Vol 10, No 3 (2021)

General Biology

Ecological aspects of regional fruit production development in the Samara Region

Antipenko M.I., Minin A.N., Petrova A.B., Kavelenova L.M.


Fruits and berries previously perceived as a pleasant addition to the main human meal are considered today as a leading component of a healthy diet, a source of various vitamins, minerals, biologically active secondary plant metabolites, which are components of functional food products. Until now, the per capita consumption of fresh fruits by the population of our country remains insufficient, the predominance of imported fruits in the diet has not stopped. In the Samara Region private gardens rather than industrial orchards (for which the unambiguous predominance of the apple tree is inherent) remain the main producers of fruits (cherries, plums, apricots, etc.) and raspberries. Further development of regional fruit growing in the Samara Region has undoubted prospects. In the presence of weather features that negatively affect the development of fruit crops, the climate of the region is characterized by a sufficient level of heat supply, localities suitable for fruit crops cultivation are presented in its soil cover, and their assortment recommended for the Middle Volga region is quite diverse and continues to expand. The authors of the paper using materials from foreign scientific publications demonstrated examples of the analysis of processes used in modern literature that combines ecological and economic approaches in relation to agroecosystems activities (ecological footprint EF, carbon footprint CF and water footprint WF). The use of approaches to assessing the water and carbon footprint of agroecosystems, which have not yet become widespread among specialists in our country, opens up prospects for analyzing the existing conditions and developing a strategy for ecological and economic extension of regional fruit growing.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):10-18
pages 10-18 views

Monitoring and prospects for conservation and rational use of the resources of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758) on the example of the Samara Region

Antipov V.V., Dvornikov M.G.


The paper examines characteristics of the Eurasian beaver population (Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758) on territories with different anthropogenic load. Monitoring the beaver population and habitat, including the landscape basis and natural zoning with the allocation of natural, natural-anthropogenic and anthropogenic territories as natural ecological systems allows you to manage and rationally use the resources of these animals. Previously there were mainly natural territories in the studied region, however with the growth of the human population and its economic activity their properties have changed. According to biotic criteria, geochemical circulation, significant (formerly natural) territories functionally already correspond to natural-anthropogenic and anthropogenic objects, since the supply of fodder, population density and density of animals have changed. According to natural zoning, taking into account the identified changes in the habitat of beavers (by biotic criteria), we have examined their territorial distribution as well as the number of settlements in various natural objects of the region. On the studied rivers the density of the beaver population in the channel decreases in the following order: natural territory → natural-anthropogenic → anthropogenic, but the indicator of private abundance (the density of animals on the territory where beavers live directly) and aggregation (crowding of individuals) increases. The population density of the river bed of the studied rivers by beavers on anthropogenic territories is from 0,9–3,7 individuals/km, which is lower than on natural and natural-anthropogenic territories, where this indicator is from 1,5 to 6 individuals/km. The length of the river bed, where beavers live directly, without taking into account significant buffer zones, varies in natural areas from 60 to 100%, which is more than in areas with anthropogenic load, where this indicator in the study area decreases to 40%. A decrease in the size of river channel sections suitable for beaver colonization leads to overcrowding (aggregation) of individuals. Compared with the total density of beaver population in the river channel 0,9–3,7 individuals/km of the channel (excluding the Kondurcha River – 6 individuals/km of the channel) the population density, locally, on anthropogenic and natural-anthropogenic territories increases to 4–7,5 individuals/km.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):19-24
pages 19-24 views

Fauna and seasonal dynamics of birds number at the solid waste landfill and their possible impact on the activities of Kyzyl airport

Archimaeva T.P., Kuksin A.N., Saaya A.T., Kuksina D.K.


In 2019–2020, as a part of the ecological and ornithological survey in Kyzyl airport and the aerodrome area, the birds of the municipal solid waste landfill located near the runway were studied in order to assess the impact of the landfill on the safety of aircraft flights. The observations carried out during the year revealed the species composition of the avifauna of the polygon, the background species of the polygon, and the annual population dynamics of each species. The black kite Milvus migrans Bodd., the mongolian gull Larus vegae mongolicus Sushk., the oriental carrion crow Corvus corone Eversm., and the common raven Corvus corax L. were classified as the most numerous aircraft-hazardous species of the landfill. daurian partridge Perdix dauurica Pall., Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus L. and house sparrow P. domesticus L., common starling Sturnus vulgaris L. and some other species of Passeriformes were also included in the background. Two periods of the maximum total number of birds at the landfill were identified: winter (January, February) and late summer (August). According to the conducted records of the number and characteristics of behavior the black kite is the greatest danger to flights; the most dangerous period is the end of August, when this species forms pre-flight clusters on the landfill. Such clusters can be up to 1500 birds in size. In the cold season, the most dangerous species are the common raven and the oriental carrion crow.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):25-33
pages 25-33 views

Formation of the Astilbe Buch.-Ham collection in a continental climate

Vasilyeva O.Y.


The paper analyzes the dynamics of formation of a collection of Astilbe varieties and species included in the bioresource collection USU 44053 in the conditions of Western Siberia forest-steppe. The ways of further expansion of Astilbe collection fund are substantiated by attracting representatives of the Astilbe chinensis, A. crispa groups; varieties with rhombic, narrow-lobed and pyramidal inflorescences, primarily belonging to the group of colors: red, dark red, purple and dark purple. In contrast to the conditions of the middle zone of Russia in which Astilbe are divided into four groups according to the period of flowering: 1) very early (end of June – July), 2) early (July), 3) medium (mid-July – mid-August) and 4) late (end of August – mid-September), for the conditions of Western Siberia forest-steppe, with intense heat gain in mid-May-early June, the flowering dates of very early and early varieties converge. Accordingly, there are three groups: early-flowering (bloom July 8–10), medium-flowering (bloom from July 15–18), late-flowering (bloom from late July–early August). It is proposed to add a narrow-lobed and pyramidal-drooping inflorescence to the traditionally described forms of Astilbe varieties. The expansion of the set of dwarf varieties from the A. crispa group with strongly dissected fringed leaves gives additional opportunities for a landscape design.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):34-40
pages 34-40 views

Modeling the ecological niche and features of coprobiontic fungi distribution in Asia by the example of Cyathus stercoreus

Vlasenko V.A., Turmunkh D., Nazyn C.D., Vlasenko A.V.


Species distribution is undergoing rapid changes in the face of habitat modification and climate change. This leads to concerns about the conservation of declining species and raises ecological questions about the processes that govern species ranges and niches. As a consequence, the predictive distribution models which match species records to patterns in abiotic environmental variables have become an established tool in ecology and conservation. Maximum entropy spatial distribution modelling (MaxEnt) solves this problem by inferring species distributions and environmental tolerance based on the occurrence data. The objectives of this research were the ecological niche and running the habitat suitability modelling on dung fungal species Cyathus stercoreus based on its bioclimatic and substrate features within Asia. We constructed a map of the current geographical distribution of the dung fungus Cyathus stercoreus using MaxEnt method. We included in the model 19 WorldClim bioclimatic variables with the corresponding altitude data, and seven spatially well-dispersed species occurrence records. Despite its narrow substrate specialization, Cyathus stercoreus is climatically quite plastic and is able to develop in a wide range of variations in mean annual temperatures and mean annual precipitation, which follows from the analysis of a two-dimensional niche based on two climatic variables using the Envelope method. Modeling the distribution of basidiomycete dung fungi using the Cyathus stercoreus as an example showed that the area of their potential distribution with a zone of favorable climate is very large. Most of the zone with a favorable climate is located in the area with the probability of the presence of species up to 70%. Cyathus stercoreus is not associated with any particular habitat type. On the territory of Russia, in the south of Siberia, the species is located on the northern border of its range in the area with the least favorable bioclimatic environmental factors.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):41-46
pages 41-46 views

The current state of Polypodium vulgare L. and Ptilium crista-castrensis (Hedw.) De Not. populations on the territory of the nature reserve «Racheyskie Rocks» (Syzran District of the Samara Region)

Grudanova P.V., Korchikov E.S.


