Vol 7, No 4 (2018)

03.02.00 – General Biology

The study of heavy metal pollution in soils and the link between pollution and oncological diseases

Ashurbekova T.N., Musinova E.M.


The paper deals with the problem of ecotoxicants content: arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium in the soils of Achkhoy-Martan District settlements of the Chechen Republic and their impact on human health. The presence of heavy metals in soils and plant samples of the studied area can be explained by the geological structure of the territory of the Republic, which is located on the rocks of the Jurassic and Paleogene periods. Studies have shown excessive concentrations of lead in some samples of soil settlements of the Achkhoi-Martan District: Samashki is 43,1 mg/kg and Janda – 42,1 mg/kg vs 30 mg/kg by the MPC. There is an excess of the maximum permissible concentration of cadmium in the village Zakan-Yurt – 1,93 mg/kg against 1,0 mg/kg MPC. As for mobile forms arsenic, mercury and cadmium are found in the greatest quantities. The arsenic content exceeds the permissible values by 2,03–3,36 times, the cadmium content exceeds the MPC by almost 2 times – 1,93 mg/kg against 1 mg/kg. According to the results of the studies, the relationship between the transformation of mobile forms of heavy metals from soil to plants is monitored. A direct correlation between cancer and the concentration of heavy metals in the soils of the study areas was revealed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):10-14
pages 10-14 views

Ivanovo Region natural monument «Lake Vazal (reservoir in Yuzha)» characteristics

Borisova E.A., Markov D.S., Kurganov A.A.


The paper deals with the ecological research of Ivanovo Region natural monument «Lake Vazal (reservoir in town Yuzha)». The reservoir is located in Yuzha of the Ivanovo Region, it was founded in 1859 by the overlapping a small river Vazovka with dam filling a formed basin with water. This reservoir was named «Lake Vazal». The reservoir was recognized as a natural monument of regional value in 1975. The author describes different parameters of the lake and presents a bathymetric schema of the bottom. The relief of the lake banks is characterized. There are sod-shallow podzolic medium-power, medium sod medium- and low-humic sandy soils on the water-ice scurf on the banks of the lake. The water analysis is made. Meadow, marshy, aquatic and hygrophytic plant communities of this protected area are described briefly. The author has registered 277 vascular plant species from 3 divisions, 4 classes, 64 families and 180 genera, among them 3 species (Sanguisorba officinalis, Lembotropis nigricans and Geranium palustre) are included to the Ivanovo Region Red Data Book. 6 species are rare for the region flora. Populations of rare plant species are briefly characterized. Examples of alien and invasion plant species are given. The lake has a great hydrological and environment-forming value and forms a specific microclimate. The square of specially protected natural area is 42 hectares; the square of secured zone is 67,3 hectares.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):14-19
pages 14-19 views

Methodical aspects of various biomorphs ornamental plants regeneration study

Vasilyeva O.Y., Sarlaeva I.Y.


The paper raises the problem of conservation, maintenance, rejuvenation and accelerated reproduction of plant objects in bioresource collections using green cutting propagation. The authors describe experimental methods of herbaceous and woody plants regeneration study in agricultural, physiological-biochemical and morphological directions. In agricultural direction the main factors are the timing and methods of green cutting, as well as the microecological conditions in which regeneration takes place (humidity, temperature of the air and substrate). The physiological and biochemical aspect concerns the use of various growth stimulants, including concentrations and timing for the treatment of unruly cuttings. The reliable positive effect of the growth stimulants in comparison with control natural regeneration can be proved by the t-criteria. The morphological aspect shows features of callusogenesis and rhizogenesis. The most profound analysis is possible when representatives of generic complexes, species and varieties of various ecological, geographical and genetic origin are involved in the experiment. A highly informative classification of callusogenesis and rhizogenesis proposed by N.F. Dovbysh, N.A. Oleinik and G.A. Kudina (1993) is described in detail; in this classification three types of callus implantation are described: circular, focal and continuous, as well as five types of localization and development of roots. Root formation can occur 1) in the zone of the node, 2) from the callus tissue, 3) from the side of the bud and leaf trail, 4) over the entire surface of the internode, as well as 5) mixed (from the tissues in the node zone and from callus tissue). Based on the long-term study of the regeneration of shrub and herbaceous ornamental plants, the authors of the paper propose one more type – in the entire surface of the lower cut.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):20-25
pages 20-25 views

The genus Cypripedium L. in the unique habitat of orchids in the Novosibirsk Region

Gerasimovich L.V.


This paper provides information about the unique habitat, where 13 species of orchids of the genera Dactylorhiza Nevski, Epipactis Zinn, Gymnadenia R. Br., Herminium R. Br., Orchis L., Platanthera L.C.M. Rich., Cypripedium L. grow in Iskitim District of the Novosibirsk Region. A morphological description of three kinds of shoes is given, including a new for the Novosibirsk Region species Cypripedium × ventricosum Sw., which is proposed to be included in the Red Book of the Novosibirsk Region. The investigated community of shoes is located in a birch-high-herbage forest, in the Koyniha river basin. Comparison of the characteristics of the vegetative and generative organs Cypripedium x ventricosum Sw., Cypripedium calceolus L. and Cypripedium macranthon Sw, described as a result of monitoring, is compared with literary data. It was shown that all parameters of C. calceolus, except for the bract length (greater than average), are included in the described range. In the studied habitat, most of the parameters of C. macranthon and C. × ventricosum (the length and width of the bract, the length and width of the lateral leaf of the perianth of the inner circle) have higher values. It allows us to conclude that the eco-cenotic conditions of the studied habitat are most favorable for C. macranthon and C. × ventricosum. Cenopopulations of all three species exist for a fairly long period and are in their real optimum.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):25-31
pages 25-31 views

Reproductive features of Festuca rubra L. in different environmental conditions

Zueva G.A., Khusainova I.V.


The paper presents comparative results of Festuca rubra L. seed productivity study in Siberia and Kazakhstan. The authors consider the influence of ecological conditions on the organo-educational process of the species. The authors reveal specific features of plants growth and development at different terms of seeding in different ecological conditions. In the first year of vegetation, plants in all variants undergo two phenological phases – shoots and tillering. Different planting dates make significant changes in the reproductive capacity of plants. In spring plants sowing apical meristem at the end of the growing season corresponds to the IV stage of organogenesis. The following year in spring, shoots of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th orders also become generative. An optimal method of Festuca rubra growing with maximum parameters of seed productivity was determined. It was found out that during spring sowing the maximum yield of seeds (up to 48 g/m²) can be obtained for the 3rd year of life of the cereal. For the 4th year there is a slight decrease (45,4 g/m²). With the early sowing date – the maximum yield (up to 51 g/m²) was obtained only for the 4th year of plant life and a further decrease is observed. During autumn sowing, the first fructification of cereals occurs only in the 3rd year of life and is expressed in the maximum number of shoots and the yield of seeds (68 g/m²). Further sharp decrease in such indicators as generative shoots and yields indicates the inexpediency of further preservation of the testes.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):31-35
pages 31-35 views

Main features of the Samara-Ulyanovsk Volga Region flora adventive fraction family spectrum

Ivanova A.V., Kostina N.V., Lysenko T.M.


The study of the adventive fraction of flora is a separate area of floristic research. General patterns of adventive species introduction consequences as well as their distribution throughout the territory are studied. Often, when studying the adventive fraction, the family spectrum is analyzed. In the paper we consider the adventive fraction of the flora on the territory of Samara-Ulyanovsk Volga Region, which is located within two natural zones: forest-steppe and steppe, four physical-geographical provinces and 15 districts. Each physical-geographical unit is characterized by its peculiarities of relief, geological structure, soils, vegetation and local climatic conditions. In the family spectrum of the adventive faction of Samara-Ulyanovsk Volga Region, it is possible to single out families that play a leading role in the formation of its composition. Based on the data on the adventive fractions of the floras of the physiographic regions and areas identified in the study area, it can be noted that the first four places in the spectrum are occupied by the following families Asteraceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae and Chenopodiaceae. The list of these four leading families of the adventive fraction of the flora remains unchanged, but their order may be different. Probably, the differences in the natural conditions of the studied territories are reflected precisely in the order of the location of the leading families, since their composition does not change. The change in the composition of the leading four of the family spectrum can be observed on the scales of large areas: comparing the spectra of the adventive fractions of Ivanovo, Tver, Astrakhan Region, and other administrative divisions. Flora of various physical and geographical subdivisions of Samara-Ulyanovsk Volga Region, despite belonging to different natural zones, have similar family spectra of adventive fractions. They differ only in the presence of one or two families. For example, among the leading adventive families Rosaceae, Onagraceae and Rubiaceae were not in all cases.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):35-40
pages 35-40 views

Results of quantitative parameters evaluation of leaves of some fruit and berry Rosaceae cultivars and hybrids

Kavelenova L.M., Petrova A.B., Savitskaya K.A., Yankov N.V., Antipenko M.I., Demenina L.G., Kuznetsov A.A.


