Vol 6, No 3 (2017)

03.02.00 – General Biology

Preliminary results of spectrophotometric screening of secondary metabolites accumulation in lichen thalloms

Gorina M.V., Kavelenova L.M., Platonova S.A.

Abstract

This paper discusses the influence of biotopic conditions on the secondary compounds accumulation in lichen thalloms. Secondary metabolites inherent in the metabolism of various groups of organisms are widely represented in symbiotic organisms – lichens, with a significant number of these compounds being phenolic derivatives. The authors of the paper present the results of spectrophotometric scanning of alcohol extracts from lichen thalloms of three species: Xanthoria parietina (L.) Belt., Parmelia sulcata Tayl., Vulpicida pinastri (Scop.) J.-E. Mattsson & M.J. Lai, sampled in different forest communities of the Krasnosamarsky forest (Samara Region), in 9 plots, where plant communities were fragments of natural forests (birch, aspen, linden, oak) and forest stands. Forest communities differed in their position in the relief, the composition of the arboreal stage, associated with the height and closeness of the plantations to microclimate conditions. The extracts obtained by infusion of 96% ethanol samples were analyzed using the AZURA UV / VIS UVD 2.1 L detector (190–750 nm, Knauer) in the laboratory of Chemistry Department of Samara University to obtain absorption spectra in the UV region using the ClarityChrom program. The study can be considered as an initial stage of bioecological screening, which makes it possible to ascertain the dependence of the secondary metabolites accumulation on habitat parameters in relation to the conditions of forest ecosystems in different parts of the Samara Region. The spectrophotometric study of the extracts demonstrated the presence of species-specific features of the spectra, indicating the differences in the qualitative composition of the extracts. For extracts obtained from samples of lichens were found spectra differences: quantitative – for all the species, and also qualitative – for Xanthoria parietina and Vulpicida pinastri extracts, related to qualitative and quantitative differences in the accumulation of secondary metabolites. These differences are presumably associated with differences in the biotopic conditions of growth of the thalli of the three studied lichen species.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):10-15
pages 10-15 views

Peculiarities of parasitism of Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in the Middle Volga Region

Mishchenko A.V.

Abstract

This paper describes all the detected forms of parasitism of eulophid wasps in the Middle Volga Region, based on many years of study of this important group of Hymenoptera and significant factual material. Hymenoptera: Eulophidae is a family of relatively small (no more than 5 mm, usually 1,5–2 mm) parasitic hymenoptera; its larvae develop on the phytophages of various groups (primarily lepidopterans, Diptera, coleoptera). Many species of herbivorous insects that are infected with eulofids are pests in forestry and agriculture, since they are used as fodder plants of various economically important families. A special group of phytophages are leafminers, larvae of which develop secretly in plant tissues (for example, leaf mesophyll), often forming species-specific damage – mines. Eulophid wasps are able to infect leafminers that are inside leafmine and not accessible to other types of entomophages, thereby providing biological protection to cultural and wild plants. During the work parasitic development of more than 200 species of eulophid wasps was analyzed. Representatives of 4 subfamilies Eulophidae (Euderinae, Eulophinae, Entedoninae and Tetrastichinae), including more than 40 genera, have been identified in the Middle Volga Region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):15-20
pages 15-20 views

Structure and dynamics of alien flora of the railroads in the forest-steppe zone of Middle Volga Region

Nikitin N.A.

Abstract

The following paper is a result of many-year-observations of the railways flora in the Middle Volga Region. Observations were carried out on the territory of several entities with different configurations of the railway network and the intensity of its operation. The cited data characterize the foreign component as a two-level dynamic system consisting of a core and a fluctuating outer belt. The core is represented by American and Eurasian invasive species that are firmly established in the natural plant communities and capable of prolonged growth in one place. External fluctuating belt consists of naturalized alien species and permanently or occasionally presents in the composition of ruderal vegetation, capable of changing their numbers, depending on the living conditions and the operation of the railways. Structurally alien flora is formed under the influence of extreme living conditions that is reflected in the predominance of annual herbaceous plants xerophytic spectrum, as well as the cosmopolitan weed. The taxonomic structure shows impoverishment of the species composition, low values of the species occupancy rate, but at the same time the generic fillability of the families shows relatively high indices. In general, foreign component flora characterized by considerable resistance to extreme environmental conditions, is capable of long-term existence in a certain area, with a tendency to settling in adjacent territories characterizing similar habitat conditions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):20-24
pages 20-24 views

Ecological-geochemical assessment of the Sorochinskie Mountains soils (Samara Region)

Prokhorova N.V., Golovlyov A.A., Makarova Y.V.

Abstract

In this paper we first explain the trivial geographic name «Sorochinskie Mountains», introduced into scientific circulation with the aim of more accurately linking natural (botanical, zoological, soil, geological-geomorphological) objects and etalon areas to a specific locality. Then we describe the types of anthropogenic impact that manifested themselves in different historical periods and allow evaluating modern ecological-geochemical state of the Sorochinskie Mountains soil cover. In the main part of the paper we report about ecology-geochemical research of soils conducted in 2015 in the Sorochinskie Mountains, during which the etalon areas within the main plant communities (birch forest, maple forest, aspen forest, stony steppe, maple oak forest) were laid. Samples of soils were taken from each etalon area to determine the amount of humus, the reaction of the soil solution (pH), and the content of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) by the atomic absorption method. As a result of the conducted studies it was established that the soils of the etalon areas of the Sorochinskie Mountains are characterized by a weakly acid or close to neutral reaction and a higher content of humus than the data available in literature. The ecological-geochemical feature of soils is their considerable enrichment of Zn, the level of which in all etalon areas significantly exceeds the local and regional background, in etalon areas of birch forest, maple forest and aspen forest – approximately permissible concentrations (APC). To a lesser extent the soils of the Sorochinskie Mountains accumulate Cu and Pb, the content of which exceeds the regional background, but basically does not reach the level of the APC. The concentration of Cd in soils is also below the dangerous level, but in birch forest and aspen forest it considerably exceeds the local and regional background. In general, the most contaminated with heavy metals are the soils of birch forest, maple forest and aspen forest. The soils of the maple oak forest and stony steppe, lying at a distance from the places of passage of unpaved highways, have a lower level of accumulation of heavy metals. Sources of heavy metals in the soils of the Sorochinskie Mountains are soil formation rocks and man-made streams formed by industrial objects and urban vehicles.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):24-29
pages 24-29 views

Primary germination of seeds of genus Paeonia L. representatives when introduced in Bashkortostan

Reut A.A., Mironova L.N.

