Vol 10, No 2 (2021)

Pedagogical Sciences

Management aspects of blended learning implementation in an educational organization: the main problems and ways to solve them

Bryksina O.F.


This paper examines the management tasks that the administration of an educational organization has to solve when introducing blended learning technology. Particular attention is paid to the creation of material and technical conditions, taking into account the specifics of blended learning models implementation, the organizational and regulatory components of this process in conditions of a lack of financial resources (in particular, centralized access to the resources of the school media center). The approaches to content creation for information and educational environment are analyzed, taking into account their variability and educational organization capabilities, the analysis of management decisions is carried out. Particular attention is paid to the preparation of subjects of the educational process for the implementation of blended learning. Considering the issues of improving the qualifications of teaching staff, a comprehensive analysis of the problem and the associated need for a systematic approach to its solution are noted; variability of managerial decision making; advantages of in-house training and the creation of temporary creative teams are noted. The paper reveals the problems of preparing students for blended learning, gives recommendations for extracurricular activities organization aimed at students’ digital competence development in accordance with the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard. In conclusion, it is noted that there is a need for a systematic and planned nature of measures to introduce blended learning and monitor the achievement of the set goals, which will require the development of a system of criteria and indicators of the attainability of the tasks.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):228-233
pages 228-233 views

Features of military personnel adaptation in modern conditions of army service

Vasyuk A.G.


The paper reveals essential characteristics of military personnel adaptation to the conditions of service in the army. The author believes that to understand the essence of adaptation it is necessary to understand modified, stressful living conditions and activities causing the inclusion of physiological, psychological, and physical functional reserves of the organism, some problems of adaptation: the relationship between commanders and soldiers, the relationship between the older soldiers and recruits, the commanders of insubordination, aggressive behavior, defiant behavior and factors of maladjustment: the low stress resistance of the organism, physiological reserves, poor physical fitness, lack of personal and psychological potential, non-acceptance of new rules and conditions of life, low training and combat training, unformed value-semantic orientation. A sociological study revealed the following problems of socio-psychological adaptation: insufficient psycho-pedagogical competence of commanders in matters of socio-psychological adaptation; a lack of specialists of social work; a lack of individual psychological assistance to servicemen who have difficulties of adaptation; a lack of the programme of adaptation work; insufficient development of individual methods, techniques and technologies of work; a lack of analysis of work; insufficient work with the team. The author sees the prospect of the research in the development of methods and techniques that can help to successfully support military personnel during their adaptation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):234-237
pages 234-237 views

The creative component of fostering personal culture among prospective teachers by means of foreign-language education

Volodina O.V.


In the paper special attention is paid to creativity and creative thinking development in the research of fostering personal culture among undergraduate pedagogical students by means of foreign-language education. Creativity is considered one of the essential principles of the civilization progress; «creativization of education» is one of the main aspects of the intellectualization of education that is associated with revealing personal creative traits and developing the capability to implement creative acts in the educational environment, social and professional spheres. The purpose of the paper is to analyze pedagogical conditions for developing emotional, creative and innovative potential of prospective teachers in various productive intellectual and creative activities using foreign language educational material. The methodological basis for identifying conditions for the development of creative thinking, cognitive, speech-thinking, communicative, regulatory, reflexive skills and the subject position of students for the development of personal intellectual culture of prospective teachers are the ontological, personal, environmental, activity approaches. The efficiency of creative tasks, creative technologies and methods of studying a foreign language is analyzed; these activities are used to train students to get knowledge and skills themselves in order to solve certain problems, to enrich the experience of practical application, to expose independence in creative activity and critical thinking, to foster the traits of a creative personality, to make a personally significant educational product of interaction and collective creativity, self-expression and self-realization of prospective teachers in the process of studying a foreign language at university.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):238-246
pages 238-246 views

Educational innovations in the context of forced digitalization in society during the pandemic

Ermakova Y.D.


The paper analyzes the current realities that force governments and societies to turn to digital technologies, responding to the crisis in the short term, eliminating the socio-economic consequences in the medium term, and rethinking the existing system and its tools in the long term. To overcome this difficult stage, most educational institutions are forced to use digital services and communication channels. Digital technologies allowed society to avoid complete stagnation during the COVID-19 crisis as well as prompted to accelerate the process of introducing artificial intelligence into all everyday realities. The implemented research methods allowed us to obtain results that indicate that at the moment we are at a turning point in the digital transformation of all spheres of life, including education, and the success that population is able to adapt and overcome technological gaps will determine the shape of future economies, education and society in general after the COVID era. More and more users, both newly joined and permanent, are expanding the scope of Internet services and resources use at times, pursuing more and more previously irrelevant tasks, thereby significantly increasing the time of their stay on the Internet. While some believe that an unplanned and rapid transition to online learning – with no training, insufficient bandwidth, and insufficient training – will lead to a poor user experience that will not lead to sustainable growth, others believe that a new hybrid education model with significant benefits will emerge. Many schools and universities have already made successful transitions. However, some students without reliable internet access and / or technology are struggling to participate in digital learning and we are going to bridge this gap.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):247-251
pages 247-251 views

Methodological foundations for selection of educational content about the structure and life of protozoa in the university course «Zoology»

Efimova N.V., Lamekhov Y.G., Lamekhova E.A.


The paper analyzes methodological foundations for selection of educational content about the structure and life of protozoa in the university course «Zoology» while training bachelors of «Pedagogical education» majoring in Biology and Chemistry. The authors test the hypothesis that the methodological foundations of the study of protozoa are the achievements of biological sciences, as well as formulated methodological constructs based on the recognition of ecological and evolutionary approaches. General scientific methods of theoretical knowledge as well as methods used at the empirical and theoretical levels of knowledge were used as research methods. The methodological foundations for selecting the educational content about the structure and life of protozoa in the university course «Zoology» are: general properties of living organisms, levels of life organization, ideas of development and structure, an ecological-evolutionary approach, description of co-evolutionary processes and the role of cognitive models. The belonging of unicellular organisms to the cellular level of life organization does not prevent their description taking into account the structural-functional approach with the substantiation of a close connection between the vital processes of unicellular and multicellular organisms. Methodological attitudes operating in biological knowledge are associated with an orientation towards the idea of development and organization. The study of unicellular organisms’ biology taking into account the above ideas is guided by ecological and evolutionary aspects. The formulated approach is important from a practical and theoretical point of view. The aspects of the practical application of knowledge about the biology of protozoa include, for example, the study of their role in the life of the biosphere. Evolutionary aspects in the description of protozoa are realized at the phylogenetic and ontogenetic levels.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):252-259
pages 252-259 views

Optimization of training time for self-conducting classes by cadet managers using a computer program in everyday activities

Kasavtsev M.Y., Rychkov D.V., Dulishkin R.M.


The paper describes the process of training sessions, where cadets-leaders are trained to independently teach military personnel general military regulations with an emphasis on the procedure for monitoring training time. Observations of military personnel conducted by the authors during the training showed that the issue of monitoring the methodological parts and the breaks between the hours of the class makes it necessary to distract the attention of military personnel from training with a certain frequency. Moreover, the switching of attention occurs among the cadet-head and the duty officer for the training group. The authors propose to solve this problem by automating the control of the chronology of the lesson through the use of computer technologies. As a result, a computer program was developed; it performs operations of monitoring training time in automatic mode and, if necessary, visualizes its timing. Testing of the developed program for military personnel training in the course of daily activities confirmed the hypothesis of the study and showed that after a period of cadets’ adaptation to the automation of training time control, its optimization is achieved due to a more complete concentration of students on the training process.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):260-265
pages 260-265 views

The study of anatomy and physiology by students majoring in non-biological pedagogical education in the context of distance learning

Komarova E.V.


The paper discusses the experience of organizing distance learning in 2019/2020–2020/2021 in the course «Anatomy and Physiology» for students majoring in non-biological pedagogical education. The features and difficulties of studying this course for these students are highlighted. The paper discusses necessary steps to improve the effectiveness of teaching the course. Among them there are minimization of natural visualization, the use of educational alternatives, the expansion of topics of physiological and functional tests, the rejection of the practice of memorizing terminology in Latin, teaching the technique of performing anatomical drawing, strengthening the practice-oriented component of the course content, systematic terminological work, inclusion of elements of age physiology in the content of the course. The paper describes the changes in the format of studying the course in 2020/2021 after distance learning experience in 2019/2020. The author presents and analyzes the results of a survey of students as a source of feedback on the effectiveness of the tools, methods and forms of teaching and control of knowledge in the course in the context of distance learning. The prospects for further research are highlighted, including the use of various educational platforms, development of a methodology for terminological work using distance technologies, strengthening of the bioethical component of the course content, creation of static and dynamic educational infographics and case pools on discipline topics.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):266-271
pages 266-271 views

Actual aspects of the problem of pedagogical support for gifted adolescents

Kremneva A.S., Markova N.G.