The leaves of higher plants reveal a wide range of structural and ecofunctional differences expressed for taxa of various ranks, for representatives of ecological groups, as well as associated with adaptation to a complex of biotopic conditions. Among the quantitative indicators determined in the study of leaf phytomass samples there are some detected by direct measurement and others detected by calculating. The second group of indicators includes, in particular, the leaf mass per area (LMA) parameter. In nature, this indicator reveals differences within two orders for plants of various life forms (from the minimum in freshwater hydrophytes to the maximum in desert inhabitants). Functional groups of plants are characterized by unequal level of LMA plasticity in the gradient of abiotic conditions (such as light, temperature, moisture, edaphic regime). Evaluation of leaf apparatus parameters is widely demanded in various actual directions (plant ecology, forestry, environmental protection, cultivars study, etc.). In this paper we present some generalized data related to the results of the study of the leaf structure for some fruit and berry Rosaceae cultivars and hybrids (25 varieties of pears, 15 – apple, 13 – garden strawberries, 7 – clone rootstocks for stone fruit crops), for which the Scientific Research Institute «Zhigulevskiye Sady» specialists carry out cultivars study. We performed a row ranking procedure and constructed distribution histograms for the integrated data blocks for each group of objects, using the Excel. We turned to the percentage of the proportion of variables corresponding to different levels of LMA. The distribution analysis of generalized data on the LMA index showed perspectivity for comparing groups of objects of different systematic (varietal) accessories and for detection of dissimilarity trends between them.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):40-44
pages 40-44 views

Morphology and some aspects of reproductive biology of perennial buckwheat Fagopyrum cymosum Meissn. in the Republic of Tatarstan

Kadyrova L.R., Kadyrova F.Z.


Fagopyrum cymosum Meissn. is a wild perennial species of buckwheat, which grows in southwest Asia. Despite rather active economic use of perennial buckwheat, only the most general information concerning the morphology and reproductive biology of the species is found in the literature. At the same time, such information could be useful for conducting genetic-selection works. In the case of the introduction of F. cymosum into the territory of European Russia, a comprehensive study of a new species will be required. The purpose of this study is a complete morphological description, identification of flowering and nectar features, evaluation of pollen fertility and seed productivity of perennial buckwheat F. cymosum in the Republic of Tatarstan. As a result of the studies, a morphological characteristic of perennial buckwheat is given. The strong branching of shoots and flower-bearing axes of F. cymosum was revealed. It turned out that the structure of the buckwheat flower is characterized by high variability. Flowers with the highest frequency were found with the formula P₅A₈G₍₎ (83,3%) and P₅A₉G₍₎ (10,7%). Among the anomalous flowers, variants with a variable number of stamens were most often encountered. Perennial buckwheat in the Republic of Tatarstan was pollinated by wild Hymenoptera and Diptera. The sugariness of perennial buckwheat nectar compared to the selection varieties of buckwheat was insignificant, averaged 0,03 mg of sugar per flower. The fertility of pollen fluctuated within 87,5–96,8%, depending on the weather conditions. The real seed productivity of perennial buckwheat varied from 26,7 to 186,0 seeds per plant. As a result of the study the authors have concluded that perennial buckwheat can be grown in the conditions of the Middle Volga Region as an annual crop.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):45-49
pages 45-49 views

Influence of resource-saving technologies of basic cultivation on the enzymatic activity of chernozem in the Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe

Kozhevnikov N.V., Zaushintsena A.V., Romanov V.N.


Currently, much attention is paid to modern resource-saving soil treatment systems. In connection with insufficient scientific provision, it is necessary to study new technologies for tillage in various soil and climatic conditions. The paper considers the influence of resource-saving technologies of basic cultivation on fermentative activity of chernozem of the ordinary Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe. Three soil treatment systems have been examined as well – classical autumn plowing to a depth of 22 cm, minimum cultivation to a depth of 8–10 cm and direct seeding technology. To study the dynamics of biological activity, the activity of invertase, ureza, phosphatase, catalase and dehydrogenase have been analyzed. The chernozem cultivation of experimental production facility «Minino» led to a decrease in the activity of soil enzymes. Catalase activity got decreased by 9,88%, urease activity – by 28,78%, dehydrogenase activity – by 29,95%, phosphatase activity – by 30,30%. The strongest differences were noted for the invertase activity – 39,94%. The use of energy-saving technologies for the cultivation of grain crops increases the activity of soil enzymes with the exception of catalase. The higher activity of dehydrogenase, urease, phosphatase and invertase is established in versions with minimal technology. Cultivated crops had no significant effect on the activity of soil enzymes.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):49-56
pages 49-56 views

Ecological role of Ulmus pumila L. in limitation of heavy metals input into the environment of some anthropogenic areas of Trans-Baikal Territory

Kopylova L.V.


The paper deals with the most negative pollution of the environment – heavy metal pollution. We describe the main sources of heavy metal input to soils, their form and character of distribution on the surface of land. The paper presents the research data on study of plants’ capacity to accumulate different microelements including heavy metals. We study the Trans-Baikal Territory as the oldest mining territory which has been influenced by different anthropogenic factors. The urgency of this study is determined by the fact that it is important to reveal species capable of accumulating heavy metals in their organs and tissues for the purpose of improving and supporting the ecological balance of anthropogenic territories. We describe Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.), a tree species often used in urban lands greening. The research findings on determination of content and characteristic features of some heavy metals accumulation in Ulmus pumila L. organs (leaves, roots, bark) in anthropogenic conditions are discussed. We analyze the data on accumulation of heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Sr, Rb, Ti) in soil of test sites and the studied organs of Ulmus pumila L. It has been determined that Ulmus pumila L. accumulates all heavy metals studied in different quantities, accumulating their high concentrations mainly in the root and bark. This species accumulates Fe, Sr, Mn, Ti, Zn most of all, it accumulates less quantities of Rb, Cu, Cr и Ni. Excessive accumulation of heavy metals by the studied species is associated with its location. Thus, we have determined the possible use of Ulmus pumila L. as a natural biofilter limiting the input of heavy metals into the anthropogenic territories environment.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):57-64
pages 57-64 views

Variety of plants and fungi of the Krasnoyarsk forestry near the Zharenyi Bugor village

Kuzovenko O.A., Korchikov E.S., Sochneva E.V.


There are 298 species of vascular plants from 205 genera, 60 families, 5 classes and 4 divisions, as well as 30 species of lichen-forming and 6 species of non-lichen-forming fungi in the Krasnoyarsk forestry near the Zharenyi Bugor village. Most species of vascular plants belong to the divisio of Spermatophyta (293 species, 98,3%), a small number of species belong to the divisio of Equisetophyta (2 species, 0,67%), Pteridophyta (2 species, 0,67%) and Ophioglossophyta (1 species, 0,33%). The taxonomical diversity of Krasnoyarsk forestry is quite high. The average number of species in the family of vascular plants is 4,96. There are 10 families, which occupy the leading position, including 187 species (62,75% of the total number of species): Asteraceae – 35 species (11,74%), Poaceae – 26 (8,72%), Rosaceae – 23 (7,71%), Fabaceae – 20 (6,71%), Lamiaceae – 19 (6,37%), Ranunculaceae 15 (5,03%), Scrophulariaceae – 14 (4,70%), Caryophyllaceae – 13 (4,36%), Brassicaceae – 12 (4,03%), Apiaceae – 10 (3,36%). On the study area, the species of vascular plants Adonanthe vernalis, A. volgensis, Cephalanthera rubra, Cypripedium calceolus, Fritillaria ruthenica, Helichrysum arenarium, Gladiolus tenuis, Ophioglossum vulgatum, Platanthera bifolia, Pulsatilla patens, Pyrola rotundifolia, Stipa pennata, Tulipa biebersteiniana, as well as lichen-forming fungi Cladonia arbuscula, Cladonia rangiferina and non-lichen-forming fungi Fistulina hepatica, Geastrum fimbriatum, Hericium coralloides are in the Red Book of the Samara Region. The rare species excluded from the second edition of the Red Book of the Samara Region are Epipactis helleborine, Gentiana cruciata, Hypericum elegans, Lychnis chalcedonica, Myostis alpestris, Populus alba.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):64-68
pages 64-68 views

Some reproductive parameters of Tilia cordata Mill. in Saransk

Labutina M.V., Maskaeva T.A., Chegodaeva N.D.


This paper examines a possibility of certain woody plants species use to monitor the state of the environment in urban conditions. Similar studies have shown that it is possible to use both vegetative and reproductive organs of Scots pine and birch warty. The authors propose the following studied parameters: a number of flowers in the inflorescence, a weight of one flower, a morphological usefulness (fertility) of pollen and its size. The investigations were carried out on several sites of Saransk, which differed in the technogenic impact. Determination of the viability of small-leaved linden plantations in different conditions of Saransk has shown them to be relatively satisfactory, however, under the conditions of the most powerful man-made press, the trees are sufficiently weakened. In the conditions of the controlled area, the smallest number of flowers in the inflorescence and the minimum mass of one flower are noted. In relatively polluted conditions of the city, the number of flowers in the inflorescence and the mass of the flower increases by 1,3–1,6 times. The low coefficient of variation in these areas is due to the strict selection of the species for a particular feature in man-made conditions. The quality and size of the linden pollen depends on the degree of anthropogenic impact, which allows using them in complex monitoring of the urban environment.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):69-74
pages 69-74 views

Steppe communities in the vicinity of Togliatti (Samara Region)

Lysenko T.M.


The paper describes the study of steppe vegetation in the Samara Region. It contains results of the steppe communities field study conducted in 2014–2015 in the vicinity of Togliatti (Samara Region). Geobotanical relevès were made on standard sites for steppe vegetation. Projective covering of plant species in field conditions was estimated as a percentage and then converted to scores using B.M. Mirkin’s scale. The relevès are placed in the geobotanical database «Vegetation of the Volga and Ural Basins» and processed using the computer program JUICE. Bioindication studies were conducted using the IBIS program. As a result of the syntaxonomic analysis carried out using the floral approach to the classification of vegetation by J. Braun-Blanquet, 2 new associations and 6 new subassociations were identified. Their names are given in accordance with the «International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature». Their position in the system of higher syntaxons of Europe is established, nomenclature types, diagnostic types are given, composition and structure, ecology and distribution of communities are characterized as well as the results of processing according to the scales by L.G. Ramensky. The communities of all established syntaxons are recommended for inclusion in the 2nd edition of the «Green Book of the Samara Region».