This paper presents data on the new location of the moss Ptilium crista-castrensis (Hedw.) De Not, which is listed in the Red Data Book of the Samara Region on the territory of the nature reserve «Racheyskie Rocks» in the Syzran district. 10 of its coenopopulation loci have been identified and the exact geographic coordinates are given. For the first time the exact coordinates of 11 coenopopulation loci are also named for the holarctic mountain-forest relict fern Polypodium vulgare L., which is also protected at the regional level, both of these species have a mosaic structure of coenopopulations confined to confluent sandstones as a substrate for growth. It has been revealed that the ecological preferences of these species are very close, however, Polypodium vulgare is more shade-tolerant and it can be called a scioheliophyte, in contrast to the heliophyte Ptilium crista-castrensis. The Polypodium requires more humid and shaded conditions for its normal existence. When growing in the forest-steppe zone, where humidity is often a limiting factor, Ptilium crista-castrensis and Polypodium vulgare can form a significant projective cover (more than 30%) only in the northern and northeastern exposures of the substrate, but only with an enhanced light regime in the phytocoenosis at the density of the stand that is not more than 0,3.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):47-52
pages 47-52 views

Characteristics of the microspecies aggregations among Alchemilla L. (Rosaceae) coenopopulations on the territory of Mari El Republic

Zhukova O.V.


The genus Alchemilla L. is represented by a significant number of apomictic species. This paper deals with the microspecies aggregations among Alchemilla coenopopulations from 5 nature districts on the territory of Mari El Republic. Alchemilla coenopopulations grow in meadow and forest margin communities, in disturbed habitats, while they have close estimates according to the ecological scales of L.G. Ramensky and D.N. Tsyganov. 25 Alchemilla microspecies have been identified. The number of generative rosette shoots on 1 m² area for different microspecies within the coenopopulation varies extremely widely. There are from 3 to 14 microspecies in coenopopulations, one or two from them clearly dominant in number. Dominant microspecies are: A. acutiloba Opiz, A. hirsuticaulis H. Lindb., A. micans Buser, A. monticola Opiz, A. schistophylla Juz., A. subcrenata Buser, A. substrigosa Juz. There is A. micans in all coenopopulations, A. acutiloba, A. glabricaulis H. Lindb., A. monticola, A. sarmatica Juz. and A. subcrenata often occur. Microspecies A. breviloba H. Lindb., A. dasycrater Juz., A. devestiens Juz., A. filicaulis Buser, A. heptagona Juz., A. leiophylla Juz., A. lindbergiana Juz., A. plicata Buser, A. semilunaris Alechin are represented by single generative rosette shoots.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):53-57
pages 53-57 views

Environmental conditions influence on the accumulation of secondary metabolites of lichens of the genus Cladonia and the family Parmeliaceae

Korchikov E.S., Zelenskaya E.A., Khalikova L.V., Turchenko P.S.


This paper gives the maximum absorption of 10 secondary metabolites of lichens in a 96% alcohol solution. An assessment of the content of lichen acids growing in the Muransky pine forest, the Buzuluk pine forest, the Krasnosamarsky Woodland and in the Bolshechernigovsky district of the Samara Region was also carried out. All the species studied by us accumulate more secondary metabolites when growing in the Krasnosamarsky Woodland in comparison with those in the Buzuluk pine forest by 1,12–5,47 times. From the point of view of medicine and agriculture, as a raw material for drugs, as well as for drugs with fungicidal and insecticidal activity, it is more expedient to collect material in the Krasnosamarsky Woodland and other areas in the steppe zone with similar contrasting ecological factors, where the total amount of active stuff is more. The total content of secondary metabolites decreases in the order: Evernia mesomorpha > Hypogymnia physodes > Evernia prunastri > Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis > Parmelia sulcata > Pseudevernia furfuracea > Cladonia arbuscula > Cladonia furcata > Cladonia fimbriata > Cladonia rangiferina. In general, the studied representatives of the genus Cladonia accumulate secondary metabolites 2 times or more less than representatives of the Parmeliaceae family.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):58-63
pages 58-63 views

The entomofauna of scarabaeoidea beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabeoidea) in the Republic of Tatarstan

Leontiev V.V.


An overview of the entomofauna of scarabaeoidea beetles in the Republic of Tatarstan is given according to the data of long-term observations in the Verkhneuslonsky, Kamsko-Ustinsky, Mamadyshsky, Eelabugsky, Tukaevsky, Nizhnekamsky, Cheremshansky districts. The location of the republic on the territory of the southern taiga and forest-steppe zones determines the diversity of the species composition of the scarabaeoidea beetles. In total, from 1993 to 2021 the author identified 63 species, belonging to 19 tribes, 13 subfamilies and 4 families. Of these, 7 species are included in the Red Data Book of the Republic of Tatarstan: Lucanus cervus (Linnaeus, 1758), Dorcus parallelipipedus (Linnaeus, 1758), Ceruchus chrysomelinus (Hochenwarth, 1785), Trypocopris vernalis (Linnaeus, 1758), Polyphylla fullo (Linnaeus, 1758), Protaetia speciosissima (Scopoli, 1786), Osmoderma barnabita Motschulsky, 1845. From this list, 5 species are included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation: Lucanus cervus (Linnaeus, 1758), Ceruchus chrysomelinus (Hochenwarth, 1785), Trypocopris vernalis (Linnaeus, 1785), Protaetia speciosissima (Scopoli, 1786), Osmoderma barnabita Motschulsky, 1845. The list of some taxa is far from complete, some of them require a special study of faunism. The list of species is not exhaustive, especially for Subfamily Aphodiinae, which requires special research to complete. Protaetia fieberi (Kraatz, 1880) may be found in the Republic of Tatarstan with a high probability, this species is indicated for the neighboring Chuvash Republic and the Udmurt Republic. Previously, the author indicated this species as Potosia incerta in the 1990s, identified in the Verkhneuslonsky District, therefore, it is necessary to confirm the presence of the species on the territory of the republic at the present time.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):64-71
pages 64-71 views

Species structure and ecologo-trophic features of basidial macromycetes in the Novousmansky district of the Voronezh Region

Melkumov G.M.


The work is devoted to a long-term study of the species composition and ecologo-trophic features of basidial macromycetes growing in diverse communities in the Novousmansky district of the Voronezh Region. The mycological study revealed 405 species of macromycetes belonging to 2 divisions, 3 classes, 14 orders, 67 families and 145 genera. Most species of fungi belong to the orders Agaricales (177), Russulales (69), Polyporales (47) and Boletales (46). It was found that saprotrophs (187 species), represented by mono- (126) and polysaprotrophs (61), predominate in the forest coenoses in the Novousmansky district of the Voronezh Region. Macromycetes with a mixed type of nutrition (58) make up a large proportion of the detected fungi, among which facultative xylosaprotrophs dominate (21). Symbiotrophs include 58 taxa and form an exomycorrhiza with deciduous and coniferous trees. The overwhelming number of macromycete species are classified as edible (188) fungi. A smaller number of inedible (152), poisonous (51) and conditionally edible (14) representatives are represented. Special attention is paid to the issues of protection of rare and endangered basidiomycetes growing on the territory of the study. As a result of the survey of the Novousmansky district territory, 11 taxa of basidial fungi included in the 2nd edition of the Red Book of the Voronezh Region (2018) were identified.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):72-76
pages 72-76 views

Halophytic vegetation in the Maloserdobinsky District of the Penza Region

Novikova L.A., Vasjukov V.M., Gorbushina T.V., Pchelintseva T.I.


The halophytic vegetation of three salt marshes of the Maloserdobinsky district of the Penza Region was studied. 424 species of vascular plants were noted in the flora of these saline areas. One species of these is protected at the level of Russian Federation and 22 – at the regional level. Halophytic vegetation occupies 78,4% of the territory of the studied areas. Moreover, there are close shares of halophytic steppes (42,4%) and halophytic meadows (36%) everywhere. However, halophytic steppes predominate in Chunak solontsovaya Polyana (69,4%), and halophytic meadows predominate in Danilovskaya solontsovaya Polyana (39,4%) and Korzovaya Hollow (60,0%). Semi-shrubby halophytic steppes dominate the Chunak solontsovaya Polyana (43%), and perennial grass halophytic meadows dominate the Danilovskaya solontsovaya Polyana (39,4%) and Korzovaya Hollow (55,0%). The main stages of halophyte vegetation demutation are highlighted. They differ depending on the degree of moisture and salinity of the soil. The studied saline areas in the Maloserdobinsky district of the Penza Region have great scientific value, but only one of them (natural monument «Danilovskaya solontsovaya Polyana») is currently protected. Solonets which is located 2 km from the village Chunaki is also recommended to become a natural monument called «Chunak solontsovaya Polyana».