This paper deals with the problem of providing pedagogical support to gifted students, which is a priority task of modern education. Currently, the problem of supporting students is becoming more and more urgent, and the search for solutions to create the most favorable conditions for the development of gifted students, to promote the development of their personality and the realization of their potential in mass schools continues. The work on the development of the natural potential of a growing child should be carefully built, thoroughly individualized, using optimal methodological tools. The paper presents the result of a theoretical analysis for the definition of the concept of «pedagogical support», and presents the author’s interpretation of the concept of «guidance with pedagogical support» of gifted students. The result of the research presented in the paper is the development of a model of the individual educational route of gifted students as a tool of pedagogical support, as well as the results of testing the model, while monitoring the effectiveness of educational and cognitive activities of schoolchildren in the framework of the experiment. The materials of the paper are of practical value for students of pedagogical institutes and practicing teachers for the organization of individual work in school.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):272-276
pages 272-276 views

Teachers’ readiness for creating and implementing inclusive technologies into the educational process: structure components

Maltseva E.Y.


The aim of the research is to define the structure of the teachers’ readiness for creating and implementing inclusive technologies into the educational process. This problem is relevant nowadays due to the requirements for teachers’ functions that are established in the teacher’s professional standard. The author considers the main concepts: inclusive technologies, teacher’s professional readiness, teacher’s professional readiness to organize the educational process within the inclusive education framework; and the teacher’s readiness for creating and implementing inclusive technologies in the educational process in order to achieve the research goal. As a result, the author has identified and characterized the structural components of the teachers’ readiness for creating and implementing inclusive technologies into the educational process, such as: motivation-volitional, cognitive, operation-technological and reflexive. Each of the components can be formed at one of 4 levels: threshold, reproductive, productive and creative. The listed levels include the teachers’ knowledge, skills and abilities for creating and implementing the inclusive technologies into the educational process. Summing up, the research shows that the teachers’ readiness for creating and implementing inclusive technologies into the educational process is a complex of formed structural components. These components formations testify that a teacher is ready to create and implement inclusive technology into the educational process.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):277-280
pages 277-280 views

Application of electronic cases in teaching a foreign language to students majoring in Law and Economics: methodological and pedagogical aspects

Marunevich O.V., Simonova O.B.


The processes of globalization that have swept the whole world, including Russia, make the modern labor market extremely mobile. It poses a number of tasks for Russian higher school to train highly competent professionals who are fluent in foreign languages. Among many newest pedagogical technologies, the case-study method is viewed as promising and perspective. It appeared at the end of the 19th century in the USA, but became widespread in our country only at the turn of the 20–21 centuries. The analysis of the existing definitions of this concept allowed the authors to formulate their own definition of the term «electronic case», which is interpreted as a real situation prepared and loaded by the teacher into the digital learning environment of the university for subsequent comprehensive analysis and finding alternatives to its solution based on group discussions. Along with this, the authors managed to develop methodological requirements for educational electronic cases implemented at foreign language lessons at a university, to determine the range of key skills and abilities formed by the case method, to identify the advantages and disadvantages of public and non-public presentation of the case solution.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):281-285
pages 281-285 views

The development level of ecological culture among pharmaceutical students in the experimental training conditions in Peter the Great Botanical Garden of the BIN RAS

Musinova L.P., Mitina E.G., Kalugin Y.G.


Environmental education in botanical gardens that deals with the conservation and study of plant biodiversity and environmental protection can be successfully integrated into any level of education. A successful option for such integration can be considered an environmental project launched in 2021 for pharmaceutical students in Peter the Great Botanical Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences. The paper describes an experiment to identify the nature of the leading motives and the direction of student’s behavior in environmentally significant situations using the value-normative methodology of G.E. Zalessky. Experimental data allowed us to determine the preliminary typology of the level of environmental culture of pharmaceutical students before the start of the project. The results of the experiment show that the students of Murmansk Medical College developed a slightly higher level of ecological culture than the students of Saint Petersburg Pharmaceutical College (24% and 16%, respectively). However, at the same time 33% of the students of Murmansk Medical College showed a low level of ecological culture, which is almost twice higher than the students of Saint Petersburg Pharmaceutical College (16%). According to the indicator of a high level of ecological culture, pharmaceutical students of both experimental groups approach the results of O.I. Saltykova among schoolchildren and significantly exceed the results of students of other specialties.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):286-293
pages 286-293 views

The analysis of university teachers’ readiness to implement digital technologies in the educational process (based on a survey of the teaching staff of Foreign Languages Department)

Odaryuk I.V., Kotliarenko I.Y.


The purpose of this research is to study the teaching staff opinion on the use of digital technologies in the process of teaching foreign languages at a technical university. In the context of education transformation the question of finding and applying new interactive learning technologies becomes especially relevant. The teachers of Foreign Languages Department at Rostov State University pay great attention to this problem. The use of modern mobile applications in foreign language classes for teaching various types of speech activity shows positive results. In particular, the Mind Maps technology has been tested by us in class while teaching lexical topics corresponding to the steering documents of specialties. Its use in the educational process facilitates the perception and memorization of lexical material by students, promotes the development of speech skills, and makes the learning process exciting. It was found that in the course of working on the creation of Mind Maps, students with a high level of digital skills are more successful in overcoming the language barrier, striving to expand the scope and diversify the structure of Mind Maps. The results of a survey of teachers on the effectiveness of using this method in teaching foreign languages as well as the readiness to use digital techniques while working with students are presented. The positive and negative aspects of introducing digital methods into the educational process, the interest of senior teachers to use modern technologies and their active integration into the learning process are revealed. The results can be applied by university professors and school teachers in the process of teaching foreign languages and other courses. The research methods were the method of static description of the material, polling, analysis, comparison and generalization of scientific information.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):294-298
pages 294-298 views

Methods and technologies for practical competencies development in the field of industrial safety

Panyshev A.L., Gorina L.N.


In modern society, the final assessment of the result of the educational process is made by the employer, whose requests are focused primarily on professional qualities, which are based on the ability of a university graduate to make independent decisions in emerging industrial situations. Unfortunately, most of the existing content and technologies of training do not develop these qualities among students. In certain special areas of specialists training, the competencies developed in the educational institution do not allow the graduate to perform their official duties in the workplace in full. Unfortunately, such areas include the training of specialists in the field of industrial safety. Among the reasons for this situation is the creation of the education content without taking into account the requirements of regulatory legal documents in the field of industrial safety, the insufficient practical component of the educational process and the use of training technologies that do not allow to develop the required competencies. As a result, graduates who come to production still need a considerable amount of time to develop all the necessary competencies. Moreover, the resources of the enterprise, the actual working time of the specialist and other personnel are already spent on making up for these knowledge and skills not acquired at the university. In a situation of shortage of personnel, the presence of untrained specialists at a dangerous production facility increases the risk of accidents and incidents, with various social and economic consequences for society.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):299-303
pages 299-303 views

The use of algorithmic elements to improve the quality of foreign cadets vocational training at military universities

Tarasov A.V., Tarasova T.E.


This paper examines the use of elements of the theory of algorithms in order to improve the quality of foreign cadets’ education. A number of problems noted in teaching first-year cadets from Asian and African countries associates with poor knowledge of the Russian language at the time of training. Cadets have different levels of preliminary training that they have received in their countries. Algorithmic constructions help cadets to master the courses of the first year of study. The paper provides a methodological basis on scientific works of leading scientists and professors. According to the management of quality training theory, a respective approach is implemented in the organization of classes. The purpose of this work is substantiation and practical application of the proposed measures for managing the quality of foreign first-year-cadets training through graphic models based on the theory of algorithms. There are options for conducting a training session using a comprehensive teaching methodology, including systematization of knowledge, development of algorithmic thinking and the use of computer technologies. The results of conducting classes according to the proposed methodology show its effectiveness in training groups of foreign cadets.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):304-308
pages 304-308 views

Application of dynamic programming methods for solving a problem on recruiting with considering specific content of military technical education

Tarasova T.E., Tarasov A.V., Smirnova T.S.


