Vol 6, No 4 (2017)

03.02.00 – General Biology

Peculiarities of in vitro parthenogenesis of unpollinated maize ovaries

Alatortseva T.A.


The maize line AT-1 is characterized by a hereditary predisposition to parthenogenesis. The aim of this investigation is to study parthenogenetic embryo development in the culture of unpollinated ovaries in vitro. The unpollinated ovaries were explanted in 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 days after the appearance of stigmas from ears. The nutrient medium included mineral components of MS, vitamins, sucrose (9,0%), 2,4-D (2,0 mg/l), agar-agar. The structure of megagametophytes at the time of inoculation of the ovaries and on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21th, 28th day of cultivation was studied. The first divisions of unfertilized egg cells were observed on the 5th–7th day after appearance of stigmas from ears, independently from whether all this time the ovaries were on the mother plant or they were inoculated into the nutrient medium. The formation of the autonomous abnormal endosperm in some cultivated ovaries was detected. The abnormal endosperm disturbed normal development of the proembryo. As a rule, the ovaries with embryo and endosperm degenerated. In the absence of endosperm, the morphogenesis of parthenogenetic proembryos was carried out in one of two directions in vitro: 1) development of plants by direct embryogenesis; 2) regeneration of plants from numerous embryoids, raised on the surface of globular proembryos. The second direction was prevailed. The culture of unpollinated ovaries can be a promising method of mass haploid regenerants not only in maize, but also in other types of agricultural plants.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):10-13
pages 10-13 views

Bryophytes of the Krasnosamarsky forest

Bogdanova Y.A.


51 species were identified from 2 departments (Marchantiophyta and Bryophyta), 4 classes (Haplomitriopsida, Jungermannopsida, Polytrichopsida, Bryopsida), 11 orders, 28 families and 39 genera during the long-term (from 2010 to 2012 and from 2015 to 2017) studies of bryophytes from the main types of plant communities in the Krasnosamarsky forest (Samara Region). Leading families (Pylaisiaceae, Brachytheciaceae, Amblystegiaceae, Dicranaceae, Orthotrichaceae, Bryaceae, Mniaceae) account for 56,9% of the total studied bryoflora in the forest. 46 species (90,2%) were found in forest communities, 36 species (70,6%) in deciduous forests and 25 (49%) – in coniferous (pine and spruce), 9,8% bryoflora noted at the meadow and steppe sites. 32 species (62,7%) of bryophytes grow on the soil, 24 species (47,1%) – on the bark of trees, 18 species (35,3%) – on decaying wood and 3 species (5,9%) – on anthropogenic substrate. Ecomorphic analysis showed that mesophytes (37,3%) and mesotrophs (35,3%) prevail in the Krasnosamarsky forest. Geographic analysis showed that 41,4% of bryophytes refer to boreal flora.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):13-18
pages 13-18 views

Red wood ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) influence on the spatial distribution of small mammals in the conditions of the Volga Upland

Boryakova E.E., Melnik S.A.


The paper presents the results of research devoted to the study of the spatial interaction of small mammals and red wood ants. The aim of the research was to learn the ants Formica aquilonia Yarr. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) influence on the spatial structure of Micromammalia populations in the Conifer-Deciduous Forests of the Volga Upland. Trapping of mammals was carried out with traps Gero, geobotanical descriptions were made according to standard methods; the package Statistica 6.0 was used for results processing. It was revealed that mouse-like rodents did not avoid ant-trails despite the fact of the ants disturbance factor. It’s presumably due to vegetation in the vicinity to anthills, the climate and the conditions created with the plants. The obtained results by the distribution of micromammalia burrows in the space allow us to speak about 2 groups of small mammals with different ecological strategy: «gravitating» which is near the ant-trails and anthills and «careful» which settle over a distance. The group «core» are probably individuals of the dominant species such as bank vole (Cletrionomys glareolus) and pygmy field mouse (Apodemus uralensis). The interaction of small mammals and ants in the mixed forests of the Volga Upland are mediated, apparently, with the influence of vegetation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):18-23
pages 18-23 views

Ecological features and species diversity of epiphytic myxomycetes (Myxomycetes) on an ordinary pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the forest-steppe and steppe zones of the southeast of Western Siberia

Vlasenko A.V., Vlasenko V.A.


The species diversity and taxonomic structure of myxomycetes of the epiphytic-corticoid complex has been studied in pine forests on the Pinus sylvestris. The study area is located in the Asian part of Russia, in the southeast of the West Siberian Plain. Species diversity has been revealed using the classical method of «moist-chambers», based on the presence in the life cycle of mucus staggering stages – microcysts and sclerotia, from which, under certain favorable conditions, plasmodium and, later, fruit bodies – sporocarpas may appear in the Petri dish. We selected 720 packages for the installation of «moist-chambers» between 2008 and 2016 in the study area. The experiments with «moist-chambers» were performed between 2008 and 2017. We received 361 samples of the myxomycetes. A sample is a colony of sporocarpas derived from a single plasmodium. As a result of taxonomic identification we received 28 species of Myxomycetes belonging to 5 orders, 7 families, and 13 genera on the pine bark. It is noted that 6 species of Myxomycetes develop on the pine bark, absent in the area of the study on the bark of other tree species – Echinostelium fragile, Paradiacheopsis rigida, Physarum auriscalpium, Ph. mutabile, Stemonaria nannengae, Willkommlangea reticulata.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):23-27
pages 23-27 views

Ecological characteristics of edificators and assectators of the southern taiga forests of the Chelyabinsk Region

Getmanets I.A., Moskvina I.V., Artemenko B.A.


The following paper deals with the phytoindication of ecotopes of spruce forests on the western slope of Mount Lipovaya within the territory of the Kusinsky District. This phytoindication was made on the basis of D.N. Tsyganov’s ecological scales and with the help of «EcoScaleWin» computer software. The cenotic properties of species are estimated by their abundance in typical communities; limiting factors, ecological valence and tolerance are determined; the degree of use of ecological potencies and the efficiency of development of ecological space are estimated and the aggregate parameters of habitats are described. The vertical structure and composition of spruce stands are estimated, it is shown that Picea obovata is noted in all tiers, where Betula pendula and Pinus sylvestris are also present, but their numbers range from 10–20% of the total number of individuals in the study area. The unevenness of the distribution of the stand is noted. The ratio of the species of eco-and-coenotic groups is analyzed and it is shown that in the communities the species of the boreal and boron groups are predominated, the nemoral and meadow (including tall grass) groups contribute significantly, a small percentage belongs to the non-forest group species (wetland and plurizonal). Biomorphological analysis revealed that the life form is stable, it is represented by a single-stem tree with different shape of the crown, which indicates the different ages of Siberian spruce. The investigated phytocenosis is attributed to the late succession communities, the late stage of restorative succession, because the dominant is a typically competitive species. The research materials can serve as a basis for plant communities and coenotic populations monitoring, for identifying of the potential species richness of phytocenoses.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):27-32
pages 27-32 views

Diversity of cultivated heterotrophic bacteria selected from surface waters of the Vostok Bay of the Japanese Sea

Golozubova J.S., Buzoleva L.S., Bogatyrenko E.A., Kim A.V., Eskova A.I.


In this article, the taxonomic diversity of cultivated heterotrophic microorganisms of the surface waters of Bay Vostok of Peter the Great Bay of the Japan Sea was considered. In the bay Vostok total number of heterotrophic microorganisms was 2,03–10⁵ КОЕ/ml which can be attributed to mezazoprobnye sea water. Microorganisms isolated from this coastal area are represented by 4 phylums. The cultivated microorganisms were dominated by representatives of the phylum Proteobacteria, which accounted for more than 50% of the total taxonomic diversity of the cultivated bacteria of the Vostok Bay. Phylums of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were also isolated. The taxonomic diversity of microbial community was represented by 15 genus. Based on the phenotypic characteristics, cultured heterotrophic bacteria was classified into the genera Rhodococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Actynomycetes sp., Bacillus sp., Sarcina sp., Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp., Arthrobacter sp., Vibrio sp., Halomonas sp., Flavobacterium sp., Acetobacter sp., and Marinococcus sp., Pseudoalteromonas sp., Aeromonas sp., Staphylococcus sp. Sanitation-indicative bacteria in this bay were not identified, which indicates a slight anthropogenic impact. Thus bay Vostok was really insignificant recreational stress and it was reflected on marine microbial community.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):32-35
pages 32-35 views

Flora of the Student Square of Cheboksary of Chuvash Republic

Dimitriev Y.O.


