Vol 11, No 1 (2022)

From editorial board

Research results of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education in 2021

Repinetsky A.I.


The research activity of Samara State Socio-Pedagogical University in 2021 was determined by the tasks in the field of scientific activity set out in the National Project "Science" and Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 812 dated December 25, 2020 "On holding the Year of Science and Technology in the Russian Federation". The fulfillment of the tasks set out in these documents allowed the scientific and pedagogical staff of SSSPU to achieve important results.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):10-12
pages 10-12 views

Arkadiy Ivanovich Korolev: 60th birthday!

Vybornov A.A., Mochalov O.D., Repinetsky A.I.


The paper analyzes Arkadiy Ivanovich Korolev’s creative career. He was born in a teacher’s family, worked at an automobile manufacturing company, graduated from the Faculty of History of Kuibyshev State Pedagogical Institute named after V.V. Kuibyshev (currently Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education), and worked as a teacher at school. Since 1985, he has worked his way up from a laboratory assistant at the archaeological research laboratory to the dean of the History Faculty of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education. Starting from his student’s life, he became interested in research work. He conducted archaeological excavations in the republics of Bashkortostan, Mari El, Chuvashia, Mordovia, as well as Astrakhan, Volgograd, Penza, Tambov, Ryazan, Moscow, Tyumen, Ulyanovsk and other regions. His scientific interest is the study of the Volga region during the Stone Age. He studied the monuments of the Mesolithic, Neolithic, Eneolithic and Bronze Ages. He defended his PhD thesis in 1999. He is a co-author of several monographs on the Eneolithic of the Sura and Moksha interfluve. He has written more than 100 scientific publications and methodological recommendations on various aspects of archaeology. He actively participates in the accomplishment of state tasks and grants. A.I. Korolev is a member of the European Association of Archaeologists, he participates annually in international conferences and has published articles in highly ranked scientific journals. In his tenth year as dean, he continues to conduct archaeological students’ internships, provides methodological assistance to his students for the preparation of speeches and papers, teaches undergraduates, and provides leadership to graduate students.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):13-16
pages 13-16 views

A quarter of a century of cooperation and collaborative research (to the 60th birthday of archaeologist Arkady Ivanovich Korolev)

Stavitsky V.V.


The paper is devoted to the 60th birthday of Arkadiy Ivanovich Korolev, the dean of the Faculty of History at Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education. It summarizes the results of our collaborative research on the study of monuments from the Neolithic, Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age on the territory of the Western Volga region. These studies began in 1996 during excavations of the Volgapino Eneolithic settlement. During the past years we studied more than a dozen monuments during collaborative expeditions. 20 articles and 2 monographs have been published on the materials of these studies. During these studies the map of Eneolithic monuments distribution in the region was clarified, the periodization and chronology of Volosov and Imerca antiquities was developed, the origin of Imerca culture was established, specific features in the development of Eneolithic groups of the Middle Volga population were revealed, the chronological priority in the development of Eneolithic antiquities of the forest-steppe zone was determined, representative collections of various archaeological materials were received. The long-standing communication with A.I. Korolev has been very useful and productive. During our discussions at conferences and in expeditions common approaches to comprehension and interpretation of archaeological material were developed, which contributed to the effective solution of scientific problems.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):17-23
pages 17-23 views

Biological Sciences

The features of heavy metals and metalloids accumulation in the phytomass of the amphipodous moss Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. in the conditions of the Krasnosamarsky Forest area (Samara Region) and the National Park «Buzuluksky Bor» (Orenburg Region)

Bogdanova Y.A., Prokhorova N.V., Vergel K.N., Frontasyeva M.V.


The paper analyzes ecological and geochemical features of the moss Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., growing in artificial pine plantings of the National Park «Buzuluksky Bor» (Orenburg Region) and the Krasnosamarsky Forest (Samara Region). The research has been carried out within the framework of the International Program ICP Vegetation (https://icpvegetation.ceh.ac.uk), on the practical use of some bryophyte species in the environmental monitoring of multi-element air pollution in the countries of Western and Eastern Europe and a number of other countries. In the National Park «Buzuluksky Bor» and the Krasnosamarsky Forest, where species diversity and ecological characteristics of bryophytes have been studied for several years, the phytomass of the moss Pleurozium schreberi has been selected. This species is included in the species list proposed by the organizers of the research work under the UNECE ICP Vegetation Program. A multi-element analysis of Pleurozium schreberi phytomass has been carried out on the basis of the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna using instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA). The biogeochemical similarity of the moss Pleurozium schreberi from the Krasnosamarsky Forest and «Buzuluksky Bor», estimated by the concentration coefficients, has manifested itself in relation to a large group of heavy metals and metalloids, characterized by a relatively low ability to accumulate in its phytomass (Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd). Some differences have been revealed in relation to the elements with the maximum accumulation: Cu and Zn in the Krasnosamarsky Forest area, Mn and Ni – in the «Buzuluksky Bor». A relatively low content of most of the analyzed heavy metals and metalloids in the soil of the studied territories as well as in the phytomass of the biomonitor moss Pleurozium schreberi allows us to consider them to be background for the steppe zone of the European part of the Russian Federation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):24-30
pages 24-30 views

A preliminary assessment of the impact of the Przewalski’s horse on myrmecocomplexes (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Cis-Ural steppe site in the Orenburg Reserve

Bulgakov E.A., Arbuzov M.A., Bulgakova M.A.


The paper discusses the results of the analysis of the species dynamics of the myrmecofauna inside the acclimatization pens of the Przewalski’s horse in the Orenburg State Reserve. Although the horse is a specially protected species, the impact it can have on steppe ecosystems needs to be assessed through annual monitoring. Like other ungulates, Przewalski’s horses eat and trample vegetation as well as compact the soil due to the mechanical destruction of soil aggregates. It is shown that grazing of large ungulates has both direct and indirect effects on the myrmecocomplex. Based on the results of the study, the main patterns of species imbalances on the territory of sites in acclimatization paddocks subject to pasture influence were established. The results of the work have shown that there are such ant species as Cataglyphis aenescens N., Lasius alienus F., Tetramorium caespitum L., Messor muticus N., Cataglyphis aenescens N., Temnothorax sp., Tetramorium caespitum L., Proformica epinotalis Kuznetsov-Ugamsky on the territory. In open, well-heated areas, dominant positions were occupied by Cataglyphis aenescens N., while in the presence of vegetation, soil zoonecrophages Lasius alienus F. and Tetramorium caespitum L. dominated. The paper reflects the experimental results, analyzes them, and concludes about the probable reasons for the dominance of the species.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):31-35
pages 31-35 views

Heavy metals in the system «soil - wild medicinal plant» (on the example of Cichorium intybus L.)

Buskunova G.G., Yagafarova G.A.


This paper discusses the features of the heavy metals content in medicinal plant raw materials Cichorium intybus L. in the conditions of the Trans-Ural region of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Variational and statistical indicators of the heavy metals content in soils and plants are calculated. The coefficients of variation of gross and mobile forms of heavy metals in soils are high (above 21%), the exception was the gross form of Fe, which is characterized by low variation (up to 10%). The content of gross forms of heavy metals in soils exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations of Cu (18 times), Zn (13 times), Cd (2 times), Co (1,2 times) in the sample area 2, and Mn (1,2 times) and Cu (2,5 times) in the sample area 3. The content of mobile forms of Fe and Pb in soils did not exceed the maximum permissible concentrations. The samples had an increased level of mobile forms in Cu (39 times), Zn (2,1–4,3 times), Ni (1,12 times), Mn (2,3–2,6 times), Co (1,3–1,5 times), Cd (2,1–5,7 times). The degree of mobility of heavy metals in soils decreases in the series Pb → Co → Cd → Zn → Mn → Cu → Ni → Fe. According to the degree of Zc contamination, the studied soils were classified as permissible (Zc from 0,2 to 5,2), with the exception of sample area 2, which was classified as highly hazardous (Zc up to 48,2). The level of contamination of the soil cover is minimal, and the environmental situation is relatively satisfactory (Zc from 0,2 to 5,2), with the exception of test area 2, where the level of pollution is high and the environmental situation is critical (Zc up to 48,2). Plants of Cichorium intybus L. are contaminated with Ni, Cd, Fe, and concentrations of Pb and Mn in plants did not exceed the maximum permissible levels. The most absorbed elements were Fe (25,7) and Cu (65,4), which belonged to the group of elements of energetic accumulation (accumulation index >10), Ni (8,9), Pb (4,7), Zn (2,2), Cd (2,06), Co (1,1), and Mn (1,06) related to a group of elements of strong accumulation (accumulation index from 1 to 10). In plants of Cichorium intybus L. Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Cd, Co are distributed by acropetal type (acropetal coefficient >1,0), and Zn and Pb are distributed by basipetal type (acropetal coefficient <1,0). The value of biogeochemical activity in the plant Cichorium intybus L. varies from 47,4 to 728,3.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):36-42
pages 36-42 views

The content of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves of «healthy» and «weakened» balsam poplar trees (Populus balsamifera L.) growing under conditions of industrial pollution (Republic of Bashkortostan, Sterlitamak industrial center)

Giniyatullin R.K., Ivanov R.S., Tagirova O.V., Kulagin A.Y.