This paper discusses the use of dynamic programming technologies in teaching cadets of military universities to solve optimization problems in the course of computer science. One of the key topics in such courses as higher mathematics and computer science in all civil and military technical universities is the optimization theory, familiarization with which is based on learning methods for solving a transport task, assignment problem, traveling salesman problem and others. An effective solution to this type of tasks is possible through automated computing tools, tabular processors, and programming systems. The specifics of training cadets at military universities dictates the need to formulate tasks with a focus on military-technical research. Optimization issues are considered as applied to possible real situations in the military service of future officers. The staffing task is solved through high-level programming. Some results of the comparative analysis of educational material assimilation in the control and experimental groups are given. A deeper understanding of the theoretical material by the cadets and confident practical knowledge of programming technologies and solving problems in general with the specified training approach are noted, and it’s confirmed by the results of the tests conducted by the authors of the paper.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):309-314
pages 309-314 views

General Biology

Ecological and genetic characteristics of «yellow» wagtail hybrids

Artemyeva E.A., Mishchenko A.V.


The paper examines ecological and genetic characteristics of hybrids of «yellow» wagtails: yellow white-eared wagtail Motacilla flava beema and yellow-fronted wagtail Motacilla lutea. At present, in the zone of contact between closely related forms of «yellow» wagtails, a system of their spatial and reproductive interaction with each other has been formed under conditions of wide sympatry. This interaction is manifested in the existence and maintenance in the population samples of three components of their genetic system: the genotypes M. flava, M. lutea, and the light-headed hybrid form M. f. beema × M. lutea. The new data obtained significantly supplement the understanding of the intraspecific interaction of three forms: M. flava, M. lutea, and the light-headed hybrid form M. f. beema × M. lutea. Light-headed hybrids M. f. beema × M. lutea have their own specific stable characters at different levels: morphological, behavioral, and molecular genetic as confirmation of the genetic interaction existing in natural populations between the two species, which is an interspecies mechanism for maintaining their structure. In the zone of contact between M. flava and M. lutea, unlimited hybridization of these species occurs and mixed pairs are formed. In this case, the isolation of light-headed hybrid forms with a characteristic manifestation of various groups of characters: morphological – the color of the plumage of the head; genetic – distinguishing light-headed hybrids from the original species (M. flava and M. lutea). This phenomenon can act as a mechanism for maintaining the integrity of the species of «yellow» wagtails – both the yellow wagtail M. flava and the yellow-fronted wagtail M. lutea due to the constantly occurring interspecific hybridization in areas of wide sympatry within a single polytypic complex.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):10-17
pages 10-17 views

The analysis of environmental space conditions for bryoflora forming in artificial pine communities of the Buzuluksky pine forest and the Krasnosamarsky forest

Bogdanova Y.A., Prokhorova N.V., Kavelenova L.M.


The paper deals with ecological conditions and peculiarities of bryoflora of artificial pine communities of the Buzuluksky pine forest and the Krasnosamarsky forest. The authors have revealed that the pine plantings of the Buzuluksky pine forest are characterized by a lower soil moisture and nitrogen supply than similar communities of the Krasnosamarsky forest in accordance with the criteria of D.N. Tsyganov scales. In addition, all communities belonging to the same territory show differences in the acidity and salt regime of soils as well as in moisture contrasts. The differences seem to be the result of a specific manifestation of parallel multidirectional successional processes (afforestation and steppe formation). For the bryofloras of the studied artificial pine communities, a significant similarity level (Czekanowski-Sörensen index of 0,7) and close values of the projective cover and vitality of bryophytes have been shown. However, the substrate preferences of bryophytes are significantly different: 85% of the species grow on soil in the Buzuluksky pine forest, while 52% of the species grow on soil and 39% of the species grow on decaying wood in the Krasnosamarsky forest. In addition, more intensive sporulation of bryophytes has been noted in artificial pine communities of the Krasnosamarsky forest and the share of dominant species in the projective cover is 47,7% there, and their share is 83,4% in the Buzuluksky pine forest. The authors have suggested that genetic polymorphism should underlie the revealed differences in the species similarity of bryofloras. Its manifestation is influenced, among other things, by the stage of ecological succession of plant communities in which bryophytes grow. It is the result of the implementation of strategies for bryophytes adaptation to existing conditions and reflects the stage of bryoflora formation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):18-23
pages 18-23 views

Fauna and ecology of mining flies of the genus Phytomyza (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Nagorno-Karabakh

Grigoryan N.M., Hovhannisyan V.S., Galstyan H.G., Balayan K.V.


The aim of the work was to study the species composition, as well as some behavior, ecology, biology issues, species’ distribution of the genus Phytomyza and research of cultivated and wild host-plants in Nagorno-Karabakh. Infected plant leaves, larvae and pupae of the mining flies collected from different geographical zones of Nagorno-Karabakh were served as scientific material. Species composition was determined under laboratory conditions after imagoes hatching from mines with larvae and pupae. Three species were identified, they belong to the genus Phytomyza: Phytomyza horticola (Goureau, 1851), Ph. plantaginis (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851) and Ph. lappae (Goureau, 1851). The polyphagous Ph. horticola species infect mainly the plant species of the families Brassicaceae, Asteraceae and Cucurbitaceae. The monophagous Ph. plantaginis and Ph. lappae species accordingly infect Plantago mayor and Arctium lappa plant species. The paper presents features of the genus, morphology and biology of imago, ecological characteristics of their larvae and pupae, mines, intensity and extensiveness of plant infection. The studies have shown that despite the similarity of some species of the genus in terms of external morphological characteristics, they differ in environments of pupal development, and more accurate identity of the species is determined by studying the reproductive organs. Among the studied species, the mines formed on the lower surface are always longer than the mines on the upper surface of the leaf blade. Methods of variance analysis showed that sexual dimorphism is most expressed among Ph. horticola. Taking into account the significant damage caused by the larvae of the Ph. horticola species to a group of vegetable crops, especially to the onion plant (Allium cepa), it can be included in the list of onion pests. The high damage to the leaves of weed plants by Ph. horticola larvae indicates the prospects of using this miner in the fight against weeds.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):24-30
pages 24-30 views

Variability of male gametophyte traits in morphological forms of Taraxacum officinale Wigg. s.l. under conditions of technogenic soil transformation

Zhuikova T.V., Kovalenko A.A., Mezina A.V.


The paper studies endogenous, individual and group variability of the traits «pollen grain fertility» and «size of fertile pollen grains» among two morphological forms of Taraxacum officinale Wigg. s.l., growing in coenopopulations in the gradient of technogenic soil transformation. The study area is the Pritagil zone of the Middle Urals (Nizhny Tagil city, Sverdlovsk Region, N 58°, E 60°). It was found that the studied morphological forms of dandelion in most cases are characterized by average endogenous, individual and group variability of the trait «pollen grain fertility» and low endogenous and individual variability of the trait «pollen grain size». The group variability for this trait is medium and low. The endogenous variability of pollen grain fertility and size among f. dahlstedtii on agrozems is slightly higher than on technozems. Among f. pectinatiforme the endogenous variability of pollen grain fertility is higher on agrozems only. An increase in the level of soil contamination on agrozems leads to a decrease in the endogenous variability of pollen grain fertility among both forms of dandelion. On technozems a similar reaction is expressed only among f. pectinatiforme. The analysis of the studied trait in the entire gradient of technogenic soil transformation indicates a significant influence of this factor only on the endogenous variability of pollen grain fertility among f. dahlstedtii. Despite the absence of statistically significant differences in the individual variability of the «pollen grain fertility» trait between dandelion forms, on average, the coefficients of its variation on agrozems are lower among f. dahlstedtii, and on technozems – among f. pectinatiforme. The same conclusion applies to the individual variability of the trait «size of fertile pollen grains». In general, among f. dahlstedtii the coefficients of variation of the studied signs of the male gametophyte are lower in agrozems than in technozems, among f. pectinatiforme the picture is reversed. On average, the proportion of plants with low (Cᵥ < 11%) individual variability in pollen grain fertility among f. dahlstedtii out of all the studied coenopopulations is 43,3% versus 61,7% among f. pectinatiforme. The influence of technogenic transformation of the environment is manifested in an increase in the proportion of f. pectinatiforme plants with a low level of variability of the studied traits in the coenopopulations of the buffer and impact zones. Among f. dahlstedtii the reverse pattern is characteristic only for pollen fertility. The group variability of pollen grain fertility in both agrozems and technozems is higher among f. dahlstedtii. With an increase in pollution on agro-soils, this indicator increases among both forms of dandelion, and decreases in technozems. There is a tendency to increase the group variability of pollen grain fertility among plants of both forms of T. officinale on technozems. An increase in the level of soil contamination on agrozems leads to an increase in the group variability of the trait «size of fertile pollen grains» among f. dahlstedtii and a decrease among f. pectinateforme. On technozems the opposite effect is noted. In general, the group variability of the studied trait among plants of both morphological forms of dandelion on agrozems is higher than on technozems.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):31-39
pages 31-39 views

Environmental and radiation assessment of construction materials in Tyumen

Zakharova E.V., Gaevaya E.V., Skipin L.N., Tarasova S.S., Burlaenko V.Z.