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):77-86
pages 77-86 views

Growth, development, morphology and biochemical characteristics of Solidago canadensis L. plants when introduced in the middle taiga subzone of the Komi Republic

Portnyagina N.V., Punegov V.V., Echishvili E.E., Fomina M.G., Chucha K.V., Gruzdev I.V., Weber N.E.


The paper presents the results of a long-term study of four samples of Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L.) of different geographic origin introduced in the middle taiga subzone of the Komi Republic. Under cultural conditions, the species is highly resistant and longevity (up to 18 years). It has been established that with the introduction in the North, reproduction of the Canadian goldenrod is possible by vegetative means, as well as from seeds of foreign origin. The mass transition of plants grown by seedlings to the generative period occurs in the third year of life. According to the flowering rhythm (July 31 – September 25), the species is classified as a mid-summer-mid-autumn plant. Fruiting of plants is interrupted by frost, full-fledged seeds are not formed. The morphological features of the generative shoot have been studied. The plant height in culture reaches 143–155 cm. The number of leaves on the stem is 63–101. The floral part of the shoot (inflorescence) 30–39 cm long is formed from the axils of 41–49 leaves and consists of 21–41 paracladia 8–13 cm long. The number of baskets on one shoot in different specimens of Canadian goldenrod varies from 2700 to 4200. The content of nitrogen mass fraction (1,8–3,0%) in the aboveground raw phytomass of Canadian goldenrod has been studied for the first time and the quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids in plant proteins has been determined. The total content of amino acids in the plant raw material of Canadian goldenrod has varied from 7,9 to 15,1% over the years. In the aboveground phytomass of plants, 17 amino acids have been found and determined, including 7 irreplaceable ones. The share of essential amino acids has averaged 37% of the total. The highest rates of equity participation have been noted for the following amino acids: proline, glutamic, aspartic, lysine, leucine, valine, alanine, arginine and glycine – 13,2; 11,0; 10,8; 8,4; 8,0; 5,9; 5,8; 5,7 and 5,2%, respectively. In the conditions of the North, biochemical studies of this species have been carried out for the first time. The content of flavonols in the aboveground raw phytomass of Canadian goldenrod have been 4,5–5,7% and met the requirements for medicinal raw materials (more than 3%). The yield of essential oil and its component composition have been determined. The EO content in the aboveground phytomass of plants has varied from 0,85 to 1,7% in terms of absolutely dry raw material. In the composition of EM, 39 components have been reliably identified, nine of which have been attributed to the main ones. The dominant compounds are: α-pinene (up to 43,9%), myrcene (up to 18,2%), limonene (up to 13,2%), Δ-3-carene (up to 12,0%); from sesquiterpenoids: germacrene D (up to 54,3%), bornyl acetate (up to 5,8%), geranyl acetate (up to 2,4%), cadinadiene (up to 2,0%), sesqui-fellandrene (up to 1,4%).

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):87-94
pages 87-94 views

Biomorphological features, phenological development and winter hardiness of East Asian species of the genus Cotoneaster Medik. when introduced in the Komi Republic

Punegov A.N., Skrotskaya O.V.


The paper deals with the biological features of the East Asian species of the genus Cotoneaster Medik. when introduced in the Komi Republic. The features of vegetation, the dynamics of shoot growth, as well as the specificity of growth processes in the North, the degree of winter hardiness of introduced species, flowering and fruiting of plants of three species of this genus have been studied. Long-term observations have established that the studied plants have a long seasonal rhythm of development, they are characterized by late terms of the end of the growing season. Some species in summer, due to their high ability to regenerate shoots, quickly restore the crown, which allows them to enter the flowering and fruiting phases annually under conditions of introduction. Of the seven species, three have entered the generation period, and only two differ in the regular fruit formation. Plants of C. allochrous, C. bullatus, C. roseus, and C. amoenus differ in the late start and late end of the growing season, which affect their winter hardiness. C. dammeri, C. horizontalis and C. ascendens are recommended as the most promising plants for growing in the northern region with an early start and late end of the growing season. The decorativeness of the studied dendrointroducents, which persists during the growing season, is noted.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):95-100
pages 95-100 views

Indicators of the water regime of Hemerocallis L. during the introduction in the South Ural

Reut A.A., Pyatina I.S.


The paper deals with the parameters of the water regime of Hemerocallis L. during cultivation in the forest-steppe zone of the Bashkir Cis-Ural. The experiments were carried out on the basis of the laboratory for the introduction and selection of floral plants of the South-Ural Botanical Garden-Institute UFRC RAS. The objects of the study were representatives of the generic complex Hemerocallis L.: H. citrina Baroni, H. dumortieri E. Morren, H. fulva (L.) L., H. lilioasphodelus L., H. middendorfii Trautv. et C.A. Mey., H. minor Mill. Water deficit and relative turgidity were found by the method of saturation of plant samples according to methodological guidelines. It was revealed that in May the water deficit in the leaves of daylilies ranged from 3,43% (H. middendorfii) to 18,01% (H. fulva). Over the entire observation period, the greatest value of the water deficit was noted in H. fulva in May at 19:00, and the smallest in H. minor in August at 05:00. As a result of the correlation analysis, the following was revealed: a direct relationship between water deficit and air temperature and an inverse relationship with the relative humidity of the air. Three groups of Hemerocallis were identified according to the relationship between daytime fluctuations in water deficit and meteorological factors.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):101-104
pages 101-104 views

Ecological and biological characteristics of the dendroflora of Cheboksary in the greening system of the city

Samokhvalov K.V., Sinichkin E.A., Arsentiev A.P.


The paper presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of the species composition of Cheboksary. The analysis of the dendroflora of the urban environment was carried out according to 3 indicators: the territory of woody plants, the occurrence of woody plant species in landscaping, the structure of the landscaping system. The arboreal vegetation of Cheboksary is represented by 73 species belonging to 43 genera and 20 families. The predominant part of the dendroflora is represented by the covered-seeded plants (86,3%), the gymnosperms – 13,7%. In the dendroflora of green areas of the city, the most widely represented families are Rosaceae, Pinaceae, Salicaceae (48%). The analysis of the species composition of woody plants showed that in the functional and economic zones of Cheboksary plantings of general use are represented by 65 species, plantings of limited use – 52 species, plantings along the streets and main roads – 50 species. The analysis of the species composition of woody plants depending on the share of their participation in landscaping revealed that the greatest number of woody plants is used with low (51 species) and medium (50 species) share. The analysis of the degree of participation of woody plants in landscaping in the four identified functional and economic zones of Cheboksary found that the greatest number of taxa prevail with an average participation in the central zone (37 species), the coastal and suburban zones (36 species). The largest number of species of woody plants grow in the green areas of the central functional and economic zone, where the landscaping involved 66 species, the smallest number grow in the green areas of the industrial area (36 species).

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):105-111
pages 105-111 views

The content of carotenoids in plant fruits of Sorbus L. species and varieties when introduced in the North (Komi Republic)

Skrotskaya O.V., Punegov V.V.


The paper presents data on the study of the content of carotenoids in plant fruits of different Sorbus species and varieties when introduced in the Komi Republic. As a result of a biochemical analysis, the accumulation of various amounts of carotenoids has been revealed: from 2,6 to 43 mg/%, depending on the species, sample and variety. The author compared the content of this group of substances in raw materials of plants introduced in the Komi Republic with the ones growing in other regions of Russia (Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Mordovia, Saratov, Penza, Moscow Region and others). It has been shown that under northern conditions in rowan fruits the value of the total carotenoids prevails in representatives of the Sorbus section with an East Asian range (S. pohuashanensis, S. discolor, S. amurensis), except the Far Eastern species S. sambucifolia. A different content of carotenoids in the plant fruits of S. aucuparia samples has been established: the maximum is in the sample from Yoshkar-Ola, which is 3–5 times higher than that in S. aucuparia from the Komi Republic. The content of this group of substances in the rowan fruits of the three studied varieties (Businka, Rubinovaya and Sorbinka) has been determined; their predominance in the Sorbinka variety has been shown. The study of the biochemical composition of plant raw materials of mountain ash species and varieties with the highest content of carotenoids when introduced in the North should be continued in order to further assess its qualitative composition and to develop recommendations for its use as a medicinal product, as well as a source of functional ingredients for pharmaceutical and food industries.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):112-116
pages 112-116 views

Adventitious coastal-aquatic and aquatic plants – indicators of global climate warming

Solovieva V.V.