Abstract

The following paper present the study results of the influence of synthetic plant growth regulators (Biodux, Energen, K-Humate-Na & mineral) on the soil germination of rare wild-growing peonies seeds (P. anomala L., P. hybrida Pall., P. lactiflora Pall., P. mlokosewitschii Lomak., P. tenuifolia L., P. delavayi Franch, P. suffruticosa Andr.) on the basis of the Botanical Garden Institute of the Ufa Science Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The Red Books of the regions and countries are listed, which include the studied species and the statuses of their rarity. Detailed information on the geography and culture of species is presented. Life forms, ecotypes and phenoritmotypes of cultivars are described. Seeding of seeds (in the amount of 150 pieces in each variant of the experiment) collected from plants of local reproduction was made in the autumn of 2013 on the ridges of a specially designated site in the open ground. The positive effect of the studied preparations on soil germination is shown. So, as a result of the spring 2015 experience, from 15 to 87% of the seed number seeded, depending on the variant, have risen. The maximum value of seed germination (87%) was obtained in P. mlokosewitschii in the experiment variant using the Biodux preparation. The effect of growth regulators depends significantly on the specific features of peonies: for each species, the selection of individual physiologically active substances and the optimal conditions for their use are necessary. The analysis of changes in morphometric parameters in the studied species showed that under the influence of growth regulators in most seedlings, such parameters as plant height (the maximum increase in the parameter – by 1,4 times with K-Humate-Na & mineral preparation), the leaf length (in 1,3 times when using Biodux), the number of leaves (3,0 times when using Biodux) increase. For the peonies species studied, the most effective preparations are Energen for seed germination, Biodux and K-Humate-Na & mineral for increasing morphometric parameters. Most responsive to these growth regulators were the following: P. delavayi and P. suffruticosa.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):30-33
pages 30-33 views

Old cities environment transformation in the conditions of modern technogenic influence (ecological analysis of Kimry, Tver Region)

Savvateeva O.A., Arkhipova E.V., Belova A.N., Vlasova A.A.

Abstract

The following paper deals with the problem of historic cultural centers environment transformation on the example of Kimry, the Tver Region. The relevance of the research is defined by the fact that technogenic influence of all environment components on urban areas is actually big. The dense population, abundance of multi-storey residential buildings and social objects are combined with intensive traffic flows, existence of the household and industrial enterprises emanated considerable technogenic flows of toxic substances. The paper contains results of a complex analysis of Kimry ecological state, including assessment of soil cover and atmospheric air pollution, magnetic component of technogenic electromagnetic fields of industrial frequency, air aero ionic composition and acoustic influences. The authors show that the maximum technogenic transformation of environmental material and geophysical components is characteristic for the Kimry central part where difficult infrastructure of the modern city is inscribed in tight space of the historic center. Pollution of soil cover and atmospheric air are due to high concentration of transport and imperfection of highways network. Universal existence of electromagnetic smog and change of air aero ionic composition are caused by low layout of city lighting and electrical power supply networks wiring. As a result the authors offer a number of ways how to improve the ecological situation. Division of business parts and cultural parts of old cities and creation of recreational and tourist clusters in the cultural part could be a cardinal solution of the historic centers problem.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):34-40
pages 34-40 views

Protected plants on the territory of the Racheiskii forest natural monuments (Samara Region)

Saksonov S.V., Vasjukov V.M., Kazantsev I.V., Senator S.A.

Abstract

The paper contains species composition of the rare taxa growing in specially protected natural areas in the Samara Region – Gremiachii, the source of Usa river, Malousinskie upland pine and oak forests, Racheiskaia taiga, Racheiskie skaly and Seven springs, located in the Racheiskii forest (upper reaches of the Usa river basin). The authors assess their occurrence in the protected areas. They have established that 98 species of rare vascular plants that included in the Red Book of the Samara Region grow here, among them 4 species are included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation (Iris aphylla L., Fritillaria ruthenica Wikstr., Cypripedium calceolus L., Neottiantha cucullata (L.) Schlechter). Another 17 species need constant monitoring and surveillance. Previously presented for the Usa river basin Cotoneaster alaunicus Golitsin, Dactyloriza longifolia (L.) Aver. and Jurinea ewersmannii Bunge have not been found, their location in the region requires additional research. For the revision of rare plant species the authors have used published materials and unpublished materials of expeditionary research integrated in Information-analytical system Salix. The obtained materials make it possible to correct the natural monuments system by combining identical natural-territorial complexes.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):40-46
pages 40-46 views

Changes of intestinal microbiota and ivabradine biotransformation in rats after alcohol introduction

Tolkachev B.E., Morkovin E.I., Knyshova L.P., Yakovlev A.T., Strygin A.V.

Abstract

The role of intestinal microbiota in progress of many pathological processes is discussed in recent publications. It was shown that the continuous intestinal dysbiosis, including the increased bacterial growth syndrome, affects the digestion and the biotransformation of xenobiotics. Intestinal microbiota provokes metabolic failures leading to severe diseases acting via several mechanisms. Alcohol is found to be a common dysbiotic factor and toxic agent affecting the systems of biotransformation. This study was to estimate the associations between the intestinal microbiota and the biotransformation of ivabradine, CYP3A4 substrate, in rats during the chronic alcohol intake. The study used 30 male Wistar rats divided into two groups – control and experimental, administrated 15% ethanol as a sole water supply during 40 days to model the chronic alcohol intake. The decrease of bifido- and lactobacterium spp. found in experimental group correlated with excretion and metabolic ratio of ivabradine metabolite and ivabradine in urine. These findings demonstrate the participation of intestinal microbiota in the metabolism of ivabradine after oral introduction.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):47-51
pages 47-51 views

Representatives of caddis flies of Integripalpia suborder in the system of environmental monitoring of the South Ural rivers

Chaus B.Y.