The paper presents the results of studies on the assessment of the relative vitality of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) plantations under the conditions of polymetallic pollution of the Sterlitamak Industrial Center (SIC). Poplar plantations of the sanitary protection zone of the SPC are classified as «weakened». External signs of oppression are manifested in a decrease in crown density, an increase in the number of dead branches, damage to the assimilation apparatus by chlorosis and necrosis. Trees belonging to the «healthy» category grow in the plantations. It was shown that the average content of chlorophylls (a + b) in the leaves of «healthy» poplar trees varied from 25,0 to 28,0 µg/cm² of fresh weight, while in «weakened» trees it was relatively low and amounted to 17,2–22,6 µg/cm² wet weight. The decrease in the total content of chlorophylls and the deterioration in the relative vitality of trees are interrelated. It has been established that during the period of active leaf growth (in June and early July), a high content of chlorophylls and nitrogen balance index (NBI) is noted in the leaves of both «healthy» and «weakened» balsam poplar trees. The relationship of the indicators under consideration is confirmed by the regression equations of the polynomial function (y = −2,15x² + 8,05x + 23,2; y = −2,35x² + 8,75x + 19,9 for the leaves of «healthy» trees; y = −3,1x² + 11,1x +13,4; y = −3,9x² + 14,1x + 10 for the leaves of «weakened» trees), as well as determination coefficients (R² = 1 for the leaves of «healthy» trees; R² = 1 for the leaves of «weakened» trees). The maximum differences in the ratio of chlorophyll content (a + b) and nitrogen balance in the leaves of «healthy» and «weakened» poplar trees were noted at the end of August. During the growing season, in the leaves of «weakened» trees, compared with the leaves of «healthy» poplar trees, a decrease in the values NBI and the content of chlorophylls is observed. At the same time, there are no significant changes in the content of chlorophylls on the adaxial and abaxial sides of the leaves of «healthy» and «weakened» balsam poplar trees during the growing season.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):43-48
pages 43-48 views

The nesting ecology of the Corvus orientalis in Tuva and Buryatia

Dorzhiev T.Z., Saaya A.T., Badmaeva E.N., Gulgenov A.Z., Naletova L.A., Sergeev S.V.


The ecological features of the eastern black crow Corvus orientalis breeding in the conditions of Tuva and Buryatia are revealed. The species is distinguished by high ecological plasticity, which allows it to inhabit in various natural and anthropogenic landscapes, including settlements of different types. Various types of trees are used for the construction of nests, but conifers are preferred and poplar. They rarely nest on power transmission lines. They nest in single pairs or form small settlements. The black crow is one of the early nesting birds in the region. Nesting begins at the end of March. The main proportion of birds lays eggs before the onset of the phenological summer, starting on April 8–15. Clutches are protected from low temperatures by a warmed nest and incubation from the first egg. The total duration of the nesting period in the region is 100–106 days, as for one pair of birds it is 56–60 days (laying eggs – 5–7 days, incubation – 19–20 days, staying of chicks in the nest – 27–29 days). The nesting period ends by July 20–25. Feeding of chicks coincides in time with the massive appearance of arthropods and, in particular, of Orthoptera, the main objects of their food. The nesting efficiency of the black crow is very high – 93,1%. All these data confirm a wide adaptive potential of the eastern black crow.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):49-55
pages 49-55 views

Phytoplankton and ecological state of Dolgoe Lake (Pskov Region)

Drozdenko T.V., Kek I.V.


The paper deals with the planktonic algoflora of Dolgoe Lake in the Pskov Region. The studies were carried out in the summers of 2017–2020. The taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton of the lake was revealed, including 156 species and intraspecific taxa from 8 phylums: Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Cyanobacteria, Charophyta, Ochrophyta, Dinophyta, Euglenophyta, Cryptophyta. The basis of the floral complex was made up of representatives of the phylums Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta, as well as Cyanobacteria. The greatest similarity in the species composition of phytoplankton communities was noted in 2017 and 2019 (the Sierensen-Chekanovsky coefficient was 60%), the lowest – in 2018 and 2019, as well as in 2018 and 2020 (39%). The maximum quantitative development of microalgae was noted in 2019 (32,9 million cells/l), with 90,7% of the total number accounted for cyanobacteria Merismopedia minima G. Beck. The smallest number of planktonic algae was observed in 2020 – 1,3 million cells/l. The total biomass of phytoplankton was the highest in July 2019 – 0,45 mg/l, and the lowest in 2020 – 0,15 mg/l. According to the Milius trophic index, the waters of the lake are oligotrophic. According to the ecological and geographical characteristics, widespread freshwater species of phytoplankton prevailed in the lake, preferring slightly alkaline waters. Saprobiological analysis showed that the waters of Dolgoe Lake are moderately polluted and belong to the 3rd class of quality. The saprobity index of the Pantle–Buck, depending on the year of the study, varied from 1,80 to 1,98.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):56-60
pages 56-60 views

Taxonomical features of the flora of the Irgiz physical-geographical region (Southern part of the Samara Trans-Volga region)

Ivanova A.V., Kostina N.V., Aristova M.A., Keller S.A.


The authors analyze flora taxonomic composition of the Irgiz physiographic region. It is located in the southern part of the Samara Trans-Volga region and belongs to the steppe natural zone. The climate here is drier than in other parts of the region. The main type of vegetation is steppes; forests occupy insignificant areas and are confined to floodplains. The area is characterized by a strong plowing of the territory. The authors register floras taxonomic features of the steppe regions in the Samara Trans-Volga region, and analyze the composition of family and generic spectra in comparison with the floras of the forest-steppe zone of the Samara and Ulyanovsk regions. The following results have been obtained: 1) the floras of the steppe regions correspond to the Fabaceae type with the predominance of the Astragalus genus in the Fabaceae family; the leading genera include Carex, Potentilla, Salix, Galium; 2) a feature of the steppe zone is a high position in the spectrum of the genera Artemisia, Atriplex, Allium, in the family spectrum a high position is occupied by Chenopodiaceae, the Samara region, considered by us within the framework of the Irgiz physical and geographical region, is not completely uniform in natural conditions. Differences in natural conditions affect the species composition of vascular plants. Three local floras, geographically distant from each other within the region, are considered. The areas of the described floras differ from each other in relief. It is reflected in the occurrence of representatives of individual taxonomic groups. This determines the difference in the taxonomic parameters of the described local floras.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):61-68
pages 61-68 views

The assessment of Ishim ecological state dynamics by the method of fluctuating asymmetry

Katashinskaya L.I., Katashinsky A.I.


The paper presents data of the assessment of Ishim ecological state dynamics by the method of fluctuating asymmetry. The ecological state of the urban environment should ensure favorable living conditions for the population and a high quality of life. We assessed the degree of fluctuating asymmetry using the example of drooping birch (Betula pendula) leaves at 4 points of the city remote from each other (10 trees per 1 point, 100 leaves were selected from each tree). On the basis of morphometric measurements, an integral indicator was calculated, with the help of which the magnitude of asymmetry was estimated. The average values of fluctuating asymmetry of drooping birch leaves in all studied points of the city did not exceed the conditional norm. The ecological state of the city of Ishim can be assessed as favorable. In the dynamics of 11 years there was a deterioration of the ecological state of most districts in Ishim. In three observation areas, an increase in the index of fluctuating leaf asymmetry from 1,5 to 4 times was registered compared to 2010. The lowest indicators of leaf asymmetry were observed in the area of the park «Berezovaya Roschya» and in the area of the «Prigorodny forest» (Vankovka). The highest indicators of leaf asymmetry were observed in the area of the railway station. On the contrary, there was a significant improvement of the ecological state within the streets of Lunacharsky and Tolstoy in the city.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):69-72
pages 69-72 views

Dynamics of Orchis mascula (L.) L. number in the reserves of the Republic of Bashkortostan

Kildiyarova G.N., Barlybaeva M.S., Suyundukov I.V., Ishmuratova M.M.


The paper presents the results of monitoring studies of Orchis mascula (L.) L. in the South Ural State Nature Reserve and in the State Reserve «Shulgan-Tash». In the South Ural State Nature Reserve O. mascula coenopopulations are found in forest clearings located on the peaks and in the upper parts of the slopes. In the state reserve «Shulgan-Tash» the only population of O. mascula grows in a forbs meadow under conditions of moderate moisture. In these two reserves the number of individuals in coenopopulations is not high. The ontogenetic spectra of coenopopulations are full-membered, they are left-sided in the conditions of the South Ural State Nature Reserve and they are right-sided in the State Reserve «Shulgan-Tash». Unidirectional changes in the number of individuals in different coenopopulations were revealed: from 2016 to 2019 there was a decrease in the number and by 2020 there was an increase. The decrease in the number of individuals is largely associated with their departure to secondary dormancy with the onset of adverse weather conditions rather than dying off. In general, the state of O. mascula coenopopulations under conservation conditions is satisfactory. Currently to maintain the number in the places where the species grows haymaking is carried out every 4 years.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):73-78
pages 73-78 views

Phytotoxicity of composts based on Surgut sewage sludge in closed ground conditions

Mantrova M.V., Nakonechny N.V.