Student Square was opened on September 1, 2007 at the intersection of the busy Moscow Avenue and K. Ivanov Street. The total area is 2,5 hectares. The predominant tree species are Tilia cordata Mill., Betula pendula Roth and Acer platanoides L. In 2016, the first inventory of the square flora was carried out, 94 plant species from 79 genera and 37 families were identified. Pinopsida are represented by 4 cultivated introducents. Only 6 species from the Poaceae are monocotyledons. The systematic diversity of the flora is very low. Virtually every genus is represented by only one species. The average level of species wealth in one family is 2,54. The number of families with one species is 21 (56,8%). The top ten in the number of species families are concentrated by 63,8% of the species. The spectrum of the leading families of the flora of the Student Square indicates its thermophilic appearance. The share of synanthropic species in the flora as a whole is 53,2%. The index of synanthropization (Is) of the square flora is 1,14 and emphasizes the anthropogenic nature of the landscape. The aboriginal fraction of the flora is strongly altered (Is = 0,48). In the ecologo-cenotic spectrum, there is a preponderance towards plants of open habitat types, among which weed species predominate (34%), among which 4 are malignant invasive species: Acer negundo L., Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq., Lepidotheca suaveolens (Pursh) Nutt., Xanthoxalis stricta (L.) Small. On the second place is a group of meadow plants (16%). The distribution of other coenotic groups in general is consistent with the regional spectrum of the flora of Chuvashia. The hygromorph spectrum is dominated by mesophytes (71,3%), followed by xeromesophytes (16%), the share of the remaining groups varies from 1,1 to 6,4%. The trofomorph spectrum is dominated by mesotrofs (62,8%) and megatrofs (36,2%). Aliens fraction is 30,9% of the square flora. 17 species (58,6%) are cultivated introducents, and the rest – weed plants. Kenophytes (75,9%) predominate, ergasiophytes and ergasiofigophytes (24,1% each), epekophytes and agrio-epekophytes (65,5%), North American (31%) and Iranian-Turanian (20,7%) species.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):35-41
pages 35-41 views

Structure features of Artemisia salsoloides Willd. (Asteraceae) coenotic populations in the Samara Region

Zenkina T.E., Ilina V.N.


Artemisia salsoloides Willd. (Asteraceae) is included in the Red Books of Russia and various regions, including the Samara Region. It is characterized by a narrow confinement to the ecological and phytocenotic conditions of habitats. We studied the structure of the populations of the species. Traditional stationary methods for cenotic populations study were used. The spatial structure was estimated using modern mathematical methods, calculation of K (r) Ripley functions and Ripley cross-functions was performed. The phytogenic fields of species that grow together with A. salsoloides are characterized. The research area includes the Samara Predvolzhye and Samara Zavolzhye region. In the averaged age spectrum, the predominant group is the mature generative group, which is slightly inferior in number to the old generative fraction. The features of the spatial distribution of A. salsoloides in the population of Sernovodsky Shihan (Sergievsky District of the Samara Region) are studied. Here Artemisia is dominant in the community Artemisia salsoloides Willd. + Hedysarum grandiflorum Pall. – Stipa korshinskyi Roshev. The density of A. salsoloides in the studied coenopopulation is 1,7 individuals per 1 m². Pregenerative individuals are randomly distributed. The generative individuals repel each other for a distance of 0,2 m, followed by random placement. There is a tendency to form aggregations of 0,6 m. The estimation of the mutual placement of A. salsoloides and Stipa korshinskyi, as well as Oxytropis floribunda, indicates a slight repulsion of individuals at a distance of 0,2 m, with Hedysarum grandiflorum – a significant repulsion at a distance of 0,4 m with the subsequent random placement of all representatives. The specimens of A. salsoloides and Ephedra distachya, as well as Scabiosa isetensis, have a random placement.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):41-47
pages 41-47 views

The flora peculiarities of the Melekess-Stavropol physiographic region

Ivanova A.V., Kostina N.V., Lysenko T.M., Kozlovskaya O.V.


We publish the results of a three-stage study of the floristic heterogeneity of the Melekess-Stavropol physiographic region located on the territory of the Samara and Ulyanovsk Regions. The area belongs to the forest-steppe zone of the Trans Volga Lowland and occupies the area of 7,7 thousand km². Based on the analysis of family spectra, originality of the flora of the region we show the comparison of Soksky and Irgiz physiographic regions of the Samara Trans Volga. At the first stage of the research we consider the internal heterogeneity of the region, changes in the species composition of the flora along a two-sided latitudinal gradient. For this, the course of the curve, reflecting the accumulation of the number of species with an increase in area, has been studied. The accumulation curves of the number of species aligned in both directions showed three stages of an increase in the number of species, indicating the species heterogeneity of the area. The study of the position of the leading families, depending on the size and geographical position of the floristic sample, shows the heterogeneity of the studied Melekess-Stavropol region by the flora type, which is determined by the third term of the first triple of the family spectrum. At the second stage, four floral groups (floristic samples) are analyzed, which are geographically isolated at the first step. A comparison is made of the isolated groupings at the head of the family spectra using the fraction of the family in the flora and the number of species in the family. The third stage includes a comparison of the selected floral groups of the Melekess-Stavropol physio-geographical region according to the Preston index. Taking into account the existing numerical threshold of 0,27, above which the samples should be considered as different floras, it is possible to speak of the presence of four different floras on the territory of the studied area.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):47-53
pages 47-53 views

The study of burdock blossoms (Asteraceae: Arctium) entomofauna in the Yelabuga District of the Republic of Tatarstan

Leontyeva I.A.


The paper deals with the study of burdock blossoms (Asteraceae: Arctium) in the Yelabuga District of the Republic of Tatarstan where they are one of the most common species among the Compositae plants. They are mostly ruderal weeds, growing usually in waste places (abandoned orchards, wastelands, ravines, roadsides, river banks, dumps, walls of houses and fences, etc.). Some representatives of this genus are also found in the floodplain forests, sparse deciduous forests, clearings, forest edges. The paper presents some results of study of species composition and population structure of phytophagous insects, developing in inflorescences of four species of burdock (Arctium tomentozum, Arctium minus, Arctium lappa, Arctium nemorosum) on the territory of Yelabuga District of the Republic of Tatarstan. Seven experimental sites were examined, their total area is 1,0 hectares. The basic research was conducted during the spring-summer period in 2015–2017 at the time of active flowering plants. There were three kinds of flies-petrotrak (Diptera: Tephritidae), one kind of flies-Midge (in Russian spp.), one kind of beetle-weevil (Curculionidae) and one species of moth (Gelechiidae).

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):53-57
pages 53-57 views

Ecological condition of the small rivers Ik and Syun in the Sharansky District of the Republic of Bashkortostan

Nafikova E.R., Islamova A.A.


Currently the negative impact of man on aquatic ecosystems is very noticeable. This, in the final analysis, was reflected in the change in the hydrological regime of rivers and lakes. Environmental conditions in many water bodies deteriorated sharply. There are also acute exacerbations of water management situations, deterioration of water use conditions due to the lack of scientifically based principles of nature management in the catchment area, and quantitative and qualitative depletion of water resources due to the combined impact of various sectors of the national economy The ecological state of water bodies largely depends on external influences, the magnitude of which should not exceed the permissible limits. In this case, the ecosystem maintains its stability. The paper deals with the assessment of the ecological state of rivers and their resistance to polluting effects, in particular, an assessment of the quality of the water of the Ik and Syun rivers in the Sharansky District of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Physico-chemical and organoleptic analyses of the rivers have been carried out. The research was conducted in September-May 2016-2017. The analysis of the water was carried out in the analytical laboratories of the Tuimazy inter-district branch of the FBU «Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Republic of Bashkortostan». The water quality in the river was estimated using the Mayer index.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):57-61
pages 57-61 views

Individual aspects of Takydromus wolteri and Takydromus amurensis biology

Portniagina E.Y., Maslova I.V.


