultural studies and intercultural communication. Translation communication is a specific communication, as it is a subject to different languages and cultures. Distinctive national characteristics of each culture always reflect in the language and culture of the national consciousness. When it comes to translation, it can be considered successful if it transfers the unusual specificity for the culture elements in their original, real meaning. Gaps arise in varying degrees when transferring from a mismatch of cultural units bearers of various communities. The main goal of our work is to identify some words denoting specific national realities in the translation of literary works from Russian to Turkish. Cultural gaps sometimes formed during the translation of Russian literature into Turkish by virtue of the presence of elements that are unique to Russian culture, that complicate the perception of a work to read. The article gives examples of works of Russian literature, requiring an interpreter comment. Thus the translation from a source language to a target language words that can be transferred out of the context, in this discourse don’t reach a predetermined target sense and some methods may be used to solve this problem.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):59-61
pages 59-61 views

THE WORD-FACT IN RUSSIAN POETIC military VOCABULARY

Golovanevsky A.L.

Abstract

It is indisputable that individual words and phraseological units have different semantic significance and perform various discursive and context-stylistic functions. From this point of view they differ words-facts, words-events, words-phenomena. Words-facts are such words the denotative nature of which doesn't depend on the context. А word is the central unit of the language system according to the observations of many domestic and foreign linguists. The title of the main linguistic work of V.V. Vinogradov "Russian language (Grammatical doctrine of the word)" is evidence of that. It is there he gives such a statement by Ferdinand de Saussure: "A word is a unit, relentlessly appearing in our mind, something central in the whole mechanism of language." The article is not about a new category of "Fact", analyzed by Y.S. Stepanov, but about those nominations, which denotations express existing or existed realities perceived by the organs of sense. And the same are analyzed key-words of military vocabulary: soldier, fighter, warrior. The study is carried out on the material of the National Corpus of Russian Language. These three words are represented there in 889 documents, 1292 occurrences. Words fighter and warrior as obsolete are rarely used in the poetry of the Soviet period. Soldier, a word of active vocabulary, in the early XIX century competes with the lexeme fighter in the poetry of S.A. Shirinsky-Shikhmatov, Pushkin, Tiutchev, Nekrasov, Yazikov. In the poetry of the XX century, the majority of applications of the word-fact fighter, unlike the XIX century, are used in the plural, and refer to the nameless participants of wars. Traditionally the application fighter in the poetry of XIX-XX centuries characterizes Iskander - Alexander the Great. It should be kept in mind that a word-fact can act as a word-event and as a word-occurrence depending on the situation. But the article does not consider the demarcation signs that serve to the classification of the given applications.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):62-65
pages 62-65 views

MODERN EDUCATIONAL TEXT TECHNOLOGIES

Gorobets L.N., Laykova I.V.

Abstract

This article is devoted to one of the most important problem of modern teaching Russian language methods - the problem of working with the text during the lesson, the holistic perception and understanding of the text i.e. the active/ effective/ semantic reading. The introduction of the new didactic concept “the educational text technologies” to the methodical dictionary of the Modern Russian language teachers is justified. They are defined as the most effective methods and techniques of working with different text genres and styles, developing the ability to perceive, interpret and evaluate the finished texts as well as to make up own ones. The modern science and practice constantly continues searching of the most productive forms, methods, techniques and technologies of education. The search takes place in several directions: activation of prior knowledge (for example, the technology of working with dictionaries) and creating new one (for instance, technologies of concept analysis, lingvocultorological characteristics of the text, project technology, hypertext technology, etc.). The article describes the nature and characteristic of several effective modern educational technologies of the text: rhetorization, conceptual analysis of the word and technology of critical thinking development through reading and writing. The authors emphasized that only a combination of the traditional and modern technologies allows to involve students in various mental, communicative, scientific, artistic and other activities which does not only support the attention of students at a high level, reduces fatigue and strain, improves cognitive interest, but also forms the entire spectrum of universal learning activities of students, expands their view of the world, develops the worldview and personality.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):65-68
pages 65-68 views

THE SEMANTIC OF LEXEME ‘WEATHER’ AT THE SYSTEM OF THE SAMARA REGION DIALECTS

Dolgova E.Y.