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):74-80
pages 74-80 views

Rooting of Vaccinium corymbosum L. microshoots cv. «Blue-Berry» in culture in vitro and ex vitro

Mohamed G.A., Khusnetdinova L.Z., Timofeeva O.A.


This paper discusses a method of micropropagation of Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. «Blue-Berry». The results showed that WPM supplemented with 1,0 mg/l of zeatin in combination with 0,1 mg/l of indolyl-3-butyric acid was more effective for the multiplication of blueberry axillary shoots. The maximum increase in the number of healthy axillary shoots was observed in the fourth subculture, whereas the phenomenon of hyperhydration (vitrification) began to appear in the fifth subculture. In addition, it was established that the presence of indolyl-3-butyric acid and 1,0 g/l of activated charcoal in the nutrient medium lead to the development of good root system of the Vaccinium corymbosum cv. «Blue-Berry». The highest mean number of roots formed per explant was obtained on WPM medium, supplemented with 0,5 mg/l indolyl-3-butyric acid after 10 weeks. Acclimatization of in vitro regenerated plantlets of Vaccinium corymbosum with a developed root system in ex-vitro conditions (pH 3,5–4) showed a 100% survival rate.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):80-84
pages 80-84 views

Patterns in grassland vegetation of Bredinskiy state natural wildlife preserve

Nazarenko N.N., Perlov Y.D.


The patterns (mosaicity) in grassland vegetation of Southern Ural for Bredinskiy state natural wildlife preserve example have been characterized by a hierarchical continuum concept theory. The multispecies patterns identification has been done by blocks and principal components methods and hierarchical patterns evaluation – by multivariate statistics (Cluster, Discriminant Analysis and Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling) and biotopes phytoindication. It has been established that there are two patterns levels – parcels (6,0 m) and coenotics (11,0 m) in grassland vegetation. Thus, hierarchical continuum in steppe grassland vegetation of Southern Ural has been confirmed by multivariate statistics. Detected patterns have been classified and its phytochorologic unit has been identified. For patterns informative and dominant species have been also detected. It has been demonstrated that species dominance and its significance in patterns depend upon mosaicity levels. Some non-uniformly scaled ecological factors have been identified for patterns continuum. The principal significance for steppe grassland parcels matter coenotic and phytodiversity factors, for coenotics patterns forming matter abiotic factors too. For Bredinskiy state natural wildlife preserve principal abiotic factors steppe grassland patterns forming are (by decrease) soil calcium regime, soil nitrogen regime, soil acidity, soil mineralization and aeration.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):85-93
pages 85-93 views

Spatial organization of Cyclachaena xanthiifolia (Nutt.) Fresen. populations on the railway line

Nikitin N.A.


The spatial structure of populations under the conditions of anthropogenic impact is a very important indicator that reflects the behavioral patterns of the species, such as changes in the structure and aggregation of individuals. Quarantine weeds are the object of ecologists’ close attention, as these weeds carry the greatest danger to the population, since they most often cause pollinosis and a significant deterioration in the quality of life during seasonal outbreaks of the disease. That is why they should be investigated by methods of analyzing the spatial structure of their populations. Railways are considered to be corridors along which quarantine weeds and other alien and invasive species are able to spread to new territories. Spatial behavior of species, formation of aggregations and large clusters, or a uniform distribution of individuals can reveal a fundamental relationship between the conditions of anthropogenic impact along the right-of-way and the spatial structure of populations. Along the Kinel-Bezenchuk Kuybyshev railroad in the spatial structure of the population of Cyclachaena xanthiifolia (Nutt.) Fresen. there is a group and uniform distribution of individuals. Aggregation of individuals in clusters (group distribution) are found in the places with the highest anthropogenic load.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):93-97
pages 93-97 views

Fauna of leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) of isolated Volga Islands and mechanisms of their secondary settlement

Pavlov S.I., Yaitsky A.S.


The following paper deals with the study that was carried out during 1974–2016 in natural and laboratory conditions in the Samara Region. The authors studied the features of adults leaf beetles survival as a result of the Volga river flood spill, flooding of the isolated island systems as well as migratory processes of insects. Over a 12-year period of field research, 11 entomologists, using 2 traditional and 6 author’s methods, have collected 29 species of Chrysomelidae beetles on 11 large Volga Islands (3 of which are periodically flooded) and 20 large, regularly flooded shallows and braids. It is established that the fauna of the Islands’ leaf beetles is very close to the fauna of adjacent coasts by genesis. The authors analyze the origin and relief of typical Islands, the level of flood waters, the duration of flooding of the Volga river floodplain near Samarskaya Luka, the mechanisms of survival of beetles by adapting them to the conditions of habitats or features of their migrations, with the secondary settlement of island systems. It is established that, in addition to the active flight and autonomous navigation to the Islands, beetles use available «boats» – «rafts from vegetable flood sludge», small and fairly large floating objects (from branches and boards to river vessels). It is established that migrations occur annually, completely regardless of the island beetles-predecessors population wintering success.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):97-103
pages 97-103 views

The structure of Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. and Trifolium pratense L. populations on the territory of deciduous forests zone in Tatarstan Republic

Prokhorenko N.B., Demina G.V., Kadyrova L.R.


The paper deals with the results of the Trifolium prаtense L. and Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. population structure study. This paper presents a comparative description of these species populations from different ecological and coenotical condition in the zone of deciduous forests in the Republic of Tatarstan. The evaluation of the morphological status of individuals in populations was carried out using such parameters as shoot height, number of shoots per plant, total number of inflorescences on a plant, dry shoots biomass, reproductive effort, photosynthetic effort, etc. Density, ontogenetic and vitality structure of populations are considered to be adaptive mechanisms of populations existence in different ecological-coenotic conditions. Studies have shown that in the composition of Melilotus officinalis populations most of the plants belong to the group of young or mature generative plants, in which the photosynthetic effort averages from 0,16 to 0,19, and the reproductive effort – from 0,12 to 0,19 in different communities. The greatest reproductive effort is observed in populations formed by plants with a low morphological status. Trifolium pratense forms populations of different vitality (prosperous, balanced, or depressed). The authors note the presence of plants of both generative and pregenerative periods in some communities, which indicates a successful seed renewal. The average values of the photosynthetic effort for Trifolium pratense in various growing conditions range from 0,20 to 0,36, and the reproductive effort – from 0,18 to 0,29. A higher reproductive effort was noted in populations at the boundary of the contact zones of deciduous forests and forest steppes.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):103-107
pages 103-107 views

The study of lichens in the state natural reserve «Zavolzhsky» (Chuvash Republic)

Sinichkin E.A., Bogdanov G.A., Dimitriev A.V., Smirnova N.V., Omelchenko P.N.


The paper provides information about lichens found on the territory of the state natural reserve «Zavolzhsky», which is a specially protected natural area of the Chuvash Republic. It was established for the protection of the unique natural landscape, located on the territory of Cheboksary and Cheboksary District, as well as for rare and endangered animals, plants and other organisms from high anthropogenic activity. As a result of lichen investigations (2011–2016) 134 species belong to 59 genera from 31 families of lichen flora were recorded. It emphasizes a high environmental significance of this territory. The paper shows substrate and biotope confinement for each lichen species. The investigations were conducted in detail-route method using a GPS-navigator. In the paper the locations of rare lichen species are given according to the new quarterly network of the Cheboksary forestry. We examined the lichen diversity in 14 quarters of 3 forest districts: Pihtulynskoe, Severnoe, Sosnovskoe; lichen collections were carried out in 36 habitats. The habitat of rare and endangered lichen Lobaria pulmonaria was found on the territory of the reserve. This species is included to the Red Data Book of Russia. According to the results of the study we recommend to include 15 rare lichen species to the new edition of Red Data Book of the Chuvash Republic: Arthonia cinereoprunosa, Acrocordia gemmata, Bryoria implexa, Bryoria subcana, Bryoria nadvornikiana, Dimerella pineti, Lobaria pulmonaria, Mycobilimbia epixanthoides, Mycobilimbia carneoalbida, Mycobilimbia tetramera, Platismatia glauca, Usnea dasopoga, Usnea lapponica, Usnea subfloridana, Xanthomendoza ulophyllodes.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):108-115
pages 108-115 views

Development features and practical value of introduced species of the genus Sorbus L. in the North

Skrotskaya O.V.


In the Botanical Garden of the Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a collection of plants of the genus Sorbus complex is studied. Currently it includes 23 species and more than 40 samples of different geographical origin, as well as nine varieties. The studied plants are in the pregenerative and generative periods of ontogenesis. The morphobiological features of individuals of different species of mountain ash at these stages of development were determined. Introducers of East Asian origin in the conditions of the North have time to fully complete the cycle of seasonal development and are highly winter-resistant. Plants that have entered the generative period of development form full seeds. Experiments on vegetative reproduction with the use of stimulants of root formation and without them showed a different ability of half-woody cuttings of the species and varieties of mountain ash to rooting. The most promising for further cultivation in cold climates and the selection of decorative and productive forms can be considered species of East Asian and American origin, as the most winter-hardy. Other specimens of S. mougeottii and S. austriaca (species no less interesting as ornamental and fruit plants) should be brought to the test as well as plants of these species should be grown from the seeds of local reproduction.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):116-121
pages 116-121 views

Ectoparasites of the bats from karst caves of the nature reserve «Ichalkovsky Bor» (Nizhny Novgorod Region)

Fadeeva G.A., Boryakova E.E.