The paper is devoted to the study of the toxicity of composts based on sewage sludge in relation to radish seeds and seedlings, as well as earthworms. The most phytotoxic are the substrates of variant «b» – with the microbiological preparation «Tamir» and worms, the substrates of variant «b» – with «Tamir» (without worms) were less toxic, a weak toxic and even stimulating effect on the growth of radish roots was detected in the substrates of variant «a» – control, without worms and «Tamir». Due to the high phytotoxicity, compost № 1, № 3, № 5 and № 6 are not recommended for use in crop production, and substrates № 2(a) and № 4(a) in connection with the identified stimulating effect can be recommended. Phytotoxicity of substrates may be related to their composition: food waste is present in the composition of «toxic» composts, and this component is not present in «non-toxic» composts. The decrease and increase in the biomass of worms in composts does not correlate with the revealed phytotoxicity and the composition of their mycobiota. Due to the low species diversity and abundance of cosmopolitan, toxin-forming and conditionally pathogenic fungal species in the structure of mycocoenoses of bioconversion substrates, it can be assumed that their maturation time is insufficient. With an increase in the incubation time of composts of a similar composition for more than 30 days, we predict a change in the structure of their mycocoenoses towards an increase in the species diversity of non-toxic saprotrophs, as well as cellulolytics of the genera Trichoderma and Chaetomium. The prospect of further research in this direction is the compilation of a collection of micromycetes of composts.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):79-85
pages 79-85 views

Creating a local protected area system in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District: the sacred site «Angalsky Cape» as a natural monument

Morgun E.N., Levykh A.Y., Ilyasov R.M., Kremenetskaya M.V., Suppes N.E.


The paper substantiates the role the key sacred sites of indigenous minorities of the North play in forming an integrated ecological network, expanding the nature conservation areas and preserving biological and landscape diversity of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District. It presents materials describing the nature conservation, scientific, historical and cultural significance of the heritage item – the sacred site «Angalsky Cape» in Salekhard. The reconnaissance and sociological studies (in 2019–2020) revealed the anthropogenic impact on the territory of the site which is the result of recreation, storage of solid household waste, location of technical facilities and disturbance. The studies have also shown that the protection regime adopted to preserve the sacred site and to keep the natural-territorial complex of the territory is not sufficient. As a result of field geobotanical, soil, zoological researches on the territory of the sacred site «Angalsky Cape», conducted in June and August 2021, the composition and structure of vegetation, soil, small mammal communities consistent with zonal and local natural conditions were defined. A relatively high level of plants and animals species diversity, as well as a good life condition of lichens were revealed. At the same time, the low resilience of the small mammal community indicates the vulnerability of ecosystems in this area to external influences, including anthropogenic loads. The results of the research allow us to recommend the sacred site «Angalsky Cape» for inclusion in the local ecological framework as a natural monument of local significance.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):86-98
pages 86-98 views

Vegetation of regional landscape and botanical natural monument «Aland’s Pine Forest» (Kvarkensky area of the Orenburg Region)

Nazarenko N.N., Pokhlebayev S.M., Ismukhambetov A.A.


The paper presents a detailed analysis of regional landscape and botanical natural monument «Aland’s Pine Forest» (Kvarkensky area of the Orenburg Region) vegetation. The pine forest vegetation has rather high phytodiversity and dominance indexes. 71 plant vascular species have been identified (3 of them are included in the Red Book of the Orenburg Region (2019)) and 15-species’ pine communities prevail, but steppe species dominate in shrub and herb layers. The authors have revealed that the described pine forests are forest-steppe amphycoenosis. 13 plant associations have been identified by multivariate statistics methods, but their biotopes are not specific by fundamental abiotic factors. The authors have also established that forest conditions of Aland’s Pine Forest are of AB₁ and AB₁₋₂ types and light type of stand of trees structure by A.L. Betgard steppe forest typology. The detected pine vegetation associations form ordination series – sylvatic of steppe pine forest with wheat-grass (Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski) and amphycoenotic of steppe pine forest with steppe herbs. The principal abiotic factors for pine forests coenotic structure forming are soil calcium and nitrogen regimes, soil moistening and acidity and porosity (aeration) of soils. Factors of biotope discrimination are thermal climate (radiation balance), cryoclimate (negative winter temperature), brightness regime and saline regime of soils.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):99-105
pages 99-105 views

The preliminary results of quality assessment of walnut fruits formed in the botanical garden of Samara University using a microfocus X-ray method

Pomogaybin A.V., Rodionova P.V., Kavelenova L.M.


The growing interest in nuts as an undoubted essential component of a healthy diet, widespread in recent years, determines the expansion of nuts world cultivation areas, as well as the volume of seed production received. The reasons ensured the growing popularity of walnut as the oldest culture are not only the pleasant taste of the seeds («kernel»), widely used in food directly and as a component of various products, but also their unique chemical composition, including richness in proteins, vitamins and oil, in which essential polyunsaturated fatty acids are widely presented. The walnut is introduced into territories outside its natural area even now due to efforts of specialists working in the fields of plant introduction and selection as well as amateur enthusiasts who try to grow this valuable crop in their gardens. The introduction of species of Juglans L. genus into the Botanical Garden of Samara University began in the 1930s. As we know one of the goals of making a dendrological collection on the territory of the Samara Region was the introduction of new plant species, including walnut, which has valuable wood and fruits with high nutritional and taste properties, into forest plantations and gardens. The collection of walnut trees was created from seed samples received from various geographical locations (Saratov, Volgograd, Stavropol, Crimea, Ukraine, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, etc.). The large-scale study of walnuts in the Samara (from 1936 to 1992 – Kuibyshev) Region faced climatic difficulties, but was always revived. Currently, the walnut collection contains about 900 specimens of genotypes of various origins, which are natural hybrids on their own roots. As a result of the introduction study of walnuts, extensive material has been collected; it is related to their stress resistance, structural and functional features. The paper presents the results of a preliminary X-ray screening of walnut fruits of the 2021 harvest from the dendrological collection of the Botanical Garden of Samara University, performed for trees of different ages and «genealogy» related to ordinary and accelerated forms of fruiting. The prospects of this research method for assessing the quality of nuts are shown. The dense shell of the seed and the features of its internal structure are not an obstacle to revealing the degree of development of the nucleus. The results obtained open up the possibility of a non-damaging express assessment of the quality of nuts as a specific seed material for the purpose of selection and a detailed study of their structural features.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):106-113
pages 106-113 views

The analysis of the biochemical diversity of the English oak vegetative sphere in the forest-steppe zone

Sautkina M.Y.


The paper studies the biochemical diversity of the English oak trees growing in the protective forest strips of the forest-steppe zone in the Central Chernozem region. The features of accumulation of various groups of substances of secondary metabolism of phenolic nature in the leaves of model oak trees in seasonal dynamics are described. The role of secondary metabolites in the formation of adaptive mechanisms of resistance of individuals to adverse environmental factors is considered. It is proved that the content of substances of secondary metabolism of phenolic nature and their combination can serve as a criterion for the potential biochemical stability of trees when growing in unfavorable environmental conditions. The content of secondary metabolism substances was determined on oak leaf samples in early June and August. It was revealed that the quantitatively leading group of substances of secondary metabolism are flavonols. It was found that at the beginning of the growing season, the most significant fluctuations in the levels of accumulation of secondary metabolism substances occur in young oak leaf blades, and by the end of the growing season their content stabilizes. High rates of variation coefficients have been identified, which make it possible to ensure biochemical diversity in the population and a sufficient range of adaptability of traits. It is shown that the samples of control and experimental trees for flavonols are the most homogeneous.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):114-118
pages 114-118 views

Seasonal and daily dynamics of the nitrogen-containing compounds in the leaves of Hylotelephium triphyllum in the taiga zone of the European North-East

Tabalenkova G.N., Silina E.V.


The seasonal and daily dynamics of the content of nitrogen-containing compounds in the leaves of Hylotelephium triphyllum plants was studied. The maximum content of total nitrogen, soluble protein and free amino acids in the leaves was observed in the regrowth phase, followed by their reduction towards the end of the growing season. The daily dynamics was characterized by a high content of free amino acids and a low content of soluble protein in the morning hours. In the leaves of H. triphyllum, 23 free amino acids and 2 amides were found. The seasonal and daily dynamics of free amino acids was determined by the content of glutamine and glutamic acid. 4 non-proteinogenic amino acids were found: γ-aminobutyric, β-alanine, ornithine, citrulline. The total proportion of non-theeinogenic amino acids increased with the aging of the leaves from 0,6% of the sum of amino acids during regrowth to 5,8%, in the fruiting phase, which corresponded to a decrease in the content of soluble protein in them. Seasonal and daily dynamics of non-theeinogenic amino acids was determined mainly by γ-aminobutyric acid. Alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid were predominated among the amino acids as an indicator of stress. It is assumed that γ-aminobutyric acid contributes to the regulation of acidity of cell sap in the leaves of H. triphyllum. At low air and soil humidity (flowering phase), the acidity of the cell sap significantly correlates with the content of free amino acids in the leaves.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):119-123
pages 119-123 views

Some introduction aspects of genus Hoya plants in greenhouse conditions

Turbina I.N.