The paper describes the habitats of Vallisneria spiralis L., Impatiens glandulifera Royle, Pistia stratiotes L. discovered in recent years within the Samara Region. A brief review of the papers devoted to the migration activity of these plant species on the territory of the Russian Federation and the Volga basin is given. Impatiens glandulifera Royle is an annual hygrophyte. In the flora of the Samara Region it was first noted among local coastal plants in 2004 on one of the ponds of Samara on Mirnaya Street. The plant entered the reservoir from the adjacent garden plots of the private sector. Pistia stratiotes L. is an aquatic plant. In the flora of the Samara Region, a pistia was first found on September 17, 2006 in a city pond (near School № 154 of Samara) among thickets of Elodea canadensis Michx. and Typha latifolia L. growing at a depth of up to 50 cm. Vallisneria spiralis L. was first discovered within the Samara Region in September 2020. Long-term monitoring of the distribution of coastal-aquatic and aquatic macrophytes-migrants in the Middle Volga basin will allow us to more confidently attribute them to possible indicators of global and local climate warming and one of the examples when aquatic plant species move from south to north within the Volga basin.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):117-121
pages 117-121 views

Weed communities with alien plant species on the south-east area of the Orenburg Region

Khasanova G.R., Yamalov S.M., Drap M.N., Shakirzyanov A.K.


The presence of agrocoenotic factors constantly acting on segmental (weed-field) communities leads to a high level of community invasion – a potential opportunity to accept new species. In many cases, it is through synanthropic communities that invasions of alien species occur in the Urals, which cause significant damage to both agriculture and the entire economy of the region as a whole. The aim of investigation is to survey and identify the coenotic diversity of communities involving alien species in the steppe zone of the southeastern part of the Orenburg Region. The paper provides data on weed communities with the participation of Acroptilon repens, the Sisymbrium volgense and Artemisia sieversiana. Communities were identified in spring wheat crops in the southeast of the Orenburg Region (Dombarovsky and Svetlinsky administrative districts). Communities develop on dark chestnut soils in arid conditions of the steppe zone. As a result of a synaxonomic analysis, communities were classified into three new variants of the association Lactucetum tataricae Rudakov in Mirkin et al. 1985 previously described in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Perennial weed species prevail in the agrobiological spectrum of the coenoflora nucleus of the studied segetal communities, the share of which is 70%. The most active of them are root-sprung perennials, which are found with high constancy and often dominate: Acroptilon repens, Fallopia convolvulus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Lactuca tatarica, Euphorbia virgata. Using the indirect ordination method (DCA), the features of ecological differentiation of communities are demonstrated. The studied phytocoenoses are associated with the driest habitats with poor soils.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):122-128
pages 122-128 views

Phenetics of the rock pigeon (Columba livia) plumage coloration in Orenburg

Chirkova E.N., Zavaleeva S.M., Sadykova N.N., Mingazov R.R.


Birds differ from larger representatives, for example: mammals from the point of studying the class of birds. The following things are considered: data on hair dryers of coloring, patterns of feather cover, structure and coloring of the beak, flapping of the legs. Representatives of the class of birds, in particular synanthropic blue pigeons, have signs: features of trophic behavior and polymorphism. The paper describes distribution and main morphs of blue pigeons on the territory of Orenburg. The blue pigeon (Columba livia) is one of the most widespread ancient representatives, which is prone to migrations and has an extensive habitat around the world, and in urban conditions is one of the most frequently observed objects. Pigeons on the territory of Orenburg are represented by different morphs: white, black, black-stamped, brown and blue. On the territory of the Central District, during two periods, 1650 individuals of birds (1040 in spring, 610 in autumn) of different color morphs were identified, with a large predominance of black-stamped and brown. During the spring period the maximum number of birds and morphemes was high and during the autumn period the population decreased in number, as well as the ratio of the number of color morphemes. The observations were carried out in the Central District of Orenburg on three streets: March 8th, Tereshkova, Pobedy Avenue. 35 morphemes were identified in the Central District: 21 in spring and 14 in autumn. Spring morphemes in groupings, as well as their increase, were explained by combinative variability (that is due to increased reproduction in the spring period) and manifestation of recessive traits in the phenotypes of plumage coloring. Autumn morphemes were few in number; as a result, the loss is explained by a weak stability of certain color morphemes to environmental factors.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):129-132
pages 129-132 views

Historical Sciences and Archaeology

Pezmogty 3B – a small Neolithic dwelling on the Middle Vychegda (Komi Republic)

Karmanov V.N.


The paper publishes the results of a study of complex B of Pezmogty 3 site. The author has studied traces and remains of a depressed small dwelling with an excavation area of 81 m². The spatial distribution of artefacts, faunal remains and their association with deposits of different genesis have been analysed. It is defined that the studied structure was rounded in the plan, 3,0–3,5 m in diameter, 7–9,5 m² in area, and, probably, a cone-shaped roof. The assemblage contains stone objects, fragments of ceramic ware and indeterminable items, fragments of calcified bones. The morphology of the flint arrowheads; the signs of secondary bifacial thinning technology; the ceramic pots, made of clay with an admixture of silt and decorated with a comb-pit ornament, allow us to attribute these materials to the Lyalovo culture in the European North-East and date them to the first half of the V millennium B.C. Until now, the most informative data for the study of this culture in north-eastern Europe were the remains of medium and large dwellings with an area of 26 to 100 m², so the published materials expand our understanding of the way of life and house-building traditions of the Middle Neolithic people of this region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):133-141
pages 133-141 views

Sites with rhomb-pit ceramics in the Vologda Region

Vasilyeva T.A., Kosorukova N.V., Nedomolkina N.G.


The paper presents the results of systematization and mapping of known archaeological sites with rhomb-pit ceramics on the territory of the Eastern Onega region, in the basin of the Sheksna River. The research is based on the materials from the funds of Cherepovets and Vologda museums. Such survey has been done for the first time and meets the demand of the lacuna in historiography of the discussed subject. Rhomb-pit ceramics are found on a vast territory. The studied area is also included into the zone of rhomb-pit ceramics spread and comprises its eastern boundary. An important scientific contribution was made by A.A. Alekseyeva’s field research, A.Ya. Brusov, M.E. Foss, I.K. Cvetkova, R.V. Kozireva and S.V. Oshibkina’s publications. In total there are 45 ancient sites, which ceramic collections typologically correlate with similar ceramics of the transition stage from Neolithic to Eneolithic in Karelia. The rhombic stamp is typical for the late stage of the Kargopol culture development on this territory. The obtained results reveal that further archaeological research is needed to conduct an in-depth study of the Neolithic – Eneolithic era of the Vologda Region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):142-147
pages 142-147 views

New scientific data of materials from the Starshy Nikitinsky burial ground and its place in the chronology of the Middle Volga Abashevo culture

Engovatova A.V., Lunkov V.Y., Lunkova Y.V., Mednikova M.B.


The paper is devoted to the introduction of a new radiocarbon date into scientific circulation and the analysis of the results of determining the metal composition of the items of the Starshy Nikitinsky burial ground of the Middle Volga Abashevo culture. The overwhelming majority of the burial ground’s decorations are made of «pure» copper. One pendant ornament is made of silver; in two other items the content of silver and arsenic was noted in small quantities. Products made of «pure» copper are usually associated with the Volga-Ural sources of metal, traditional for the Middle Volga Abashevo culture. The appearance of silver and arsenic in the metal composition of the Middle Volga Abashevo culture is associated with the South Ural ore sources and their development by the Volga-Ural Abashevites. Within the framework of traditional relative chronology, this corresponds to the time of the end of the developed stage of the Middle Volga Abashevo culture. The preservation of organic materials, which is rare for the sites of the Middle Volga Abashevo culture, makes it possible to compare the results obtained only with the materials of the Pepkino burial mound. Speaking of metal composition, both sites belong to a single stage of the Middle Volga Abashevo culture. The radiocarbon dates of the two burial grounds obtained at the Oxford Laboratory are close and indicate a somewhat later age of the burials of the Starshy Nikitinsky burial ground relative to the burials of the Pepkino kurgan.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):148-152
pages 148-152 views

Stone Age dwellings, sites and environment in coastal northern Norway: surveys and documentation of house-pit sites

Skandfer M., Damm C., Gjerde J.M.