The current pace of construction leads to the use of large volumes of construction raw materials, which must meet the regulatory indicators, including radiation. High levels of natural radionuclide activity, both in construction and finishing materials, affect changes in the gamma radiation indicators in the premises, which can negatively affect the health of people living in such facilities. Ecological and radiation assessment of building materials for the content of natural radionuclides showed an increased natural activity of potassium-40. The maximum activity values were observed in samples of bricks and expanded clay, where they were 799,0 and 622,0 Bq/kg, respectively. The lowest specific activity of natural potassium was observed in the crushed stone sample (21,3 Bq/kg). The specific activity of thorium-232 in building materials ranged from 2,1 to 53,3 Bq/kg. The activity of radium-226 in all the studied samples ranged from 4,4 Bq/kg (crushed stone) to 55,6 Bq/kg (cement). The specific effective activity of natural radionuclides in the studied building materials does not exceed the standard values (370 Bq/kg), therefore, they can be used in all types of construction and reconstruction.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):40-44
pages 40-44 views

Phytoplankton of some rivers in the south of broadleaved forests subzone of the Middle Volga basin in a long-term perspective

Kulizin P.V., Vodeneeva E.L., Okhapkin A.G.


The paper provides information on the composition, structure and dynamics of phytoplankton of three morphologically different tributaries of the Cheboksary reservoir (the Vetluga, the Kerzhenets and the Vishnya rivers). The species composition of algae includes 826 species and intraspecific taxa, the flora was formed by diatom, green and euglena algae. It reflects the watercourses particularities of the southern taiga zone. Based on long-term studies of phytoplankton a change in the composition of algoflora by more than half was noticed, especially in the groups of Charophyta, Cryptophyta, Miozoa, Ochrophyta and Euglenophyta. An increase in quantitative indicators of algocoenoses from oligotrophic to oligotrophic-mesotrophic level in the middle reaches of rivers by mesotrophic-eutrophic level in estuarine areas is shown. In a fifty-year research series a tendency of phytoplankton reduction in size by more than 3,5 times has been established. It reflects the impact of eutrophication and gradual warming of the climate. The period of abnormally hot summer of 2010 led to increased vegetation in the middle reaches of rivers of diazotrophic blue-green algae and dinophytes. Since the early 2000s, gradual penetration and naturalization of both planktonic invasive algae species and representatives of benthic algocoenoses have been noticed. The mentioned changes reflect the nature of phytoplankton rearrangements as the essential component of the biota and emphasize the importance of long-term research with a possibility to predict negative consequences.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):45-53
pages 45-53 views

General characteristics of the intensity of elimination in the early ontogenesis of colonial bird species

Lamekhov Y.G., Bulanova M.A., Lamekhova E.A.


This paper examines the rate of elimination in the early ontogeny of colonial bird species. The research objects were colonial nesting species – black-necked gull (Larus ridibundus L.) and black-necked grebe (Podiceps nigricollis C.L. Brehm), which form monospecific and poly-species colonial settlements. The rate of elimination was determined taking into account the stage of completion of the clutch, as well as the position of the nest in the structure of the colonial settlement: in the biological center or at the periphery of the colony. The nesting life of colonially nesting species was studied according to the generally accepted method, taking into account the choice of a place for building a nest by birds, the morphology of the nest, the intensity of oviposition and other characteristics. In the course of many years of research 3 types of nest placement within the colony have been identified. The maximum elimination rate has been proven for fixing the nest on the floodplain of common reed. The minimum rate of elimination was found for black-headed gull nests built on the fold of common reed (Phragmites australis) and narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia). Near-nesting vegetation is located around the nests of black-necked gull and black-necked grebe. The variant of placing vegetation around the nest prevails. Less common are options in which vegetation is located on one side. Observations have not revealed a relationship between the rate of elimination and the nature of the distribution of vegetation around the nest. The authors have compared the rate of elimination of black-headed gull nests located in the biological center and at the periphery of the colony. Elimination is possible both during the laying of the first egg and after the end of the clutch. Observations have shown that the rate of elimination is higher for nests from the periphery of the colony, which may be associated with differences in the size of the nests, the rate of their construction, as well as with the behavior of birds incubating eggs. The maximum rate of elimination of nests and eggs at the periphery of the colony is also manifested in the early ontogenesis of the black-necked grebe. The intensity of elimination and the forms of its manifestation affect the structure of the colonial settlement of birds and characterize the level of individual and group adaptation of birds to the conditions in which the nesting period takes place.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):54-60
pages 54-60 views

The study of the summer avifauna of Mary, Republic of Turkmenistan

Leontyeva I.A.


The Republic of Turkmenistan is located in the western part of Central Asia and is characterized by a variety of natural conditions. The property of any republic is the preservation of biological diversity of flora and fauna as the main condition for the sustainability of natural ecosystems. However, in recent years, anthropogenic human activity has led to a decrease in this indicator due to the elimination of species. The fauna of Turkmenistan is quite diverse and birds are of particular importance, according to many scientists. The paper analyzes the species diversity of birds in the urbanized landscapes of the Republic of Turkmenistan using the example of the city of Mary, located in the southeastern part of the Turan lowland, in the delta of the Murgab River. During the summer period of 2020, 30 bird species were registered, belonging to 13 orders in 19 families. For the study, a route method was chosen, during which four areas were identified, in which the studies were carried out in sufficient detail: the Bagtyyaarlyk Seilgakhi park, the Murgab river embankment, residential areas of the city (residential area) and the historical settlement «Ancient Merv». The ecological and biological characteristics of birds in the study area were studied: according to the feeding habits, according to the degree of attachment to the territory.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):61-65
pages 61-65 views

Mycobiota of the upper layer of pine forests litter in the parks of Surgut in the environmental assessment of anthropogenic impact on these territories

Mantrova M.V.


The paper studies mycobiota of the upper layer of pine forests litter in the parks of Surgut: «Za Saimoy», «Energetikov», «Kedrovy Log», «Neftyanik». The author identified 52 isolates of soil microscopic fungi belonging to 14 genera. Most of the isolates – anamorphic (mitospore) fungi – are represented by 9 genera: Acremonium, Annellosporium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Humicola, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Ulocladium, Verticillium. Zygomycetes belong to three genera – Absidia, Mucor and Umbelopsis. Ascomycetes are represented by two genera: Eupenicillium and Talaromyces. The author also isolated Mycelia sterilia group. Representatives of the genera Absidia, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Penicillium are found in the mycocenoses of the studied parks. The genera Trichoderma, Fusarium and Penicillium also dominate by the number of isolates. Umbelopsis isabellina species is abundant in the «Kedrovy Log» park. Species of the genus Trichoderma are abundant in the «Neftyanik» park. Light-colored micromycetes of the group Mycelia sterilia are found and abundant only in the «Za Saimoy» park. Cellulolytics of the genus Trichoderma and the species Annellosporium nemorosum are abundant in the «Energetikov» park. Thus, mycobiota of the upper layer litter of the studied parks is close to the mycobiota of the background podzolic soils. It contains fungal species typical of the background soils. Fungi resistant to anthropogenic influences – dark-colored micromycetes Ulocladium alternarie and phytopathogenic species Verticillium dahlia var. longisporum. were found in the minority only in the «Energetikov» park. The obtained data allow us to conclude that the anthropogenic influence on the structure of the mycocenosis of the «Energetikov» park is more pronounced, but in general it does not have a significant effect on the mycobiota of the upper layer litter of the studied parks.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):66-71
pages 66-71 views

Biodiversity of vertebrates on the territory of deforestation in the Vologda Region

Pilipko E.N., Dvornikov M.G., Bulakhov V.L.