The paper deals with the study results of genus Hoya adaptive capabilities in protected ground conditions. The objects of the study are four species and one cultivar of the genus: Hoya cumingiana Decne., Hoya globulosa Hook. f., Hoya australis R. Br. ex Traill, Hoya pubicalyx Merrill, Hoya cv. Metallica. In culture, the life cycle of plant development corresponds to the natural one with minor periods of dormancy in autumn and winter associated with a reduction of daylight hours and insolation. For all introduced species, an increase of chlorophyll content and ratio of chlorophyll to flavonoids in the autumn period and minor fluctuations of flavonoids throughout the entire study period were noted, which indicates their relatively optimal nitrogen status. The author has revealed species specificity in the accumulation of chlorophyll and flavonoids and nitrogen balance. The shoot system is characterized by a plagiotropic growth direction and all its vegetative areas are structurally homogeneous. Each single-order stephanotis shoot grows at the top of the stem, shoots can be both short- and long-chamber. Intensive growth and decorativeness of the shoot system of H. globulosa, H. cumingiana and H. pubicalyx, the stability and plasticity of the photosynthetic apparatus provide the prospect of their use in phytodesign.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):124-127
pages 124-127 views

Content and distribution features of heavy metals in the tissue of Cyprinus carpio L. in the Ural River basin

Khasanova R.F., Suyundukov Y.T., Semenova I.N., Sharanova D.I., Baimova S.R.


This paper discusses regional features of environmental pollution by heavy metals. The authors have studied the content of heavy metals in the water of the Ural River within the Republic of Bashkortostan (RB), Chelyabinsk and Orenburg Regions, as well as its right tributary, the Khudolaz River, located in the zone of influence of industrial enterprises of the city of Sibay and characterized by a high content of pollutants. It is noted that in the considered segment with a length of about 60 km downstream of the Ural River, a gradual decrease in the concentration of toxic elements is observed as a result of self-purification processes. Studies of the elemental composition of muscle tissue and scales of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), living in the Khudolaz River on the territory of the city of Sibay, showed high concentrations of heavy metals in them. Muscle tissue and scales accumulate heavy metals to varying degrees, which is due to the functional feature of these organs, their accumulative activity and the chemical properties of the metal itself. The greatest amount of Cu, Fe, Co accumulate in muscle tissue, while Zn, Mn – in scales. No similar pattern has been revealed for the accumulation of Ni and Pb. In muscle tissue, the elements are distributed as follows: Fe > Zn > Ni > Mn = Co > Cu > Pb, in scales – Zn > Fe > Mn > Co > Ni > Cu > Pb. Fe, Zn predominate in both series of element distribution, while the lowest concentrations are characteristic of Pb. A correlation analysis has revealed a presence of a direct statistically significant relationship between the content of heavy metals in water and the tissues of common carp: strong – in muscles (r = 0,95–0,98) and medium – in scales (r = 0,34–0,55).

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):128-133
pages 128-133 views

Variation of sexual dimorphism of the wing shape in the family Dolichopodidae (Diptera)

Chursina M.A., Maslova O.O.


Although sexual dimorphism manifestations are widespread in the family Dolichopodidae, a detailed characterization of their phylogenetic significance is lacking. In order to study the distribution patterns of wing sexual dimorphism, we have analyzed 57 species from 17 genera of 9 subfamilies. A comparative analysis of the evidence, obtained by geometric morphometry and molecular data, allowed us to assess the phylogenetic signal in the sexual dimorphism of the wing. The results of the study confirm the presence of diverse patterns of sexual variability in the wings of this family. More often, females have larger wings with blunted apexes, whereas males are characterized by a more pointed apex. In some cases, the larger size of females’ wings is associated with an increase in the body size, while in other cases, differences in shape and size can be explained by differences in behavioural and life patterns. Although there exists a general pattern of sexual dimorphism, its features differ even in closely related species. The absence of a significant phylogenetic signal in seven out of nine studied wing points indicates that the sexual dimorphism in form evolved, at least partially, in each of the studied species.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):134-141
pages 134-141 views

Integral indicators of the state of tree plantations as an indicator of the state of the environment on the example of the city of Buzuluk

Shcheblanova M.A.


This paper discusses integral indicators of tree plantations in urbanized areas. The role of flora for the urban environment and possible ways of influencing it from the side of human economic activity are shown. The peculiarities of green spaces formation and their change under the influence of anthropogenic load were the reason for the analysis of integral indicators of tree plantations of the city of Buzuluk. To conduct the study the methodology of a comprehensive assessment of the state of the natural environment was used according to integral indicators of the state of tree plantations according to E.G. Mozolevskaya. The paper presents the results of plantings categories analysis, indicators of plantings state, which allowed to identify resistant species in parks and squares of the city of Buzuluk to anthropogenic pollution. The study was conducted at six sites (parks and squares) of the city, exposed to significant anthropogenic impact: Trinity Park, Nikolsky Square, Friendship Alley, Square (Park) Victory Square, L.N. Tolstoy Square, central Buzuluk Square. Based on the work done, a conclusion was made about the satisfactory ecological condition of the parks and squares of the city of Buzuluk. The results obtained confirm the need to revise approaches to landscaping of this urbanized territory, which should be based on the increasing factor of anthropogenic load and ecological and biological characteristics of plantings. In the future this will make it possible to predict the development of the ecological situation of the studied territory, which is an important condition for the ecologically balanced development of the city.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):142-145
pages 142-145 views

Historical Sciences

Neolithic materials from the settlement of Staevo 10 in the Upper Don basin

Smolyaninov R.V., Oblomsky A.M., Yurkina E.S., Kulichkov A.A., Maslennikov K.I.


The purpose of the paper is to publish ceramic and stone collections of artifacts from the Neolithic era, obtained along with the materials of the early Middle Ages at the settlement of Staevo 10. The settlement is located on the Voronezh river within the Michurinsky District of the Tambov Region. It is part of a narrow hillock of a high floodplain on the right bank of the Voronezh River 2–2,5 m high from a low floodplain. The surface is turfed, but previously subjected to plowing. The work on the settlement of Staevo 10 continued the study of the surroundings of the trade and craft settlement of the early Middle Ages. The settlement of Staevo 10 is the largest of those known in its vicinity. In the settlement, 436 m² of its area was explored by five excavations and 10 exploration pits were additionally laid to determine its boundaries. At all excavations, finds from the Neolithic era were found at the base of the cultural layer. Materials of the Neolithic Karamyshevskaya, Srednedonskaya and Lyalovskaya cultures of the second half of the 6th–5th millennia BC were identified. The stone inventory from the Staevo 10 site does not form stable series due to the small number of the collection. Most of the stone tools of the presented collection should still be attributed to the early Neolithic Karamyshevskaya culture; its ceramic materials are the most dominant at this site.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):146-155
pages 146-155 views

The comb tradition of ceramics ornamentation of the Srednevolzhskaya Neolithic culture in the forest-steppe Volga region (general characteristics)

Andreev K.M., Somov A.V.


The paper presents the result of the analysis of tableware, decorated with a comb stamp, of the Srednevolzhskaya Neolithic culture in the forest-steppe Volga region. To determine the characteristic features of the considered ceramic complexes, their statistical processing was carried out in order to systematize information on most of the Late Neolithic sites in the region. The source base of the study includes 836 conventionally identified vessels of the Srednevolzhskaya culture, which were directly analyzed by the authors. It should be noted that due to objective reasons the given quantitative indicators may slightly differ from those in the corresponding publications. In order to identify the local features of the ceramic complexes, the monuments considered in the work can be geographically divided into two microregions – the basins of the Samara and Sok rivers. The analyzed materials were also graded according to the representativeness of the collections. To determine any significant patterns of development, the leading role is played by highly and fairly representative complexes of the sites Lebyazhinka IV, Vilovatoe, Lebyazhinka I, Ivanovka, Luzhki II, the rest is of secondary importance. Due to the high fragmentation of the material, the authors do not insist on the absoluteness of the data presented, the quantitative and percentage indicators may change slightly, however, as for the complexes of the representative sites noted above, the adjustments will not be significant.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):156-164
pages 156-164 views

Golubaya Krinitsa - soil burial ground of the Mariupol type on the Middle Don

Skorobogatov A.M.


The paper publishes the materials of a fully investigated (2015–2016) soil burial ground located in the south of the Voronezh Region. The burial ground, small in size, was located on the high root bank of the Chernaya Kalitva River (the right tributary of the Don River, the modern border of the steppe and forest-steppe), consisted of 18 burials, including individual, paired and collective burials. The burials were performed according to a single ritual – stretched out on the back, arms along the trunk, legs tightly brought together, with the orientation of the face towards the river (south with slight deviations). Ochre and chalk played a significant role in the ritual. The discovered funerary inventory (ornaments made of bone and shells, bone tools, tools and weapons made of flint, stone products, ceramics) allows us to draw direct analogies with the burial grounds of the Mariupol type of the Early Eneolithic of the Dnepr, Azov and Middle Volga region (Mariupol, Nikolsky, Lysogorsky, Sezzhensky, Yekaterinovsky Cape). The presence of a copper product in one of the burials indicates that the complex belonged to the Eneolithic, which according to analogies can be dated to the end of the VI – first half of the V millennium BC.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):165-173
pages 165-173 views

Chronology of Eneolithic complexes of the forest-steppe Trans-Urals

Mosin V.S.