The northernmost parts of Europe has a large number of sites with Stone Age house-pits, the majority of which date from c. 5000 BC onwards. Remarkably, the remains of these dwellings are many places still visible on the surface. In northern Norway, such dwellings concentrate in the coastal areas, with a more limited number found on inland sites. In order to use these in analyses of settlement duration, distribution and organization a more uniform and coherent documentation of both individual structures and site characteristics must be ensured. In an ongoing research project on Stone Age Demographics, we have developed and tested different levels of settlement site documentation, scaling from single structures over site topography to reconstruction of past environments. Through substantial surveying in our study region in coastal western Finnmark, northern Norway, we have collected extensive and uniform documentation of dwellings, sites and environment. This systematic documentation allows us to not just discuss dwellings within one specific site, but to consider also regional and supra-regional patterns and variability. This is required if we are to consider both spatial variation and temporal developments in the use and role of pit-houses.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):153-161
pages 153-161 views

Findings of antiquities on the territory of the Penza Governorate in the 19th – early 20th centuries based on the materials of the State Archive of the Penza Region

Sukhova O.K.


The paper deals with archaeological findings on the territory of the Penza Governorate in the 19th – beginning of 20th centuries based on the materials of the State Archive of the Penza Region. To compare the information obtained with the published data, the study used published sources such as: the «Reports» of the Imperial Archaeological Commission, the description of antiquities of the Governorate (A.A. Spitsyn, 1925) and other sources. The process of archaeological study of the Penza Governorate in the pre-revolutionary period depended on the activities of the provincial statistical committee, the provincial scientific archival commission, independent researchers and the provincial administration. As a result a set of archaeological discoveries made on the territory of the Penza Governorate in the 19th – beginning 20th centuries was drawn up. The list of findings includes facts of the discovery revealed in the research of archaeological sites and individual artifacts with indication of detection time, place and composition of the find or treasure. According to the research, in the 19th – early 20th centuries, 148 evidence of found antiquities were revealed. Coins, Stone Age tools, jewelry and other items had different destinies: they remained in the hands of the finders, were sold, melted down, settled in scientific organizations and museums of St. Petersburg, Moscow, and Penza. In most cases, the treasures were returned to the finders, and less often they were transferred to the metropolitan museums and given a reward for them. The issues raised in the paper are inextricably linked with the problem of accounting and protection of archaeological monuments and preservation of cultural heritage.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):162-170
pages 162-170 views

The kinship through the female line in the inheritance of the possessions of the Moscow Rurikids in the 14th century

Abukov S.N.


The paper studies the influence of the factor of possessions inheritance by Moscow knyazes in the female line in the 14th century, which was not typical for the Rurikids. There are certain difficulties in the history of possessions inheritance in Rus’, since sources paid little attention to such facts. The problem has not received sufficient attention in the historical literature. The author explores various forms of such inheritance that took place during the period under review in the Moscow Principality starting from the will of Ivan Kalita. In some cases, it was about small possessions transfer under the power of the Moscow dynasty princes, in others – entire principalities that had their own independent history of several generations. The most obvious example is the succession through consanguinity including from maternal grandfather to grandson. In addition, childless widowed princesses also bequeathed their lands to their nephews. The history of the Moscow dynasty also has an unprecedented example of the transfer of a hereditary principality by a knyaz to his widow, which she was forced to transfer to her brother-in-law. A persistent trend for a long time gives such facts a certain historical significance.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):171-174
pages 171-174 views

«Russian mission in Persia» and the problem of mutual (mis)understanding in Russian-British relations in the late 19 – early 20 century

Larin A.B.


The paper attempts to interpret the problem of Russian-British relations in Qajar Iran as a problem of mutual misunderstanding. It is postulated that the development of Russian-British relations in the 19th century (as well as their interpretation) took place in a situation of confrontation, which directly influenced the prospects for their improvement after the conclusion of the 1907 agreement. The both parties’ own languages of discussion and interpretation of Russian-British relations in Persia, developed over the decades of the Great Game, hindered the building of a productive constructive dialogue, driving political actors into the trap of already formed meanings and ideologemes. Thus, the concept of the «Russian mission in Persia», which was significant for the Russian socio-political discourse, presupposed the «legitimacy» and «justification» of the widest Russian intervention in (Northern) Iran, the use of a wide variety of means of conducting its own policy. However, in the British society such approaches and interpretations did not find understanding, the language developed for discussing the Persian issue and Russian policy was invective in relation to Russia and did not allow adopting the meanings, organic for the latter. The understanding of this problem by the key actors did not lead to a fundamental change in the situation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):175-181
pages 175-181 views

Human losses of the Samara Region during the World War I (1914–1918)

Igoshina O.Y.


The paper considers the problem of human losses of the Samara province during the World War I for the first time. The author uses the documents posted on the electronic portal «Memory of the Heroes of the Great War of 1914–1918», a unique information resource that is the first official bank of original documents of the state and departmental archives of Russia about the participants and events of the World War I. Special attention in this work is paid to irretrievable human losses, as the most severe and irreparable. It is established that the archival materials contain 258,686 records of various types of losses among conscripts from the Samara province, 49,015 of them speak of the dead, those who died of wounds and missing. They accounted for 13% of the total losses of the region. It is revealed that the data bank makes it possible to detail the human damage by cities, counties, volosts of the province, the cause, date and place of death, military rank and participation in strategic operations. The author has concluded that a number of the obtained parameters are related to the specifics of accounting for human losses during the studied period, but the knowledge obtained makes it possible to assess the scale of the demographic catastrophe that shook the country and the province during the World War I.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):182-185
pages 182-185 views

Cultural and educational work in the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army during the front-line Civil War: Soviet historiography of the 1920s – the first half of the 1930s (a brief review of the history of the problem)

Tribunsky S.A.


The researcher highlighted (in the format of a lapidary historiographic review) historiographic sources published in the 1920s – the first half of the 1930s, which dealt with the topic of cultural and educational work in the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army (RKKA) during the front-line Civil War (1918–1920). In the historiographic period, the chronological framework of which is indicated above, a relatively large number of historiographic sources appeared on the history of the Russian Civil War (at the front stage of its course). They reflected, among other things, many aspects of the historical phenomenon of party political work in the Armed Forces of the young Soviet state, that historical phenomenon, within the framework of which cultural and educational work in the Red Army was born and strengthened. Moreover, such studies were carried out immediately as the Civil War continued until the end of 1922 on the outskirts of the Soviet state, although it was not so large-scale. Such historiographic sources require understanding and rethinking from the standpoint of new theoretical and methodological approaches, established in modern Russian historical science. For a lapidary historiographic review the author has selected, first of all, a complex of historiographic sources that have both direct and indirect relation to the topic of cultural and educational work in the Red Army during the front-line Civil War, which were published in the chronological framework indicated above. Of course, there are no copyright claims in the work for the completeness of coverage of the topic under consideration. This, in fact, cannot be achieved in the format of a historiographic survey, especially lapidary.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):186-192
pages 186-192 views

Nationalist Movement Party and supporters of political Islam in Turkey in the second half of the 20th – early 21st centuries

Tovsultanov R.A., Tovsultanova M.S., Galimova L.N.


The paper examines the history of the emergence and development of the Nationalist Movement Party (NMP) and shows the national Islamist syncretism of its ideology. The authors cite examples of cooperation between nationalists and supporters of political Islam in the 1970s–1990s. Much attention is paid to the personalities of the leaders of the Nationalist Movement Party – Alparslan Turkesh and Devlet Bahcheli. The authors point to the initial flexibility of the nationalist leaders, who easily retreated in the 1970s and 2010s from the declared principles for the sake of political dividends. The authors consider the reasons for the split in the camp of nationalists and the emergence of a new – the Good Party (Iyi partisi) and especially the vicissitudes of the relationship between the leadership of the NMP with the leader of the Justice and Development Party R.T. Erdogan, who has been at the head of the Turkish Republic for almost two decades. The authors consider the creation of the «People’s Alliance» between the parties before the 2018 elections to be a natural result of the common social base of both parties and the convergence of their basic ideological and political attitudes. The authors note the tilt of nationalists towards political Islam as well as the appeal to the nationalist agenda of the leaders of the ruling party, in particular, R.T. Erdogan. The authors have made forecasts about the prospects for the further development of relations between nationalists and adherents of political Islam in Turkey.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):193-197
pages 193-197 views

The study of the contribution of explorers-travelers to the formation of the heritage of the Altai Krai and the Altai Republic by means of GIS technology

Rygalova M.V., Rygalov E.V.