The paper presents the results of biodiversity assessment on the territories with different ecological conditions. The studies were carried out on the territories during the reforestation period after the anthropogenic load associated with deforestation, as test sites (PP) and forest biogeocenoses adjacent to deforestation and not affected by forestry activities – control (K). The research methods are indicated. The Jacquard and Stugren-Radulescu coefficients, as well as the Sorensen-Chekanovsky and Kulchinsky indices were used to assess the biodiversity. During the survey of the territories, 32 species of animals were found: 1 species belongs to the class of amphibians, 5 – reptiles, 13 – birds and 13 – mammals. The list of the faunal composition of the studied territories is given. As a result of the conducted studies it has been revealed that the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the faunal composition directly depend on the derived type of forest, the method of deforestation and the environmental conditions prevailing on this territory. Of the territories considered, the greatest faunal diversity (19 species) was observed on the territories with 12-year-old-cut-down forest, with moderately moist soils and predominant floristic diversity. Based on the calculation of the indices and coefficients of similarity and difference, the similarity of the species faunal diversity has been revealed on the territories of mixed-grass and blue joint fellings as well as in the control areas of lingonberry pine. The difference from all the sample areas has been revealed in the meadowsweet felling (PP1) and the adjacent forest biogeocenosis – grass-marsh pine forest.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):72-77
pages 72-77 views

The vegetation cover of the «Aryskannyg» cluster of the «Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina» Reserve (Ubsunur hollow) (the southern slopes of the East Tannu-Ola Mountain Range, Republic of Tyva)

Samdan A.M.


This paper studies the vegetation cover organization of the «Aryskannyg» cluster of the state natural biosphere reserve «Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina». In the course of the work 2 ecological and phytocoenotic profiles were laid and 2 large-scale mapping was carried out. The steppe type of vegetation is mainly represented by different variants of real turf-and-slag steppes: shrubby, petrophytic and dry. The original steppe communities are the resurrection (Selaginella sanguinolenta) and eastern feather grass coenoses (Stipa orientalis). An independent high-altitude belt forms mountain expositional forest-steppes. The forest component consists of grass and rhytidium larch forests, and the daurian rhododendron occupies an active position in the undergrowth. The steppe component consists of thickened mixed-grass-stop-grass meadow, as well as mixed-grass-fine-grained-slag petrophytic steppes. The mountain-taiga belt is represented by communities of larch and cedar formations. The high-altitude belt is dominated by yernik (Betula rotundifolia) and dryad (Dryas oxyodontha) mountain-tundra communities. It is revealed that the territory has a complex vegetation cover, which was formed in the conditions of mountain relief and sharply continental climate, the diversity of plant communities (from dry-steppe to mountain-tundra) is due to the length of the cluster territory in three high-altitude zones and the complex influence of latitudinal and local abiotic factors. The leading factors in the distribution of vegetation are the exposure of the slopes and the absolute height of the terrain.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):78-85
pages 78-85 views

The state of the adaptive potential of Quercus robur L. in field-protective forest belts based on the study of substances of secondary metabolism

Sautkina M.Y.


The paper studies various groups of substances of secondary metabolism of phenolic nature in the leaves of model trees of English oak growing in the field-protective forest belts of the agroforestry complex «Kamennaya Steppe». A physiological and biochemical analysis was carried out on samples of oak leaves from each tree in two stages – in the first decade of June and in early August. From each model tree 4–6 shoots of the lower tier of the southern exposure were selected. Significant biochemical diversity of the control and experimental groups of model oak trees was revealed. It is shown that the most significant fluctuations in the level of phenolic substances occur at the beginning of the growing season and then their content is stabilized. The informativeness of biochemical monitoring studies in the complex assessment of the current state of oak stands was confirmed. It is proved that the content of substances of secondary metabolism of phenolic nature and their combination can serve as a criterion of potential energy efficiency.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):86-89
pages 86-89 views

Scots pine in different ecological conditions in the south of the Central Black Earth region: features of the genetic structure of the glutamate dehydrogenase locus

Serdyukova A.P., Kamalova I.I., Vnukova N.I.


A comparative analysis of two Scots pine plantations growing in different ecological conditions of the steppe zone in the south of the Central Black Earth region (Kantemirovsky District of the Voronezh Region) has been carried out. One plantation is located in a relatively ecologically clean area, outside the urban environment, the other one – within the village Kantemirovka. The enzyme system has been studied; it is an important link in the main metabolic pathways in plant organisms influencing the general condition of plants. In the studied stands the genetic structure of the glutamate dehydrogenase locus has been analyzed, one of the alleles of which (Gdh-1¹) in Scots pine is an embryonic semi-metal. It has been found that in a weakened plantation located in an urban environment and exposed to increased anthropogenic impact, the proportion of this allele and the proportion of genotypes homozygous for it is significantly (p < 0,01) higher than in the population from an ecologically clean zone. It is known that organisms with semi-lethal genes in their genotype possess a complex of compensatory genes, which determines their increased resistance to unfavorable factors. An increase in the proportion of semi-lethal alleles in a plantation growing under anthropogenic load can be an adaptive mechanism for increasing resistance at the population level to stress effects of different nature.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):90-93
pages 90-93 views

Ecological analysis of rare and endangered lichen species included in the Red Book of the Chuvash Republic

Sinichkin E.A.


The paper provides an ecological analysis of rare and endangered lichen species included in the Red Book of the Chuvash Republic. The new edition, published in 2020, includes information on 256 species of plants and fungi. The Red Book of the Chuvash Republic includes 30 species of rare and endangered lichen species, 14 species are included in the list of those which are subject to special attention and need constant monitoring in the natural environment. Biomorphological analysis has shown that rare lichen species belong to 3 types, 4 classes and 7 groups of life forms. The predominant species are bushy (bushy hanging group – 11 species, bushy branching group – 1 species, bushy erect group – 1 species) and foliose (parted-lobed rhizoidal group – 10 species, broad-bladed rhizoidal group – 2 species) lichens. Ecological-substrate analysis has revealed that lichens included in the Red Book of the Chuvash Republic grow on 8 phorophytes (Tilia cordata, Quercus robur, Betula pendula, Salix cinerea, Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Abies sibirica, Populus tremula), on soil, on dead organic substrate and mosses. The greatest number of rare lichens was found on the bark of Tilia cordata, on the bark of Pinus sylvestris and on soil.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):94-98
pages 94-98 views

The comparison of population structure and distribution of thalli Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. along the trunk of Tilia cordata in a shaded floodplain lime-tree forest for 2008–2017

Suetina Y.G.


The research was carried out in shaded flooded lime-tree forest on the territory of the Mari El Republic. Population density, ontogenetic structure of populations and thalli vitality of E. prunastri were explored on 19 marked trees of heart-leaved linden on different tree trunk heights (0–0,5 m, 0,5–1 m, 1–1,5 m, 1,5–2 m) and on different expositions (north, east, south, west). For the period from 2008 to 2017 an increase in the population density of E. prunastri was founded. These differences appear at the trunk height of 1,5–2 m. Thalli were not founded at the height of 0–0,5 m. No changes in the distribution of thalli by exposure in different years were revealed. The most of E. prunastri thalli grow on the northern exposure. In 2017 in the population the specimens share of v₁, v₂ and g₂v of ontogenetic states increases and the specimens share of g₁v decreases. The average vitality of E. prunastri thalli decreases, the deterioration of vitality is more pronounced among individuals in g₁v-ss ontogenetic states. An increase in the population density, a decrease in the size of the E. prunastri thalli and Hypogymnia physodes, a «rejuvenation» of the ontogenetic structure of the E. prunastri thalli were shown earlier for the illuminated floodplain lime forest. Similar processes in different environmental conditions and in different species indicate regular changes in the populations of epiphytic lichens, which can be caused by climate warming.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):99-103
pages 99-103 views

Introduction studies of European species of the genus Primula L. in the Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute

Trostenyuk N.N., Sviatkovskaya E.A., Saltan N.V.


The paper presents the results of introduction studies of 20 European species and 2 taxa of the genus Primula L. in N.A. Avrorin Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute of Kola Scientific Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences. Currently, the collection contains 13 species and 1 taxon (P. auricula L., P. carpathica Fuss, P. clusiana Tausch, P. daonensis (Leyb.) Leyb., P. elatior (L.) Hill, P. glaucescens Moretti, P. kitaibeliana Schott, P. latifolia Lapeyr, P. minima L., P. poloninensis Fed., P. veris L., P. veris subp. macrocalyx (Bunge) Lüdi, P. vulgaris Huds., P. wulfeniana Schott). It has been shown that the species inhabiting the alpine belt of mountains are best adapted to the conditions of the Arctic (Primula auricula, P. carpathica, P. clusiana, P. halleri, P. minima, P. pedemontana, P. scandinavica, P. vulgaris ssp. rubra, P. tyrolensis, P. wulfeniana – IC (introduction coefficient) = 8,3, as well as P. elatior (IC = 8,1) and P. veris subsp. macrocalyx, P. vulgaris (IС = 7,6). The rest of the studied species are less adapted. It has been established that species of the genus Primula can serve as a source of replenishment of the landscaping assortment for the Murmansk Region. For this purpose 2 new ornamental and resistant species were recommended (Primula carpathica, P. clusiana).