This paper is devoted to the key problems associated with the chronology and periodization of the Eneolithic complexes located on the territory of the forest-steppe foothill Trans-Urals and Tobol river regions. The basic dated complexes are considered in the context of absolute chronology, the established criteria for the dating of archaeological cultures and ceramic traditions and types of this period are analyzed; based on radiocarbon dating of organic remains in ceramics, preserved bone remains of mammals and charcoal from the settlements of the forest-steppe Tobol river region: Tashkovo 1, Kochegarovo 1, Buzan-3 burial ground, Savin I, Slabodchiki I sanctuaries and Bakshay sanctuaries from the eastern slope of the Urals. In the forest-steppe zone of the Trans-Urals, about 30 complexes of the Eneolithic have been investigated by excavations. Only six of them have radiocarbon datings, the total number of datings is 23. The Eneolithic complexes of the settlements of Kochegarovo I – 10 determinations, Tashkovo I – 4 determinations with dates, although it is not enough for full statistics. The rest of the complexes have either fewer or obviously invalid dates. In the Eneolithic of the region along the entire length from the middle of the 5th to the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC almost all of the existing cultural traditions continued to coexist. It should be noted that the earliest tradition in the Eneolithic of the region was the tradition of ornamentation with a comb stamp with simple (linear) and geometric patterns.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):174-177
pages 174-177 views

Bone sculptures of birds of the Volosovo culture: the context of their location (based on the materials from the Sakhtysh sites in the Upper Volga region)

Kostyleva E.L., Utkin A.V., Melnikov V.N.


The paper presents an analysis of the localization of bone pendants in the shape of volumetric heads of birds from the settlements of Sakhtysh I, Sakhtysh II and Sakhtysh IIa, located near Lake Sakhtysh (Ivanovo Region, central part of European Russia), now completely destroyed by peat mining. In total, 14 specimens have been identified: six ones – at Sakhtysh I, six more – at Sakhtysh II, and two ones – at Sakhtysh IIa. They belong to the Volosovo culture and represent figures of duck, goose, swan, crow, wood grouse, eagle, merganser, pelican. All figurines are highly individual, without any canonical ones, repeating in their shape. The context of their location is different: some of them were found in the burial (Sakhtysh 1), others in the «hoards» and on the ritual site of the burial ground (Sakhtysh II), while others in the «sanctuary» on the territory of the burial ground (Sakhtysh IIa), not far from the «sanctuary» (Sakhtysh II), not far from burials (Sakhtysh I and Sakhtysh IIa), in and near dwellings (Sakhtysh I). Most figurines in one way or another are associated with burials and funeral rituals. The connection between the figurines and funerary practices is most clearly traced on the territory of the Volosovo burial ground Sakhtysh II.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):178-187
pages 178-187 views

Eneolithic ceramics of the Ozymenki II site in Primokshan

Andreeva O.V., Vybornov A.A., Korolev A.I., Shalapinin A.A., Stavitsky V.V.


The paper analyzes a complex of ceramics of the Volosovskaya culture of the Ozymenki II parking lot located in Primokshan within the framework of a typological and historical-cultural approach to the study of pottery. Previously, the authors published the Neolithic materials of this monument; this work is devoted to the Eneolithic ware. In the course of the study, the most stable forms of corollas, ornamental elements and ornamental motifs were identified. To carry out a technical and technological analysis, the Volosovskaya ceramics were divided into groups according to the characteristic elements of the ornament. The tradition of selecting raw materials characteristic of all Eneolithic ceramics of the site was highlighted: the predominant use of plastic (unpeeled) silty clay in a naturally moistened state. Recipes of the molding mass are also recorded, which demonstrate a variety of options: MC + FB + OS, MC + FB + C + OS, IPRM + C + OS, MC + CS + C + OS, MC + OS, MC + FB. According to the results of the study, the authors concluded that the materials of this monument should be attributed to the middle stage of the Volosovskaya culture, since there is a combination of dishes without ornament and dense ornamentation, a weakly profiled form of vessels prevails, there are no L-shaped corollas.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):188-194
pages 188-194 views

Genetic markers of domestication (some features of interpretation of laboratory data of paleogenetic researches)

Kuznetsov P.F., Fomenko S.V.


The paper reviews the findings of two research groups, published in the journal «Nature», that focus on the genetic aspects of horses’ domestication in the Bronze Age. Creating coherence and overcoming the contradictions between the data of paleogenetics and archeology through meta-description, which is based on the prevalence of selection, turns into the some controversial conclusions, including: extrapolation caused by the transfer of anthropomorphic characteristics to the physiological characteristics of the horse and the reduction of actors of social processes to genetic markers. In the context of articles on medical genetics and sociology of science, it is proposed to overcome controversies through a change in the optics of analysis of genetic data in the problem of domestication: rejection of the meta-description of the researching phenomena and the actualization of the logic of «meeting» social needs and mutational variability preceding domestication. In addition, the paper deals with the problem of interpreting the genetic data of horse domestication only as a hypothesis. The problem is that there is a significant chronological gap of 500–700 years between genetic ancestors and genuine domestic horses (Dom-2). This period includes such significant archaeological cultures as Abashevskaya, post-Poltavka Volga-Ural and others.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):195-200
pages 195-200 views

Troitskoye 5 - a new archaeological site of the Stone-Bronze Age in the Samara Volga region

Stashenkov D.A., Kochkina A.F., Kuznetsova L.V., Salugina N.P., Lastovsky A.A.


In the course of an exploratory survey of the left bank of the Chapaevka River on the territory of the Bezenchuksky District in the Samara Region in 2020–2021, a multilayer archaeological site of the Stone and Bronze Ages Troitskoye 5 was discovered. The archaeological site is located not far from the previously studied sites of Troitskoye 1 and Troitskoye 2. On the territory of the archaeological site, stratigraphic pits were laid, the boundaries were determined, and lifting material was collected. The main cultural layer of the Troitskoye 5 site belongs to the Stone Age. On the territory of the stone age site a settlement of the Srubnaya culture of the Bronze Age arose later. The paper deals with the analysis of the resulting collection of flint tools and ceramic material. It is concluded that the surveyed settlement contains cultural layers of two eras: the Stone and Bronze Ages. The absence of typical labor tools, clear stratigraphic references, and bone remains make it difficult to determine the time of the early settlement. Preliminarily, its existence can be assumed within the broad framework of the final Paleolithic-Neolithic. It is possible that the existence of at least part of the complex of stone artifacts from the settlement of Troitskoye 5 is associated with the Mesolithic era. In general, the complex of material from the Troitskoye 5 site corresponds to the materials obtained earlier during the survey of the Troitskoye 1 and Troitskoye 2 sites. The finds of the Bronze Age are represented by fragments of pottery typical of the Srubna culture of the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. The technical and technological analysis of ceramics was carried out within the framework of the historical and cultural approach, the main provisions of which were developed and introduced into scientific circulation by A.A. Bobrinsky.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):201-212
pages 201-212 views

Early Medieval burial complex of the burial mound of Maslennikovo I in the Samara Volga region

Myshkin V.N., Turetskiy M.A., Bogachev A.V., Khokhlov A.A.


This paper is devoted to the publication of materials obtained during the study of the burial of the early Middle Ages in the burial mound Maslennikovo I. This necropolis is located in the steppe southwestern part of the Samara Trans-Volga region. The excavated mound 1 was built in the Bronze Age in the process of making eight burials of this time. Burial 2, admitted into the floor of the embankment in its southern part, dates back to the Middle Ages. The burial was made in a grave pit in the shape of an elongated oval and oriented with its long axis along the NW-SE line. The buried man lay stretched out on his back with his head to the northwest. The bone of a horse’s leg lay at his head. Gold foil fragments, which may have been the remains of a symbolic death mask, and earrings were also found in the area of the head. The remains of a wooden object with silver plates at the edges, probably of a quiver on the chest of a deceased burial were found. The remains of a scabbard, which also had silver plates there were in the region of the pelvis and between the thigh bones. Seven silver sewn-on plaques with embossed ornaments and several poorly preserved iron objects were found in the grave. The peculiarities of the funeral rite and accompanying implements make it possible to include this complex in the number of burials attributed by researchers as Magyar (proto-Magyar, Hungarian) and to consider it as the burial of an individual integrated into the ethnocultural environment of the Hungarians of the Middle Volga region of the 9th–10th centuries.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):213-219
pages 213-219 views

Ilya Yaroslavich - the forgotten son of Yaroslav the Wise

Abukov S.N.