The paper presents information regarding specific aspects of reproduction and nutrition of two poorly studied lizard species of genus Takydromus (Takydromus wolteri and Takydromus amurensis) in the north-eastern part of their habitat (Primorskiy Krai, Far East, Russia). The material given in the publication was collected both in natural and laboratory conditions. Data related to quantity as well as size of eggs and juveniles (right after their birth) are presented. The joint clutch of several female of T. amurensis was found for the first time and contained 30 eggs. For the first time the incubation period has been reported for these species that inhabit Russian territory (T. amurensis – 44–56 days, T. wolteri – 42–44). Date of escape from eggs has been revealed for T. wolteri to be earlier than given in literature and occur on second decade of August. Cline dependence of morphometric and reproductive parameters have been dealt. Both species have been shown to prefer the following invertebrates as meal in lab conditions – Aranei, Geophilomorpha, Lithobiomorpha, Tenebrionidae (larve), Muscidae, Ectobiidae и Gryllidae. New information regarding nutritional behavior is provided for T. wolteri and T. amurensis in terrarium conditions. Both species use various traits to kill and to eat the catch based on the group to which the invertebrate is related. It has been shown empirically that juveniles of T. amurensis can eat meal right in 2–3 hours after their escape from the eggs.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):61-66
pages 61-66 views

Recovery of the bird population within pine forests after the catastrophic fires in 2010

Sorokina J.A., Boryakova E.E.


Process of bird population restoration after fires was investigated in two protected areas in the Volga river basin in central Russia. Anthropogenic pressure in Kerzhensky and Mordovsky nature reserves is very low, it made possible to discover some characteristics of the process of bird population restoration in reference environment. The counts were carried out both in the affected areas of the reserves, and in unaffected parts. The studied area was in its five year after the fire. Dynamics of post fire bird population restoration and its dependence on both the age and history of the original ecosystems were investigated. The authors present the results of dominant species analysis and information about their distribution in the investigated natural reserves. The authors show peculiarities and proportions of ecological groups of birds in the studied territories as well as their proportion. The influence of hydrological parameters on bird communities composition was investigated, it turned out that post fire partial inundation leads to increase of waders of Gallinago and Tringa genera. Species diversity of bird communities in affected areas was considered. Using Pielou’s index it was found that species evenness remained relatively high, i.e. no significant increase of dominance was observed after the fires. The authors analyzed the composition of ornitocomplexes in terms of different faunistic groups.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):66-71
pages 66-71 views

Ontogenetic variability of morphological characters of Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. on different species of trees in different ecological conditions

Suetina Y.G.


The current paper is about the morphological characters variability of the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri. The studies were conducted on the territory of the Mari El Republic in the flooded lime-tree forest of the Bolshaya Kokshaga river. The thalli of E. prunastri of different ontogenetic states (v₁, v₂, g₁v, g₂v, g₃v, ss) were collected on Tilia cordata, Padus avium, Quercus robur at a stem height of 0,5 to 2 m and on Abies sibirica branches at heights of 3–4 m, 5–6 m, 7–8 m. Tilia cordata is the most favorable substrate for the development of E. prunastri thalli for most of its characters. The character of the thallus development (the length of the thallus) is minimal in Padus avium. The characters of death (the number of dead branches, the length of the cortex blackening area) are maximal on Padus avium, which indicates more accelerated aging processes of the thallus in this phorophyte. The thallus of E. prunastri, which grows on the branches of Abies sibirica, has the largest lengths at heights of 3–4 and 5–6 m in comparison with the height of 7–8 m. At higher altitudes, longer soralia are formed, hence, more soredia are formed. The values of most characters of E. prunastri, which grows on the right bank of the Bolshaya Kokshaga river are bigger than on the left bank, which is due to differences in the lighting of habitats. The length of the soralia on the right bank (the best lighting) is more in Quercus robur than in Tilia cordata. The variability of morphological characters is manifested in different ways in different ontogenetic states.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):71-76
pages 71-76 views

Assessment of oil companies impact on the ecological status of surrounding area soils

Sultanova M.I., Shmelev N.A., Islamova A.A.


The paper analyzes the study results of the soil layer on the territory of oil and gas companies. Assessment of anthropogenic impact of oil on key chemical and biological parameters of soil is given on the basis of experimental research on the territory of the enterprise. The objects of the study was background (uncontaminated) and contaminated soil. The impact of oil pollution in natural conditions was studied by means of mapping properties of contaminated soils with their background counterparts. Soil cover is the main element of the landscape – the first assumes the «environmental impact». Because of mechanical disturbance and chemical pollution there is a gradual degradation of the soil, which has become one of the major environmental problems of oil and gas complex. The research was conducted in April–May 2017. The analysis shows that the morphological characteristics of the soil have changed significantly. The analysis of the soil phytotoxicity shows a high degree of soil phytotoxicity. The percentage of humus is less than the average content in the upper soil horizon. The analysis of the chemical composition shows a relatively low level of soil contamination with heavy metals, the exception was the concentration of cadmium and cobalt. The oil content does not exceed the MPC.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):76-79
pages 76-79 views

Assessment of deciduous trees state and phyllophagous composition in Yoshkar-Ola

Turmuhametova N.V.


This paper presents the results of long-term observations of the state of plantations of Betula pendula Roth and Tilia cordata Mill. in Yoshkar-Ola. Assessment of trees state was carried out by morphological analysis of the leaf blade, since the plant’s assimilation organs are most exposed to atmospheric toxicants, attacks of insects and pathogenic microorganisms. Based on the assumption that pollutants affect directly phytophages or through the forage resource, the species composition of the phyllophagous insects and mites was studied in the gradient of the increase in industrial transport emissions. Morphological changes in leaves and an increase in the area of damage in the pollution gradient are described. In this case, the area of the leaf blade can both increase in B. pendula, and decrease in T. cordata. Determination of the arachnoentomological material and the establishment of herbivorous insects and mites for characteristic lesions made it possible to describe in the crowns of B. pendula 84 dendrobiotic species, T. cordata – 100 species. Among the phyllophagous there are gnawing and sucking leaves, miners and gall producers. The representatives of Coleoptera predominate. Under environmental conditions, the proportion of arthropods that are monophages and form protective devices increases. Under the conditions of the urban ecosystem, a decrease in the variety of phyllophages was revealed, but an increase in the relative abundance of the most protected species Aphidoidae (Homoptera), Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Eriophyidae (Acarina). The calculation of the number of insects per unit volume of the crown was carried out. As a bioindicative indicator of the quality of habitat, it is suggested to use the state of tree leaves, the diversity and relative abundance of insects and mites of phyllophages.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):80-84
pages 80-84 views

Structure of the ecological framework of the Sviyaga River basin

Frolov D.A.


In the following paper the author considers his own ecological framework of the Sviyaga River basin (the right tributary of the Volga River), which was created on the basis of a long-term study of the flora of vascular plants of a natural nature department located in the central part of the Volga Upland. The floristic and geobotanical description of the key areas – the nuclei in the structure of the river basin framework is given, with the justification of the reasons for their isolation and reduction of the rare species of vascular plants of the basin flora that betray the significance of the study area. The author briefly describes corridors and buffer zones in the structure of the ecological framework; they represent continuous linear structures and serve as a kind of bridge for the migration of biological species between the core nuclei. In addition to the cores, corridors and buffer zones in the basin of the Sviyaga River the author identified promising areas (in the number of 7) – reserves of rare and protected plant species. The paper provides information on the existing system of protected areas of the research and perspective sites recommended for inclusion in the network of existing protected areas of the Ulyanovsk Region and the Republic of Tatarstan, in order to preserve the floristic diversity of the region. The presented ecological framework will create good prerequisites for preserving of the biodiversity of the region and contributes to maintaining of the natural potential of the Sviyaga River basin.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):84-87
pages 84-87 views

Larvae of Ephemeroptera group as bioindicators of water quality of the South Ural rivers

Chaus B.Y.


The paper contains the analysis of a possibility to use green drakes larvae of Ephemeroptera group for bioindicator researches during environmental monitoring of the South Ural rivers. Collection and analysis of types constancy of green drakes larvae was carried out in 2005 to 2016 in 17 state water posts on the territory of the South Ural rivers. As chemical characteristics the author used the index of content of compounds of manganese, nickel and iron, oil products, phenols, nitrogen ammonium, coppers, zinc, chemical oxygen consumption (COC), biological oxygen consumption in 5 days (BOC₅), sulfates, chlorides, nitrite nitrogen in river waters. In total constancy dynamics of 13 species larvae of mayflies was analyzed. The author has made a list of constant, additive and casual types of representatives of Ephemeroptera group. Significant correlative dependences between constancy of larvae of species of mayflies with a number of hydrochemical indexes are revealed statistically. The paper contains regression models for the constancy forecast of larvae of green drakes depending on concentration of the pollutant.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):87-93
pages 87-93 views

Biogeochemical characteristics of parks and public gardens in Rostov-on-Don

Shishkina D.Y.