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):104-110
pages 104-110 views

Characteristics of some biochemical parameters in assimilating organs of herbaceous and woody plants in conditions of introduction

Turbina I.N., Kukurichkin G.M.


The paper presents study results of 8 herbaceous and woody plants species assimilating organs’ biochemical parameters in conditions of introduction. It has been identified that in 4 herbaceous introduced species increased chlorophyll content and ratio of chlorophyll to flavonoids in August is associated with massive flowering and fruiting phases. On the contrary, in Crataegus ellwangeriana the maximum values of the above parameters are the reaction to unfavorable growing conditions (lack of nutrition and moisture) during the active growth period. The increased anthocyanins synthesis in Physocarpus opulifolius and Sorbaria sorbifolia by 1,2–1,4 times and increased nitrogen balance in Aronia melanocarpa up to 23 mg/cm² in September compared to summer period testifies to protective function formation in plant organism in pre-winter period. Slight fluctuations in flavonoids content throughout the entire vegetation season confirm that all the studied plants are in optimal nitrogen status. The following statistical methods were used to interpret the present study results: Shapiro-Wilk W-test (for small samples n < 30), parametric analysis method Student’s t-test, t-test for dependent samples.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):111-115
pages 111-115 views

Ecodiagnostics of different types of lakes in the Nizhny Novgorod Region based on indicators of the species structure of zooplankton

Shurganova G.V., Zolotareva T.V., Zhikharev V.S., Gavrilko D.E., Kudrin I.A., Startseva N.A., Nizhegorodtsev A.A., Obedientova E.S., Shurganova E.V.


The research assesses the state of different types of lakes in specially protected natural areas of the Nizhny Novgorod Region and the anthropogenically disturbed territory of Nizhny Novgorod. The trophic status of water bodies was determined using the trophic status index (TSISD). It has been established that most of the lakes have eutrophic and mesotrophic status. The analysis of the species structure of zooplankton in water bodies has been carried out. The species richness of both lakes of the protected areas and urban lakes was high. Along with eurybiontic species, alien and rare species of zooplankton were identified. Significant differences in the indicators of the species structure were established, however, no critical values of the abundance, biomass, Shannon and Pielou indices were recorded. Most of the identified zooplankton species were indicative. On the basis of the Pantle-Bukk saprobity index in the Sladecek modification, the water quality class was established. The reservoirs were characterized by quality class II–III (clean-moderately polluted water). In some lakes an excess of the maximum permissible concentrations of ammonium, nitrite, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, lead has been established. However, in general, in terms of a set of indicators, water bodies are in a satisfactory condition. In order to objectively assess the ecological state of aquatic communities, to predict possible changes and develop recommendations for the conservation of species diversity, it is important to carry out regular monitoring studies.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):116-123
pages 116-123 views

New segetal communities of sunflower crops in the Orenburg Region

Yamalov S.M., Khasanova G.R., Lebedeva M.V., Korchev V.V.


The diversity of weed-field communities of sunflower crops within the forest-steppe zone of the Orenburg Region (Abdulinskiy, Matveevskiy, Oktyabrskiy, Aleksandrovskiy, Sharlykskiy districts) was studied. The communities in the system of ecological-floristic classification units are assigned to the new variant Orobanche cumana of the Amarantho blitoidesLactucetum tataricae Khasanova et al. 2019. In the core of the cenoflora of communities juvenile weed species prevail. The most active of them are late spring annuals (Amaranthus blitoides, Panicum miliaceum, Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis) and early spring annuals (Chenopodium album, Fallopia convolvulus, Camelina microcarpa). Root perennials such as Lactuca tatarica, Convolvulus arvensis, Euphorbia virgata, Cirsium arvense have also a high proportion. A distinctive feature of the communities is the participation in their floristic composition of a dangerous quarantine species – Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana). Modeling the area of the association under a moderate scenario of climate change shows that the distribution of communities by 2050 can cover almost the entire territory of the Cis-Urals (within the Republic of Bashkortostan). It is necessary to organize a monitoring system for the range of these communities in the Southern Urals.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):124-130
pages 124-130 views

Heavy metal content in surface waters of small rivers on the western slope of the Irendik Ridge

Yanturin S.I., Khisametdinova A.Y., Buskunova G.G.


This paper studies the content of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd – metals-toxicants and Fe) in the surface natural waters of small rivers on the western slope of the Irendik ridge in the Baimak District of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The western slope of the Irendik ridge from Lake Talkas to Lake Grafskoe is characterized by the absence of significant anthropogenic sources of environmental pollution in contrast to the eastern slope of the Irendik ridge at the same latitude. The studied rivers are located on this section of the western slope and are left tributaries of the upper reaches of the Tanalyk River. It is these small rivers that determine the chemical composition of the water in the upper section of the Tanalyk River. The content of heavy metals in the waters was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. For the environmental assessment of waters, the multiplicity of exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations of heavy metals for fisheries reservoirs was used. The studies have shown that in the waters of small rivers on the western slope of the Irendik ridge there is an increased content of a number of heavy metals, namely copper, iron, zinc, lead and cadmium. Increased concentrations of heavy metals in the waters of the studied rivers are caused by geochemical factors.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):131-135
pages 131-135 views

Historical Sciences and Archaeology

New data about the Orlovskaya culture household in the steppe Volga region

Vybornov A.A., Gilyazov F.F., Doga N.S., Yudin A.I., Yanish E.Y.


Researchers suggest a hypothesis that one of the indicators of the Neolithic is settlements based on stable fishing using boats and nets. The northern part of the Lower Volga region is a steppe zone. The peculiarities of natural and climatic conditions (arid climate, a small number of rivers) predetermined a low population density in comparison with other regions. The location of long-term camps is traced on different rivers on particular distance from each other. This provided normal conditions for life of the Orlovskaya culture representatives. The culture stratification in loam leaded to good preservation of faunal remains. The big archeozoological material was accumulated for reconstruction of these societies household. Hunting was carried out mainly on large ungulates. In addition, waterfowl accounted for a significant proportion. A domestic dog provided assistance in hunting. Finds of bone harpoons and hooks, accumulations of scales and bones of pike and perch are speaking about individual fishing. Stone sinkers, axes and adzes, vertebrae may suggest fishing with a net from a boat or a raft. The absence of sturgeon remains give a thought that the Bolshoi Uzen River didn’t flow into the Caspian Sea in the Late Stone Age.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):136-140
pages 136-140 views

A set of bone tools in the case from the settlement Asaviec 2 in the Krivina peat bog (northern Belarus)

Malyutina A.A., Charniauski M.M.


In 2010, during the investigation of the site Asaviec 2 (Krivina peat bog, Bešankovičy District, Viciebsk Region, Belarus) a unique set of tools in a case was revealed. It consists of an ornamented case made of the tubular bone of a large bird, an awl made of the lateral metapody of an elk, and a pointed bone item with an extension in the form of a wedge at one end. The method of experimental-traceological analysis was employed to determine the details of the manufacturing technology and the functional purpose of the find. According to the results of the study, a separate use of the tools was established – working with plant materials, which may indicate evidence of knitting or weaving products from organic fibers. Following experimental observations, some possible ways of working with these implements are considered. Thus, on the basis of the structural and contextual features of the artefacts, a variant of their use in a composite form, where the case served also as a handle is proposed. Bone awls or points are a widespread type of tools on sites from the Stone to the Bronze Age. However, the unique set found in situ allows us to expand our knowledge of the economy and productive activities of the past. Archaeological material, revealed an accompanying set of tools and a radiocarbon date from the underlying finding of conditional layer – 3810 ± 50 BP (cal BC 2460–2064) (Le 10465), allow us to reconcile it with the antiquities of the Zhyzhyca-Kryvina stage of the Northern Belarusian Culture, middle of the 3rd-first half of the 2nd mill. BC.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):141-149
pages 141-149 views

Naucraries and the Cylonian Affair

Ahssan R.