The fauna of parasitic mites of bats from the karst caves in the region of the Volga Upland was studied in 2004–2005. Six species of bats such as Daubenton’s water bat, Brandt’s bat, whiskered bat, pond bat, northern bat and long-eared bat were examined. 18 species of arthropods were detected, among them there are gamasid mites (10 species) and harvest mites (2 species). Leptotrombidium russicum (Oud., 1902) and Myotrombicula sp. were found for the first time in Central Russia. Spinturnix acuminatus (Koch, 1836), Steatonyssus spinosus (Willmann, 1936), Steatonyssus periblepharus (Kolenati, 1858), Macronyssus flavus (Kolenati, 1856) turned out to be the main group of parasites in this study. As for the insects flies of the family Nycteribiidae and fleas of the family Ischnopsyllidae were found. The cluster analysis of ectoparasite fauna has showed that they are more or less evenly distributed among all members of mixed colonies of bats, while there is no violation of specificity in the choice of hosts. Low values of the Berger-Parker index marked a lack of competition between species, which indicates the stability of parasitic communities formed on bats in mixed colonies and in natural habitats. This fact indicates a complex relationship between the parasites in the community on the one hand, and long-term existence of the community on the other hand. This, in its turn, shows that in long-evolving communities competitive relationships between parasites are obliterated, which gives them stability. Herewith the bat colony is used as an integral whole, although some parasitic species prefer certain types of hosts.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):122-126
pages 122-126 views

The integral method of species synanthropic properties assessment

Fedorova L.V., Kupatadze G.A., Kuranova N.G., Viktorov V.P., Ezhkova V.G.


The paper discusses different approaches of species activity determination in phytocenotic and floristic studies. The authors propose a formula of representation and plasticity for estimating the properties of the species taking into account the occurrence and abundance of the species in ecotopes with different anthropogenic transformation. The study contains a comprehensive analysis of sinanthropy properties of 32 herbaceous plants species related to the flora of Orekhovo-Zuyevo in the 19 most common types of ecotopes of different categories of anthropogenic disturbance. All species form 6 groups according to the ecotopic and sinanthropic plasticity. The relationship between the ecotopic and sinanthropic plasticity is discussed. It is shown that the synanthropic properties of species depend on the plastisity, but do not completely coincide with it. Native species with a high plasticity index successfully master a variety of ecotopes, including highly transformed ones and form a facultative-synanthropic (FS) component of the local flora. This species complex in boarders of local flora is constant and independent of the degree of the environment transformation. Adventive species, even with a high plasticity, penetrate the undisturbed ecotopes with difficulty and for the most part remain obligate sinanthropes (OS). The lability of the borders between non sinanthropic (NS) and relatively sinanthropic (RS) groups lead to the transition from one species group to the other.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):126-133
pages 126-133 views

Main weed species of the Republic of Bashkortostan: position on environmental gradients and agrobiological groups

Khasanova G.R., Yamalov S.M., Lebedeva M.V.


The paper presents a study of the main weed species in the Republic of Bashkortostan according to the results of a floristic analysis of 1170 geobotanical releves. The authors define 30 species, their constancy is more than 20%. Five species of dicotyledonous and 1 species of monocotyledonous plants Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium album, Cirsium setosum, Fallopia convolvulus, Avena fatua, Sonchus arvensis are characterized with the greatest values of occurrence (higher than 50%). According to the results of the ordination analysis and ANOVA the considered species are well differentiated on the gradients of the factors of moistening, richness of the soil and a crop. Among agrobiological groups of weed species the annual and creeping-rooted weeds prevail.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):134-138
pages 134-138 views

Assessment of ecological and geochemical condition of soils and dust content of atmospheric air in the residential zone of the mining industry center

Khasanova R.F., Semenova I.N., Rafikova Y.S., Suyundukov Y.T., Ilyina I.V.


The research studies the content of heavy metals (HM) in soils of residential zones of Sibay – the mining industry center of the South-East of the Republic of Bashkortostan. It is shown that in soils under herbaceous vegetation there is an increased content of a number of HMS, such as copper, zinc and cadmium. At the same time the areas located under the crown of Betula pendula Roth. are less contaminated with HM compared to open areas. Reduced content of a number of metals (iron, cadmium, cobalt and mobile forms of Nickel) in soils under the crown of the Roth confirms the barrier role of woody plants that protect the soil from airborne toxicants. The study showed the prospects of using a birch as a type of accumulator-phytoremediant in the greening of the mining region urban areas of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Studies of TM content in organs and tissues have shown that representatives of the species growing in Sibay can accumulate a significant amount of phytotoxicants, especially zinc, the content of which ranged 1041–1855 mg/kg. One of the sources of the increased TM content in the leaves and the bark of trees is dust. The paper presents a comparative study of the dustiness of birch leaves growing in the Central part of the city with heavy traffic and in the vicinity of the Sibay quarry, developing a Deposit of copper-zinc ore. The amount of dust on the leaves collected near the dumps of the Sibay quarry was 3,53 ± 0,64 g/m², which is less than in the Central part of the city, where this figure reached 41,04 ± 10,38 g/m². Obviously, this is due to the fact that the dumps of the Sibay quarry are located in an open and intensively ventilated area, which explains the strong dispersion of dust. At the same time dust particles near the quarry dumps are much more contaminated with manganese, cobalt and cadmium than in the Central part of the city.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):138-144
pages 138-144 views

The degree analysis of hydrobionts response to the content of chemicals in the water of the upper and middle reaches of the Belaya River (Republic of Bashkortostan)

Chaus B.Y.


The paper deals with the analysis of bioindicator opportunities of hydrobionts of various systematic categories that helps to assess and forecast anthropogenic pollution of the Belaya River (the top and average currents) during environmental monitoring of natural waters of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Hydrobionts were collected and the occurrence analysis (in unit shares) of 30 species of invertebrate animals from groups Pyramidelloida, Littorinimorpha, Pulmonata, Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and 12 species of the highest water vegetation was carried out from 2005 to 2017 in regions of 10 state water posts on the Belaya River. The data from annual State reports on the average annual content of compounds of manganese, nickel and iron, oil products, phenols, nitrogen ammoniyny, copper and zincum were used as hydrochemical parameters during the research. The reliable correlation between some water organisms with chemicals and their connections was defined in the water of the Belaya River. The author also constructs for the first time an indicator range of hydrobionts on decrease extent in their response to the chemicals content in the studied water. Similar approach can be used for recommendations development about the use of biological analyses while identifying the chemicals influencing water fauna and flora.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):144-152
pages 144-152 views

07.00.00 – Historical Sciences and Archaeology

Food gathering and natural resources use evidence at the end of the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic period in the North-Western Caucasus (based on the Dvoinaya Cave and the Chygai Rockshelter materials)

Leonova E.V., Uspenskaya O.I.


Complex studies of multi-layer Stone Age sites located in the foothills of the North-Western Caucasus (Gubs Gorge) made it possible to obtain fairly representative collections of archaeological materials including stone and bone artifacts and faunal remains, dating from the end of the Late Palaeolithic to Mesolithic and Eneolithic periods. Large concentrations of terrestrial gastropods Helix sp. shells were found in the Early and Late Mesolithic layers.

Complex studies of multi-layer Stone Age sites located in the foothills of the North-Western Caucasus (Gubs Gorge) made it possible to obtain fairly representative collections of archaeological materials including stone and bone artifacts and faunal remains, dating from the end of the Late Palaeolithic to Mesolithic and Eneolithic periods. Large concentrations of terrestrial gastropods Helix sp. shells were found in the Early and Late Mesolithic layers. These gastropods were the objects of collecting and probably composed a significant part of the primitive communities’ diet. Dvoinaya Cave and Chygai Rockshelter belong to series of synchronous Mediterranean, Levant and Zagros sites with large concentrations of grape snails in the late Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic layers. The data of the use-wear analysis of stone tools, micro-chemical and IR-spectroscopic analysis of the residues on the stone tools surfaces allow to conclude that the ancient inhabitants of the Gubs Gorge collected and processed various plant resources, including wood, grass fibers, resin of coniferous and fruit plants with the purpose of manufacturing and fastening of handles, frames and shafts of arrows. The river mollusks Theodoxus danubialis shells were used for making beads. More than 30 shells with punched or drilled holes were found in the lowest layer of the Dvoinaya Cave.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):153-161
pages 153-161 views

The spatio-temporal dynamics of resources in ‘wild’ prehistoric landscapes

Grøn O.


Based on archaeological and ethnoarchaeological data, this paper discusses the spatio-temporal dynamics of the resources in ‘wild’ prehistoric landscapes, i.e. landscapes not subjected to techniques related to modern mono-cultural agriculture but potentially managed in other ways. The prevailing assumption in the archaeological environments engaged in modelling of Stone Age settlement positions is, that the resources in such landscapes are rather stable and evenly distributed. Such a concept was, however, abandoned in landscape ecology in the mid-1990s because it did not match the observed environmental reality, and replaced with much more mathematically complex models accepting that the different species (plants as well as animals) tend to appear in highly dynamic ‘patches.’ Updating both the archaeological debate and research initiatives related to modelling of Stone Age habitation areas is therefore long overdue. A central point in this respect is whether the dynamic spatio-temporal behaviour of the resources in these landscapes is so complex that its reconstruction in specific micro-areas, and thereby a precise modelling of potential Stone Age settlement areas, is impossible. The fact, that human cultural groups opposite animal and plant societies often can be observed to behave different in similar environmental situations due to that they have developed different strategies and traditions, does not leave much hope.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):161-167
pages 161-167 views

Food resources in the economy and ritual practices of the Northern Mesopotamia population during the transition to the Neolithic

Kornienko T.V.