The distribution of heavy metals and arsenic in the soils and leaves of the locust in the parks and squares of Rostov-on-Don was studied. 81 samples of soil and 30 samples of leaves were selected in 13 parks of the city. To determine the concentrations of elements, we used the approximate-quantitative and atomic-absorption analyses. For all elements, the concentration coefficient was calculated, as well as the hazard factor representing the multiplicity of exceeding the MAC or AAC. The total pollution index (Zc), which is the sum of the excess concentrations of individual elements above the background level, was used to characterize complex pollution. When comparing the average concentrations of metals and arsenic with the natural pedogeochemical background, a geochemical association is revealed: Cu₂ˏ₅Zn₂ˏ₃Pb₁ˏ₈V₁ˏ₃Hg₁ˏ₃Ni₁ˏ₂Cd₁ˏ₂, typical of Rostov-on-Don soils. Weakly local pollution of soils of parks and squares with zinc, copper, vanadium and lead was revealed. The most common pollutant is zinc, for which the highest excess of AAC is characteristic. Pollution of the soil cover of recreational areas is assessed as permissible. With the passage of time, the concentration of zinc decreases and the concentrations of copper and vanadium increase in the soils of park landscapes. There has been increasing biological absorption by the leaves of the locust copper and molybdenum.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):93-98
pages 93-98 views

Modeling of fungal mycelium growth by fourth-class continuous stochastic cellular automaton with continuously defined growth conditions

Shumilov A.S., Blagodatsky S.A.


The aim of this work was to simulate the growth and spatial structure of the fungal mycelium using a cellular automaton based on the synthesis of various model approaches. The spatial structure of the mycelium is described in the structural submodel of the cellular automaton, which determines the growth rate in the direction of larger resource amount and the number of branches of the mycelium per area unit. The amount of available substrate determines the probability of unidirectional apical growth. Another, biochemical part of the model allows us to describe the rate of transport of resources into the cell, their transport within the mycelium, and also their excretion, and is intended to describe the vertical and horizontal migration in the soil of two nutrients. The proposed model makes it possible to quantitatively describe such a feature of fungal colony growth as more active absorption of resources by external cells, compared to central ones due to separation of transport resources into active and passive resources. The active transport was described using the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. We were able to simulate the stockpiling of surplus resources and their redistribution over the mycelium after the exhaustion of reserves in the external environment, and also to simulate typical growth patterns of mycelial colonies that were observed in experiments published in the literature.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):98-102
pages 98-102 views

Current state and forecast of changing hydrobiont communities in the construction zone of the Nizhny Novgorod low-pressure hydrounit

Shurganova G.V., Okhapkin A.G., Gavrilko D.E., Vodeneeva E.L., Kudrin I.A., Puhnarevich D.A., Nizhegorodcev A.A., Gelashvili D.B.


The authors of the paper think that it is necessary to study the structural and functional changes of hydrobiocenoses in case of river runoff regulation and new reservoir creation to make competent, ecologically correct management decisions. The widespread use of the analogy method for the ecological forecasts of reservoirs state is shown. At the present time, the issue of diagnostics of ecological systems which falls into the zone of impact of the planned construction of the Nizhny Novgorod low-pressure hydrounit (NNPG) in the river hydraulics zone of the Cheboksary water reservoir has been actualized. The authors characterize the current state of the species structure of phyto-, zooplanktonocenosis and zoobenthocoenoses of this zone, including species richness, the ratio of quantitative indicators of the main systematic groups and dominant species. The paper shows hydrobiocenoses formation sources and types of anthropogenic impact on them. The authors forecast changes in the structural and functional characteristics of the communities of hydrobionts of the «Sormovsky» reservoir, taking into account the expected ecological situation after the construction of the Nizhny Novgorod low-pressure hydrounit, including the main limiting factors. As an analogue of a new reservoir, the Cheboksary reservoir in the first years of its existence was chosen. The possibility of spreading new invasive species (Kellicottia bostoniensis (Rousselet, 1908), Diaphanosoma orghidani (Negrea, 1982) and Gmelinoides fasciatus (Stebbing, 1899)) is considered in the paper. In conclusion the authors suggest permanent monitoring of the new reservoir.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):103-109
pages 103-109 views

07.00.00 – Historical Sciences and Archaeology

Early Neolithic pottery of Western Belarus: current state of research and its perspectives

Tkachou A.Y.


The paper discusses the Early Neolithic pottery from the Western Belarus, pottery of Dubičiai type. The set of its most distinctive features includes organic temper in clay mass, a belt of deep round pits under a rim edge, strokes by round stick («hoofs»), slantwise thin grooved lines or slantwise net ornament of such lines. Hypotheses on the origin of Dubičiai type pottery are under discussion as well. According to many scholars, the area of occurrence of Dubičiai type pottery includes Belarusian part of the River Neman region (except the River Viliya basin), the left-bank of the upper Prypiat River basin, the southern Lithuania, the part of the north-eastern Poland, and the northern part of Volhynia. At the same time D.Ya. Telegin, E.N. Titova, G.V. Okhrimenko distinguish the Volhynian culture in the region of the same name. It has many traits analogous to the Prypiat-Neman culture. The scale of differences between the Early Neolithic pottery from Western Polesia and Volhynia and Dubičiai type pottery from the River Neman region allows considering the Volhynian culture as not a separate culture but as a local variant of the Neman culture. Sokołówek type pottery has been discovered at the sites in Podlasie and in Belarusian part of the River Bug region. It is analogous to Dubičiai type pottery by morphology and ornamentation but has less of organic temper in clay mass. Most probably, it is a result of local development of the Early Neolithic traditions in the western part of Prypiat-Neman culture area.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):110-116
pages 110-116 views

The second stage of Neolithisation and para-Neolithic in the southern Baltic

Nowak M.


The origins of the Neolithic, understood as a phenomenon with food economy dependent on agriculture, in east-central Europe are associated with the appearance of communities reflected by the Linear Band Pottery culture (LBK) in ca. 5500 BC. These communities settled only small enclaves, distinguished by ecological conditions favourable to farming. Situation of this kind persisted in the 5th millennium BC, when territories under discussion were inhabited by post-Linear groups. Consequently, at that time, hunter-gatherers still occupied ca. 70% of these territories. Such situation changed from 4200/4100 BC onwards, due to the formation and spectacular territorial «expansion» of the Funnel Beaker culture (TRB). This expansion covered both the areas previously inhabited by hunter-gatherers and farmers. Around 3500 BC Neolithic formation encompassed virtually the whole of this part of Central Europe. Parallel to the first and second Neolithisations, independent processes of «ceramisation» of the Late Mesolithic communities proceeded. While in the 5th millennium BC they were fairly selective, in the 4th millennium BC they were quite intensive. A new cultural model formed here which might be called «para-Neolithic». Archaeological data indicate contacts between TRB and para-Neolithic communities. The latter phenomena (mainly the Neman culture) show also a significant territorial development.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):116-124
pages 116-124 views

Children and teenagers’ burials dated back to the beginning of the Cooper-Bronze Age on the example of the Maikop-Novosvobdnenskoe community

Korenevskiy S.N.


The paper is aimed to discuss the problem of children and teenagers’ burials of the Maikop-Novosvobdnenskoe community (MNC) located in the Caucasus region. Children’s burials of the Galugaevsko-Sereginskiy, the Dolinsky variants and the Novosvobdnenskaya group are rare, but there are weapons and gold ornaments. This situation suggests transferring a high status of their parents by inheritance to the child. But the Psekupskiy variant reflects other situation. Children’s burials in its monuments look like children’s cemetery or burials of adults in kurgans and in earth graves. They do not contain weapons, tools or ornaments of copper and gold. It is possible to observe that burials of children are in big vessels. That tradition often depended on the degree of the society development.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):124-131
pages 124-131 views

Kurgan Halvay 5 - a complex of Sintashta culture from Northern Kazakhstan

Logvin A.V., Shevnina I.V., Kolbina A.V.