Abstract

In the following paper the author tries to find a possibility to use larvae of caddis flies of Integripalpia suborder to increase a significance of bioindicator researches during environmental monitoring of the South Ural rivers. Analysis of caddis flies types constancy was carried out in 17 state water posts on the rivers flowing across the territory of South Ural from 2005 to 2016. As chemical characteristics such indexes as content in river waters of compounds of manganese, nickel and iron, oil products, phenols, ammonium nitrogen, coppers, zinc, COD, BOD₅, sulfates, chlorides, nitrite nitrogen were used. Specific combinatorial index of water impurity was used as a complex index. In total constancy evolution of 7 species of larvae of caddis flies of Integripalpia suborder was analyzed. It’s the first time the author has made a list of constant, additive and casual types of Integripalpia on the studied territory. The author has revealed significant correlative dependences between constancy of larvae of species of caddis flies with a number of hydro chemical indexes. The author has made regression models used to forecast constancy of larvae of Integripalpia suborder types depending on concentration of the pollutant containing in river waters.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):51-56
pages 51-56 views

Methodological approaches to the assessment of heavy metal contamination in urban ecosystems soils

Yudina E.V.

Abstract

The paper presents the assessment of heavy metal pollution of Abakan soils, the main source of which is motor transport. The pollution assessment of the upper horizons soils located near four main highways of the city was conducted under established standards. The maximum concentration of elements was recorded in the area with very high traffic, which confirms the importance of the role of motor transport as the main source of pollutants. When calculating the total pollution index (Zc) all highways were in a «dangerous» category. A similar indicator calculated on the basis of the data content in the soil-forming rock, allowed us to determine the degree of pollution as «moderately hazardous». Analysis of heavy metals content in soil profiles has allowed to establish in the upper soil horizons, a significant excess of gross and mobile forms of all elements at sites with very high and high degree of traffic load, which indicates intense аerogenic intake of pollutants. Determined the proportion of elements of anthropogenic origin and the fact of the uneven distribution of heavy metals in the soil profile and their concentration in different geochemical barriers. When determining causal relationships between heavy metal content and separate soil characteristics we have found a direct dependence on the following parameters: pH, humus, cation exchange capacity, carbon dioxide, carbonates, particle size distribution, and in some cases we can talk about complex influence of soil properties on the concentration of elements. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in urban ecosystems soils, using the data content of elements in soil-forming rock with the use of the profile approach is the most objective.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):56-63
pages 56-63 views

Changes of the intestinal microbiota during chronic alcohol intake

Yakovlev A.T., Poroysky S.V., Knyshova L.P., Morkovin E.I.

Abstract

This paper examines the influence of chronic alcoholic intoxication on the qualitative and quantitative composition of the intestinal microbiota in patients with syndrome of alcohol dependence. The authors describe chronic alcoholic intoxication, accompanied by significant violations of homeostasis, which is manifested by changes in protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and mineral metabolism. The authors examine the role of alcohol as one of the main factors that affect dysbiotic shifts in the normal microbiota of human intestines. The paper presents the results of the comparison found earlier in the course of experimental work, significant changes of the intestinal microbiota of rats subjected to chronic alcoholism and clinical results of the study of the microbial landscape in patients with syndrome of alcohol dependence. The authors established that under the influence of alcohol there is a statistically significant reduction in saccharolytic microbiota. The obtained data are a part of a clinic-experimental study of changes in the state of resistance of the organism exposed to the chronic effects of alcohol and can serve as a basis for further study of the intestinal microbiota changes, which is an important component of a personalized approach to the definition of tactics of treatment and rehabilitation of people with the syndrome of alcohol dependence.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):64-67
pages 64-67 views

07.00.00 – Historical Sciences and Archaeology

Fate and scientific path of the archaeologist Vladimir Ivanovich Timofeyev (14.06.1947-08.08.2004)

Vasilyev S.A., Vseviov L.M., Vybornov A.A., Gerasimov D.V., Medvedeva M.V., Shumkin V.Y.

Abstract

Born in the Murmansk Oblast, Vladimir Ivanovich Timofeyev lived a short but bright and creative life full of scientific research and achievements. As far as studying at the department of Archaeology of Leningrad State University, he chose the Holocene Stone Age as the topic for his research, to which he remained faithful up to the end of life. Working his way up from a laboratory assistant to the head of the Paleolithic Department of Leningrad Institute of Archaeology within the Academy of Science USSR-Institute for the Material Culture History of Russian Academy of Sciences, he proved himself as a purposeful, highly educated specialist who had extensive knowledge in field research, scientific methods and archaeological theory. Excellent memory, analytical abilities and diligence of Vladimir Ivanovich were noted by all colleagues and friends, both Russian and foreign ones, during expeditions and at conferences. The deserved recognition of Vladimir Ivanovich as the greatest expert of the Neolithic Age is unquestionable and it was about to be developed in doctoral thesis. Full sections of this work were discussed many times at the meetings of the Paleolithic Department and the Academic Council of Institute for the Material Culture and always received the highest appreciation. Unfortunately, a tragic accident cut short the life path of a first-class archaeologist and Vladimir Ivanovich Timofeev’s extensive final research devoted to a wide range of Neolithic problems was never completed. Almost 13 years have elapsed since the untimely passing of this talented scientist but the bitterness of loss does not become weaker.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):68-78
pages 68-78 views

Mesolithic monument Novaya Kazanka 1 in the Northern Caspian region (materials of 2005)

Artukhova O.A., Mamirov T.B., Klyshev Y.Y.