The paper is devoted to the circumstances of the biography of the eldest son of Yaroslav the Wise Ilya, the origin and burial place of his mother. The author is convinced of the reality of the existence of this prince, despite his single mentions in the sources and the doubt of a number of researchers in this matter. His historicity, as well as additional details of his biography, stand on the basis of indirect data, thanks to which this eldest son of Yaroslav the Wise acquires specific features. Ilya Yaroslavich was the prince of Novgorod during his father’s struggle for Kiev. At the same time, it seems that Ilya Yaroslavich died very young and therefore could not marry. His supposed wife, the sister of Knud the Great, was married to one of Vladimir Svyatoslavich’s sons. As for Ilya’s mother, it is difficult to establish her origin, as well as the place of her burial. The remains recognized in the XV century in the Novgorod St. Sophia Cathedral hardly belong to the first wife of Yaroslav the Wise. At least she wasn’t an old woman and died long before the cathedral was built. In general, there is an obvious confusion with some burials in this cathedral, which makes it difficult to identify them. The fact of the subsequent silencing of Ilya Yaroslavich in the sources follows from the origin of this prince from his father’s first marriage, unlike all other sons who were born from the second wife of Yaroslav the Wise. The second reason for the actual exclusion of the prince from the Rurikids was the early death of Ilya in the north of Rus’.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):220-224
pages 220-224 views

Value attitudes of the Russian nobility in the late 18th - middle 19th centuries: gender aspect

Lisitsyna O.I.


The purpose of the paper is to reveal the gender specifics of the behavioral norms of the Russian nobility in the late 18th – mid 19th centuries. The author stands on the positions of the approaches of historical anthropology, the history of everyday life and gender history. The conclusions are based on the analysis of sources of personal origin and literary texts of the era. The paper touches upon the problem of discursive differences between «male» and «female» writing, but the main attention is paid to behavioral differences. It is concluded that there are pronounced differences both in value attitudes and in the behavior of men and women. This was due to the fact that much more prohibitions were imposed on women’s everyday life. Moreover, the behavior of unmarried representatives of the noble class was subjected to particularly strict regulation. Unlike the young men, they were under constant control and supervision from the family and the entire noble society as a whole. This was due to the category of «honor», which also had significant gender specificity. If for a man, «honor» meant his qualities and merits, for a woman «honor» meant «chastity», that is, the ability to abstain from sexual contact outside of marriage. Numerous taboos weaken after the marriage of a noblewoman, but internal attitudes and self-control determine the stability of their behavior patterns.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):225-230
pages 225-230 views

Masculinity development in civil educational institutions of post-reform Russia (on the basis of noble memoirs)

Tregubova M.S.


The paper, based on the memoirs of the nobles – graduates of gymnasiums and colleges, deals with the features of masculinity development in civilian educational institutions of pre-revolutionary Russia. The reform of education in the second half of the 19th century was due to the training of new professional personnel. Educational institutions became the center of civic education. Moral character and discipline were a fundamental aspect in the process of education. The choice of an educational institution for young men and their parents was an important step for a successful career. Hazing is characteristic of both military educational institutions and civilian ones. Physical training within the walls of civilian educational institutions was also given attention. For young noblemen, the manifestation of masculinity consisted primarily in serving their country in the state, scientific and teaching fields. The years spent at an educational institution were perceived by future men in different ways. The authorities and the teaching staff taught the foundations of humanism, patriotism and humanity to their students. But the work of a teacher and educators at a civilian educational institution was not easy. However, the all-class education showed that the nobility was losing its supremacy, but despite this, it formed a sense of tolerance among young nobles.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):231-236
pages 231-236 views

Microbiologist Z.V. Ermolyeva - a pioneer in the study of the antibacterial agent lysozyme in the USSR in the 1930s

Gorshenin A.V.


The paper considers a contribution of the Russian microbiologist Zinaida Vissarionovna Ermolyeva to the study of the antibacterial agent lysozyme in the 1930s. The author uses unpublished documents of the Russian State Archive of Economics, the State Archive of the Russian Federation, as well as specialized scientific publications. The scientist and the employees of Microbes Biochemistry Department of the Biochemical Institute named after A.N. Bach, which she headed, managed to study the properties of lysozyme, the peculiarities of its effect on various microorganisms under the influence of various factors, to discover new sources of it, as well as to conduct experiments on animals to determine the therapeutic effect. Zinaida Vissarionovna and her colleagues modified the method of obtaining pure lysozyme. The discoveries of Z.V. Ermolyeva are important due to the fact that after receiving positive results of the action of the studied drug, she immediately tried to introduce it into medical practice. The paper highlights the participation of the scientist in the All-Union Mendeleev Congress, as well as in the meetings of the specialized commission of the Scientific Medical Council of the People’s Commissariat of Health of the RSFSR, which examined the successes of her department in the study of lysozyme. The scientific activity of Z.V. Ermolyeva in the 1930s was a powerful foundation on which, during the war, she worked to obtain a domestic antibiotic – penicillin

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):237-240
pages 237-240 views

The air confrontation on the Soviet-German front at the beginning of Great Patriotic War viewed through the prism of rivalry of the fighter aircraft designer engineers

Mukhamedzhanov I.R.


Based on materials from domestic archives and other sources this paper deals with issues faced by the Red Army Air Force in 1942 due to the increased German fighters’ preponderance in some technical features. The delay in speed and climb rate of similar type of Soviet aircraft defined their own defensive posture enemy dominance in air battle. To solve the problem of improving the flight data of domestic fighter aircraft, a set of measures was taken by the leadership of the country – the People’s Commissariat of the Aviation Industry (PCAI) and aircraft design engineers. The decision to install the engine M-82 on the LaGG-3 fighter designed by S.A. Lavochkin, V.P. Gorbunov and M.I. Gudkov, which had put into serial production before WW II breaking out, happened to be advanced. However, the German designers had been also developing. They developed another modification of the Messerschmitt Me-109 – «G». Moreover, a new enemy of military aircraft fighter appeared at the front – the Focke-Wulf FV-190. The created La-5 did not have parity in flight data with these enemy aircraft. Boosting the M-82 engine and installing a direct fuel injection unit on it made it possible to increase engine power and significantly improve the flight data of the La-5. As a result of overcoming a complex of issues, Soviet design engineers managed to create and launch into mass production a competitive La-5FN aircraft that met the requirements of the armed struggle on the Soviet-German front of WW II.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):241-245
pages 241-245 views

Methodological features of the study of «combat films» in the United States of 1941-1945

Buranok S.O.


In modern studies on the history of wars, a fairly popular direction is the study of information discourse specifics. A special role in this discourse is played by propaganda through cinematography, which uses images, historical symbols and stable metaphors, the appeal to which can form a certain public reaction. The study of the main aspects of this topic is impossible without recourse to interdisciplinary methods of the humanities, developed as a result of a number of «turns» in the development of modern humanitarian knowledge, including «anthropological», «linguistic», «cultural», calling to study the perception of the world, human behavior in the past in the totality of socio-economic, political, cultural practices adopted in the studied society at a given time. In addition, an appeal to the methods of historical imagology will make it possible to trace the evolution of the process of visualization and mythologization of the Second World War in US cinematography more accurately. Without the study of the basic principles, methods, mechanisms and tools of this process it is extremely difficult to understand the peculiarities of the development and interaction of cinema and US propaganda at subsequent historical stages and the present. American scientists have achieved significant results in the study of directors’ creative biographies, in the specifics of their interaction with federal government bodies, and in the analysis of the activities of the Office of War Information in the field of cinematography.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):246-249
pages 246-249 views

The invalids of the Great Patriotic War in the Urals and their rehabilitation after the War

Khomyakova N.V.


This paper deals with the problems of involving invalids of the Great Patriotic War through rehabilitation in the postwar life of society. It points out that after the Great Patriotic War invalid’s rehabilitation was a complex of events for employment, professional education, health recovery and social adaptation in the region as well as in the whole country. On the one hand, there were many mechanisms of solving war invalid’s problems. On the other hand, the government was very active in using administrative and financial resources. The public activities were also invaluable, they included board Trustees, patronage organizations, months, creative institutions of public inspectors. The author has come to the conclusion that the war invalids solved their material and everyday problems and felt their importance and necessity in the society because professional and medical rehabilitation helped them to promote state tasks in solution of making up working resources. However, during Stalinism period the problems of war rehabilitation weren’t solved in spite of those social practices.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):250-254
pages 250-254 views

The revolutionary movement and the practice of public funerals based on the sources of personal origins

Sokolova A.D.


The paper examines the tradition of politicized public funerals, which was of great importance among those who sympathized with revolutionary ideas in pre-revolutionary Russia, using materials of personal sources. Public funerals of this kind went beyond the boundaries of the traditional confessional funeral rite to a large extent and elicited serious anxiety from the authorities. It is shown that this tradition was born and formed in the second half of the 19th century and allowed the public to express political ideas bypassing the censorship restrictions of that period. The politicized funeral attracted large crowds of participants and spectators, accompanied by revolutionary songs, and ended with speeches and a «civil funeral». The significance of politicized public funerals as a performative practice is shown. It is noted that politicized funerals were not always anti-religious in nature. The reaction of contemporaries to the mass politicized funeral is considered. Memoirists note the extra-state nature of a funeral of this kind, which made it possible to maintain perfect order even without the participation of the police. It is shown that by the time of the 1917 revolution, public revolutionary funerals were already a well-formed social phenomenon, and the ritual of the ceremonial burial of the victims of the revolution on the Field of Mars dates back precisely to this practice.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):255-259
pages 255-259 views

The history of the Tatar-Bashkir Diaspora formation in Turkey

Sadykova L.R., Salikhov A.G.