The ultimate establishment of the agricultural economy in the central zone of the Fertile Crescent took place in the late Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPNB), while the heyday of symbolism, establishing complex social relations among the population of Northern Mesopotamia occur in the era of the early Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPNA). In this period, the domestication of any plant species is not yet registered in South-Eastern Anatolia (an area where the long-term intertribal cult center of Göbekli Tepe was found) unlike the neighboring Levant. The paper discusses possible models for the producing economy establishment in the region, analyzes materials suggesting that the ritual practices of the transition period to the Neolithic in some cases could contribute to the emergence and new economic strategies spread on the territory of Northern Mesopotamia. At the same time, the comparison of the climatic changes scientific studies results, archeobotanical and archaeozoological collections and material evidence of the development of social and spiritual life from Epipaleolithic and early Neolithic monuments of Northern Mesopotamia shows the coevolution/mutual influence of people and the surrounding natural environment. In our opinion, on the basis of the available data it is impossible to assert the primacy of the «symbol revolution» in the process of Neolithization in relation to early attempts at plant cultivation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):167-177
pages 167-177 views

Fisheries on Chashkino micro-region archaeological sites

Lychagina E.L., Sarapulov A.N.


Chashkinskoye Lake is the Kama river palaeochannel. More than 20 archaeological sites are known on its eastern shore. They refer to the Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Middle Ages. We divided all the tools that could be used for fishing in the Stone Age, into the tools directly and indirectly indicative of the development of fishing. We refer to the direct signs – the finds of sinkers and ice-splitting tools. We believe that the indirect signs include finds of axes, adzes and chisels that could be used to make boats. To this group we also include liners of composite throwing tools that could be used as harpoon blades. Mesolithic sites with tools associated with fishing were not found. On Neolithic and Chalcolithic sites large sinkers, chisels, adzes were found. This indicates that during the Neolithic-Chalcolithic period, fishing began to play an increasingly important role in the economic structure of the Chashkino micro-region population. In Middle Age settlements fishhooks, leisters, sinkers were found. The main forms of fishing were the spicy fishing, the setting up of nets and individual fishing with fishing rods.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):177-182
pages 177-182 views

Fishery in the Tobol-Ishim interfluve in the neolithic and early metal age

Zakh V.A.


Landscapes of the Tobol-Ishim interfluve were not stable in the Holocene and varied from forests and drowned floodplains at the beginning of the V and III millennia BC to steppificated territories with a lowered water level at the beginning of the Atlantic Period and in the middle of the Subboreal Period, which determined the main types of economic activities, one of them was fishing. Changes in hydrological regime of water bodies influenced the methods of fishing, including the use of different traps. Thus, in the Neolithic, when the water level decreased, the location of settlements in the system river-creek-lake (for example, Mergen 6), a large number of fish bones, bone harpoons, fishing spears, fishing tackles for catching pike and a total absence of plummets were indicative of individual fishing for large fish and, perhaps, of stop net fishery, which was facilitated by a decrease in the width of watercourses and tombolos. Stop net (stake net) fishery led to a settled lifestyle of the population, collective activities and the emergence of long-term settlements with deep foundation pits of dwellings. When the water level in rivers and lakes increased and floods became more frequent, the life support system changed, the population began to develop coasts more widely, its mobility increased, and they started to build framed above-ground dwellings. Following those changes, biconic, cigar-shaped, and corniculate plummets emerged in the Tobol River Basin and on the adjacent western and north-western territories in the III and early II millennium BC. When the water level was high, it was efficient to fish using traps, seines and, probably, nets, although the latter could also be used in drive hunting for shedding geese and ducks. Subrectangular plummets with one or two ties for fastening, and disk-shaped plummets with a tie in the center had been prevailing since the beginning of the II millennium BC; they existed until the first third of the I millennium BC. This period, the transition time from the Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, is characterized by the absence of clay plummets, while there are large accumulations of fish scales and bones in the settlement layers. We can suppose that the population of that time (local Late Bronze Age population, mixed with northern migrants who made utensils with cross ornamentation) switched from net fishing to stop net fishing.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):182-192
pages 182-192 views

Role of fishing in the final stone age of the Lower Ob region (on the materials of the settlement Gorny Somatnel - I)

Tupakhina O.S., Tupakhin D.S.


The role of fishing in the human history is very high. Though meat is considered to be an important product of hunting, fish has been a basic component of the food system of human groups in different climatic and geographical conditions. This is explained by the fact that groups lived next to water resources (lakes, rivers, seas, oceans) that had a high nutritional value. The first evidence of fishing existence as an independent economic sector belongs to the Paleolithic time, and its further development goes throughout human history, having developed from the simplest forms of fishing using primitive harpoons to modern forms of industrial fishing using a specialized fleet. The period under review, final Stone Age, is characterized by massive use of fishing nets. We assume that this method became a base of effective adaptation strategy, making it possible to develop the Lower Ob area with its difficult climate. The issues raised in this paper involve the role and importance of fishing economy for West Siberian North as well as for ancient economies of the North and Arctic regions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):193-197
pages 193-197 views

Coracoid artefacts and fishing implements of the Volosovo culture ritual «hoards» from site Sakhtysh-II (Central Russia)

Kostyleva E.L., Matsane A.


Sakhtysh II burial ground (Central Russia) belongs to the final stage of the Eneolithic Volosovo culture evolution. The Upper-Volga expedition IA RAS conducted the research there during 1960–1980. About twenty ritual «hoards» were discovered at Sakhtysh II consisting of artifacts clusters with traces of fire exposure. Among them there is a variety of fishing tools: serrated edges, harpoons, fishing hooks. We believe that the coracoid artefacts made of bone, the purpose of which is still debated, are also harpoons. The variety of the fishing tools forms allow us to speak about the specialization in fishing. Time of use of these «hoards» is based on coal samples from the ritual hearths which have been determined by radiocarbon dates: 3820 ± 40, 3900 ± 40, 4190 ± 50 BP (Le-2617, 2613, 2615). However, dating of animal bones (bear and badger) from two «hoards» (№ 9 and 11) in 2017 at the Belfast laboratory provided new AMS dates: 4730 ± 41 and 4445 ± 37. The significant difference between new and previous dates may depend on the reservoir effect, due to the fact that the diet of these omnivorous animals included fish as well as the fact that these two «hoards» were located outside the main ritual areas, belonging to an earlier time.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):197-204
pages 197-204 views

A statistical model for the radiocarbon chronology of the Neolithic forest-steppe Volga region monuments

Stavitsky V.V.


The paper deals with the chronology of the early Neolithic forest-steppe Zavolzhye monuments, which is based on radiocarbon definitions obtained from fragments of ceramics. Radiocarbon dates on Elshanskaya and Srednevolzhskaya culture monuments are collected in two tables. They are graphically represented by a probability interval for each date. For the conditional statistical unit the chronological interval of 125 years is accepted. On the basis of statistical data, the author has constructed graphs that reflect the frequency of dates occurrence for periods of 250 years. As for the Elshanskaya culture monuments the highest concentration of radiocarbon dates occurs on a chronological segment 5875–5250 cal BC (39% of all dates). Half of the dates are recorded on the segment 4750–4500 cal BC (21%). Only 12% of radiocarbon dates are in 6750–6250 cal BC, which belongs to the period of the Elshanskaya antiquities development. In our opinion, Elshanskaya culture could not exist unchanged for such a long time. Such a significant variation in time is apparently due to the imperfection of the dating method and the presence of «reservoir effects» of various kinds. Elshanskaya culture probably existed in 5875–5250 cal BC. At the final stage of Elshanskaya antiquities existence (5500–5250 cal BC) the monuments of Srednevolzhskaya culture started to develop.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):204-210
pages 204-210 views

The results of the settlement Oroshayemoye study in 2018

Vybornov A.A., Vasilyeva I.N., Doga N.S., Roslyakova N.V., Kosintsev P.A., Kulkova M.A., Popov A.S., Yudin A.I., Oinonen M., Possnert G., Streltsov M.A.


An essential aspect of studying the Neolithic is the identification of its early phase. The research is constrained by scarce source base of the study. Until recently, the early Neolithic in the Lower Volga region has not been identified by the experts. The situation has changed due to the excavation of the settlement Oroshayemoye I on the river B. Uzen. This paper focuses on the received materials. The monument is multi-layered. During the field work in 2018, the lower cultural layer was investigated. Ceramic, stone and osteological equipment was found in it. The pottery and set of tools are typologically similar to the materials of the lower layer of the Varfolomeyevskaya site, which belong to the Orlovskaya culture. The technological analysis of the ceramics of the Oroshayemoye settlement showed its proximity to the pottery making technology of Orlovskaya culture. The study of osteological remains revealed the presence of bones of aurochs, saiga, tarpan and other wild species on the monument, as well as a domestic dog. According to radiocarbon analysis, the age of the lower layer of the monument is determined by the last quarter of VII – the beginning of the VI millennium BC. Paleoclimatic studies conducted on the monument showed that during this period the climate was warm and humid.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):211-219
pages 211-219 views

A complex of ritual objects from the elite female burial in Western Kazakhstan

Lukpanova Y.A.