The paper considers possibilities of geoinformation technology tools use for studying and updating the contribution of researchers-travelers to the formation of historical, cultural and scientific heritage of the Altai Krai and the Altai Republic in 18–19 centuries. Inevitably the heritage is a valuable resource for development of cultural, social and scientific component of the society. There is an urgent need to study and actualize historical heritage, find optimal ways of its adaptation to changing tendencies and demands of today. The theme of promoting heritage in the development of domestic educational tourism is a popular one. Recreation has long ceased to be seen only as passive, there is a growing interest in cognitive tourism. Each region seeks to preserve and present its historical and cultural peculiarities, connections with outstanding personalities, to assess their contribution to the development of the territory. Geographic information systems (GIS) are the main tool of this study. They have functions of displaying information in a visual form, as well as allow a comprehensive and systematic storage and processing of data in a spatial and temporal context. Geoinformation mapping in the study and actualization of personal contribution to the study of the region will allow to establish travel routes, research discoveries, collections, publications, which in the 18–19 centuries contributed to the study of the territory of the Altai Krai and the Altai Republic. These territories are united by a common rich past. A new look at the heritage will allow to develop research knowledge about the history and culture of the regions as well as undoubtedly contribute to the development and enrichment of tourist products.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):198-202
pages 198-202 views

The scientific community in the international transfer of ideas and technologies: historical aspects

Sumburova E.I.


The paper examines training of scientific personnel in the middle of the 20th century in the Soviet Union and in Western countries on the basis of archival materials and published memoirs. The author analyzes common and distinctive features of national systems of highly qualified specialists training. It is noted that different approaches to researchers training, their scientific potential and differences in research methods did not interfere the cooperation of scientists from different countries; on the contrary, they complemented and enriched it. In the paper on the example of materials of Physical and Chemical Institute named after L.Ya. Karpov the author names the main communication channels used by scientists in the 1950s–1960s. As a result, the author comes to the conclusion that the role of the scientific community in the international transfer of ideas and technologies was to fill this complex process of international cooperation with scientific content. Due to the «international nature» of science, neither language barriers nor differences in mentality and culture hinder its development, but foreign policy is an important factor in the success of scientific thought. The events of the cold war did not allow many international scientific projects to be fully implemented.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):203-207
pages 203-207 views

Pedagogical Sciences

Instrumental and technological approaches to the organization of reflection in blended learning (on the example of humanities)

Baiganova M.V., Kalinkina M.V.


The paper analyzes innovative models of the educational process organization based on distance technologies with the ICT application services, their features and didactic value. It’s about the main models of blended learning technology: station rotation, flipped classroom, lab rotation, individual rotation. The implementation of each model helps to achieve certain goals: differentiation and individualization of the educational process, development of students’ skills for individual work and self-organization, a more rational distribution of educational time in the classroom, ensuring the flexibility of the educational process, etc. The analysis of publications on this topic showed that researchers are interested in a wide range of issues related to the implementation of blended learning models at the lessons by different disciplines, such as: the usage of various tools, the analysis of models effectiveness, the usage of electronic resources, students’ motivation and evaluation, the role of the teacher, etc. However, little attention is paid to the organization of reflection. The paper analyzes the role of reflection in the learning process and its place at the lessons based on the models of flipped classroom and station rotation. The authors also give examples of methods and tools for organizing reflection at the lessons of humanities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):208-214
pages 208-214 views

Formation of secondary school students’ information culture in the context of digital transformation of biological education

Borisova N.V.


This paper examines the possibilities within the digital transformation of biology education, especially for the formation of senior students’ information culture. Genesis disclosure of the information culture concept within the framework of bibliographic, philosophical and pedagogical approaches allowed us to reveal the following tendency: the dynamically changing information world determines the evolution of such a multicomponent phenomenon as information culture. The paper presents the methodology implementation for the formation of secondary school students’ information culture by means of mobile technologies in the context of blended learning in the system of modern biological education. Criteria and indicators have been determined that make it possible to judge the level of information culture formation within the framework of cognitive, axiological and technological components. The paper analyzes the results of a pedagogical experiment, which finally allowed to state that the developed model of the formation of modern secondary school students’ information culture by using mobile learning technologies and the organizational and pedagogical conditions for its implementation contribute to the achievement of positive dynamics of indicators and improve the quality of biological education in a secondary school.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):215-219
pages 215-219 views

The study of cadets’ educational activities motives at Civil Aviation University

Butuzova E.A.


The paper presents a comparative analysis of the motives of students’ educational activities in the field of general professional training and in the study of a university mathematics course. The methodology of A.A. Rean and V.A. Yakunin considered in the work, containing sixteen motives, was used to study the opinion of cadets in its classical version in relation to the entire training at the chosen university, and the same motives were suggested for the cadets to consider in relation to the study of the course of higher mathematics. Mathematics plays an important role in the training of technical professionals; it is a basic discipline that ensures the success of training in general engineering and special disciplines. At the same time, mathematics studied at school differs significantly from mathematics taught at a university, the amount of mathematical information offered is much larger, the content level of the concepts introduced is much more complex. Cadets at civil aviation university who have started studying mathematics at the university have a definite opinion by the end of the first semester. The results of cadets’ opinions analyses may allow the teacher to have an adequate idea of the motives of cadets’ educational activities in relation to obtaining mathematical knowledge. The priority motives obtained are discussed from the standpoint of solving pedagogical problems of teaching mathematics.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):220-223
pages 220-223 views

Formation of ideas about end-to-end digital technologies among prospective speech therapists

Dobudko T.V., Pugach O.I.


According to the program «Digital Economy of the Russian Federation» adopted in 2017, the share of the population with digital skills should be 40%. Moreover, these skills include not only user skills, but also specific ones related to a specific professional activity. In this regard, higher educational institutions are faced with the task of training personnel who will be able to work effectively in the era of digital development of the economy, namely, to be able to work with end-to-end digital technologies. In order to cope with this task successfully, it is necessary to change the main professional educational programs and include work programs of disciplines in which end-to-end digital technologies become the object and / or means of study. This paper analyzes the problem of the readiness of prospective speech therapists majoring in 44.03.03 special (defectological) education to use end-to-end digital technologies in their professional activities. The authors characterize the course «End-to-end digital technologies», which appeared in the 2021/2022 academic year at Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education among first-year students of the Faculty of Psychology and Special Education. Based on the results of the course approbation, the authors formulate conclusions about the advisability of supplementing the training of students with a workshop that allows them to master several applied software products based on end-to-end digital technologies at an in-depth level.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):224-229
pages 224-229 views

Features of a prospective teacher’s professional formation in the educational environment of a pedagogical university

Dorozhkina E.S.


The paper considers the concept of «professional formation» and its projection on the professional training and professional activity of the prospective teacher through the concepts of «formation» and «development». As a result of the analysis of existing views on the phases, stages and periods of professional formation, the main ones were identified, which are due to the time frame – the period before choosing the institution where professional training will be carried out, the actual professional education and the period of it. Having analyzed the set of competencies (subject, general pedagogical, professional-communicative, managerial, innovative, reflective) provided by the Federal State Educational Standard in relation to the teacher’s profession, as well as referring to the models of Hard-skills and Soft-skills, we identified indicators (skills) of the professional development of the prospective teacher and invited the 3rd-year students of the Institute of Russian Language and Literature of the Volgograd State Socio-Pedagogical University to evaluate these skills in the order of their significance. The assessment was carried out on a 5-point scale, where 1 point is an absolutely insignificant indicator, 2 – rather insignificant, 3 – rather significant, 4 – significant, 5 – very significant. As a result, we were able to build their gradation and divide them by areas, as well as allocate 3 levels in the process of professional development. Taking into account these levels, we considered how the educational environment can influence the professional development of future teachers through educational, extracurricular activities and through the environment.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):230-234
pages 230-234 views

Optimization of general education networks structure in rural areas of the Russian Federation and the Samara Region from the late 1990s to 2020

Eremin S.V.


This paper discusses the optimization of rural educational networks structure in the Samara Region and Russia from the late 1990s to 2020. Documents of the federal level that contributed to the development of the country’s educational system, including the development of a general education network in the countryside, are presented. The dynamics of changes in the number of general educational organizations in the country in comparison with the number of schoolchildren for the period from 1995/1996 academic year to 2019/2020 academic year is given. The author compares approaches to the optimization of rural general education network structure used in the experiment on restructuring the network of general educational institutions located in rural areas which was conducted in the 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 academic years and during the implementation of complex projects for education modernization by the Russian regions in 2007–2009. On the example of the Samara Region, differences and similar moments of rural general education network structure optimization in this region with all-Russian trends are considered. The basic regional principles of optimization are revealed. Models of changes in the structural elements of the general education network of the Samara Region in comparison with the models used in the framework of the experiment on restructuring the network of rural schools are presented.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):235-240
pages 235-240 views

The educational environment of a departmental university as a means of cadet’s personality formation

Zhalmurzin R.B.