The paper is devoted to the study results of kurgan Halvay 5, which is located on the left bank of the Tobol branch of the Karatomar Reservoir (Northern Kazakhstan, Kostanay Region) 7 km to the north-east of Halvay and 500 m to the north-east of the Sintashta kurgan Halvay 3. The diameter of the kurgan is 30 m with a moat, the height is 0,8 m. Five burials were recorded under the embankment of the kurgan. All the primary burials of the kurgan Halvay 5 belong to the XXI century BC to Sintashta culture. All the main burials of the kurgan Halvay 5 were robbed in antiquity. The moat after the burial of the deceased (at least at the time of the robbery of the pits) was not filled up for a while. Funerary chambers have an overlapping of boards and logs, their walls are lined with bark and grass, the bottom is also covered with grass and bark. In the course of the study, the following analyses were performed: anthropological, paleozoological, paleobotanical, dendrochronological, X-ray fluorescent (XRF), radiocarbon. The sacrificial complex is represented by cattles, sheeps, and horses. The finds obtained as a result of the study of the kurgan Halvay 5 are: ceramic vessels, a bronze ax-adzo, stone arrowheads, abrasives and a zoomorphic altar. In the kurgan the Early Sarmatian burial was investigated.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):131-138
pages 131-138 views

Tautarian type (genesis and chronology)

Dmitriev E.A.


The processes of assimilation and integration between the Andronov community cultures, in spite of the long history of the study, is still of interest, connected with a whole range of problematic issues, one of which is the addition and chronological position of the Tautarin type known from the monuments of Southern Kazakhstan. At the present time, new materials have been accumulated during the field studies, which have made it possible to significantly expand the characterization of the type and question its traditional chronology as well as to consider the composition components and orientation of intercultural ties in more details. Within the framework of this paper we have the results of the statistical analysis of the funeral rite and description of the objective world on the materials of 5 burial grounds (Tautary, Kiikty, Sherbay 1–3), which reflect the interaction of three population groups: Fedorov (guiding), Kozhumberdynsky and Central Asian. Concerning the issue of dating, it is necessary to revise the previously proposed timeframes that do not correspond to the level of modern knowledge on the subject matter under study and adopt a cautious but wide time interval – the first half of the 2nd millennium BC, which is based on comparison with the modern radiocarbon chronology of Fedorov culture, antiquities of the Kozhumberdynsky and Kulsay types, as well as by analogies of the pendants in the dated complex of the Kyzylbulak I burial ground.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):139-144
pages 139-144 views

Genesis and transformation of Polish-Lithuanian sovereigns’ protectorship right over the Livonian confederation lands

Bessudnov D.A.


As known, from the end of the XV century Livonia became the object of close attention of the sovereigns As known, since the end of the XV century Livonia became the object of close attention of the sovereigns of Denmark, Sweden, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Crown of Poland and the Moscow State, who were attracted by its favorable strategic position, an important role in the international Baltic trade and rich land resources. However, the possibility of direct expansion by the Catholic states was limited by the status of Livonia as a «crusading state», under the auspices of the two most influential political assemblies of Catholic Europe – the Pope and the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation. An interesting way to bypass this obstacle was used by the rulers of the Polish-Lithuanian state, who applied a special form of political expansion that did not violate or at least created an appearance of preserving the papal and imperial prerogatives, and at the same time allowed them to postulate themselves as their legitimate implementers. That was promoted by the ancient political and legal concept according to which they acted as protectors and conservators of the states of the Livonian Confederation. It emerged in the XIV century, but, however, it was fully in demand by the rulers of the Polish-Lithuanian state only in the XVI century, when Livonia became the main object of the «battle for the Baltic» and a very interesting problem is the historical roots and the modification of this political concept from the time of its appearance to its finalization.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):144-149
pages 144-149 views

The orderly protégés of Sigismund III under the new tsar M.F. Romanov

Rybalko N.V., Ivina A.V.


This paper discusses the key issue of the system management of the transition period – from the time of the Interregnum of Moscow State to the formation of the government of the new sovereign, Mikhail Romanov. Biographies of deacons and scribes of the closing period of Troubles are restored according to individual mentions, mainly in the act material and documents of official records management. Using the method of prosopography, the authors have systematized biographical information of individuals and analyzed collective portrait of employees, which allowed to reveal the general state policy in relation to the managers of higher and middle level of the central administrative apparatus. As a result of the study, it was possible to establish that 36 from 73 persons, fixed in the service in the boyar government of Moscow and under Sigismund III continued to work in the new government of Mikhail Romanov. From the 9 Duma clerks – 3 people, from 37 clerks – 22 people, from 27 junior employees at Mikhail Romanov – 11 people. The removal touched, mainly, the Duma clerks. Most of middle-level employees like professional managers were not suspended from work for political reasons, which correlates with the general trend of the Trouble Time at the beginning of the 17 century. 60% of middle-level employees of Boyar government, which previously supported the power of Sigismund III, continued their work in the new government of Mikhail Romanov.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):149-156
pages 149-156 views

The Russian Theater in Berlin (1919-1923): the Experience of Cultural Exports

Popov M.E.


The paper is devoted to the consideration of Russian theatrical activity in Berlin during 1919–1923, when Berlin was the focus of Russian theater life abroad, and active creative exchange between German and Russian cultures took place in this connection. The problem of exporting Russian art culture to Western countries is of interest for both domestic and foreign researchers. Among the topical problems on this issue, the Russian theater plays an important role. The study of this issue gives an idea of the potential of Russian culture in a different social and cultural environment. In the center of the research is the process of formation and development of Russian theatrical life in the German cultural environment. The author made an attempt to identify and disclose the main artistic directions of the Russian theater in Berlin in 1919–1923 and determine their role in bringing Germany to the achievements of national culture. The work uses materials from the memoirs of contemporaries and periodicals. On the basis of these sources it is shown that the theater played one of the fundamental roles in preserving the Russian cultural community and their cultural appearance on the overseas. Russian theatrical seasons contributed to the West’s involvement in the achievements of Russian culture and the establishment of cultural and artistic ties between Germany and Soviet Russia. Thus, the activities of the Russian émigré and touring Russian theater in Berlin in 1919–1923 reflected the high potential of Russian culture in the conditions of a foreign social environment.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):156-160
pages 156-160 views

Orenburg as the capital of autonomous Kazakhstan (1920-1925): the reasons of choice and attempts of search for alternatives

Akanov K.G.


The paper considers the history of approval of Orenburg city as the capital of Kirgiz (Kazakh) Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic (KASSR) which was formed by the decree from 26 of August, 1920, as well as the history accession of the city and some district of province to Kazakhstan. The reasons of choice of Orenburg as administrative center of Kirgiz Republic and possible proposed alternatives are researched. The author analyses publications of Kazakhstan and Russian scientists on the indicated theme. Among the objective reasons of choice of Orenburg as the capital, the author names the following ones: the importance of Orenburg for Kirgiz Republic of that time, as a city with developed infrastructure and industry, as well as cultural and economic potential; the presence of sufficiently strong stratum workers,; attempt to make the city a central core of politics and become closer to Asian and Turkic people; regulation of territorial disputes about question of accessory of Orenburg; temporariness of the capital status of Orenburg to Kyrgyzia, in view of geographical distance of the city from the other regions of Autonomy and little representatives of title Kazakh ethnos. The author introduces for scientific use some documents of the State archive of the Orenburg Region in the process of research.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):160-165
pages 160-165 views

The history of the school campus in Chechnya (1920s)

Matagova K.A.


The paper attempts to characterize the history of the school campus, which is one of the specific forms of national personnel training in the Chechen Autonomous Region in the 1920s. In the first Soviet decades considerable attention was paid to the problems of education in the national outskirts. The low level of literacy of the population of Chechnya, inherited from the past, led to the features of processes occurring in the field of education and culture. The lack of the required number of national personnel and the need for their concentration in one area to serve simultaneously several academic units led to the organization of Lenin campuses. In 1925 in Chechnya an education city was organized that united a pedagogical college, an agricultural school of the Soviet party school and a school with a total combined educational and economic part. By 1930 there had been changes in the structure of the school campus, which included by that time a reference school (four-year stage 1), a cooperative vocational school, one-year training courses in technical school, agricultural training. Teachers college was not included in the school campus by that time. The training campus in Chechnya trained thousands of party and Soviet, trade Union, Komsomol and farm workers and was an important link in the education system of the Chechen Republic.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):166-169
pages 166-169 views

Theatre activity in the southern Urals at the initial period of the thaw

Morozova I.P.


The paper deals with the problems of theatre activity development in the southern Urals at the initial period of the thaw. The research objective is to define what changes happened in the theatre activity in the Southern Urals after Stalin’s repressions in 1953–1964. For the research the author used periodicals, archival documents, books about the theater. The research has shown that after Stalin’s personality cult exposure there were big theater changes in the southern Urals. People became more interested in the theatre. It was in Bashkiria where the theater developed greatly. The paper examines the creative activity of theatres in the southern Urals, Orenburg Region and Bashkortostan, reveals specific features and problems in the functioning of the studied institutions in the era of the thaw, studies repertoire policy of theaters. The repertoire updated and new theaters opened. Actors and directors found new forms of art self-expression. Drama art stops being the weapon of the political propaganda. The author has no opportunity to carry out a comparative analysis of this research with other researches as the subject has not been investigated by anybody yet.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):169-173
pages 169-173 views

American foreign policy at the end of the XIX - early XX centuries and Social Darwinist ideology

Mukhataev P.N.