Abstract

The article attempts modeling a semantic field 'Weather', which occupies an important place in the dialect space of Samara dialects. The connection of relationship types of polysemy and synonymy with their areal characteristics which was identified in the study is relevant to the general theory of linguistic geography. The cartography of dialectal semantic differences on the materials of the Samara dialects was held for the first time. The study developed a technique of mapping dialect semantic differences in the dialects of the late settlement territories, which is known to be characterized by heterogeneity of the composition and intensity of linguistic processes. In consequence of the formulating questions specificity in Dialectological atlas of Russian language, The results of a survey, conducted in accordance with the "Program of gathering information for the compilation of dialectological atlas the Russian language” in the section" Vocabulary", didn’t allow to carry out a full-scale simulation of the semantic field "Weather" because they do not include all meteonyms functioning in the Samara region. In this connection, the reconstruction of the field at the first stage is limited to the analysis of lexical-semantic variation within the microstructure of polysemantic lexeme “weather” in Samara dialects and actualization of oppositions, in which different word meanings enters. Analysis of the material revealed a hierarchy within the tested semantic field. The common meaning of the lexeme weather ('state of the atmosphere') and its particular hyponymic meanings ​​('good weather', 'bad weather', 'it is snowing') are represented, which correlate with widespread meaning 'clear sunny weather', expressed by a dialect lexeme “fine weather”and generating dense areas in the region territory. Depicted patterns of lexical-semantic variation provide a basis for further theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of the high form variance and word contents in the dialect system.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):68-71
pages 68-71 views

Constructional influence on speech realization of clauses

Drachuk I.V.

Abstract

The paper deals with subordinate clauses in speech. It’s shown that all the prosodic variety can be reduced to several invariants: syntagmatic segmentation of the complex sentence, prosody of the subordinate clause as of a parenthetical insertion and syntagmatic condensation of the clause. The article reveals the importance of prosodic structure for distinguishing between full-fledged subordinate sentences and clauses which function as word-equivalents in English speech. The dependence of semiologically relevant oppositions on constructional patterns is described. Syntagmatic condensation is typical of two-member subject-predicate syntagms, linked with the antecedent by means of the attributive or completive bonds. Modal phrases interpolated into the structure of the main utterance often tend to lose their predicative features in speech. The complex sentence is perceived as simple when the “main” clause functions as a modal syntagm, introductory parenthesis. Syntagmatic condensation is especially evident in such constructions where the clause is part of a prepositional phrase. The prosody of the utterance is closely connected with morphosyntactic peculiarities of the linear structure (colligation) and lexico-phraseological features (collocation), including idiomaticity. On the one hand, idiomaticity refers to the lexico-phraseological features of the word-combinations introducing the clause, on the other, it’s essential for this construction as a specific pattern of English syntax.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):71-75
pages 71-75 views

A LOAN TERM VS A NATIVE ONE

Epimakhova A.Y., Bairamgalin F.G.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the comparative analysis of loan and native terms and to the aspect of their usage in the modern Russian language. Interlingual borrowing of lexical units as a natural process in any language has become their characteristic feature in functioning due to the modern processes in the world (such as economical, political and cultural integration and globalization). Any term system has a high level of structuring, and term formations have regular nature. Thus, exact organization comes to a recipient language along with loan terms. Each microgroup of lexical units tends to be a system in a recipient language. Correspondence to all term standards and consistency and purposefulness can help a native term to occupy its position in the term system of a language. A native term has more chances to be accepted by a lingual group if it is expanded in such a moment when international word or loan term hasn’t covered speech activity of a lingual group. Inner form of native terms, as a rule, has clarity, concept of such terms is known for people. But native terms have disadvantages: due to their long usage in a language and multiple meanings native terms can lead to uncontrolled associations. In many cases preference to loan terms in professional sphere is explained by communicative and pragmatic factors, and also broad productive capacity due to their laconism.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):75-77
pages 75-77 views

FORMATION OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCES IN CONDITIONS OF THE CULTURAL DIALOGUE

Zhestkova E.A.