This scientific paper studies the formation of Tatar-Bashkir communities in Turkey. This problem is poorly covered in the scientific literature, which actualizes the study of this topic. The study of the existing literature on Russian emigrants reveals the features of resettlement from Russia. At the beginning of the paper the authors consider the history of emigration of the Turkic peoples from the Ural-Volga region to Turkey. The authors briefly showed various forms of resettlement from Russia to Turkey. It’s the first time the paper has reflected the documentary history of the Society of Culture and Social Assistance of the Idel-Ural Turks in Istanbul from the moment of its formation to the present. A wide range of sources and literature, such as official documents, funds of the National Archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan, personal archives of the authors, were involved in the disclosure of the research problem. The constituent documents of the said company were used in the work: charters officially adopted in 1955 and 1992. The paper lists functioning Tatar-Bashkir communities in Turkey. It examines the activities of some well-known and little-known public figures of emigration. It is concluded that thanks to the activities of Tatar-Bashkir societies in Turkey, emigrants manage to preserve their cultural identity.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):260-264
pages 260-264 views

Pedagogical Sciences

The relationship between the quality of GPs training and the content of educational programs

Astanina S.Y., Drapkina O.M., Shepel R.N.


This paper examines the problem of the relationship between the quality of GPs training and the content of educational programs in the context of a new structure of professional education. The authors have identified legislative provisions governing changes in the foundations for the development of Federal state educational standards for higher education (the level of highly qualified personnel training in clinical studies). They have also determined regulatory requirements for the structure of clinical studies program, the level of training of GPs and the conditions for implementing the program. The paper presents guidelines for professional competencies identification as a result of GPs training. The composition and structure of GP professional competence has been determined. The comparative characteristics of professional competencies and labor functions have been presented. The authors have presented the assessment results of the quality of the content of GPs training programs carried out by the experts of Medical Research Center for Therapy and Preventive Medicine of the Ministry of Health of Russia as well as scientific and pedagogical workers of therapeutic departments of 24 medical universities of the Ministry of Health of Russia. The study has shown that in modern conditions the content of GPs training requires updating, since the quality of specialists training is determined by their ability to solve professional problems using knowledge that provides the development of skills for GP labor functions performing. The obtained materials can serve as a basis for further monitoring of the quality of specialists training.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):265-271
pages 265-271 views

Semantic reading as a means of students’ ecological worldview development in the process of learning Geography

Beketova S.I., Kubyshkina E.N., Gubeeva S.K., Ulengov R.A., Urazmetov I.A., Khayaleeva A.D.


The paper deals with ecological worldview development among students capable of self-development and self-education on the basis of universal educational actions in the light of modern requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard of General Education in Geography. The issue of environmental competence as an integral part of the scientific worldview is touched upon. The authors have highlighted worldview ecological knowledge as a substantive basis of the worldview for all courses of school Geography; they have also noted ecological skills. The components of the ecological worldview (cognitive, value-normative, moral-strong-willed and practical) are considered. Attention is paid to the issues of intellectual development as the central link of the scientific worldview, the conditions for ecological worldview development, the selection of the content of educational material, the use of intersubject connections, the establishment of cause-and-effect relationships, the use of modern pedagogical technologies. The authors’ attention is also focused on the technology of problem-based learning as a basis for student-centered learning technologies – technology for project activities development and case technology. Particular attention is paid to the technology for critical thinking development through reading and writing as the most optimal and rational technology for universal general educational action development – semantic reading. It is one of the elements of reading competence related to the key cognitive competence that forms the basis of the cognitive component of the ecological worldview. The results of experimental work aimed at semantic reading skills development are presented.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):272-280
pages 272-280 views

Cybersocialization as a factor of university students’ adaptation to distance learning conditions

Burenina S.Y., Kalinina S.B.


This paper examines the problem of cyberspace, which is becoming a field for discussion of both political, economic, social problems and issues related to personal life, learning and development processes. The process of spontaneous socialization, where the agents have traditionally been the institutions of family and education, is complicated by modern global information computer technology, which has naturally led to cyberevolution. The necessity of entering cyberspace in the sphere of education is considered. The authors describe the need to include the student community in the learning process through online technologies using modern learning platforms (Moodle, Microsoft Teams, etc.). The paper considers cybersocialization phenomenon as the main factor of socio-pedagogical adaptation of students with the need to exit to a positive cybersocialization. Particular emphasis is placed on the positive aspects of cybersocialization of students, and the problems of students’ adaptation to distance learning conditions are studied. The paper presents the results of the development and implementation of socio-pedagogical program of students’ adaptation to distance learning conditions. The conducted research showed the orientation of students to distance learning format, where a certain role is given to curators of study groups and teachers in solving the problems of students’ cybersocialization. At the same time, the independence and motivation of students in solving this problem is important. The obtained materials can serve as a basis for understanding the process of socialization of modern students to the conditions of distance education.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):281-287
pages 281-287 views

Socio-cultural phenomenon of childhood in the aspect of ethnopedagogy

Vorobieva L.B., Mitchenko Z.V.


The paper is devoted to the functioning of the socio-cultural phenomenon of childhood in the Pskov folklore discourse. Pskov tales were chosen as the object of study, since narrative texts are the most important units of communicative dialectology, and it is the dialect system of the national language that explicates traditional culture. A fairy tale is a result of collective creativity and at the same time retains individual creativity features. The work was carried out in the aspect of philological regional studies problems – the study of Pskov folk speech and Pskov folklore. The paper examines the traditional model of the family and its hierarchy as a basis for folk culture constancy, forms a collective image of the child, focuses on the issues of ethnopedagogy. The specificity of the material sharpens the discursive aspect of the topic and allows one to study verbal forms of being in the sphere of «children’s», as well as the ways of its representation in the language. The authors come to the conclusion that fairy-tale texts reflecting the world of childhood are built according to the principle of oppositional relations, traditional for folklore genres. The dualism of good and evil, life and death, one’s own and another’s act as culturological constants around which private transformations are built, reflecting the semantics of the subculture of childhood: parents – children, daughter – son, native – non-native, large families – childlessness and other oppositions. The subculture of childhood of the rural population of the Pskov Region appears as a complex socio-cultural phenomenon, organized according to the principle of binary oppositions, which is an integral part of traditional culture.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):288-292
pages 288-292 views

Prevention of extremism and terrorism as a process of students' citizenship development

Grigorieva O.N., Gavrilova N.A., Devyatkina A.P.


The paper examines the process of students’ civic position development through the system of preventive work of the ideology of extremism and terrorism. A special place in the aggravation of social tension among young people has a complex of solutions to social problems, including problems of the quality of education, accessibility of services in the sphere of culture and art, social inequality, significant stratification of society into poor and rich. The authors consider youth as an object of state policy, on the position of activity of which the vector of development of Russia will depend. Socially, young people at student age risk being marginalized when their views on what is happening in society have not yet been established, and their behavior is not determined by practically any socio-economic factors. The spread of the ideology of extremism among young people today is becoming the most dangerous social phenomenon in modern society, and extremism can develop into more serious crimes, such as terrorism, murder, infliction of grievous bodily harm, mass demonstrations and riots. The paper presents the results of preventive work with students aimed at the development of attitudes of tolerant behavior, religious tolerance, peacefulness.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):293-296
pages 293-296 views

Students’ self-educational activity actualization based on the mixed learning technology implementation

Karpova O.L.


The phenomenon of self-educational activity as a factor of ensuring prospective specialists’ quality of education and successful training is actualized in this paper. The need for innovative technologies development contributing to the self-educational activities actualization and meeting both patterns of students’ development, their needs, and modern trends in the educational process organization at the university is indicated here. Noting the advantages of traditional and distance learning forms, their disadvantages are also identified when applied separately. Students’ needs in terms of choosing the format of study at the university are analyzed. The necessity to use the student’s digital potential with benefit and for the benefit, which consists in the fact that modern youth easily own various gadgets and spend most of their time on the Internet is shown in the paper. Based on the theoretical analysis carried out, the essence and content of the mixed learning technology is presented as an integration of traditional and electronic formats, organically combining pedagogical components, collectively ensuring the actualization of students’ self-educational activities. The content of the mixed learning technology is revealed as a series of consistently implemented stages (motivational, integration-activity, reflexive-evaluative). Reflection and formative assessment are of great importance at all stages of its implementation. A high degree of flexibility and adaptability of this technology in the educational space of the university is indicated in the paper.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):297-300
pages 297-300 views

Methodology for the implementation of an ecological-evolutionary approach in the study of biology of early bird ontogenesis

Lamekhova E.A.