The paper substantiates the importance of educating personal qualities of an employee of the penal system (PS) that meet universal and professional moral standards and outlines the role of a departmental university in educating a cadet’s personality. It is argued that the educational environment of a departmental university is one of the central means of shaping and developing a cadet’s personality – a prospective PS employee as a person and a professional. The analysis of the concept «environment» in the context of different levels of education (school, university) is carried out. The paper summarizes scientific ideas about the educational environment of the departmental university, which is a set of circumstances, conditions specific to the departmental higher education institution, which affect the cadet, contributing to the formation of his personality as a prospective specialist. The list of organizational and pedagogical conditions for development of the educational environment of a departmental higher educational institution in relation to the educational environment of higher educational institutions of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia is supplemented – filling the educational environment with values that, penetrating into the value sphere of cadets’ consciousness and becoming its integral part, create a value barrier that cannot be overcome by the anti-values of the criminal world. Approaches to formation, development, formation of the educational environment of a departmental university are indicated: molecular, factorial, synergetic, competence, culturological, axiological, ethnopedagogical, individually creative, dialogical, which are complemented by an environmental approach. The importance of the environmental approach in organizing the educational environment of a departmental university is substantiated. The content of the basic concepts of the environmental approach is revealed: niche; element; lifestyle; personality as an object and a subject of education; environment-forming action. The specificity of the implementation of the environmental approach to the organization of the educational environment of the departmental higher educational institution of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia is revealed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):241-245
pages 241-245 views

A pedagogical perspective of understanding the essence and structure of the value attitude of cadets studying at a law university of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia to a person

Klychkov S.A.


The paper substantiates the urgency of the problem of humanization of relations between people, within the framework of which the problem of formation of the value attitude of cadets studying at a law school of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia to a person is highlighted. The pedagogical understanding of the concepts «value», «attitude», «person» is carried out, which are meaning-forming for the value attitude of cadets studying at a law institution of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia to a person. The specificity of value is revealed as a conscious meaning that determines the attitude of a person to the world, to people and to himself. The paper substantiates the proposition that formation of the value attitude of cadets studying at a law school of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia to another person presupposes the relationship between value and emotional factors. It is proved that the cadet’s awareness of the value of another person as a value, which turns into a personal meaning, will contribute to his/her formation as a person and a professional, for whom the other person will always be a goal, not a means. The paper reveals the essence of the value attitude of cadets studying at a law school of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia to a person, which consists in the cadet’s awareness of the value of another person as a value and endowing this value with a personal meaning experienced at the emotional level. Scientific ideas about the value attitude as an integrative psychological structure, as a stable personality-semantic formation, as a three-dimensional structure are concretized and the possibility of considering the concept of «value attitude of cadets studying at a law institution of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia to a person» as a personal formation with a structure is affirmed. The structure of the concept «value attitude of cadets studying at a law school of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia to a person» is determined through the allocation of cognitive, axiological, emotional and activity components.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):246-250
pages 246-250 views

Methodological approaches to the study of Ch. Darwin’s theory of natural selection in the school biology course

Lamekhova E.A.


Currently, some previously recognized ideas are being re-evaluated in biological education, which confirms the need to improve and further develop the methodology for studying and teaching the theory of evolution. Relevant in this regard are the selection of the content and the development of a methodology for studying Darwin’s theory of natural selection in the school biology course, which determined the purpose of the study. The purpose of the paper is to develop a methodology for studying some issues of Darwin’s theory of natural selection in the school biology course. The paper offers a variant of the program and a method for studying the most complex issues of the topic. Natural selection, which manifests itself as a consequence of the struggle for existence, should be described by formulating a definition, describing the mechanism and results of action. The study of natural selection should be accompanied by evidence of its leading role in evolution. Describing the struggle for existence as a factor of evolution, it is necessary to emphasize its ecological essence. The results of the action of natural selection should be described taking into account their cause-and-effect relationships, accompanying this with examples, using various manuals and tasks and carrying out practical work. The description of the methodology for studying the issues of the topic is of theoretical significance, and the given methodological recommendations for studying the prerequisites for the emergence of Darwinism, the doctrine of the variability of organisms, the struggle for existence, natural selection and other issues are of practical importance and will ensure a successful assimilation of this complex material by students.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):251-259
pages 251-259 views

Monitoring and assessment of pedagogical competence development among bachelors majoring in Ecology

Makarova E.A., Stepanova E.S.


The paper is devoted to the problem of environmental education implementation in modern conditions through formation of ecological consciousness and ecological culture of students’ personality within the educational process and outside. To solve this problem it is necessary to develop new approaches to the training of prospective environmental educators and their professional competence development. It’s also necessary to control and evaluate all the main components of professional competence. In the structure of the teacher’s professional competence the authors of the paper include a set of theoretical knowledge and their application in various pedagogical situations, as well as value orientations and a set of indicators of the teacher’s culture: speech, communication style, attitude to himself/herself and his/her activities and to other fields of knowledge, etc. At the same time, the system of professional education of modern teachers consists of subject training as well as psychological, pedagogical and methodological training, the purpose of which is to form the ability to organize the educational process on principles of personality-oriented interaction. In the structure of professional and pedagogical competence of bachelors majoring in Ecology, it is possible to distinguish meaningful, value-motivational and operational-activity components. The authors also consider possible ways of monitoring and assessment of pedagogical competence development among bachelors majoring in Ecology for pedagogical activity, their professional competence and training.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):260-264
pages 260-264 views

Historical and cultural standard and teacher’s professional training within the course of the civil identity formation (formulation of the problem)

Malkin S.G.


The paper is devoted to the role of the state educational policy within the course of the Russian civil identity formation. The focus of the study is on the evolution of the aims of the authorities in matters of the historical education and historical memory, their norm-legal regulation and institutional support, as well as real educational practices. The introduction of the historical and cultural standard for teaching the school course of the history is considered as a collective attempt by the authorities and society to lead historical and educational policies to a common denominator in terms of the content and value. A special accent in the paper concerns the problems of the teacher professional training for the implementation of the state historical and educational policy of the Russian Federation within given framework, considering the specifics of the contemporary informational space. It attracts attention to the close ties between information wars and historical policy, in the context of the attempts to reconsider the results of the Second World War especially, keeping in mind its effects for the transformation of the civil identity and the changes of position the Russian Federation held on the international arena. Both methodological and organizational restrictions were identified in secondary and higher schools, which have a significant impact on the formation of civil identity through historical education, both at the stage of training pedagogical personnel and in the process of studying the school course of the history.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):265-268
pages 265-268 views

A categorical analysis of the «personality self-determination» concept in the context of the problem of students’ orientation towards moral self-determination

Pozdnyakova O.K.


The paper raises the problem of students’ orientation towards moral self-determination as one of the directions of moral education of students. The necessity of carrying out a categorical analysis of the «personality self-determination» concept to determine the content and methods of orientation of students towards moral self-determination is substantiated. Personality self-determination is considered at the philosophical, psychological and pedagogical levels of analysis. At the philosophical level of analysis, the essence of the «personality self-determination» phenomenon and the concept adequate to it is revealed; it consists in a person’s choice of certain actions and deeds in a given situation; shows the role of moral choice in the self-determination of the individual. At the psychological level of analysis, the author substantiates the relationship between the self-determination of the individual and the system of his/her relations (to the surrounding reality, other people and himself/herself), which determine the content of the personality’s position. At the pedagogical level of analysis, the self-determination of a person is associated with his/her choice of values, the source of which is his/her needs. The paper argues that the self-determination of a person is both a process and a result of a person’s choice of his/her own position, there is a choice of relations that form the content of a position, there is a choice of values, the focus on which constitutes the value orientations of a person, which become the core of self-determination. The author also has determined some practical pedagogical tasks, the solution of which is aimed at creating conditions for the orientation of students towards moral self-determination: the task of students’ moral principles development, which will ensure their choice of their position, goals and means of self-realization in life; the task of familiarizing students with the value of good, which is the essence of their ethical attitude to the world, to people and to themselves; the task of developing students’ ability to substantiate the foundations of moral choice and its principles to reflection.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):269-273
pages 269-273 views

The experience of moral interaction of students with other people: a pedagogical aspect

Razumovskaya A.A.