The problem of Athenian naucraries, their places and roles in the political life of Athens applies to the number of discussion problems in historiography of antiquity. This is due to the sporadic nature of information about them, fragmentary and episodicity of the surviving sources, as well as many difficulties associated with the comprehension of information reflected in them, and with its interpretation in a variety of contexts. The paper discusses the etymology of the term ναύκραρος and examines the stories of Herodotus and Thucydides about the suppression of the attempt of the victor of the Olympic games Cylon to establish his tyranny in Athens. Cylon and his supporters were besieged at the Acropolis by the Athenians, who seeing that the siege was dragging on, reassigned the matter, according to Herodotus, to the Prytaneis of the Naucraries, and according to Thucydides – to archons. The following questions are discussed: did the Prytaneis of the Naucraries rule Athens during the Cylonian Affair, as Herodotus says? Or was the power in Athens at that time in the hands of the archons as Thucydides says? Is it possible to somehow reconcile the versions of Herodotus and Thucydides. The conclusion is drawn: despite the fact that the majority of scholars tries to reconcile the versions of Herodotus and Thucydides, the contradiction found in them cannot be resolved convincingly.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):150-153
pages 150-153 views

Closely related marriages of the princes of North-Eastern Rus’ in the XIV–XV centuries

Abukov S.N.


The paper is devoted to closely related marriages of princes – descendants of Vsevolod the Big Nest in the XIII–XV centuries, which have not received sufficient attention from researchers. After analyzing the known marriages the author came to the conclusion that in general Rurikids in this historical period followed the traditions of pre-Mongol Rus’, considering the 7th degree of kinship for closely related marriages to be most acceptable. This is evidenced by the few examples available to us. This tradition was followed by the princes of the leading principalities not only in the external arena, but also within their dynasties in order to strengthen family unity. At the same time, with the rise of Moscow, joining and the fall of the importance of other principalities as well as due to political reasons, Moscow princes from the 15th century began to marry in the 6th degree of kinship with the great princes of Tver, Ryazan and Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod. Of particular interest is the marriage of the daughter of the Grand Prince of Moscow Vasily Dmitrievich with two representatives of the Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod dynasty. The available evidence also show that a similar tradition of marriages in such degrees of kinship was followed by the appanage princes on the periphery.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):154-158
pages 154-158 views

Junior servants in the system of monastic administration at the beginning of the 17th century (on the example of the Joseph-Volokolamsk Monastery)

Tseluykina E.S.


The paper determines the place of junior servants in the system of monastic administration at the beginning of the 17th century on the example of the Joseph-Volokolamsk Monastery. At the beginning of the 17th century the Joseph-Volokolamsk Monastery suffered significant financial losses in connection with wartime conditions. At the same time, such a large patrimony had a need for a branched multistage management apparatus. The monastic servants carried out economic activities. The question of the system of monastic administration of the 16th–17th centuries actively researched by scientists on the example of specific monasteries. As part of the study of the Joseph-Volokolamsk Monastery, this problem was raised by historians on the basis of economic books of the 16th century. However, economic books of the beginning of the 17th century have also survived, which had not been studied earlier in this aspect, which made it possible to continue research in this area and expand the scientific understanding of the composition and role of monastic servants in the management structure of a large monastic patrimony. The sources for this work were two servage books of the Joseph-Volokolamsk Monastery, which are part of the economic books for the years of 7115 (1606/07) and 7116 (1607/08). To determine the place of monastic servants in the system of economic management, the classifications compiled by M.N. Tikhomirov, V.A. Petrov, S.I. Smetanina for the 16th century were considered and compared with the classifications by occupation and by territorial feature presented in the servage books of the early 17th century. This allowed us to conclude about the complexity of monastic servants classification structure at the beginning of the 17th century in comparison with the 16th century. A count was made of the number of monastic servants and the amounts spent on their maintenance to find out their composition. An attempt has been made to clarify the existing classifications of monastic servants for the beginning of the 17th century, while drawing attention to the merging of the system of senior and junior servants with an ordered control system. As a result of the study, it was concluded that a significant number of junior monastic servants (about 300) of various categories lived on the territory of the monastery, but their maintenance did not cause serious damage to the monastic treasury and was economically justified.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):159-166
pages 159-166 views

Attempting to establish land tax and stamp duty in France in 1787

Koutseva E.A.


The paper examines the short-term introduction of land tax and stamp duty by Loménie de Brienne in the summer of 1787 and their further abolition in September 1787. The introduction of new taxes became an urgent need in France in 1787. The huge budget deficit, external debts forced the government to first turn to notables for public approval of the reform plan, and after the failure of this idea, to register through the Paris Parliament in the summer of 1787. Parliamentarians opposed the introduction of these taxes. To combat the deficit, they called for a general economy, cut costs and increased income, demanded the convening of the States General, on which new taxes should be introduced. Discussions and correspondence with the king continued in July and early August 1787. At the royal meeting on August 6, taxes were adopted, but parliament did not obey and advocated their abolition. The king sent parliament into exile. Negotiations began, which led to a compromise: the land tax and stamp duty were canceled, and the term of two twenty was extended until 1792. The work analyzes the stages of the adoption and cancellation of new taxes, highlights the requirements of parliament and the royal administration, studies the land tax edict and the stamp declaration, collection and edict on their cancellation, considers remonstration and decisions of the Paris Parliament, the king’s answers and analyzes the reflection of these events in the press and publicism.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):167-175
pages 167-175 views

Soviet soldiers of the Great Patriotic War rescued from starvation by foreign humanitarian missions in 1921-1923s

Tsidenkov G.G.


The paper draws attention to such an important historical aspect as the connection between foreign humanitarian activities in Soviet Russia and Ukraine during the famine of 1921–1923 and the participation of the people of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War. It is well known that during the famine of 1921–1923, a large number of foreign aid organizations functioned in Russia and Ukraine and provided food, treatment and clothing to several million starving children who were doomed to death without outside help. Some of these organizations opened orphanages on the territory of the RSFSR for homeless children and children left without parental care. Many of those men and women who went to war in 1941–1945 were saved during the famine by foreign organizations. Thanks to modern databases of digitized documents on the Great Patriotic War, it becomes possible to trace the military fate of these people. The paper, based on the materials of the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation and the National Archive of Sweden, provides specific examples of the fate of participants in the Great Patriotic War, who were saved in 1922–1923 by the Red Cross organizations of Sweden and the Netherlands.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):176-179
pages 176-179 views

«Manchurian Incident» in 1931 and the periodical press reaction in the USA

Buranok S.O.


The paper is devoted to the problem of approaches and assessments formation of the Chinese crisis of 1931 in the US press. No research in China’s image during the Interbellum would be complete without studying the press of the participating parties. In order to give a detailed analysis of the international relationships in terms of the global transformations from the American point of view, the author draws relevant newspaper articles published after 1931. The materials of the American press of 1931 dedicated to the search for the most efficient optimal strategy of building relations with China and Japan show, among other things, a steady interest of American mass media towards negative and positive experience of Asian policy. All the complexity of the crisis perception was reflected in the press, which tried to form an understanding of the new process in which America was involved. In the course of a difficult search of an optimal way and a view on the crisis, several polar points of view were formulated in the American press. Thus, the study of the attitude of the major American press and the positions of the most prominent journalists is of interest to the analysis of how the USA after the Chinese crisis gradually realized the place of the country in the new system of international relations. In addition, the press shows how the United States planned to develop interaction with the warring states in the Pacific Ocean. The paper is based on the materials of both Democratic and Republican press of the USA.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):180-183
pages 180-183 views

Fighting forest fires in the Kuibyshev Region in 1931-1940: a little-known aspect of the ecological history of the Middle Volga region

Voeykov E.V.


The paper deals with the spread of forest fires and measures to combat them in the course of implementing the policy of preserving the forests of the Volga region in the years of the pre-war five-year plans. The paper is written mainly on the basis of archival materials of the Russian State Archive of Economics, the Central State Archive of the Samara Region, and the State Archive of the Ulyanovsk Region, which were first introduced into historical circulation. In the 1930s, large-scale logging was carried out in the Kuibyshev Region in violation of the rules of forestry. One of the problems of forest exploitation was the growth of forest fires, which caused significant economic and environmental damage. The forest industry trust «Sredles» and the Srednevolzhsky Forestry Trust could not significantly change the situation with the fire protection of forests for the better. The most unfavorable years for the forests of the Middle Volga region and the Kuibyshev Region were 1933 and 1938. After the creation of the Srednevolzhsky (Kuibyshev) Forest Protection Department, the effectiveness of fire-fighting measures increased. Fire fighting was carried out by the most modern means at that time. As a result, the annual number of fires decreased. But it was not possible to completely solve the problem of fires in the forests of the Middle Volga during the third five-year plan.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):184-188
pages 184-188 views

Regional features of birth rate and mortality in the Lower Volga region in the famine of 1932-1933s

Nazarenko N.N., Bashkin A.V.