This paper discusses the methodology for implementing the ecological-evolutionary approach while studying the biology of early bird ontogenesis. A special result of biological knowledge development is the emergence of two methodological constructs: the idea of development and the idea of organization. The essence and nature of the methodological interpretations of the ecological-evolutionary approach are different, as well as the formulations of the problems that are solved using this approach. The development of the methodology of the ecological-evolutionary approach in the study of the early ontogenesis of birds can be successfully implemented using the example of mass bird species, for which the pre-breeding and nesting stages of the annual life cycle have been studied. The tasks are aimed at the development of systemic and critical thinking among students, which is expressed in the students’ mastery of such a universal competence as the ability to search, critically analyze and synthesize information, apply a systematic approach to solving tasks. It is advisable to develop these universal competencies on the basis of actual biological material that can interest students. The first group of tasks is based on the information about the biology of the early ontogenesis of black-headed gulls, obtained in the course of the field research. The second option of tasks can be tasks that require additional use of literature by the student when answering questions. The third version of tasks provides for elements of students’ independent study of specific biological objects. Thus, the influence of environmental factors on a biological object or process and the reaction to the influence of the factor are taken into account.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):301-306
pages 301-306 views

Development of geoinformation competencies among students majoring in History and Geography (44.03.05 Pedagogical Education)

Markov D.S., Ginko V.I., Malygin A.D.


This paper provides basic principles for the development and use of geoinformation software and methodological complexes of pedagogical education in the organization of distance learning at the university. The relevance of the topic of the work is due to the need to optimize the educational process at the university when studying a number of academic disciplines involving the use of geoinformation systems. In the context of increasingly and actively developing distance learning technologies, the use of traditional methodological techniques in the educational process reduces the effectiveness of cartographic and geoinformation competencies development among students, primarily due to the inability to use computer classes and other elements of the educational environment of the university. The main attention in this work is paid to the principles of development and use of educational and methodological geoinformation projects based on information from Earth remote sensing data, electronic maps, attribute tables and specialized databases. The basic concept of geoinformation software and methodological complexes development is based on the theory of neogeography. The paper presents the authors’ interpretation of the term «geoinformation competence», which correlates with the main planned learning outcomes in the context of the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard. The proposed methods and approaches allow a modern university teacher to effectively manage the process of creating educational and scientific projects of geographical orientation by students. Free software and source data are supposed to be used as they allow obtaining high-quality cartographic materials of modern level and contribute to students’ geoinformation competencies development. The research results are used to organize the educational process among students majoring in pedagogical education in the aspect of geoinformation competencies development. The authors have carried out a comparative analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of modern geoinformation tools for the use of specialized GIS, software and methodological complexes and web services by teachers and students. As a result of the work, recommendations are given on the organization of the educational process, which contribute to geoinformation competencies development among students – prospective teachers in the context of distance learning at a modern university.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):307-313
pages 307-313 views

Advantages of cooperative methods in teaching professionally-oriented foreign languages to students of technical universities

Odaryuk I.V., Kotliarenko I.Y.


The major cause of the given study is the urgent necessity to develop effective information and communication technologies to employ in teaching professionally-oriented foreign language to students of technical universities. The digital transformation in teaching practices makes both educators and theorists search for new teaching methods and technologies. Collaborative learning or leaning in cooperation is an advanced educational approach that aims to facilitate students’ learning. This study is focused on describing theoretical foundations, analyzing practical application, and examining advantages of collaborative learning technologies in comparison with traditional ones. The paper defines the concept, main principles, and implementation stages of this method, as well as advantages and potential of collaborative learning. We have revealed that collaborative learning greatly contributes to an increase of the language proficiency level and to the development of professional communicative competence in foreign languages. The study was carried out using a wide array of theoretical methods, including investigation, description, review and analysis of literature in the field of teaching foreign languages to students of technical universities. The findings of our study might be useful for both education theorists and practitioners who are interested in cooperative methods and their usage as classroom activities. To further our research, we intend to analyze the use of collaborative learning technology, expand its possibilities and enhance the efficiency of its application in teaching foreign languages at technical universities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):314-319
pages 314-319 views

The practice of teaching a «Foreign language» course in a non-linguistic university in the format of distance learning

Perkova E.L., Shirobokova L.P.


This paper is devoted to the problem of distance learning of the course «Foreign language» in Kursk State Agricultural Academy. The authors note the advantages and disadvantages of distance education compared to the traditional one as well as provide a variety of techniques and forms of work in order to develop communication skills and form a stable motivation to learn a foreign language. It is proved that the use of modern information technologies and the electronic information and educational environment (EIEE) facilitates the teacher’s work on the selection and application of relevant material in the classroom, both lexical and grammatical, contributing to the activation of students’ cognitive interests in a foreign language. The paper notes the importance of the practical application of video and audio materials, multimedia presentations, test tasks, online discussions of issues and educational films related to both household and professional activities. The methods and forms of work on the introduction, development and practical application of the material reflecting the specifics of students’ major in higher school are proposed. The paper contains examples of practice-oriented tasks, exercises, texts of general and special orientation, as well as the names of sites that can help in explaining the grammar of a foreign language.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):320-324
pages 320-324 views

The methodology of practical botany classes in distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic

Tokar O.E.


The forced emergency widespread transition to distance learning during the COVID 19 pandemic period required the urgent development of new tools for working in the digital environment, adaptation to new methods of communication in the system teacher – student. The use of digital tools and technologies in the implementation of bachelor’s studies in the context of the digitalization of higher education and the introduction of online education complicated the teacher’s activity in designing the learning process. There was a lack of research devoted to the study and description of teaching Biology practice (including Botany) in the online format, there were no teaching materials for organizing practical work with students. In connection with the situation, it was necessary to search for new ways to implement various types of activities in the distance format, search for new ways of communication in the system teacher – student, and test modern pedagogical technologies. Since the autumn of 2020, many universities, including P.P. Ershov Ishim Pedagogical Institute (Branch) of Tyumen State University, have been successfully using the Microsoft Teams platform. The following methods were used during the study: theoretical and comparative analysis of literature, systematization and synthesis, collection and evaluation of the results of the completed tasks (reports on working with cases, test results and questionnaires). The results of the individual task – a report on working with case illustrations showed that 47% of students were rated «satisfactory» and 53% of students – «good». The qualitative progression, according to the test results, was 53%. The results of the survey «Reflexive Screen» made it possible to identify the positive effect, obtained from the lesson held in the online format (100% of students were interested in the lesson). The paper describes in detail the methods for online teaching Botany at the lesson, conducted in the winter of 2021, and analyzes it.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):325-331
pages 325-331 views

The ways to develop students’ self-organization and self-education competences in the process of studying further mathematics

Trindyk T.V., Kochetova N.G.


The paper describes the way of pedagogical conditions implementation that ensures the development of self-organization and self-education competences among technical university students. The theoretical substantiation of the need to create an integral complex of such conditions at a technical university is presented, the definition of organizational, pedagogical, psychological and didactic conditions for the development of self-organization and self-education competences among students is given, and the means of their implementation developed by the authors are listed. The possibilities of the traditional subject content are shown on the example of the course «Further Mathematics» for the purposeful development of cognitive, personal and activity components of self-organization and self-education competences. Examples from the developed set of tasks for the course «Further Mathematics» are given, as well as tasks of a project and research nature. All these tasks are aimed at the development of such regulatory actions that are part of self-organization and self-education competences, as forecasting, goal setting, planning, control, reflection, as well as such qualities of thinking as flexibility (variability), rationality, speed. Some results of experimental verification of the developed tasks effectiveness (for the activity and personal components of self-organization and self-education competences) are presented, proving the expediency of using them in the educational process at the university. The methods described in the paper for the pedagogical conditions implementation that ensure the development of self-organization and self-education competences among students of a technical university are invariant with respect to the subject content and can be extended to teaching other disciplines.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):332-339
pages 332-339 views

Features of balanced online and offline teaching of mathematics to students with disabilities

Yankevich O.A., Balabaeva N.P., Enbom E.A.


In modern conditions of the accelerated development of inclusive education in higher education, there is a need for a continuous search for appropriate and flexible solutions in the choice of technologies, methods and teaching aids. A detailed study, development and implementation of specific technologies are required to ensure the active and effective inclusion of students with disabilities in the educational process. In this regard, the main problem is the teacher’s choice of didactic methods, tools and technologies that allow organizing the learning process with the proper degree of effectiveness for all students, including students with disabilities. Modern inclusive education involves information barriers elimination for knowledge development, which is ensured by the active inclusion of distance learning technologies in the educational process. At the same time, a complete transition to a distance learning format negatively affects the process of social adaptation of people with disabilities, so a reasonable combination of online and offline forms of education is the most acceptable. This paper analyzes the problem of building the most effective model for teaching people with disabilities, based on the interaction of traditional and distance learning technologies. An example of solving this problem is considered based on the experience of teaching mathematical courses at Povolzhskiy State University of Telecommunications and Informatics and Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education.

Samara Journal of Science. 2022;11(1):340-344
pages 340-344 views

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