Abstract

This paper provides information about exploring of the Stone Age at the site Novaya Kazanka 1 in sand dunes on the western shore of Lake Soraidyn by employees of Institute of Archeology named after A.Kh. Margulan. They worked on the monument in 2003 and 2005. 8 accumulations of stone artifacts were allocated on the monument. The pits laid at the site showed the absence of the buried cultural layer. Stone artifacts were made mainly of two types of raw materials – siliceous rock and quartzite sandstone. The typological description of the stone collection of accumulations at the Novaya Kazanka 1 site indicates their chronological diversity ranging from purely Mesolithic complexes to mixed Meso-Neolithic ones. The technique of primary splitting is represented by unit nuclei and fragments of small dimensions. The tools are represented by scrapers, mostly end-plates on fragments of plates, lamellar flakes, plates and fragments of retouched plates, geometric microliths (segments, trapeziums, and triangles) and others. The stone inventory of the accumulations at the Novaya Kazanka 1 site does not contradict the conclusions about the correlation of the monuments near Lake Soraidyn with the monuments of the «Istai group» of the Seroglazov culture, which is expressed both in raw materials preferences and in the technique of primary splitting, as well as in the collection of stone implements.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):79-85
pages 79-85 views

Decoration of bone and antler artefacts as an indication of Mesolithic networks (finds from a central Swedish Late Mesolithic site)

Larsson L., Molin F.

Abstract

Our knowledge of Mesolithic decorated bone and antler tools from Scandinavia has mainly been based on finds from sites and single finds from Southern Scandinavia. However, recent excavations at a Late Mesolithic site at Strandvägen in Motala, south-central Sweden, have changed the state of research and revealed a large number of bone and antler tools, some of them with decorations. The site is located on the eastern shore of Lake Vättern, the second largest lake in the south of Sweden and at the only large outlet of the lake. The site was used during a number of centuries, with a concentration of radiocarbon dates around 7500–7000 cal. BP. The settlement at Strandvägen is the only site in this part of Scandinavia with a large number of finds of bone and antler. The location of the site was exceptional as it was easily available by contact links to the south and north as well as east and west. This is well manifested in the find material. Leister points are the single largest group of tools, with a total of more than 400 examples. A number of these are furnished with decoration in the form of small notches on the barbs more or less in systematic order, as well as cross-hatched motifs. A small number of other tools such as slotted daggers and antler objects with shaft holes are also decorated. In comparison with southern Sweden and Denmark, similarities are obvious concerning both the choice of motifs and the variety of their execution. The only other area in the Baltic region with a number of decorated objects is the East Baltic. However the chronological relevance is uncertain. For example one can find leister points with similarities to the finds at Strandvägen among the finds from Lake Lubāna in south-eastern Latvia. The question of how many of the motifs, and how they are executed is a pan-Mesolithic phenomenon within Northern Europe and how much can be related to specific regional markings.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):85-91
pages 85-91 views

Early Neolithic pottery from Central Asia to Denmark

Andreev K.M., Vybornov A.A.

Abstract

This paper focuses on the analysis of the Early Neolithic cultures pottery on the vast territory from the Aral Sea region in the east to Denmark in the west. The most stable typological and technological features of ancient pottery are singled out: profiled upper part of the vessels, pointed bottom, poor ornamentation, pit or dash patterns under the rim, the compositions are represented by intersecting lines like an oblique lattice. The vessels are made of silty clay mixed with chamotte. The fragments of the surfaces are smoothed with a soft object. This set of features can be traced for the pottery of cultures in the Aral Sea region, forest-steppe part of the Volga region (Povolzhye), Don and Dnepr regions, up to Jutland. The radiocarbon dates for the Early Neolithic culture of the area of interest demonstrate their rather ancient age in the eastern part of the area (6200 ВС) and rather smooth transition to younger (5900 ВС) in the western zone. There is a combined chronointerval for the monuments of Elshanka and Ertebølle cultures. The reason for the eastern trend in the appearance of the earliest pottery to the west of the Aral Sea region could be climatic disturbances (aridization), while household components became the instrument for the early pottery appearance in the west.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):91-100
pages 91-100 views

Cultural borders of elshanskaya ceramic tradition

Stavitsky V.V.

Abstract

Elshansky type of settlements was distinguished in the 1970s and 80s years after researches of a number of the settlements with weakly ornamented ceramics with sharp bottom that have profiled brims in the forest-steppe of Zavolzh’e. Close analogues to elshansky type of ceramics in the materials of the next regions has not been found, but there were some parallels in the utensil of settlements of Strumel-Gastyatin type. It was already highlighted two types of elshanskaya ceramics: 1) with sharp bottom and profiled, 2) with straight walls and flat-bottomed. Later this lead to change the concept of «elshansky type of ceramics». Because the choosing analogues to two types of elshanskaya ceramics began to find on a number of early Neolithic settlements from the Urals to the basin of the river Don. Meanwhile, such features as the shape of the vessels, weakly ornamented walls, belong to the category of the elementary and their convergent appearance is very likely. Only the transfer of the set of complex signs which are not recorded between materials of elshanka-Strumel-Gastyatin-Artibelle could serve the argument of the succession, but which take place between the ceramics Yelshanka and materials of the Baltic settlement Swidze.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):100-104
pages 100-104 views

Early ceramic complexes of Volgo-Kama culture (Lyovshino site case study)

Lychagina E.L., Batueva N.S.

Abstract

Lyovshino site was the first Neolithic settlement discovered on the territory of the Upper and Middle Kama. Its research was carried out in the 1920–30s. N.A. Prokoshev found weakly ornamented and non-ornamented pottery during excavations in 1934. Now, these potteries are considered as related to the early stage of the Volgo-Kama culture. We conducted a technical and technological analyses of fragments of 10 vessels of the Lyovshino site. The results of the technical and technological analyses of weakly ornamented and non-ornamented pottery of the Lyovshino site are presented in the article. Pottery has very old AMS-dates (7748 ± 51 and 7610 ± 40 BP). These dates are synchronous to elshanskaya culture age. We consider that in the formation of ceramic complex of the Lyovshino site two components took part. The first can be related to second pottery group of elshanskaya culture; the sources of the second need additional studies.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):105-109
pages 105-109 views

Pottery technology of the Early Neolithic population Podon'ya

Vasilyeva I.N.