Abstract

In modern conditions a transition to activity-competency educational model with a leading factor in interpersonal interaction provides to improve the quality of education and abilities of each student disclosure. Under these conditions, the formation of students' intercultural competence gains particular actuality. In this paper we consider the development possibility of pupils’ intercultural competence through the actualization the dialogue between cultures pedagogical potential as a meaningful source of informative interest development and, as a result, rise of the education quality; elective course for students in grades 10-11 "Cultural studies in Germany" submitted. The course program aims to improve communication, social, socio-cultural competencies of students in preparation for cross-cultural communication in the secondary and post-secondary education sphere, future professional activity. The study of this discipline, with no doubt, contributes to the development of universal educational activities; it provides opportunities for using logical methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison, the isolation of essential features, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, classification, systematization, generalization. The course is focused on the development and interiorization of students spiritual and moral values of the studied language country as part of world culture, drawing on the native culture by familiarizing of them and their reproduction in various activities during the mastering the German language; awareness of being part of the international cultural environment; the formation of students' ability to respect the rights and dignity of others, including foreign peers belonging to other cultures; experience of dialogue and joint creative activities with their peers - native German speakers; capacity for cultural dialogue in a foreign language, the ability to live and interact with other cultures in a multicultural and multilingual society; improve the skills of self-regulation of behavior in the German-speaking intercultural communication.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):77-80
pages 77-80 views

DIFFICULTIES WITH THE DATIVE CASE USAGE FACED BY TURKISH STUDENTS LEARNING RUSSIAN

Kadioglu E.

Abstract

As the political, economic, trade and cultural relations develop between Turkey and Russia in recent years, there is a need for the Russian-speaking professionals in Turkey. Those people whose native language is Turkish are faced with some difficulties in the process of learning the Russian language. These difficulties account for the fact that both of the mentioned languages belong to different language families. Russian belongs to the Baltic-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family, while the Turkish language belongs to the branch of the Ural-Altaic family. At the initial stage of learning the Russian language students learn the alphabet and spelling as in block letters and in writing. Difficulties continue with the study of grammar, while difference becomes apparent between the grammar of the Russian language and one of the Turkish language. The problem of mismatch in grammatical forms in the same logical plane are to be solved in the process of teaching Russian language. The dative case usage is one form of such inconsistencies. The article presents the difference between the dative case in Turkish and Russian languages, describes the problems associated with the differences arising in the cases of indicating direction (reference point) in Turkey and in Russia. The author classifies the difficulties associated with studying the dative case. The difficulties appearing in impersonal sentences, difficulties in the use of age categories, difficulties in the use of prepositions and some verbs in Russian. Errors that appear in the process of learning foreign languages are associated with the logic. You must be able to think in the target language, to adapt to the requirements of its use.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):81-83
pages 81-83 views

NOMINATIONS OF A PERSON'S NATIONAL IDENTITY (BASED ON LITERARY WORKS BY N.V. GOGOL AND CH. DICKENS)

Katermina V.V.

Abstract

The article “Nominations of a person’s national identity (based on literary works by N.V. Gogol and Ch. Dickens”) focuses on the description of a person’s ethnic evaluation based on literary works. Representing national-cultural values, on the one hand, and creating their own philosophy, on the other hand, N.V.Gogol and Ch.Dickens embodied both the peculiarities of the national worldview and the individual perception of the environment. Their models of nominations affected the process of naming in their national languages, being reflected in the mentality of Russians and Englishmen. As a unit of analysis nominants were chosen, i.e. free combinations with words-nominations functioning within them, which provide syntagmatic implications of the nominants. Russian and English units of nomination reflecting the ethnic evaluation are analysed. The article notes that qualitative adjectives as well as highlighting specific peculiar traits of different nations were used as means to create an ethnic stereotype in literary works by N.V. Gogol. These nominants were divided into two cycles - describing Ukraine (with the distinctly specified opposition “us” - “them”) and showing St. Petersburg (with a neutral evaluation and pointing out specific character traits of certain nations). The idea of nominants in a literary work showing the perception of typical and specific peculiarities seen by the author is considered to be the basic idea and as a result of the description of a cultural interpretation of image-based units of nomination the conceptual values of these peoples describing their mentality, typical traits of an ethnos can be singled out.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):83-86
pages 83-86 views

PROFESSIONALLY ORIENTED TRAINING COURSE "RUSSIAN LANGUAGE AND SPEECH CULTURE" AS A CONDITION FOR IMPROVING THE SPEECH TRAINING QUALITY OF SPECIALISTS

Koreneva A.V.