The paper discusses in detail the items from the female burial of mound 6, Taksai-1 burial site, located in the West Kazakhstan Region, Terektinsky District, near the village Dolinnoe. A complex architectural gravestone structure, an accompanying rite of burial with the use of fire, the presence of rich clothing with various decorations, a complex of specific objects found in the pit, testify to the special status of the buried. All archaeological materials from the central pit of mound 6 performed a certain role in the life of the early nomads, composing a complex of ritual things for performing special rites. The functional significance of all the artifacts identified in the grave emphasizes the relation of the buried to the priestly class. In scientific literature there is no consensus about the existence of the priesthood as a profession in ancient times, but the early nomads revered the cult of a woman – the ancestor, and the priestesses were guides, keepers of the fire, the Sun, revered the goddess responsible for fertility. The burials of rich priestesses are distinguished by their special pomp of funeral ritual, the presence of gold jewelry and the individual composition of the inventory. All these characteristics are traced in mound 6 of Taksai-1 burial, it is a cult monument confirming the existence of a special priestly status in a social organization of the nomadic society.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):228-232
pages 228-232 views

Anthropological aspect of the artificial skull deformation custom among the Middle Bronze Age population of the Lower Volga region

Balabanova M.A.


This paper reviews an anthropological aspect of the artificial skull deformation which was practiced by the tribes of catacomb cultural-historical community of the Middle Bronze Age of the Lower Volga region and adjacent territories. Craniological series, numbering 207 skulls, was checked for the presence of deformation traces. 81 skulls had the traces of deformation, which is 35,2% of the total number. On average, the percentage of deformed skulls in some burial grounds of the catacomb culture of the Volgograd Region is about 17,0%, but there are a few burial grounds in craniological series where deformed skulls are absent. The type of deformation is identified as annular and frontal-occipital. The analysis of anthropological works of Russian and foreign authors as well as written sources allows to agree with the idea of A.V. Shevchenko that the custom of the skull deformation among the tribes of catacomb cultural-historical community penetrated through the cultural centers of Western Asia. The comparison of deformed and unstrained series of skulls showed that only signs of the cerebral box undergo a change under the influence of the deforming structure in most cases. The deforming effect of the structure on facial features is very weak. When the process of pressure is completed, the skull acquires a tower shape or a shape of a high cone.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):219-227
pages 219-227 views

The return of the ancient papyrus: the discovery and fate of the ancient Greek papyrus from Mangalia (Romania)

Yarovoy E.V.


On the west coast of the Black sea excavations of ancient cities have been conducted for more than a century and a half. Among them, a special place is considered to be the Dorian colony of Kallatis, founded by immigrants from Heraclea of Pontius, most likely in the VI century BC. Currently on its territory there is a Romanian city of Mangalia. In 1959, during the excavations of the ancient mound on the Hellenistic burial ground, an ungraded burial in a stone sarcophagus was discovered. It was a backbone of an adult with a gilded bronze wreath. Near his hands there was an ancient Greek papyrus. For his conservation a Soviet restorer M. Alexander was invited, he managed to preserve the rarity. At the request of the Romanian side, he took the papyrus for restoration to Moscow, where his traces were lost. In 2001, Romanian archaeologists began searching for the papyrus. After three years of work in museums and libraries, they were able to locate the rest of the scroll. It turned out that they are stored in the Center of restoration «Grabar» in Moscow. As a result of the negotiations, thanks to the good will of the Russian side, it was possible to reach an agreement on the return of a unique discovery for Romania to its historical homeland.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):232-236
pages 232-236 views

Ethnic and administrative borders: from conflict to stability (on the example of Orenburg Region in XVIII-XIX centuries)

Fedorova A.V.


Understanding the historical experience of relations between peoples affects the political, economic and cultural sphere of people’s lives. Ethno-cultural and inter-confessional dialogue in the multi-ethnic space is always in the spotlight of researchers. Over the past two and a half centuries more than 50 thousand scientific works devoted to the history of Kazakhstan of the pre-revolutionary period were published in different regions of the former USSR and abroad. Historians of Russia and Kazakhstan, using an extensive documentary base, study all aspects of the interaction of their peoples. As before, the subject of discussion is a multifaceted problem of Russian-Kazakh relations, in particular, the entry of Kazakhstan into the Russian Empire in the early XVIII century. The paper deals with the nature of this connection in the context of cross-border region relations. The author relies on an approach that is free from emotional influence and reflects both negative and positive consequences of the Empire’s national policy. Colonization of the Kazakh steppe began with the territory of the southern Urals; the paper demonstrates the conflict potential, the confrontation of tsarism and Kazakh society. The author shows on the materials of Orenburg Region that despite all the vicissitudes of history the Kazakhs and the Russian people have developed sincere relations of good neighborliness and cooperation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):236-240
pages 236-240 views

Cult caves building on the territory of European Russia

Stepkin V.V.


The paper deals with cult caves building on the territory of European Russia. The author draws attention to the fact that the process primarily depended on the nature of rock formation where the caves were constructed. In a softer and loose ground the walls and the ceiling were strengthened by armour stone or bricks after taking up the rocks. There was no need in additional fastening of hard rocky ground. The waling was done according to the beds and rock jointing. An adze, a spade, a crowbar as well as other metal tools were used. Construction works proceeded both during the daytime and at night. The space was lighted with candles. The work was organized by the community formed during the cave construction with an active support of the local population. Drawings and plans of venerated underground holy places in Christian pilgrimage centres could be used for construction works. In case of making the cave construction official a professional architect could be invited, the example of it could be Belogorskaya cave which is the longest one in Russia. Intensity of work depended on the age and gender characteristics of the employed and official authorities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):241-245
pages 241-245 views

Educational policy of the Russian Empire and Kazakh intelligentsia formation on the Orenburg Krai territory in the second half of the XIX century

Lyubichankovskiy S.V.


The paper analyzes the changes that occurred in the second half of the XIX century on the territory of the Orenburg Region in relation to the education system in the Kazakh environment. The role of these changes is shown both for the implementation of the imperial policy of acculturation, and for the formation of the Kazakh intelligentsia. The author examined the formation of the Kazakh intelligentsia on the territory of the Orenburg Region as a result of the Kazakh ethnos westernization under the influence of Russian-secular education and public education in this region. It is concluded that with the establishment of the Special Committee for Foreign Education (1866) under the administration of the Kazan Academic District, the Empire took a course toward Russification, which can be interpreted as restricting the cultural identity of the ethnic region and enhancing the use of the Russian language, literature, orthodoxy. The main emphasis was placed on education. The imperial authorities implemented the idea that a single and stable multinational state is possible only if there is a strong ideological base, based on the Russified system of public education. As a result, gradually in late imperial Russia there was a concept of expanding the «alien» education with the help of enlightened «aliens». Gradually a stratum began to form that consisted of Kazakhs who, participating in the cause of education and dedication, supported the government, introduced representatives of the Kazakh ethnos to the expansion of the network of schools, they were educators and teachers. The process of creating schools for «aliens» implicitly led to the emergence of the Kazakh intelligentsia, which further exacerbated the national Kazakh movement within the Russian Empire.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):245-249
pages 245-249 views

Archival sources of the Russian Orthodox Church missionary activity history among the old believers of the Orenburg diocese of the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries

Kamzina A.D.


The historical period considered in this paper is one of the important periods for the economic, political and spiritual development of the Russian state. The Orenburg Region at this stage was a multi-confessional region, where, despite the leading role of the Russian Orthodox Church, both non-Christian and Christian denominations, including a variety of old believers’ consent and sectarianism, were spread. In this regard, the anti-sectarian missionary activity of the official Orthodoxy aimed at both the old believers and sectarians became particularly relevant. Archival documents in the collections of Federal and regional archives form the basis of this problem study. The paper presents an overview of unpublished sources and their source analysis. The author analyses such groups of archival sources as statistical materials, records of management sources, among which a special place is occupied by the Governor’s and diocesan reports, documents of personal origin, legislative materials. Among these groups of sources, the most valuable ones are records of civil and spiritual departments. The review allows to conclude about the variety of types of archival documents and their various informative features. The presented classification is not final and can be supplemented.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):249-253
pages 249-253 views

Materials of white emigrant Church organizations in China as a source on the Orthodox Church history

Drobotushenko E.V., Lantsova Y.N.


The paper deals with various aspects of the Orthodox Church history in China on the basis of a rich source – materials of white emigrant Church organizations collected in one large file of the Fund 9145 «Collections of individual documents of various emigrant organizations» of the state archive of the Russian Federation. This file contains correspondence on specific issues as well as various flyers, brochures, newspaper articles, posters, announcements, reports, statements, notes with the characteristics of various aspects of Orthodox history and covers the time period from 1924 to 1936. Articles from the Newspapers «Zarya», «Gong Bao» as well as a spiritual magazine «Bread heavenly», etc. deal with the key issues of the transition of the Chinese clergy under the control of the Synod of bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church outside of Russia under the canonical jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate, etc. Unfortunately, despite the considerable interest in the history of Russian emigration in the second quarter of the 20th century in China, as well as in the history of Orthodoxy in the country, the documents of this file have not been widely known, although they are the supplement of the little-known pages of Orthodox history.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):253-257
pages 253-257 views

Material and technical base of the Chelyabinsk Region financial bodies during the Great Patriotic War

Ivlev N.N.


The paper describes the material and technical position of the financial bodies in the Chelyabinsk Region in 1941–1945. The author provides a structure of regional financial institutions, which included the financial departments (Financial Department of the region, city and districts), savings-banks and long-term lending banks. The paper also examines dynamics of changes in the material and technical support of the regional financial system during the war. The analysis of archival sources clearly shows that in the first years of the war the material and technical support of the regional system of financial institutions was in critical condition: there was not enough office space, transport, calculating machines and typewriters as well as other necessary equipment for the work. But with the beginning of a radical change in the lines the situation gradually began to improve. Both cash and food were increased, the situation with transport, office and accommodation space was stabilized, new equipment appeared. Despite the difficult situation, the material and technical support did not have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the regional financial bodies. Financial stability was maintained both at the nationwide and regional levels. The government targets of military loans distribution were not only performed but also beaten. In total, 1,6 billion rubles were collected in the Chelyabinsk Region, which is 2% of the nationwide funds received from the distribution of the government loan. The most important indicator of the work efficiency was the qualitative performance of regional budgets.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):257-262
pages 257-262 views

Public mood of the Kuibyshev Region residents in 1990-1991 in the context of the social history of Russia

Zakharchenko A.V., Kirdyashev M.S., Pankeeva K.V.