This paper presents a historiographical review of American foreign policy, as well as analysis of the causes of the emergence of American expansionist paradigm in the late XIX – early XX centuries. Soviet historians give us an idea about the economic aspect of events in the U.S. during the specified period. However, foreign scientists have multidimensional view on the events. A. Schlesinger as one of the most popular authors insisted on the secondary importance of economic reasons for an active foreign policy of the United States, indicating that political reasons were of paramount importance. Social Darwinism, as a phenomenon that could shape foreign policy is considered by historians indirectly. In the Russian-Soviet historiography Social Darwinism is denoted as a factor that influences policy indirectly. American historiography considers the subject of our study more wholly, but in the context of the analysis of the liberal ideology. The author points to the role of ideological reasons for the American administration’s foreign policy decision-making. The paper is an attempt to find out whether there was a connection between foreign policy and the Social-Darwinist discourse, which can be traced in political, economic and intellectual elites of American society at the turn of the century.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):173-178
pages 173-178 views

Colonial empire after 1945: a view from the USA

Buranok S.O.


No research in the colonial system issues during the Cold War would be complete without studying the press of the participating parties. In order to give a detailed analysis of the international relationships in terms of the global transformations from the American point of view, the author draws relevant newspaper articles published after the World War II. The results have shown changes to priority schemes as viewed in American social discourse during 1945. Roosevelt’s plan for the dismantling of the colonial empires was gradually replaced with less radical plans, which presupposed using the colonial experience for foreign policy of the USA. Immediately after the end of the Second World War, the US press began to re-examine its attitude towards the colonial issue. The US media were clearly shifting from criticism to a deeper and more comprehensive analysis of both the system itself as a whole and British colonial management experience, openly acknowledging that in this context, historic ties, conflict resolution and local elite management experience may have turned out to be more useful than loyalty to abstract principles. At the end of 1945–1946 there were tendencies in the US press to change from the position of an interested observer to an active participant in the colonial problem.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):178-180
pages 178-180 views

Colonial system: balance and prospects after 1945 in the assessments of diplomats of the United States, the USSR and Great Britain

Levin Y.A.


The following paper deals with the views of the ambassadors of the USSR, the USA and Great Britain, expressed in telegrams for foreign affairs agencies. Rolling the world to a new global confrontation, the aggressive rhetoric of each participating country, specific actions to build up political and military capabilities required some kind of balanced assessment from experts who were well-versed in the political and social development of states that appeared after the Second World War on different sides of the barricade. In addition, the «third world» acquired special importance in the new conditions. The disintegration of the colonial system opened great prospects for each of the great powers. Therefore, besides the analyses of prospects and characteristics of relations between the USSR and Western countries, diplomats in their analytical reports affected the prospects for the development of the former colonies, as well as tried to forecast the actions of the probable enemy and the closest allies, comprehended the existing contradictions on this issue and tried to give some assessment, propose solutions to these problems. Considering the influence of the telegrams analyzed in the framework of this study on the formation of the Cold War, conclusions are drawn about the impact of assessments expressed by diplomats on the development of relations with the countries of the «third world». The analysis of J. Kennan, N. Novikov and F. Roberts notes shows the difference in the approaches and understanding of each country, both its opponents and its allies, a different view of the process of decolonization and its prospects. The paper is based on the sources on the diplomatic history of the Cold War and on some references on the topic.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):181-183
pages 181-183 views

Colonial experience and the theory of counter-guerrilla warfare in the USA: a symposium of RAND, April 16-20, 1962 as a historic source

Malkin S.G., Nesterov D.A.


This paper analyzes the materials of the symposium held by the RAND Corporation from 16 to 20 April 1962. Its purpose was to generalize the experience of past combat conflicts, which could contribute to an effective fight against insurgents in future conflicts. Twelve military officers of the armies of the United States, Britain, France and Australia participated in this symposium. All of them took part in counter-guerrilla operations around the world – Algeria, China, Greece, Kenya, Laos, Malaya, Oman, South Vietnam and the Philippines. Their rich experience formed the basis of this symposium. The goals and objectives of the symposium, the features of the materials and the biographies of the participants are consecrated in details in the paper. The questions discussed at the meeting are discussed in details. They are characteristics and examples of guerrilla warfare; primary objectives of counterinsurgency and some effective organizational and operational approaches; tactics and techniques of counter-guerrilla warfare; principles and techniques of political action; psychological warfare and civil actions; intelligence and counterintelligence: problems and techniques of intelligence-gathering, and the importance of communications; British campaign in Kenya; selection of personnel for counterinsurgency; special role of the advisor; winning the Counterguerrilla War. The conclusion of the paper shows a special significance of the materials of this symposium for the study of military thought during the Cold War, and especially the influence of the colonial experience of European empires on US foreign policy.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):184-188
pages 184-188 views

Adoption institution among Bashkirs in the past (based on folklore and written sources)

Isyangulov S.N.


The following paper discusses the institution of adoption among Bashkirs in the past based on folklore and written sources. This topic is not sufficiently studied in historiography. There are not many sources on it. The main sources here are the traditions, legends, genealogical trees of Bashkir. In these sources information about the adoption of young children (Kalmyks, Nogais, Kazakhs, etc.) by Bashkirs has been preserved. All these sources in most respects reflect the realities of the 16th – 18th centuries. In general, they help understand the views of Bashkirs on the adoption of other peoples’ children. The analysis of the sources allowed us to conclude that orphans, abandoned, captured, etc. children among Bashkirs were considered as being marked with a divine sign. Adopted children would become full members of the Bashkir community. It is assumed that the institution of adoption was widespread enough before the Bashkirs joined the Russian state. Materials confirm that the adoption was associated with the custom of obtaining the fruit of a noble person. Adoption was one of the ways to incorporate other ethnic groups in the Bashkir people. The historical roots of the institution of adoption needs a further study.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):189-193
pages 189-193 views

The «Union of Armenian Youth» in the structure of the Armenian Diaspora of Samara

Aghajanyan L.A., Iagafova E.A.


The paper considers the forms and directions of the activity of the public organization – the Union of Armenian Youth (UAY) in the socio-cultural environment of Samara, and shows its role in the life of the regional community of Armenians. The UAY appeared in 2015 as a «youth wing» in Samara Armenian national-cultural autonomy «Nairi». Currently it is engaged in organizing both youth events and large public events in the Armenian community. The main activities of the UAY are organization of national (Armenian) public events, thematic exhibitions, festivals in Samara and in the Samara Region; organization of work of national collectives; Sunday schools of the Armenian language, history and culture of the Armenian people; organization of participation of the UAY members in joint activities of other national public institutions on the territory of the Samara Region. The activities of the UAY are connected with the social life of the Armenian community of Samara and the region. Due to the activity of young people, the activities of Armenian public organizations are visible in the public space of the Samara Region. During a short period of time, the UAY has accumulated considerable experience of public activity, which contributes to the productive work of the organization. At the same time, there are some problems in its activity in cooperation with other Armenian organizations of the region. Being the most active part of the Armenian community of Samara, the UAY continues to develop dynamically, attracting new members to the organization and improving the forms of work in the Armenian community. The research is based on the analysis of field materials, the organization’s archive and Internet resources.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):193-198
pages 193-198 views

«Culture of daily life» in the context of integration of migrants from the Caucasus countries

Mukhametshina N.S.


The paper deals with the results of standardized and in-depth interviews with representatives of the Caucasian peoples (Azerbaijanis, Armenians and Georgians), now living on the territory of Samara and Samara Region. The interviews were executed in 2016–2017 within the project supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. The main areas of study of sociocultural problems of migration in the Russian science were discussed. The survey results registered preservation and functionality in the new environment of such markers of cultural boundaries as the ethnic style of the house interiors (carpets, glassware, national flag, pictures, etc.), the use of national cuisine, musical selections. Every second respondent notes, that he continues to read the periodical press in mother-tongue. Such indicators of cultural potential of diaspora communities as communication with representatives of other people and the installation in matrimonial behavior are considered. Representatives of the Caucasian diaspora communities demonstrate differentiated by groups of analysis interaction with neighbors and colleagues. Armenians most closely communicate with neighbors and co-workers. Almost all respondents indicate close contact with friends, among them representatives of different nationalities. The vast majority of respondents are positive about the inter-ethnic marriage. Close communication and friendship with representatives of host community, and positive attitudes in matrimonial behavior is something we see as the individual integration strategy, contributes to integration of foreign culture migrants from states of the Caucasus in the host community.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):198-201
pages 198-201 views

Perception of the East and the tasks of Far Eastern policy of Russia in the views of V.N. Kokovtsov and P.A. Stolypin

Suvorov V.V.