Abstract

The article gives a brief analysis of the main conceptual approaches to the content development of the course "Russian language and speech culture" and ways to implement them. It is argued that the process of learning requires the integration of professionally oriented and communicative approaches as an important condition for the effective formation of future specialists’ professionally-communicative competence. It is proved that the communicative and pragmatic aspects are implemented in practice only occasionally, unsystematically, despite the insufficient level of communicative knowledge and skills of students. The author proposes an original methodology of professionally oriented training course "Russian language and speech culture", which is based on interdisciplinary integration as a holistic unity of content (knowledge and skills) and procedural (experience) component, collectively providing active learning. The article emphasizes that effective cooperation of course "Russian language and speech culture" with general professional and special disciplines is achieved by extracting the professionally-communicative educational main body, which includes integrative topics, integrative content and other interdisciplinary educational elements, converging course with the specifics of students’ future profession. Also some of the ways, methods, principles are described, which allow to carry out interdisciplinary integration in the classroom effectually, provide an opportunity to fully realize the metadisciplinary function of the Russian language in higher education and to subdue the process of learning to the communicative needs of future professional activity. It is proved that the implementation of interdisciplinary integration in the University course "Russian language and speech culture" realizes speech training based on the trinity "language-profession-identity", provides synthesis of speech, professional, and intellectual development of students, as well as acquiring knowledge of the future profession values.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):86-90
pages 86-90 views

THE POSSIBILITY OF USING NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING RUSSIAN LANGUAGE IN TURKEY

Kockar R.

Abstract

It is the well-known fact, that the knowledge of one foreign language is not enough in the increasingly globalized world. In spite of the fact that English nowadays is considered as universal language, interest in Russian language increases in many touristic countries and Turkey is not an exception. Swift development of innovative technologies led to the emergence of a new type of education - the distance learning. There are two different basic models of distance education: "British" (asynchronous, individual) and the "American" (synchronous, group). Distance learning can create a system of continuous self-learning, exchange of information regardless of time and location. This is a convenient and effective form of learning. The flexibility of distance education attracts students. Turkey is actively developing the distance education, especially in connection with the opening of the Faculty of Open and Distance Learning at the Anadolu University in 1982. A new kind of communication is very actively used in distance learning in this university - a webinar that improves the quality of education. If distance learning of Russian language uses webinars, the sessions can be conducted in a more common format and feedback. For high-quality distance learning of Russian language needs to use asynchronous and synchronous forms. The ability to use a wide range of materials on individual preferences and availability of distance education shows that in the future it will continue to evolve, changing with the development of new technologies.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):90-92
pages 90-92 views

GRAPHEME FORMATIONS IN THE ADVERTISING SPACE OF PENZA

Lunnova M.G.

Abstract

Graphic non-verbal means are an important aspect in advertising communication. The relevance of the chosen topic was determined by the growth of the advertising business and the need for understanding the advertising names and the fact that the mark of the journalistic texts of Penza are neoplasms created in atypical, non-usual ways with violations of word-formation rules and laws. The aim of the study was to identify the specific use of various techniques of graphicsation in the advertising space in Penza; to determine the communicative successful and unsuccessful grapheme neoplasms on the data basis of the free associative experiment. According to the author, a successful advertising name must have a kind of "flavor" that can attract consumers of goods and services. The creator of the ad name plays a special game with a potential customer for guessing a hidden "secret code" there. However, graphemes, like matryoshkas, hide one or more independent words inside big words. The interweaving of semantic components, resulting from senses compression, creates the effect of multi-level advertising name, each element of which belongs to a specific layer of meaning and affects the subconscious. Word game with graphemes, search for meanings hidden in an unusual lexeme can entertain the consumer, bring him positive emotions. In addition, people try to tell others about the interesting name, that it is very important to secure the nomination in the memory of potential customers. However, too wide use of unusual graphemes leads to unnecessary distortion of the written word form. Therefore, the founders of modern advertising are to consider the advisability of graphical transformations in the commercial name.
Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):92-95
pages 92-95 views

«OUR SINS ARE HEAVY» AS PHRASEOLOGICAL ACTUALISATION OF N.S. LESKOV’S TEXTS

Nosoreva M.I.