Abstract

The paper publishes the long-term study results of the Early Neolithic population pottery technology in the Lower, Middle and Upper Don Region. This research was carried out within the framework of the historical and cultural approach by the method of A.A. Bobrinsky. It was based on binocular microscopy, traceology and experiment in the form of physical modeling. 483 samples of ceramics (conditionally separate vessels) were subjected to techno-technological analysis. They originate from the cultural layers of the Rakushechny Yar camp (294) and I Razdorskaya site (4), located in the Lower Don region, as well as 14 sites of the Middle and Upper Don Region containing Karamyshev type ceramics (185). The authors give a general description of the Early Neolithic pottery of the Don region and a comparative analysis of the data on pottery technology of the Lower, Middle and Upper Don Region population. The problems of the origin and distribution of early Neolithic pottery traditions are considered, the similarities and differences in the neolithization process in the Don region and the Volga region are distinguished.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):109-123
pages 109-123 views

Material culture of the end of the VI mill. - first half of the V mill. BC in the Upper Western Dvina River basin

Mazurkevich A.N., Dolbunova E.V.

Abstract

Rudnyanskaya culture was distinguished based on materials found on a stratified site Rudnya Serteyskaya (NW Russia, serteysky archaeological microregion) in 1983–1987. It existed from the end of the VI mill BC to the beginning of the V mill BC, after ceasing of the first Neolithic ceramic traditions in Dnepr-Dvina region. Pottery assemblage was divided into three ceramic phases d, d-1 and e. They cannot be regarded as one single cultural phenomenon due to differences in technology, morphology and decor of vessels. Analogies in pottery, flint and bone assemblage can be traced within the sites of Lubana region (Zvidze, Osa). We might suppose that vectors of cultural interactions changed at the end of the VI mill BC, and a former cultural network was destroyed. However rudnyanskaya culture differs a lot from Narva culture described by N.N. Gurina due to technological, morphological and decor characteristics. Local and local-chronological variants were distinguished on the territory of Narva culture distribution. Rudnyanskaya culture can be supposed to be one of these cultural phenomenons existed within a large common cultural area.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):123-130
pages 123-130 views

Archeological monuments of Srednedonskaya culture on the Upper Don territory

Smolyaninov R.V., Bessudnov A.N.

Abstract

The materials of the first stage that belong to the VI millennium BC (CalBC) are featured by pure layers and pinched pottery. These features were revealed in the materials of Monastyrskaya site in Pribityuzhie, in the lower layer of Cherkasskaya site (archeological excavations of 1979–1981) as well as in Inyasevskaya, Shapkinskaya 6, Plautinskaya 2 – in Pohoperie. On the Upper Don territory similar complexes are only revealed in the lower layers of Yarlukovskaya Protoka settlement, Dobroе 4 and Universitetskaya 3 sites. The second stage is dated by the end of VI – the first half of V millennium BC. It has much more materials. They were revealed both on the Voronezh River and Don. This stage is featured by pinches on the pottery as well as ornaments in the shape of small thin comb. These ornaments were brought to the Don forest-steppe by the population of the early Eneolithic from the Mariupol cultural and historical area. At the beginning of the third stage (second half of V millennium BC) the population of Srednedonskaya culture initiated more active communication with entrants from the Neolithic population which had comb-dimpled pottery as well as with people of Eneolithic Srednestogovskaya culture.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):131-143
pages 131-143 views

Buildings of the late settlement stage site Serteya XIV: cultural attribution and possibilities of graphic reconstruction

Khrustaleva I.Y.

Abstract

The lake settlement Serteya XIV (Velizhskiy district, Smolensk region, Russia), studied during the 1990s – the beginning of 21st century, was found to contain several different «habitation horizons» with finds and building remains dating from the Mesolithic to the Final Neolithic or Chalcolithic (9 – the 1st half of 2 Millennia cal. BC). Cultural layers of the settlement lie both within sandy coastal sediments and peaty part of the lake basin. The dwellings remains from the later stages of habitation are discussed in this paper. These include two buildings located on the sandy shore terrace and one in the peaty part of the site. During the excavations and initial find analysis these buildings were connected with the Middle and Late Neolithic. These conclusions were revised after the subsequent analyses of ceramic material and spatial distribution of different ceramic groups and other objects at the settlement, as well as obtaining a series of radiocarbon dating. The earliest of the dwellings was determined to belong to the Early Neolithic, to the final stage of Serteyskaya or the beginning stage of Rudnyanskaya archaeological culture (the 4th quarter of 6 Millennium cal. BC). Two different chronological phases were detected in the remains of the second building: the first one connected with the final stage of Rudnyanskaya archaeological culture (the end of 6 Millennium cal. BC), the second one with Usvyatskaya archaeological culture (the late 5–4 Millennia cal. BC). The third construction originally associated with Rudnyanskaya culture was confirmed to belong to the Final Neolithic/Chalcolithic (the 1st half of 2 Millennium cal. BC). Its date and cultural attribution have not been determined more precisely yet. The second important question of the present research concerns the possibilities to make graphic reconstruction of Stone Age buildings. As the cultural layers of most sites in the studied region are laid in sandy deposits, which do not preserve any organic materials or details of the buildings, all reconstructions have tentative character. Therefore, the building found in the peaty part of Serteya XIV is of great importance due to the preserved details of wooden construction. These materials provide additional information about the used tree species and the ways they were utilized in building activities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):143-150
pages 143-150 views

Results on absolute and relative chronology based on materials from the multi-layered settlement site of Veksa 3

Nedomolkina N.G., Piezonka H.