Activity of V.N. Kokovtsov and P.A. Stolypin, associated with the situation of Russia in the Far East after the defeat in the Russo-Japanese War, was held in the conditions of the need to solve the tasks of restoring the fighting capacity of the Russian army, improving the defense capability of the Far East and integrating this region within the empire. Under these conditions, the understanding of the importance of supporting the eastern regions of the Russian Empire was expressed, in which there was great potential for socio-economic development, while recognizing the need to avoid military clashes in Asia. V.N. Kokovtsov was involved in the Far Eastern and became Witte’s successor as finance minister, since this ministry continued to play a decisive role in Eastern politics. Witte focused on the development of external relations between Russia and the Asian states and the desire to strengthen Russia’s influence in the Far Eastern region, and then the eastern policy after the Russo-Japanese War was more oriented toward the development of the eastern territories of Russia. With the growing awareness of the importance of the internal eastern regions of Russia, the negative attitude towards the eastern states with which Russia bordered was strengthened. In general, the government’s program for the economic development of the Far East gave impetus to the development of the region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):201-204
pages 201-204 views

13.00.00 – Pedagogical Sciences

Pedagogical university students’ environmental knowledge improvement method

Busygin A.G., Lizunova E.V.


Currently, the world is at a decisive point at which the destruction of the environment and modern civilization, or finding ways to prevent the environmental crisis, catastrophes that threaten mass destruction. It is necessary to change this situation, if humanity really wants to save the environment and livelihoods. Scientists have concluded that the environmental crisis is a reflection of the crisis of society, crisis of modern culture, which is focused on increasing the amount of human needs without taking into account the capabilities of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. This paper deals with the methodology of ecological knowledge improvement among students of pedagogical university in the framework of the integrative course «Fundamentals of Ecology». The authors pay special attention to the development of the program, which is aimed at ecological knowledge improvement in wildlife management and environmental protection among students of pedagogical universities. The structure of this program allows you to logically organize the material and review it comprehensively. All the blocks (components) of the program are linked. The program is based on the following principles: universality, continuity, consistency, integration, flexibility and variability, conformity to culture and ecohumanism.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):205-209
pages 205-209 views

The use of authentic materials in foreign language teaching on A1 level

Gridneva N.A.


The following paper deals with the actual problem of authentic materials usage in foreign languages teaching on A1 level. The usage of authentic materials is regarded as one of the basic requirements of communicative approach meaning the highest possible likening of educative process to that of a real communication, and also as a precondition for sociocultural competence (an important part of communicative competence) development. As the main difficulty connected with authentic material usage (especially on A1 level) the problem of their deficient understanding by learners is regarded. The author gives a critical inquiry of widespread manner for easier authentic materials understanding through their preparatory methodic adaptation and makes arguments for uncontrolled materials usage (already on A1 level). While the main specialists handling this problem pay attention to possibilities of authentic materials usage on intermediate and advanced levels, the author analyzes their applying on A1 level. The author gives reasons for the importance and necessity of authentic materials usage with the beginners and formulates some concrete criteria for authentic materials selection on A1 level (based on «Common European Framework of Reference: Learning, Teaching, Assessment» and «Russian Public Standard for Russian as a Foreign Language (Elementary Level – A1)»).

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):210-214
pages 210-214 views

The creation of adaptive system of continuous training and retraining of personnel for regional labor market

Gusev V.A., Nisman O.Y.


In the article the experience of the Volga Region State College (Samara, Russia) on the creation of adaptive system of training and retraining of personnel for the regional economy is presented. The relevance of innovative work is dictated by the necessity to solve the personnel and qualification requests of industrial enterprises in the region. The content of the work is connected with the solution of tasks on adaptation of the system of college management oriented on the study of requests of the regional labour market and their satisfaction through the implementation of basic and additional training programmes. The activity described in the article aims at the development of the system of network cooperation between the educational organisation, regional methodological center and industrial enterprises. The text of the article describes the work on improvement of the quality of managerial and pedagogical personnel for the solution of the task, the development of additional programmes of training and retraining of current staff of educational institutions as well as of industrial enterprises. The described system is considered not as an alternative to the traditional, but as an addition that can optimize the learning process by providing different categories of citizens with educational services which best satisfy their needs. The authors of the article present the intermediate results of work on the creation of organizational-methodical provision of continuing professional education which are connected with: the improvement of professional competencies of pedagogical and administrative staff; the increase of scopes of the cooperative activities of the college and the manufacturing company in the training and retraining of existing staff of the enterprise; the practice development of basic and additional programs based on the results of studies of qualification needs of enterprises; the increase of employers’ satisfaction with the quality of preparation of graduates according to the results of the external evaluation of qualifications; the increase of productivity of participation of college students in the national championship, «Young professionals».

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):214-218
pages 214-218 views

Independent activity skills development in vocational schools by means of modular technology training

Dranitsyna E.G.


The paper proves the urgency of independent activity skills development in vocational schools by means of modular technology training. The essence of the modular training technology is revealed, the functional value of the module is determined in the formation of conditions that meet modern requirements of professional training. The paper also categorizes the types of independent educational activity of students in the context of the implementation of modular training technology. The author identifies conditions for the successful development of the skills and independent skills of students with the help of modular teaching technology in the educational process. They are the following: pedagogical planning, formation and improvement of students’ need-motivational sphere and their cognitive interest, counseling and coordination of the educational process, methodical support, as well as development of skills that help to use information and educational environment.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):219-222
pages 219-222 views

Permanent and temporary expositions of succulents in the Botanical Garden of Peter the Great as a way of biological and ecological education

Kalugin Y.G., Musinova L.P.


The paper describes one of the ways of organizing educational activities in the expositions of the Peter the Great Botanical Garden in St. Petersburg. The authors study the problem of actualization of environmental knowledge among the population and preservation of biodiversity through leisure. The paper analyzes educational work in Russian botanical gardens and some foreign gardens at the present time. The authors introduce the term «complex garden» as a garden of broad educational opportunities. The paper describes a collection of plants of one of the oldest and largest botanical gardens in Russia. The authors demonstrate a variety of topics for study, detail the content of exhibitions and describe the ways of active and passive activity of visitors on the example of expositions of succulent plants. The paper provides a diagram of ecological and biological knowledge improvement.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):222-227
pages 222-227 views

Development of ecological culture of prospective fine and decorative art teachers

Levina S.V.


This paper considers the problem of development of ecological culture of students – prospective teachers of fine and decorative art. The author proves the necessity of culturological approach, which allows to integrate different fields of spiritual culture, to expand students’ horizons, to give them new knowledge, to form a coherent picture of the world. The paper emphasizes that ecological culture is manifested in the system of spiritual values, in all the results of human activity related to cognition and transformation of nature. Hence it is necessary to train teachers who will be able to work with students and develop their ecological culture. Qualification characteristics of a teacher should provide his/her professional readiness to implement environmental training and education. To achieve a necessary level of environmental training is possible only by adjusting and updating existing educational programs. The paper contains a model of development of ecological culture through art; it determines the content, terms and stages of its implementation. The model consists of three levels and the paper discusses each of them; the author also describes necessary organizational-pedagogical conditions, methodological approaches (cultural studies, local history, student-centered, activity-based) and methodological principles (of scientific character, systematic character, consistency, clarity, orientation, training, conformity to culture, of natural law). In conclusion, the paper emphasizes that the proposed model allows to organize a continuous process at a pedagogical university that is aimed to develop ecological culture of prospective teachers.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):227-231
pages 227-231 views

The organization of independent work of students in the framework of the competence training approach

Makarov S.I., Buntova E.V.