The paper actualizes the problem of a person’s formation as a moral person with virtues. The directions of moral education, contributing to the formation of a moral personality, are indicated, and the need to highlight the formation of the experience of moral interaction with other people among university students as an aspect of moral education is argued. It is substantiated that the experience of moral interaction of students with other people is the result of the implementation of a special type of relationship in which moral values are actualized, taking the form of motives of actions and actions of students in relation to other people, which in such an experience reflecting moral practice as a set of real actions of a student, the world of morality and its inherent values is being realized. The methodological grounds for identifying the structure of the experience of moral interaction of students with other people are revealed: scientific provisions on the reflection in the fundamental structure of experience of the fundamental structure of the world; scientific provisions on individual morality, mediating the relationship between external factors that determine the behavior of a person and its internal (social, moral) meaning. The structural components of the experience of moral interaction of students with other people are highlighted: cognitive, motivational-value, communicative and behavioral components and the possibilities of identifying these components are argued. It is substantiated that the allocation of the cognitive component is based on the idea of the correspondence of behavior to knowledge; the allocation of a motivational-value component – on the position of the guiding role in human activity of motives, the form of which values take; highlighting the communicative component – on the interpretation of communication as one of the types of interaction that has a moral component; the allocation of the behavioral component – on the provisions of moral practice.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):274-278
pages 274-278 views

A favorable moral and psychological climate of children’s creative team as a condition for determining students’ social identity

Smirnova S.S.


The paper characterizes the contribution of domestic and Western scientists to the study of social identity problem (A.V. Averchenko, I.V. Baryshnikova, L.V. Kalinina, A.V. Nechaev, D.P. Sidorenko, H. Arendt, J. Ranciere, H. Tajfel). The role of children’s creative team and favorable moral and psychological climate of children’s creative team in determining students’ social identity are outlined. The paper contains the results of the study of psychological climate of children’s creative team of the Russian folk instruments orchestra. The author also characterizes relations in the collective and students’ perception of themselves in the collective as members of the Russian folk instruments orchestra. The author also presents a process of formation of moral and psychological climate of children’s creative team in the context of value-meaningful and contextual approaches realization to create conditions for students’ social identity search and definition. The author has proposed types of lessons (informational, problem-based, discussion, double lecture, reflective, exploratory) and methods of educational and extracurricular creative activities that contribute to students’ social identity search and definition.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):279-282
pages 279-282 views

Extracurricular educational activities for prospective teachers’ professional identity development

Smolyar A.I., Zogol S.G.


The influence of extracurricular educational activities at the university on prospective teachers’ professional identity development has been grounded on the basis of literature on psychology and education analysis, as the influence reflects the professional identity related to axiological definition of life in profession and a semantic system uniting determination of oneself and one’s profession. The authors define «professional identity», «teacher’s professional identity», a complex of methods evaluating student’s professional identity development dynamics, and clarify the scientific concept of «extracurricular educational activities at the teacher training university». In this work it is understood as an interaction of teachers and students outside the learning process aimed at student’s personality formation as a subject of prospective professional teacher’s work, professional identity, self-perfection, self-education and self-development. Extracurricular educational activities at the teacher training university are regarded by the authors as a part of prospective teachers’ education and professional training. The empirical studies of the professional identity carried out by the authors reflect the role and place of extracurricular educational activities at the teacher training university, as well as their forms and methods for the development of the researched object. Forms, methods and ways of extracurricular educational activities at the teacher training university promoting prospective teacher’s professional identity development were identified and verified experimentally. The recent study makes it possible to assume that the prospective teacher’s professional identity results from extracurricular educational activities at the university.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):283-288
pages 283-288 views

Formation of the prospective engineer’s moral personality as a problem of modern technical education

Soboleva E.I.


The paper substantiates the urgency of the problem of the technical specialist’s moral personality formation, harmoniously combining production, personal and public interests, and indicates the need to solve the problem of engineering personnel’s professional training organization, focused on the development of students’ (prospective engineers) morality. The author has revealed a role of moral values in the moral education of students of a technical university, which contributes to the formation of the moral personality of a future engineer as a person and a professional. The moral values of the Russian engineer, presented in the Codes of Ethics for the Engineer, are indicated. Attention is focused on the relationship between the concept of «attitude» and the concept of «value», in the context of which (interconnection) the choice of moral values is substantiated, familiarization with which allows to educate the prospective engineer as a moral person. The specificity of moral values is revealed as conscious life meanings that determine the attitude of an engineer to technology, to colleagues and to society. Specific moral values that are identified determine a specific type of relationship between an engineer: good, humanism, duty, freedom, honesty (the attitude of an engineer to technology), kindness, mercy, reliability, conscience, fairness (the attitude of an engineer to colleagues), dignity, responsibility, benefit, truth, honor (the attitude of an engineer to society). The ways of introducing a student to moral values in the educational process of a technical university, contributing to the formation of the prospective engineer’s moral personality, are indicated: the use of the educational potential of educational disciplines; application in the educational process of methods that allow harmoniously to combine the acquisition of professional knowledge by students and their introduction to values; extracurricular work with students; corporate training program (interaction between the university and the enterprise).

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):289-293
pages 289-293 views

Massive open online courses as a resource of mixed learning (on the example of humanities)

Tarakanova E.N.


The dominant direction in the development of online education, actively discussed by the pedagogical community, is training using massive open online courses (MOOCs). The key factor in the effectiveness of the implementation of MOOCs in the practice of educational organizations is primarily the availability of elite education. In modern conditions, which determine the priority of lifelong education (lifelong learning), it is particularly relevant to form schoolchildren’s readiness for self-education, which can be facilitated by training on MOOC platforms. The broad discussion of MOOC implementation in educational practice is more concerned with university education, additional education and the system of advanced training. The use of MOOCs in school education in the publications of teachers-researchers is not considered fully enough and is mostly related to natural sciences. The paper analyzes the MOOC on the example of humanities and the features of the implementation of mixed learning models («inverted learning», «autonomous group», «individual trajectory») based on the use of online courses. This analysis suggests that there should be a need for more in-depth research in this area and the need to introduce elements of learning into school practice through massive open online courses. This will resolve the contradiction between the need for differentiation and individualization of training and the potential of existing unused massive open online courses.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):294-298
pages 294-298 views

Evolution of teenagers’ deviant behavior problem in writings of national and foreign authors

Chelnokova T.A.


The paper presents the results of the author’s research of the basic trends in evolution of teenagers’ deviant behavior problem in writings of national and foreign authors. This topic is widely presented in scientific researches. Its methodological base originates from the works of 19 century researchers. The first-rate sociologists stand at the dawn of researches, it highlights social significance of deviant behavior problems. National researchers and representatives of psychological science contribute to the methodology of the problem. The variety of methodological and theoretical approaches to the problem of deviant behavior provides a possibility of explanation of the whole variety of deviant behavior forms. The author pays attention to some publications written on the results of conducted researches, underlining a wide ramified structure of the researches agenda. The paper also gives a brief analysis of «deviant behavior» term; it is underlined that the problems connected with it are considered by representatives of different fields of science (sociology, psychology, pedagogics, criminology, cultural studies). At the end of the paper the similarity of trends in research of the deviant behavior problem by national and foreign authors is stated. The author notes the importance of knowledge of recent researches for arrangement of work with children and teenagers in the educational system.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):299-302
pages 299-302 views

Linguodidactic potential of the electronic textbook as an innovative means of teaching a foreign language at the technical university

Shefieva E.S., Bessarabova O.N.


The paper considers the features of development and practical use of an electronic foreign language textbook at the technical university. This study is dictated by the need to resolve contradictions between the provisions declared by the higher education standards of the latest generation and the real level of students’ knowledge of a foreign language. The authors analyze and systematize the requirements for printed and electronic foreign language textbooks. Attention is paid to the advantages of electronic publications over printed ones. The key advantage of the electronic textbook is the presence of hypertext, which makes it possible to implement a nonlinear form of information organization. The paper formulates basic principles of an electronic textbook development, describes its structure and components and highlights the issues of filling the content with language material. The authors proposed the options for tasks aimed at stimulating students’ communicative and cognitive activity. It is shown that podcasts can be used as multimedia resources to intensify the development of students’ listening skills. It is emphasized that the availability of special programs for creating electronic textbooks allows the teacher to carry out its development without any special training in the field of programming. As a result of the analysis, the authors come to the conclusion about a high linguodidactic potential of the electronic textbook as a teaching tool.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(3):303-306
pages 303-306 views

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