Abstract

«An overlooked genius», «a wizard of the wording» - all this is about N.S.Leskov. That is the reputation he gained in the classical Russian literature, that is what he was called by Russian writers. N.S. Leskov had an interesting fate - having gained recognition and attention of his fellow writers, he had to wait far too long for the attention of philologists and linguists. Multilateral study of his work did not begin until second half of the XX century, when such linguists as Viduetskaya I.P., Ledeneva V.V., Aleshina L.V., Golovacheva OA, set themselves the goal of exploring N.S. Leskov’s language, his idiostyle and idiolect. In this paper we consider the functions of phraseology in N.S. Leskov’s article «Our provincial life» («Byrzhevye vedomosty» №49, 1870). The most interesting aspest of the research is the analysis of how through the use of Russian phraseology N.S. Leskov vividly and emotionally expresses his standpoint in relation to many vital problems of the provincial Russian society and tries to identify and point out to the readers the causes of some social disasters like theft, lawlessness, mob law, drunkenness, railroad accidents. Among the phraseological units we analysed there are some expressing temporal semantics, an idiom of biblical origin, a unique proverb, recorded also in the V.I. Dal dictionary, and a few idioms with a pronounced emotional and expressive colouring. The study of N.S. Leskov’s style and language is a promising field of linguistic research which may result in compiling the writer’s vocabulary.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):95-98
pages 95-98 views

DYNAMIC MODEL OF ANALYSIS OF SECTORAL STRUCTURE OF NATIONAL ECONOMIES WITH RAW MATERIAL EXPORT SPECIALIZATION

Perepelkin V.A., Perepelkina E.V.

Abstract

The paper presents economic-mathematical model of analysis of Russian and Norwegian economies sectoral structure dynamics. A comparative analysis of occurred structural changes was performed, proposals for reduction of dependence on raw materials export were made. Structureforming impact of minerals extraction on Russian economy by usage of sectoral division by P-S-T model consists in growth of relative share of primary sector. The process of change of sectoral structure of Norwegian economy over the reviewed period occurred similarly, though intensively. Corresponding sectors of Russian and Norwegian economies have the same dynamics of their shares although deviations from the average in Norwegian economy were more expressed than in Russian. Asymmetry of sectoral growth is evident from inoptimal resource allocation as well as inequality of income distribution. Procedures of management of state incomes from oil export in Russia and Norway are adjusting a process of intersectoral shifts. We identified most strong connection in intersectoral development of economies of Russia and Norway, which is an inverse relationship between primary and tertiary sector shares. Supporting force opposing continuing structural degradation, such as potentially competitive modern industries that are not technologically integrated into the oil and gas extraction and export complex, but are subsidized in the medium-term by its revenues, is a task of the utmost importance for Russian and Norwegian economies.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):98-103
pages 98-103 views

PEROVSKY FAMILY AND RUSSIAN LITERATURE (ORENBURG ASPECT OF THE PEROVSKY FAMILY LIFE AND ACTIVITIES)

Prokofyeva A.G., Ganyukova A.A.

Abstract

To effectively study the development of Russian literature it is important to consider not only literary texts, magazines and newspapers, almanacs, literary circles, but also the lives of writers, artists, cultural workers, their professional relations, as well as to identify the role of certain places in their life and work. This article depicts the life of Russian culture through the life of the Perovsky family in Russia XIX c., it highlights the importance of the contribution of some of the members of the Perovsky family in literature. The paper focuses on A.A. Perovsky (Anthony Pogorelsky), author of romantic novels, the famous fairy tale "The Black Hen, or Underground Dwellers", the creator of the first Russian fantasy novels; and also to the poet, novelist and playwright A.K. Tolstoy (maternally Perovsky), who wrote the "Silver Prince", "History of the Russian state from Gostomysl to Timashev" and numerous romances; Alexander Mikhailovich Zhemchuzhnikov ( Perovsky on the maternal side), one of the creators of the famous literary character Kozma Prutkov, along with A.K. Tolstoy and his brothers Alexey and Vladimir. Particular attention is given to the Orenburg aspect of V.A. Perovsky's life and activity as Orenburg governor, his friendship with the poets V.A. Zhukovsky, A.S. Pushkin, novelist and scholar V.I. Dal, artists - brothers A. and K. Briullovs. The article discusses some facts of V.A. Perovsky’ life reflected in N.V. Gogol's and A.O. Rosset's letters. The author explains L.N. Tolstoy's interest in V.A. Perovsky's personality, who was the prototype for the creation of the image of Pierre Bezukhov (the episode of his captivity) in the novel "War and Peace." This article is based on archival documents, memoirs and epistolary sources.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):103-107
pages 103-107 views

USAGE OF INTERACTIVE TEACHING METHODS AT LESSONS OF THE RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES AS ACTIVIZATION MEANS OF STUDENTS’ COGNITIVE ACTIVITY

Rakhmetova A.T.