In the modern paradigm the purpose of higher education is to train specialists who know how to gain professional knowledge themselves. The aim of the study was to analyze basic principles of competence approach in education, to identify the place of students’ independent work in the educational process of higher education, to identify the main characteristics of students’ independent work in the framework of the competence approach. Scientific literature study helped to define independent student work within the framework of the competence approach in education, gave the opportunity to choose independent work concepts, which most clearly reflect the main characteristics of this type of educational activity. The authors showed didactic potential of students’ independent work in the framework of the competence approach in education. The paper shows the main pedagogical conditions of independent work organization.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):231-234
pages 231-234 views

Cognitive correction at the University on the basis of electronic educational resources use

Makarov S.I., Sevastianova S.A., Ufimtseva L.I.


The paper deals with the problems of cognitive correction at high school. The authors propose a model of correctional work that helps to organize students’ individual independent work with the gradual and final result control. The authors identify specifics, goals and objectives of the proposed forms and methods of correctional work at the University from the point of the competence approach. As the main didactic means of this technology the authors propose to use e-learning resources that include components, providing: cognitive problems learning diagnosis, statistical analysis of errors and problems, formation of individual behavior change trajectory in accordance with the aims and objectives of corrections, a comprehensive study of the discipline, correction control results and systematic development of students’ competencies. The authors considered options for the use of the proposed technology on the example of Mathematics course at universities of Economics. The authors come to the conclusion that it is necessary to introduce it into the educational process of the University in various subject areas.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):234-238
pages 234-238 views

Designing extracurricular environmental courses at a pedagogical university

Nelyubina E.G., Panfilova L.V., Lisachkina V.N.


As educational institutions of basic and secondary education have started using federal state educational standards, a large number of extracurricular courses have been set up at educational institutions. Their aim is to organize the second half of students’ day, and they are termed as «extracurricular courses». Subject teachers have to develop programs of extracurricular activities, which are part of the national-regional component of school curricula. The main task of such courses and classes is to develop students’ personal qualities, to attract their interest to various activities and disclose individual abilities. That is why a new course «Designing elective courses in Chemistry (Geography)» has been introduced to master students majoring in education at Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education. The paper presents the experience of teaching this course and gives some results obtained by master students in the form of developed programs and educational and methodical complexes of courses of extracurricular activities with environmental content.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):239-242
pages 239-242 views

Systematic approach to personality ecological culture development in the era of social turbulence

Popov Y.M., Sazonova N.N.


Despite the fact that modern society has entered a postindustrial period of development and science has transformed into the main driving force there is still destructive influence of negative global and regional environmental problems. According to the degree of danger to humanity they can be put on the second place after a possible thermonuclear conflict and be a cause of increasing social turbulence. Based on the achievements of synergetic and a system of pedagogy the following paper discusses actual problems of ecological culture development as the most effective forms of countering the threat of environmental disaster. The authors have proposed a new definition of the term «ecological culture», developed a model of such personal characteristics development and identified the role and the place of educational technologies in this process. As a result of scientific pedagogical literature analysis the authors integrated natural-scientific and humanitarian discourses, identified the role and the place of the intellectual, moral, aesthetic, patriotic, labor and physical components of the educational process in the structure of the human personality and his/her ecological culture. It is concluded that the implementation of a comprehensive, systemic approach to ecological culture development will allow to achieve a phenomenon of emergence, which will significantly improve the efficiency of the educational environmental events.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):243-246
pages 243-246 views

Integration of interdisciplinary directions in the study of fractal geometry elements

Rusanova I.A.


This paper deals with the problem of integrating interdisciplinary areas in research activities that underlie developmental learning. In the conditions of new educational standards introduction deep system transformations of the whole educational process are supposed. The search for solutions to the problems of individualizing the educational route, polar motivation, increasing interest in physics and mathematics lead to the need to design individual methods of pedagogical activity, to implement new approaches and technologies in the natural science cycle of consistent development of holistic research activities, mastering the stages and methods of scientific knowledge. One of the opportunities for the formation of educational and cognitive activity and creative potential in the study of Physics and Mathematics is to study the elements of fractal geometry for analyzing the complex structure of processes of various physical nature, in view of the fact that today there is a large number of problems in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geology and Economics, where the fractal structure is the main characteristic of the system. Practical tasks on the construction of fractal sets with the identification of the main signs of self-similarity and the possibility of their computer modeling are considered. Students of grades 9–11 and students of the university are given the task of creating their own images of fractals, investigating the fractality of coastal river lines, constructing self-similar figures according to the algorithm «Games in chaos» and studying the contracting affine transformations with obtaining various modifications (attractors) of the Serpinsky triangle. The results obtained enable them to conclude that simple mathematical rules can generate self-similar formations with respect to nonlinear transformations, and argue that simple rules can be at the heart of complex structures and processes.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):246-251
pages 246-251 views

Preparation of future biology teachers to their educational upbringing functions

Semenov A.A., Yaitsky A.S.


An upbringing of the younger generation is an important task of modern education. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Geography of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education has shaped a system of training of future biology teachers to prepare them for implementation of upbringing functions. The developed system includes psychological, pedagogical and methodological disciplines, on-the-job practices and research work, as well as final State attestation. All components of the system are interrelated; they influence and complement each other. Within a framework of disciplines of «Theory and Technology of Education» and «Pedagogical Psychology», future teachers are learning the essence of upbringing, its purpose and tasks, subject matter, principles, patterns, directions, methods, technologies and evaluation criteria. While studying the «Methodology of biology teaching» discipline students get acquainted with a system of upbringing education and master methodical approaches to the formation of various elements of bringing up: formation of ideology and patriotic education, morals and aesthetics, ecology and hygiene, labor and sex educations, etc. Magistracy course of «Methodology of biology teaching» is supplemented by optional «Upbringing and socialization of students in process of biology learning». The latter is designed to prepare students to yield upbringing and socialization of students by means of biology education. Future teachers are gaining practical skills on acquired knowledge during the periods of on-the-job practices, research work and final State attestation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):251-255
pages 251-255 views

Developing cultural awareness in future teachers of physical education: current situation, issues, prospects

Serper S.A.


The paper deals with the specifics of development of common cultural competence of students majoring in physical culture and sport. Federal state educational standard of the third generation, approved by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, involves development of common cultural competencies that are important for the implementation of the personality program development of a modern expert and a trainer. The value of common cultural competence in the system of modern education increases because of personality-oriented education paradigm, in which the society requires active, capable of self-development and self-education professionals, especially in areas that are vital for the development of Russian society and the state. The paper shows that the development of fitness has formed such a question as fitness pedagogy: it is necessary to determine a set of professional and general cultural competence, content and curriculum framework for future professionals in the field of fitness, to find necessary common cultural competences and how they contribute to the development of the future experts in fitness, how to interact with the professional and general cultural competence in the educational process. Solving this problem will allow to reform the system of experts training in a most optimal and efficient way and will help to realize national objectives to preserve the nation’s health.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):255-258
pages 255-258 views

Role and importance of military-pedagogical traditions at the present stage of domestic military education system development

Starodubtsev M.P.


The paper deals with the issues concerning the role and importance of military pedagogical traditions at the present stage of national military education system development. The author studies the concepts «traditions», «pedagogical traditions», «military traditions», offers his own interpretation of the notion «military pedagogical traditions». A study of the military-pedagogical traditions is organized in conjunction with the achievements of the military pedagogic thought of the previous periods and modern problems of military pedagogy. The author analyzes the reasons for the reform and modernization ongoing in the military education system, which is caused by need of compliance with European quality standards and new requirements of existing Russian legislation. In conditions of a multilevel system of education and a competence approach in training special attention, in the author’s opinion, should be paid to special forms, methods and means of training, based on the best achievements of the military pedagogic thought, both traditional and complemented with innovative components. The author considers existing military-pedagogical traditions as well as traditions generated at the present time, taking into account present problems and challenges.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):258-261
pages 258-261 views

Innovative technology «Flipped Classroom» use in foreign language teaching at a technical university

Yurina M.V., Lopukhova Y.V.


The following paper considers the application of innovative technology «flipped classroom» in foreign language teaching combining with the team learning at a technical university. The new approach to teaching is caused by the increasing role of self-education within the framework of cultural competence of modern specialist. So the modern educational technologies have to develop student’s learning skills. The advantages presented by the «flipped classroom» technology are the increasing time for the individual work with students, the opportunity to provide additional cultural knowledge through a careful selection of the learning content on the one hand, as well as developing of the student’s ability to self-organization and self-education on the other. The paper presents the main approaches to the definition of the «flipped classroom» technology, its advantages and disadvantages, possible technical difficulties and the positive effect that can be achieved while using the «flipped classroom» technology at a technical university.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(4):262-266
pages 262-266 views

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