Abstract

The relative chronology determines only the sequence of events, so preferences absolute chronology, which are used the natural-science methods. Due to the general lack of reliable dates and contextual information in the layers of the Stone Age, absolute chronology is still subject to discussion. As a result of many years of research work in the basin of the upper Sukhona identified key sites that are named Veksa. The exceptional importance of the Veksas complex is linkes with clearly stratigrafi, up to 3 m stratifications, with inclusions of the early Neolithic – Middle Ages cultural layers, which contributed to the creation of a relative chronology and allotment of typological complexes in their development. The joint Russian-German research that began in 2007 are aimed at multidisciplinary research of monuments. The methods used in the research on Veksa include the dating of AMC, isotope and archeochemical analyzes of different materials (bones, ceramics), of archeobotanyka, palynology, dendrochronology, reconstruction of landscape development, etc. The results obtained contribute to the creation of reliable chronological framework for the identification of cultural complexes and address a wide range of issues.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):151-154
pages 151-154 views

Materials of the Neolithic settlement of the Komarin 5 in the Verkhny Dnepr River basin (Gomel Podneprovie), on the basis of excavations 1998, 2005-2007, 2011

Ezepenko I.N., Voronenko O.V.

Abstract

In the article the authors summarize the archaeological studies of the Neolithic settlement Komarin 5 in vicinity of Rogachev, Gomel region. The settlement is situated in the northern periphery of the area of the Dnepro-Donetsk ethno-cultural community. In the introductory part of the article the authors present the main approaches in interpreting of the Neolithic monuments with comb-stroke ceramics in the upstream of the Dnepr. The excavations were carried out in the southern part of the man site during 4 field seasons. There is a brief description of the stratigraphy of the studied settlement, the most representative burial and utility objects of the excavation-2 in 2006, the main categories of flint tools, and the ceramic complex of the Neolithic period in the article. With the help of the ceramic complexes we can fix several stages of the development of the territory, from the Neolithic Age till the Late Middle Ages. The overwhelming part of the archaeological materials, especially ceramics, is considered in the context of the III stage of the development of the Dnepro-Donetsk culture and covers a chronological interval within the IV millennium BC. This is confirmed by the only absolute dating of 4780±90 BP (Кі-15033) with the soil from the pit filling in the utility building (object 2 of the excavation in 2006). The issues of relative and absolute dating of the monument Komarin-5, in particular the top chronological boundary of the Neolithic Dnepro-Donetsk culture, are considered.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):155-163
pages 155-163 views

Distribution of the Corded Ware Cultures traditions in the Upper Western Dvina region in the III millennium BC

Tkach E.S.

Abstract

The following paper presents analysis of the Corded Ware cultures materials in the North-West Russia. The investigation involved materials from 4 archaeological settlements and finds (stone battle-axes) from the Pskov region. The main attention is focused on three principal categories of the Corded Ware cultures artifacts: pottery with cord ornamentation, triangular arrowheads, and stone-battle axes. The paper gives a complex description of ceramic: technology of making pottery, morphology and ornamentation. Stone battle-axes were considered in the context of all Corded Ware cultures materials in the presented region for the first time. Comparison of these materials with other artifacts of the Corded Ware cultures, as well as using methods of relative and absolute chronology, made it possible to trace new directions of the cultural contacts at the beginning of the III millennium BC. The result of these migrations and/or cultural influences from the territory of south-western Europe is the spread of cord impressions on ceramic vessels, emergence of new shapes of pottery and new types of stone battle-axes. The further development is associated with the influence of the Baltic Coast culture. It was the key to the formation of the North-Belarusian culture, which existed in the presented region from the second half of the III millennium BC and is included to the circle of the Corded Ware cultures.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):163-171
pages 163-171 views

Impacts of Holocene perturbations of the Onega-Ladoga hydrological system on the ancient coastal population

Nikonov A.A.

Abstract

Neolithic settlers of the periphery area of the Last Glaciation were affected during the Holocene by dramatic sequences of the catastrophic environmental transformations. This statement is developed in the paper based on geodynamic approach which is important to understand factors of social-cultural development of those territories. The paper contains results of the investigations of environmental cataclysms in the Onega-Ladoga hydrosystem during the last 7 ca. Three major paroxysms (5,7, 5,3, 3,1 BP) have been identified basing on stratigraphical and spatial analyses of the reference archaeological and palaeogeographical studies of the Vuoksa, Svir’ and Neva rivers. In each of the mentioned case large earthquake had resulted in drastic water cataclysms. Environment and hydrological regime of the main water basins were chanced and these perturbations stipulated disastrous consequences for lives, livelihoods and migrations of on-shore Neolithic communities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):171-177
pages 171-177 views

Formation of social-cultural units in the Gulf of Finland region in changing Early and Middle Holocene environment

Gerasimov D.V., Kholkina M.A.

Abstract

Stone Age archaeological material from the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland region are evident of presence here a stable border between cultural areas from the Late Mesolithic till the end of Neolithic. Differences between those areas are mostly become apparent in the certain categories of archaeological finds – first of all in pottery (Sperrings, Narva and Late Neolithic types) as well as in decorations and mobile art. The border survives through millennia though sufficient cultural transformations in material culture developed during that time in the region. The border could arise in the Late Mesolithic, in the 7th – middle of the 6th ca. BC. Hypothetically its arising could be related to appearance of new people in the region, and possibly with the «8200 cal. BP climatic event». The border is visible in archaeological material till the mass migration of the Corded Ware culture people in the region about the turn of 4th and 3d ca. BC. The phenomenon of the Typical Combed Ware culture that existed in the region from the end of 5th till the second half of the 4th ca. BC probably was not related to the new people coming but can reflect integration of the aborigine population in response to some outer (socio-cultural?) factors.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):177-186
pages 177-186 views

Complex studies of the territory of the Berezovoslobodsky archaeological complex on the Lower Sukhona

Ivanistcheva M.V., Kulkova M.A., Ivanistcheva E.A.