Abstract

The usage of interactive teaching methods in the classroom for Russian and foreign languages enables to achieve new opportunities associated with establishing interpersonal interaction by external dialogue in the process of learning. A modern approach to learning should focus on bringing the novelty to the process of learning, due to the peculiarities of the life and work dynamics, the specifics of various learning technologies and the needs of the person, society and the state in developing socially useful knowledge, beliefs, traits, and qualities of character, attitudes, and experience. Today it has become apparent that we need to manage not a person, but the process of his development. The main methodological innovations are associated today with the use of interactive teaching methods. Interactive learning is primarily a dialog learning in which interaction is between teacher and student. The essence of interactive learning is that the learning process is organized in such a way that almost all students are involved in the learning process, they are able to understand and comprehend about what they know and think. Joint activities of students in the learning process, development of educational material mean that each person makes its own special individual contribution, exchange of knowledge, ideas, and ways of activity. Interactive forms of training awaken students ' interest; encourage active participation in the learning process; contribute to effective learning; have a multifaceted impact on students; provide feedback; contribute to change behavior.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):107-110
pages 107-110 views

MODELLING OF THE MOVEMENT OF MANY BODIES ON THE EXAMPLE OF ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS

Ryzhov I.V., Kosova I.S., Vasiliev N.A., Zhukov L.V., Aniskin V.N., Vasilyev A.A.

Abstract

The modern organization of educational process assumes use of computer technologies when training in various disciplines of a natural-science cycle that allows expanding possibilities of a traditional technique of training. In work some ways of use of methods of computer modeling in a school course of astronomy are considered. Application of computer technologies considerably simplifies mathematical apparatus and makes available the solution of problems which analytically are solved not in all higher education institutions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):110-112
pages 110-112 views

FORMATION OF THE MAIN REPRESENTATIONS ABOUT QUANTUM MECHANICS

Ryzhov I.V., Kosova I.S., Vasiliev N.A., Zhukov L.V., Aniskin V.N.

Abstract

Formation of quantum mechanics bases is impossible without acquisition of knowledge and abilities for the solution of the corresponding tasks in this section of theoretical physics. At the same time, the exact solution of tasks is not always possible in quantum mechanics, especially if they are non-stationary and multipartial tasks. Various approximate methods (the theory of perturbations, a variation method, quasiclassical and adiabatic approximations) are developed for the solution of quantum mechanical problems. Sometimes tasks which are studied in a standard course of quantum mechanics can be solved by the one-dimensional equation of Schrödinger, but the division method of variables is, in fact, exclusive, and similar decisions can have special features, which are not characteristic for solutions of a general kind. The quantity of the solution methods applied to this class of problems is limited. In this article it is shown that a number of the main representations of quantum mechanics can be created without preliminary studying of its mathematical apparatus, by use of de Broil waves.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):113-116
pages 113-116 views

THE SOLUTION OF THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL EQUATIONS OF MAXWELL - BLOCH

Ryzhov I.V., Vasilyev A.A., Vasiliev N.A., Kosova I.S., Zhukov L.V., Aniskin V.N.

Abstract

The article gives an attempt of drawing up the algorithm with the conditional name of the differential operator of decisions S ⎷, for calculation of values of net functions R x,t, E x,t, meeting such conditions as: max ||R x,t-R(x,t)||→0, max ||E x,t-E(x,t)||→0, where means the norm of the corresponding quantities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):116-119
pages 116-119 views

THE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL CONDITIONS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF FSES PE IN PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF THE SAMARA REGION "RESPECT OF ADULTS TO THE CHILDREN’S HUMAN DIGNITY, FORMATION AND SUPPORT THEIR POSITIVE SELF-ESTEEM, CONFIDENCE IN THEIR OWN ABILITIES AND OPPORTUNITIES"

Sechkina O.K.

Abstract

There are significant changes in pre-school education in modern conditions. In connection with implementation of the FSES PE the question about the study requirements to psychological-pedagogical conditions for the implementation of the FSES PE. "Respect of adults to the children’s human dignity, formation and support their positive self-esteem, confidence in their own abilities and opportunities" is distinguished as one of important psychological-pedagogical conditions in the Standard FSES PE. The following indicators were selected to study this condition: educator refers to the child affectionately, smiling; educator is attentive to the mood, desires, achievements of the children; the educator encourages children's autonomy; educator welcomes the children’s comments about their thoughts and feelings; the educator encourages children's actions; the teacher blames the child's actions, but not the personality; the reproach is given simultaneously with behavior pattern; educator notes the child’s achievements.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):120-122
pages 120-122 views

THE ROLE OF LINGUISTS KUYBYSHEVA / SAMARA IN CREATING DIALECTOLOGICAL ATLAS OF RUSSIAN LANGUAGE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND REGIONAL ATLAS SAMARA GOVOROV

Skoblikova E.S.