The paper is exploring the problem of the vital rate data in the Lower Volga region during the famine of 1932–1933. Despite the ample quantity of papers presenting this problem the estimations and indicators differ even in the papers of the same authors and valuation methods are not always reliable. The birth rate of the Lower Volga region was 76223 while the mortality was 184570 during the 1933 famine peak by our estimate. However, there are no vital rate data on the Kalmykia in the central statistical administration archives and the registration of 15,2 thousand deaths were not ascertained identically. The real losses from the famine of 1932–1933 in the Lower Volga region (excluding Kalmykia) are estimated at 175 thousand maximum and birth rate losses are 147 thousand in 1932–1934. The mortality of the Lower Volga region had clear geographical distribution and location. The high mortality regions were allocated on the Volga Upland and abutting the Oka-Don plain eastern frontier and on the Medium Syrt frontier in Saratov Krai. The allocation of high mortality regions to the Volga River is interpreted as associating with regions containing major cities and towns with high mortality neighborhoods to the Volga. Stalingrad Krai is defined as a region with lower mortality and gradual slow in its increase with a low peak displaced to July 1933. In 1933 the Lower Volga mortality dynamics was from north to south epidemic; whereas in the south there was time to assume the measures as opposed to northern regions. Some Lower Volga regions in 1933 were characterized by a catastrophic low birth rate and high mortality and at the same time by high birth rate and low mortality and positive vital rate data. The distribution of high mortality regions was determined by the character of local authorities activities and local conditions including geographical description (orthometric height), that requires background study.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):189-199
pages 189-199 views

Army and Islamic parties in the political life of Turkey in the second half of the 20th century

Tovsultanova M.S., Tovsultanov R.A., Galimova L.N.


The paper examines the confrontation between the army, which supported the inviolability of the principles of a secular state, and the supporters of the Islamic way of development. The authors provide a short course on the history of the military coups of 1960, 1971 and 1980. Based on the analysis of actions and public statements of the event participants themselves, researchers come to a conclusion that the fight against clerical tendencies played a role in the preparation of military coups no less than the fight against left radicals. The 1970s in the history of Turkey is an extremely unstable political period when weak coalition governments were in power. Aggravated by the end of the 1970s party contradictions gave the military a pretext for another coup, which led to the fall of the Second and the formation of the Third Republic in the political history of Turkey. By the end of the 20th century Islamic proponents, having accumulated vast experience of confrontation with the army elite, had developed a new political strategy, becoming the locomotive of the struggle for democratic changes, which allowed them to win elections in 1996 and then in 2002. Having finally taken power in the country, the Islamic Justice and Development Party began largescale reforms of the army, which are still ongoing.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):200-203
pages 200-203 views

The religious situation in Buryatia in the late 1980s and early 1990s

Drobotushenko E.V., Lantsova Y.N., Kamneva G.P., Sotnikov A.A., Sotnikov S.A.


Based on archival data the paper describes the religious situation in the Buryat ASSR, then the Buryat SSR and the Republic of Buryatia during the change of socio-political development of the national state in the late 1980s – early last decade of the XX century. The authors say that this problem has not received serious analysis in the framework of scientific publications. Therefore, the research was based on archival documents of the State Archive of the Russian Federation (SA RF) and the State Archive of the Republic of Buryatia (SARB). The purpose of the study is to characterize the religious situation in the border area of the local territory in a difficult transition period of national history. The research methodology is based on the fundamental principles of historical science, the principles of historicism and objectivity, which allowed us to consider a rather complex component of the life of society – religion, without bias, in its historical development. The result of the study was the identification of features of religious processes in Buryatia during the period under review. The authors provide quantitative indicators for registered religious associations and religious buildings. The religious situation is assessed against the background of the General situation in the RSFSR (Russian Federation), with statistics for the Republic and the country. It is noted that the trends of religious processes in Buryatia, at the time under review, were similar to the national ones. This is a sharp surge in religiosity, against the background of the resolution of religious freedom, on the one hand, and, in the context of the socio-economic crisis, on the other. It is said that in Buryatia, in addition to traditional religious teachings for the region, new ones appeared, among which, there were the teachings of totalitarian sects. It describes the difficulties that arose in connection with the change in the attitude of the authorities to religions. It is noted that further work with sources is necessary, which will allow us to recreate the most complete picture of the religious situation in Buryatia during the difficult transition period of the late 1980s – early 1990s.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):204-210
pages 204-210 views

Reading in the era of changes: reading preferences among the residents of Ural nuclear closed administrative-territorial formations in the 1990s

Konstantinova A.G.


The paper deals with the research results of reading preferences among the residents of Ural nuclear closed administrative-territorial formations in the 1990s. At that time sociocultural transformations, which modified the architectonics of the cultural landscape, significantly changed reading practices. In this regard, the study of such a small fragment of reality as reading preferences of small societies in closed towns seems to be very important for understanding the dynamics of social phenomena and processes. While studying the reading preferences, the author revealed reading value orientations among the residents of Ural closed administrative-territorial formations, their assessment of reading activity, psychological factors of reading, quantitative characteristics, gender and age peculiarities. In the era of changes, reading continued to occupy one of the leading places in the structure of leisure preferences among the residents of Ural nuclear towns and remained the most important way of raising the cultural and educational level. Home and public libraries were the main channels for obtaining information through reading. The universal library fund made it possible to satisfy various information needs of users. At the same time, in order to effectively stimulate reading activity, it was important for libraries not only to provide high-quality services, but also to accumulate relevant socio-cultural practices in their activities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):211-214
pages 211-214 views

Historical roots of the folk holiday Kargatuy («Crow’s wedding») among the Bashkirs

Ilimbetova A.F., Migranova E.V.


There is a developed system of cult ideas about birds in the religious and mythological views of the Bashkirs. One of the birds revered by the Bashkirs is the crow. The most ancient roots of the holiday and rituals associated with this bird originate in totemic representations of the distant ancestors of the Bashkirs. The ancient historical roots of the worship of crows are evidenced, in particular, by the Bashkir folk holiday Kargatuy («Crow’s wedding»), which existed in the past and is being revived today (in some areas of the Republic of Bashkortostan called Karga butkahy («Crow’s Porridge»)). Kargatui was usually held in the spring and marked a revival of nature. On the basis of folklore and ethnographic sources, it seems possible to trace the evolution and subsequent transformation of this holiday and the rituals performed on them. In this Bashkir holiday, elements of totemic holidays have survived to our days, the main purpose of which was to honor the crow – a totem bird with invocations-requests addressed to the sacred bird, the performance of rituals, thematic songs and dances («Raven chick», the performance of rituals of reproduction of the totem bird a manifestation of care for it, communion with a totem and with rituals of initiation of girls into the category of full members of women collective.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):215-220
pages 215-220 views

Contemporary Religious Practices of the Orthodox Chuvash in the Samara Trans-Volga region

Iagafova E.A.


The paper focuses on contemporary religious practices of the Orthodox Chuvash living in the Trans-Volga areas of the Samara Region. The author describes features of the ritual calendar, funeral and memorial customs and rituals, forms of social activity of the Chuvash within the framework of religious life; reveals the ratio of Orthodox and the so-called «pagan» elements in religious practices; traces the process of formation of Orthodox-»pagan» syncretism as the basis of contemporary religiosity of the Samara Chuvash. The results of the study showed their noticeable shift towards Orthodox religiosity in the last two decades. Orthodoxy acts as the basis of the confessional identity of the Samara Chuvash and today it determines activity in the formation of the sacred landscape of Chuvash villages. Orthodoxy is at the heart of festive and ceremonial culture, religious actions and experience. However, in contemporary religious practices, especially in funeral, memorial and calendar rituality, rituals and behavioral models that go back to the Chuvash religion are manifested. At the same time, there is a high degree of syncretization of Orthodox and Chuvash folk traditions, due to the long history of their coexistence in the culture of the rural community. Local churches and involvement of villagers in the confessional environment both at the local, regional and national levels play a significant role in the formation and development of religious practices.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(2):221-227
pages 221-227 views

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