This paper deals with 1990–1991 as a turning point, which marked the collapse of the policy of «perestroika», the communist institutions of power became a relic of the past, metamorphoses took place in the social structure of the Soviet society. The focus of «everyday life history» is the reality in the interpretation of its immediate participants, who were witnesses of the events of those years. Such events can relate to different spheres of life, and participants in these events can be people of different social strata. Newspapers and magazines are considered to be an irreplaceable source of information for studying the relationship between government and society in this chronological period. Letters and appeals of citizens from the regional newspaper «Volzhskaya Kommuna» were taken into consideration. There were rubrics expressing public opinion about the dynamics of the «perestroika» policy. The emotional reaction reflected in the letters is of great interest. The sources clearly record the main tendencies and stages of the public mood that prevailed in that period, thereby transfer the political apathy that spread in the society. The information received from the sources makes a definite contribution to the study of the «everyday life history» and can serve as a basis for research and reveal new aspects in social history.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):263-270
pages 263-270 views

«We live in peace and friendship, we have learned to cook beshbarmak»: typological models of interethnic interactions in Samara Trans-Volga Region

Iagafova E.A., Demidov A.N.


The paper presents the experience of study of interethnic interactions in Samara Trans-Volga region on the example of Belozerki village of Krasnoyarskiy District of the Samara Region. Theoretical and methodological approaches were determined by the concept of «ethnic boundaries», taking into account differential features in the cultural codes of the contacting groups, as well as some other factors (historical, social, demographic, ecological, etc.) that influence the formation of interethnic relations. The purpose of the study was to identify the mechanism of ethnic groups interaction historically living in the village in situations of interethnic contacts (including contacts with migrant communities), factors determining the formation and maintenance of ethno cultural identity of groups and ethnic boundaries between them, to determine the nature of mutual socio-cultural adaptation of groups. During the study the situation of interethnic interaction in the language, socio-economic and ethno-cultural spheres was analyzed taking into account a historical factor; characteristics of ethnic dichotomies (ethnic markers) were given, mainly on the example of predominant groups of the Russians, the Chuvash and the Mordovians. The results of the study showed the presence of «ethnic boundaries», determined by the history of Belozerki settlement, as well as cultural specifics, features of language behavior and ethnic identification, the nature of socio-economic contacts of groups, and determined the change of various models of interethnic interaction during half a century history and their diversity at present. The factors that support the group identity of the Mordovians and the Chuvash are the language, functional in the family and domestic sphere, intra-ethnic contacts in everyday, but more often in festive and ritual spheres. The study is based on archival, published sources and field materials of the authors (2018).

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):270-277
pages 270-277 views

An electronic record as an object of records management: a historiographic review

Surovtseva N.G.


The paper deals with the main researches of the Russian specialists in records management and experts in related scientific subjects that have been studying electronic records from the moment when this concept was found in the late 1990th till nowadays. The author analyzes definitions of the concept «electronic record», studies its features, connected with information environment specifics as well as an electronic medium of information, definition of the main categories of electronic records and indications of their classification. By the beginning of XXI century a concept of electronic record was formed, which was un-contradictory for records management and archival science, its working definition was offered. Scientists think that an electronic record is a document that carries out the same functions and has the same indications as a traditional document. At the same time it was defined that a specific data carrier character and documenting methods put a problem of electronic records typology. The author has also solved a number of urgent problems – defined the electronic record’s structure and recognized its validity. The most actual problems for further studying were designated in the Program. Later scientific discussions were taken place about these questions to a greater or lesser extent, and now they become active in connection with a problem of an electronic records archival storage.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):277-286
pages 277-286 views

13.00.00 – Pedagogical Sciences

Advantages of authentic assessment over traditional assessment while teaching English to university students majoring in non-linguistic subjects

Abramova I.E., Shishmolina E.P., Ananyina A.V.


The paper analyzes existing approaches to assessing the results of teaching foreign languages to the university students majoring in non-linguistic subjects with a special focus on the advantages of authentic assessment. The authors stress the state-level need to develop and implement effective assessment tools for ESL university teaching, and substantiate the effectiveness of authentic assessment for increasing students’ motivation to learn English. They identify advantages of authentic assessment, including a possibility to track individual students’ learning progress, to effectively use peer assessment and self-assessment, to focus on students’ performance indicators, to create a success effect, and to present actual teaching and learning results or personal development achievements in the form of presentations, projects and other tangible accomplishments. The paper describes a unified system of control, assessment and evaluation of ESL teaching and learning results, developed by Foreign Languages for Students of Humanities Department at Petrozavodsk State University (Russia) for modeling a foreign-language environment and enhancing students’ language socialization. The authors give a detailed account of establishing procedures for the assessment of speaking and writing skills, and analyze a didactic potential of a foreign language portfolio as one of authentic assessment tools. They come to the conclusion that peer assessment, self-assessment and other authentic assessment methods help to shift the focus from teaching to learning and create optimal conditions for student-centered education process.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):287-293
pages 287-293 views

Types of educational and professional tasks used for doctors’ training

Astanina S.Y.


The paper deals with the problem of the fundamental training of doctors on the basis of solving various groups of educational and professional tasks in continuing medical education. Analysis of various scientists’ views allowed the authors to determine that the continuity and integrity of education is ensured by continuity in solving educational and professional tasks, formed from professional tasks. Due to the fact that in health care there is a fairly rapid introduction of the basic sciences (molecular biology, biophysics, biochemistry) achievements results into the processes of medical care, the knowledge-intensiveness of labor functions increases, their diversity increases, which leads to an increase in professional tasks. The interrelation of types and classes of educational and professional tasks ensures the continuity of the content of the fundamental training of doctors. Intra-subject relationships are formed between groups of educational and professional tasks (invariant and variable), ensuring the integrity of the content of the biological training of doctors. Division of educational and professional tasks into classes and types allows to systematize the content of fundamental training of doctors in accordance with the actual educational needs of the trained doctors and the requirements of practical public health, which in turn ensures continuity, expressed in the sequence and consistency of the content, forms and methods of the educational process; in the consistency and coherence of training at various stages of medical education.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):293-299
pages 293-299 views

Professional identity formation as a factor of a modern university student’s career strategy planning

Berkutova D.I., Gromova E.M., Gorshkova T.A.


The paper focuses the attention of researchers on the problem of formation of modern youth’s professional identity, which, according to the authors, is directly related to the career strategy design. The authors analyze main theoretical approaches to the essence of the concepts of «professional identity», «personal professional perspective» and «career strategy». The paper presents the results of the study of modern students’ professional plans in the context of their professional career planning. The experimental sample of respondents was made from the number of full-time students of Physical, Mathematical and Technological Education Department of the Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University named after I.N. Ulyanov. The respondents’ diagnosis was carried out by N.S. Pryazhnikov’s method «Personal professional perspective», which promotes the stimulation of the youth’s reflections on complex worldview life problems, professional choice, building a successful career and provoking individual consultations of value-semantic nature, as well as E. Shane’s method «Anchors of career», which is used to determine the leading professional motives. The results of the study were subjected to a thorough analysis. The paper contains the results of diagnostics, proving that personal professional perspective and career strategy are closely interrelated. The obtained materials can serve as a basis for further development of theoretical and practical aspects of the problem of modern youth’s career strategy design.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):299-304
pages 299-304 views

The role and place of holistic information and educational environment at the stage of digitalization of learning and education of the individual

Bogoslovskiy V.I., Aniskin V.N.


The paper presents characteristics and features of the initial stage of education digitalization (DE) in the Russian Federation, due to the further development of information and educational environment (IEE) of educational institutions (EI) at all levels and core changes in the organization of the educational process (EP) with the use of computer electronic communication tools, systems and technologies of training (CECTSTT). Along with the noted advantages of DE, the negative consequences of this process are analyzed. The one that is highlighted is the problem of the student’s personality education organization as an obligatory component of education in the conditions of network, online, virtualization and cybernetization of education. The authors define problems, features and possibilities of realization of the purposes and the solution of training processes tasks and education of the personality within the human-machine (cybernetic) interaction in systems «student – computer» which, according to the authors, will be aggravated under the influence of further education informatization by means of intensive introduction of modern and perspective computer means (CM). To reduce the risks and challenges of the digital educational environment (DEE) in the organization of students’ productive education on the basis of General cultural training it is proposed to use the transition from the current IEE to the new conditions of the adaptive capabilities of holistic information and educational environment (HIEE), which is one of the backbone components of holistic pedagogy. As arguments for this proposal outlines the objectives, principles, methods, pedagogy and holistic concept the holistic (holistic) school considers the properties of holistic (systemic-integrative) approach to the layout of HIEE.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):305-311
pages 305-311 views

Development of an adaptive competence of students majoring in service and tourism

Gusev V.A., Zatsepin V.A., Zatsepina M.Y., Lisachkina V.N.