Abstract

The article discusses the role of Kuibyshev as one of the leading centers of large-scale work on the creation of the Academy of Sciences of Russian dialect atlas. Reveals the background of this role in the earlier activity of scientists and professors V.A. Malahovskogo A.N. Gvozdeva. Analyzes the stages of work - from massive expeditionary Survey says to the creation of generalizing linguageographical research throughout the dialect atlas and regional studies. It is characterized by a personal contribution to the work of scientists from different generations - from the pre-war, wartime and the first post-war decades to the present day. Appendix distribution maps dialect forms of pronouns in the European part of Russia show the results of the study linguageographical E.S.Skoblikovoy. The article is accompanied by personal memories of the author - a direct participant dialectological activities - cultural-historical and social conditions of the dialectological work.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):123-127
pages 123-127 views

HISTORY OF TEACHING RUSSIAN LANGUAGE IN TURKEY (CASE STUDY OF ANADOLU UNIVERSITY)

Sonnur A.

Abstract

Constantly evolving political, economic, cultural, sports, trade dialogue between Russia and Turkey implies the existence of Russian-speakers , in varying degrees, in Turkish society. The article traces the history of teaching Russian language in Turkey. This process, which began in the XIX century, developed in the 1980s at Ankara University as an academic activity. It is currently carried out due to the work of a dozen departments, consisting of highly qualified teachers of Russian, implementing the latest methods of teaching Russian language, due to audiences equipped with modern technologies. The major role in training Russian to Turkish students plays the Department of Russian Language and Literature of Anadolu University. The article describes the state of one of the leading departments of Russian language and literature in Turkey on the example of the university. Students learn not only Russian, but also study the Russian literature. Teaching Russian language is carried out by qualified teachers from Turkey as well as from abroad, using various methods of teaching Russian to Turkish students. Modern electronic means of communication make it possible to change the scale and location of the Russian language entry to the world space. This problem is solved by the system of distance education. The international exchange programs for students and teachers «Erasmus» and «Mevlana» successfully operate in the Anadolu University. The need for teachers-experts in Russian language is still preserved in Turkey. In order to increase their number the Higher Education Institution (YÖK) has created a new system called "ÖYP" (program for the young scientists development).

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):128-130
pages 128-130 views

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF EDUCATIONAL SPACE FORMATION IN CONDITIONS OF RURAL SOCIETY (BY THE EXAMPLE OF ULYANOVSK AREA)

Fedorov V.N.

Abstract

In modern conditions of reforming the education system the most urgent task is to move towards innovative forms of organization aimed at creating a single multi-level educational environment. Sociometric space characteristics are determined by the direction and interaction scale of its agents, by the level of their activities coordination, by quality and accessibility of educational services or effectiveness of the necessary conditions created for their receipt. The space has an architectural design - structural and functional structure, which is based on the algorithm of its basic elements formation. Therefore, an important task of social and educational activities within the boundaries of rural society is to create a creative educational environment, supposing the close spatial and temporal relationships between its structural elements when common interests form and methods and techniques for their approval are worked out. Such an approach supposes building a new form of interaction between educational institutions with existing infrastructure facilities in the region, taking into account socio-economic factors of its development. In general, developed models of innovative development of socio-cultural space should be aimed at creating the necessary conditions for comprehensive training of students for independent living, at efficiency rising of socio-educational, teaching, logistical and financial resources of rural educational institutions at different levels of their organization, at production of effective mechanisms for implementation of management decisions. Formation of educational space of the Ulyanovsk region takes into account the main trends and the needs of socio-economic development of the region and it is considered as an innovative potential of society. Formation of the open, flexible and accessible education system of the area comes under the implementation of state policy aimed at the preservation, accumulation of cultural and spiritual values of the people living on its territory.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):131-135
pages 131-135 views

ARTISTIC WORKS OF WRITERS FROM PENZA REGION AS A SOURCE OF DIALECT INFORMATION

Shuvalov I.F.