Abstract

The following paper deals with complex studies of the compact location of archaeological sites, including various sites and settlements in the key area of Beryozovaya Slobodka in the Lower Sukhona basin (eastern part of the Vologda region). In the course of landscape studies, the geomorphology of the site was refined, the confinement of the different parking places to various relief elements and the priority factors of ancient settlement preferences were determined. Landscape studies of the ancient population life support zone showed that relatively safe location and provision of the ancient population by various economic lands and natural resources were determined by the complexity and high diversity of the landscape structure formed at the junction of the valley-slope complexes of the Sukhona and the Uftyuga flowing into the Sukhona. Geochemical studies of alluvial-soil sediments in the multi-layered settlement of Berezovaya Slobodka II-III, containing cultural layers from the era of the final Paleolithic to the early Iron Age, made it possible to characterize the climatic conditions for the formation of cultural horizons, to estimate the periods of ancient anthropogenic influence and draw conclusions about the character of the reservoir and the periods of the river terraces formation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):186-193
pages 186-193 views

Cultures and landscapes of the Upper Kama Region in the early Holocene

Lychagina E.L., Zaretskaya N.E., Chernov A.V., Demakov D.A., Mitroshin E.N.

Abstract

The following paper gives a description of the landscapes formed in the Upper Kama basin in the Holocene. First of all, the authors describe the first river terraces and the most ancient floodplain generations. In the Upper Kama basin, 35 Mesolithic sites are known. During the mapping of the study area, 3 micro regions were identified with a large concentration of Mesolithic settlements and territories with early unknown Holocene sites. The first group includes: the area of the upper Kama near the village of Liokmartovo-Kazantsevo, the old-channel formation of Chashkinskoye Lake and the lower stream of the river Kosa. The second one is the Upper Kama in the Gainy and Kosinsky districts of the Perm region. The analysis of the Mesolithic sites locations showed dependence of the first terraces on the most ancient floodplains of large water arteries. At the same time, this dependence should not be exaggerated because people often settled on smaller rivers and streams.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):193-197
pages 193-197 views

How to map submerged Stone Age sites using acoustics (some experimental results)

Grøn O., Boldreel L.O., Hermand J., Rasmussen H., Dell’Anno A., Cvikel D., Galili E., Madsen B., Nørmark E.

Abstract

A central problem for maritime archaeology has been to find survey methods that facilitate efficient and precise mapping of Stone Age sites on the seabed down to the lowest sea level (approximately – 140 m) during glacial periods, as well as sites embedded in sea-floor sediments. As predictive landscape modelling has proved to be inadequate for this task, a different approach based on direct detection is required. The observation of an acoustic phenomenon associated with man-made flint debitage – but not naturally cracked pieces of flint – has opened a window for development of an alternative and efficient direct mapping method. This paper discusses the development of the idea, as well as experimental documentation of the principle on which it is based. It includes a preliminary analysis of how far away on each side of the transducer flint debitage emits an acoustic response, and consequently the required distance between sailing lines for a comprehensive survey to be undertaken at a specific depth.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):197-202
pages 197-202 views

Archaeological research of the expedition of the museum-reserve «Kizhi» in 2013-2016

German K.E., Melnikov I.V.

Abstract

The following paper summarizes the study results of the Kizhi Museum-Reserve archaeological expedition in 2013–2016. During this period Kosmozero, Vanchozero, Turastamozero and Ladmozero on the territory of the Zononezhsky peninsula in the Medvezhyegorsk district and the Suna River within the boundaries of the Kivach state reserve in the Kondopoga district were studied. The purpose of the study was to establish the high-altitude patterns in the location of the Stone Age settlements in the interior of the Karelia. As a result of the works 23 ancient settlements on the territory of the Zaonezhsky peninsula were located on the ancient terraces of the Onega Lake bays at heights of 3 to 12 meters above the current water level in the reservoirs, the most ancient monuments of the Mesolithic era occupying the highest hypsometric marks. A new archeological complex of 20 monuments was discovered, timed to the ancient coastal terraces of the Onega Lake and at altitudes of 4 to 14 meters above the modern water level and in the Suna River.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):203-206
pages 203-206 views

«Back to the Future»: the main historiographical themes and topical problems of the Neolithic of the Urals

Yakovleva E.S.

Abstract

The following paper deals with some problems of Trans-Urals Neolithic which are associated with the formation and development of basic cultural and chronological concepts. Three stages in conceptual historiography are identified. The first one refers to the mid-second half of the 20th century and is associated with the formation of the first cultogenesis schemes of the late Trans-Urals Stone Age by V.N. Chernetsov, O.N. Bader and L.Ya. Krizhevskaya. At the second stage at the end of the 19th – beginning of the 21st century their ideas were revised by V.T. Kovaleva in the framework of a two-stage and two-line concept. At the same time the hypothesis of V.A. Zakh was developed. Later V.S. Mosin proposed a socio-cultural scheme for the formation of an integrated society in the Neolithic Trans-Urals. The third – the modern stage – began approximately in the second decade of the 21st century when natural scientific data growth forced to reconsider a number of established ideas about the chronology and typology of Neolithic ceramics and ornamental traditions. At the regional level there was a return to the «classical» three-term periodization; there was a trend towards regionalization of research to clarify the notions of local variants and the chronological position of material complexes, specifics of historical and cultural processes. It is concluded that it is necessary to form a new research paradigm by synthesizing middle-level theories with empirical generalizations.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):206-210
pages 206-210 views

Technological features of ceramic complex of 2nd fourth of I millennium AD of Sosenki settlement in the Ulyanovsk Region

Nikitina A.V.

Abstract

The following paper deals with typological and technological analyses of the pottery of the Sosenki settlement of the Ulyanovsk region. The author identified 3 morphological groups of vessels among the available material on the basis of external features that are based on vessels shape and surface treatment. Technical-and-technological analysis of ceramics, based on the methods of A.A. Bobrinsky, was carried out for the purpose of determining the characteristics of the initial raw material, traditions of composing the pasts and the character of the calcination of the vessels. The analysis of the preparatory stage of the pottery process confirmed the presence of some differences in the selected groups mainly related to the features of the dimension and calibration of grog in the paste. In conclusion, it is proposed to assign this complex to the Upper Don cultural traditions. However, it is pointed out that a very limited amount of material still requires only the introduction of a scientific use without focusing on cultural interpretations. Settlement dating based on mass material can not be determined smaller than within the C2-D2 phases. The settlement dates back to the pre-Imenkovo period and materials may find later echoes on the sites of Samara Bend.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):210-216
pages 210-216 views

Some results of petrographic studies of ceramics from the settlement Toksanbay

Shevnina I.V., Loshakova T.N.