This paper discusses the training process of students majoring in service and tourism in Volga Region State College. With the introduction of WorldSkills standards into the educational process, the process of students’ training has changed qualitatively. General competencies come to the fore; they can be combined by a common name-adaptive competence. It is the ability to quickly adapt to changes in the surrounding world that allows students to achieve the highest results in their profession, and this is confirmed by competitions of professional skill at various levels. The paper presents the results of organizational-methodical conditions creation in Volga Region State College for students’ adaptive competence development. The paper describes methods and approaches of students’ training for competitions of professional skills according to WorldSkills standards. The basic elements of adaptive competence and methods of their development are considered. The paper describes positive and negative indicators of this competence development, the impact on students’ social adaptation in society. The obtained training experience can be used in the educational process for other humanities majors, and easily scaled to other educational institutions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):312-315
pages 312-315 views

An effective system of electronic courses development and maintenance as a key problem of electronic information and educational environment development at university

Dobudko T.V., Pugach V.I., Gorbatov S.V., Dobudko A.V., Pugach O.I.


This paper discusses one of the urgent problems of education quality management at the pedagogical university – the design and use of an effective system of electronic courses development and maintenance. This problem is analyzed taking into account the results of a pilot survey of pedagogical universities teachers, as well as the experience of deployment and modernization of electronic information and educational environment (EIEE) at various universities of the Samara Region. It is noted that in terms of classification of EIEE maturity levels, a significant number of regional pedagogical universities are at the second or the beginning of the third level, at which all EIEE opportunities from a quarter to a half of teachers and students are actively used. The paper presents the hypothesis substantiation: the transition to the next level of EIEE maturity can and should be carried out purposefully and systematically. At the same time the necessary condition for the growth of EIEE maturity is the qualification improvement of the majority of the university teaching staff, as well as the deployment of its own infrastructure (hardware and software), a possible version of which is also briefly described in the paper. An alternative is to rent several dedicated servers from a reliable service provider with data centers in the Russian Federation. The obtained materials can serve as a basis for the design of new approaches to the construction оf EIEE pedagogical universities in Russia.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):316-321
pages 316-321 views

Integration of knowledge while mathematical courses studying by prospective teachers of Mathematics

Evelina L.N.


The paper focuses on the main directions of integration in modern education. The basis for the examples and conclusions were fundamental studies in the field of Philosophy, Pedagogy and Mathematics. Integration as a general methodological concept in the context of the paper is more concerned with the integration of knowledge in the content of the school course of Mathematics in order to recognize and operate on them in various academic disciplines and the surrounding life. As examples of integration the author gives various concepts from different branches of mathematics (straight line, proportion, symmetry), methods of solving equations and inequalities (functional-graphic, coordinate-vector along with traditional methods), methods of proving identities and inequalities (geometric methods in Algebra and algebraic methods in Geometry). The study of mathematical content in the classroom at school should be a systematic and multifaceted process for the teacher to establish and disclose the links between different concepts, their properties, as well as methods of applying knowledge in a variety of situations. In mathematical courses and the course of Mathematics teaching methods the author offers to pay special attention to prospective teachers’ ability development to consider mathematical objects from different sides, thereby establishing links between different sections of Mathematics. Various special courses (or elective courses) on relevant subjects are also an important part of prospective teachers’ professional training, which can be purposefully used to expand inter-subject relations. In addition, the subject of term and final papers can also be made up taking into account different interpretations of mathematical concepts and methods. The author also pays great attention to the organization of such work with students. Only free knowledge enables the teacher to form students’ solid educational results at the level of knowledge and educational activities for the purpose of their further use in professional activities and in everyday life.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):321-326
pages 321-326 views

The identification method of 6-7 year-old-children’s «duovector» giftedness in the art-creativity process

Kalinina L.Y., Ivanov D.V.


The paper deals with one of the aspects of early identification of giftedness: the establishment of the relationship between its types. The authors see a solution of the problem in the development and validation of the methodology based on the integrated modern scientific knowledge – psychological, pedagogical and art criticism, in the field of contemporary art. This technique is expected to meet the conditions of efficiency and accessibility in the application of teachers working with children. Clarifications have been made to the basic concept of «giftedness» for the paper. The authors propose a term describing the interrelated manifestation of two types of giftedness – «duovector» talent. The method is aimed at finding hidden signs of «duovector» giftedness: musical mathematics, in the field of fine art and sports, musical and linguistic. The basis of this approach is the idea of the dependence of the frequency and brightness of giftedness manifestations on the conditions, the most important of which is the aesthetic environment enriched with multi-modal material for creativity. At the same time, it is advisable to involve children in accessible and aesthetically valuable works of modern art, in the search for new knowledge in the same ways that adult authors of the XXI century use. Modeling directly perceived creative techniques and forms, the child masters the world, structures it non-linearly, on the principle of creating a rhizome. As a «catalyst» of creative activity, a set of tasks-subtests adapted to the age peculiarities of children is offered. The procedure of the experiment in a specially organized educational environment (an art workshop) is characterized. Plunging into the atmosphere of «fruitful disorder», the child will act freely and directly, engaged in creativity as a game, creates an art product that has value as a marker of his talent. The content of creative tasks is presented, according to the results of work on which the diagnostic card is filled, in turn, which is the basis for the conclusions about the presence of the child’s «duovector» talent. At this stage of the study, the authors have prepared a method for validation by comparing it with tests and subtests of other methods. The materials of the paper logically continue the research in the field of finding reference points for the development of individual educational routes of students, preparing them for lifelong learning.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):326-335
pages 326-335 views

Vector interpretation of students’ residual knowledge assessment

Makarov S.I., Sevastyanova S.A.


Residual knowledge assessment is one of the procedures used in the Russian education system to monitor the quality of education at various levels. Typically, this procedure is considered to be a computer testing of the previously learned disciplines. The analysis of test results gives grounds for making necessary decisions. This determines the importance of reliable, accessible and informative presentation of monitoring results. The paper contains a method of visualization and interpretation of residual knowledge assessment results. The authors think that it is possible to use this method for analyzing the problems of training at the individual and group levels. For statistical information processing it is offered to use a vector form of data presentation. The paper contains examples of using a vector model for estimating the level of residual knowledge in three or more disciplines. The authors propose an approach that solves the problem of test results comparability carried out in various estimation systems. The main conclusions and results can be used directly in the educational process, in the field of education management, in psychological and pedagogical work.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):335-339
pages 335-339 views

Teaching business foreign language communication in master's courses at railway transport university

Odaryuk I.V.


The paper explains the necessity of new professional training requirements. The role of foreign languages at higher educational institutions is emphasized, which is reflected in the Federal National education standards. The paper dwells upon approaches and peculiarities of developing a competence-based model of teaching business foreign language communication to postgraduate students of the railway transport university. The paper gives examples of tasks and teaching technologies, used by the author in the process of implementing the teaching programmes for postgraduate students of the railway transport university. The above-mentioned model is viewed as a complex of linguistic, communicative, culturological, psychological and professional components. The characteristic features of teaching a foreign language to postgraduate students of technical universities are researched. The grounds for using an interdisciplinary approach in teaching a foreign language for business communication are considered. The interdisciplinary approach allows to integrate students’ knowledge and skills acquired in the process of studying other subjects and to successfully implement them in mastering a foreign language and developing a competence in business foreign language communication. The paper gives an overview of the study guides developed by teachers of Foreign Languages Department of the Rostov State Transport University for postgraduate students majoring in technical subjects. The perspectives of further research are defined.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):339-344
pages 339-344 views

Theoretical and experimental evaluation of pedagogy synergetic direction use efficiency for students’ ecological culture development

Popov Y.M., Karnaukhov H.Z., Sazonova N.N.


The study deals with a theoretical analysis of how the system-synergetic direction is developing in Pedagogy. The presence of theoretical scientific and pedagogical works of integral character is noted. However, their share does not exceed one per cent of the total number of publications, and their content is often formalized. In these works universal concepts and definitions of synergetic paradigm are often ignored, and the terminology used does not always meet the linguistic-semantic normative base including Pedagogy. The problem analysis allowed to develop phenomenological models of the pedagogical system structure and its object-subject components. The results of a specially organized experiment that studied the comparative effectiveness of the systematic pedagogical approach elements use showed the feasibility of their application in the organization of a comprehensive didactic and educational support for students’ ecological culture development. This conclusion is based on the fact that the algorithms and procedures of synergetic pedagogy make it possible to define more clearly the purpose and objectives of the system solution of this complex ecological and pedagogical problem of the post-industrial society. The system approach reduces the probability of teachers and students to use ineffective stereotyped reproductive means and methods of prospective teacher’s knowledge, competencies, personal and social qualities development and increases the possibility of synergetic programming and design of the educational process.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):345-351
pages 345-351 views

Organization of educational and research activities of students majoring in biology and ecology

Semenov A.A., Yaitsky A.S., Panfilova L.V., Pavlovsky V.A.


A strategic objective of school education development at present is to achieve a new quality of educational results by updating its goals, content, forms, methods, means and technologies of education. This includes universal educational actions (UEA). One of the ways of UEA development is encouraging of students’ to take part in educational and research activities. Natural science subjects, including Biology and Ecology, have a great potential for carrying out educational and research activities. Educational-research activity is a process of developing new knowledge, previously unknown to the students, aiming at the formulation of the problem, nomination of hypotheses, verification of hypotheses and formulation of conclusions. It has a certain logical sequence and consists of several components: 1) motivational-target component – involves needs and motives development for educational research, its motivation; definition of the methodological apparatus of educational research: formulation of the problem, formulation of its theme, purpose, object, subject, hypothesis and objectives; 2) content component – consists of cognitive (system of knowledge about the object of the research and methods of the research), activity (system of skills necessary for successful training and research activities) and value-orientation (basic national values of the Russian society and personal qualities of the researcher) elements; 3) procedural component – is to determine stages of training and research activities, the choice of methods and means to achieve the goal and objectives, testing the hypothesis; 4) effective evaluation component – includes formulation of conclusions, presentation of the educational search results, presentation of the research product, evaluation of educational and research activities and reflection.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(4):352-360
pages 352-360 views

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