Abstract

The article considers the artistic works of writers, natives of the Penza region in order to find dialect vocabulary. Dialects, microtoponyms, anthroponyms learned from those works can serve as an additional material for the preparation of regional dictionaries. Use of dialectisms in works of art has always aroused great interest. Researchers give attention to the appropriateness of their use, understandability-obscurity, the frequency of use, and different ways of introducing them into a literary context. In addition to these goals, literary works may be of great interest also as a source of dialectal information on a particular region. Dialectal words can designate certain local realities, household items, etc. which are not known in popular language, or be equivalents of verbose concepts in literary language. The value of this information lies in the fact that they reproduce the dialect features of the patois of those times, that are described in the work. Moreover, in these works there are many unusual anthroponyms (names, surnames, nicknames), microtoponyms and other local names of herbs, mushrooms, etc. of interest to linguists. All this can serve as a good material for the preparation of regional, including dialectal, dictionaries. The degree of frequency of dialectal information in such works may be different. It depends upon the theme of the work, the characters portrayed, goals that the author the author set, the writer’s skill, and so on. This information can be expressed by single words or represent a broad picture of dialectal phenomena that can be used to reproduce a significant part of the linguistic characteristics of the patois.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):135-137
pages 135-137 views

EARLY READING AND WRITING INSTRUCTION IN TURKEY

Emel G.A.

Abstract

Reading and writing are among the language skills which individuals gain formally after family education in the process of acquiring a mother tongue. The methods and techniques which are used in the process of reading and writing instruction underlie the efficient future use of mother tongue and adaptation to knowledge and information era. In the study conducted within this context, the short history of early reading and writing instruction in mother tongue which is given in the first year of primary education in Turkey is explained and the Early Reading and Writing Instruction Curriculum which is currently in effect is introduced.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):138-140
pages 138-140 views

FEATURES OF FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS’ RESEARCH COMPETENCE IN THE COURSE OF HIGHER MATHEMATICS IN A TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Enbom E.A., Ivanova V.A.

Abstract

Modern production poses challenges whose solution requires well-developed research skills.Thus, graduates must not only possess the necessary set of basic and special knowledge, but also be able to timely adapt to the dynamics of the environment, continually upgrade their skills, possess a certain degree of creativity to solve practical problems. The experience of colleges and universities proves conclusively that an effective way of improving the quality of training is to involve students in well-organized, methodically thought-out research work, provided it is closely related to the educational process and the students’ future profession. The paper deals with one of the most important and promising learning activities - students’ research carried out under the guidance of a teacher. The objective is to encourage students to use their creative abilities, participation in the university research activities, and, eventually, improvement of the quality of higher education. The article gives an example of students’ independent work enhancing their research skills. It is a project on the use of integral calculus methods in solution of applied problems. Its implementation is assumed to deepen and systematize the knowledge in mathematical analysis in general and in triple integrals in particular. Students were assigned to solve problems of the calculation of volume, static moments, moments of inertia, center of gravity coordinates of the spatial body, problems of finding the vector flow through a closed surface.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):140-144
pages 140-144 views

DEVELOPMENT OF VERBAL PREDICTING SKILLS WHILE TEACHING CHINESE COLLEGE STUDENTS RUSSIAN AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

Yanchenko V.D., Liu Qian -.

Abstract

This article discusses the possibilities of the development of verbal predicting skills in teaching Chinese students Russian as a foreign language through a variety of activities: exploratory and creative. The use of the communication principle is a priority in modern teaching. Communication is a leading didactic principle on the basis of which it is possible to effectively teach students communication in a foreign language, in our case in Russian. The principle of communication is important in the selection of the content of teaching Russian as a foreign language. Implementation of speech activities requires highly automatized pronunciation, lexical and grammatical skills. The process of mastering speech activity is clearly seen in the ability of students to engage in real communication and to use the necessary communicative strategies. Prediction in teaching Russian as a second language is divided into two types: verbal (suggesting verbal hypotheses) and semantic (anticipation of material at the level of content). Prediction is a component of the student's performance in listening and reading. In order to develop predicting skills the students should be encouraged to do specially designed exercises. Well-developed mechanisms of verbal prediction facilitate successful formation of the Chinese students’ Russian speaking and writing skills, enable them to build statements not only by analogy, on the reproductive level, but also original utterances, with elements of creativity. The results obtained by the authors are indicative of the fact. Effectiveness is largely dependent on the quality of prior (dispersed or focused) training.

Samara Journal of Science. 2015;4(1):145-147
pages 145-147 views

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