Abstract

The research is devoted to the studies of raw materials and molding masses of ceramic products from the settlement Toksanbay. The purpose of the research was to study the technological aspects taking place in the course of ceramic vessels production, as well as in-depth study of the raw materials and molding masses of pottery ceramics of the settlement. During the research of samples, in addition to petrographic analysis, fragments of ceramics were studied using the binocular microscopy method, chemical experiments were carried out (using a micromethod) with the use of ammonium molybdenum, hydrochloric acid, and microenacts were checked for iron in the composition of the crock. The received result revealed that as the raw material ferruginous clay was used, and the chemical reaction to Fe of all fragments turned out to be positive. The original clay contains sand, besides this, sand feldspars, fragments of sandstones, silicified schists and epidote are noted in the sand composition. Three recipes of molding masses were revealed. The organics is stated in the form of silicified voids. The composition of organic matter showed carbonate-siliceous or carbonate-phosphate. The microreaction analysis using ammonium molybdenum (МоН4)2АmО4 determined the presence of a phosphate type in organic samples. From the organic fillers, a part of the studied samples revealed hollows of round and oval shape from the burnt organics. The study of the pottery of the settlement will be continued but it can be argued that the Toksanbay potters used local clay, and the most common impurity was organogenic limestone.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):216-222
pages 216-222 views

First palaeodietary isotopic data for the Tasmola culture population

Svyatko S.V., Beisenov A.Z.

Abstract

The article presents the first results of dietary isotopic analysis of the population of the Tasmola culture (8th-5th centuries BC) of Central Kazakhstan. Samples from 30 objects, including 27 human and 3 faunal bones were used for the analysis. Stable nitrogen (δ¹⁵N) and carbon (δ¹³C) isotope analysis was carried out at the 14Chrono Centre for Climate, the Environment and Chronology, using standard methods of collagen preparation by an ultrafiltration method. The results for humans vary widely in both δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N. The variety of carbon isotope values in humans suggests that their diet included С₄ plants, apparently millet, which is specifically evident from four humans with the highest δ¹³C ratios from the sites of Koitas, Taldy-2, Akbeit and Karashoky. This indicates the existence of millet in Central Kazakhstan in the form of a seed culture or an imported product at the beginning of the Iron Age. The data shows that millet was consumed in this period in certain sites of Central Kazakhstan, but not everywhere. For further conclusions, larger sample (including faunal) is needed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):223-227
pages 223-227 views

Barrow with «moustache» Zhamahtas

Beisenov A.Z., Duisenbay D.B., Svyatko S.V.

Abstract

The monument consists of two parts – burial construction with the diameter of about 14 m and ritual construction located on its east side with the diameter of 10 m from which two stone arches go to the east. The elements of the complex are badly damaged due to using the stones for building. There is a burial pit under the south construction with the dimensions 2,8×1,4×1,4 m, which contains disturbed human skeleton. The skeleton was put with his head to the west. There was found a bronze mirror with side handle near his hip bone. In the east construction a round pit with the diameter of 0,8, the depth of 0,4, was found, at the bottom of which there were poorly preserved fragments from the tubular bones of a animal. Horse teeth were revealed to the north of the pit, and 14 fragments of the stucco vessel lay on its eastern side. Two radiocarbon dates were obtained from bone samples from the western and eastern constructions in the laboratory of the Royal University of Belfast, Great Britain. Common intervals of the calibrated value showed that: human burial in the western structure – VIII–V centuries BC, the bones of animals in the eastern structure – III–VI centuries AD. Thus, human burial relates to Tasmola culture, which does not contradict the mirror of the Early Saka image found in the grave. Bones of animals under the eastern structure, iprobably, were left during the Hun period.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):227-231
pages 227-231 views

Zoomorphic image from Ashutasty: artistic culture of the Saryarka ancient population

Bazarbayeva G.A., Jumabekova G.S.

Abstract

The paper introduces into the scientific use a zoomorphic image revealed during the excavation of the kurgan no. 10 of the burial ground Ashutasty-1. The monument was researched by the expedition of the Institute of Archaeology named after A.Kh. Margulan which was under the guidance of the group of authors in 2015. The materials received due to the analysis of funeral ceremony features, as well as a type of the bronze tip date back to VII–VI centuries BC. Geographically the studied complex is located within the west wing of the vast historical and cultural region Saryarka stretching from Shyngystau in the east to Ulytau in the west. Delineated area coincides with the geographical location of the Tasmola cultural monuments, revealed and introduced by a well-known Kazakh archaeologist M.K. Kadyrbayev. The analyzed image of feline predator Ashutasty-1 have close analogies among the materials obtained during the excavation of the Saka time burials such as Akbeit, Baike-2, Karashoky, Taldy-2. The research works were conducted under the direction of A.Z. Beisenov. Pictorial monuments are known among the antiquities of the synchronous range monuments: Jetysu (Jalauly), Southern Aral area (Tagisken, Uigarak), Kazakh Altay (Tarasu), Southern Ural (Kichigino) and Tuva (Arjan-2, Kosh-Pey, Kuilug-Hem-1).

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):232-237
pages 232-237 views

Trade and industry trends of Samara at the end of the 19th - the beginning of the 20th centuries

Makitrin K.M.

Abstract

The following paper deals with the state and development tendencies of trade and industrial sectors of Samara at the end of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th centuries. The research was conducted on the basis of archival materials analysis (results of trade and industrial institutions checks, reports of Samara inspectors, data about the number of the issued trade and industrial documents and certificates of various categories) and the statistical data that were found in calendars and memorable books of the Samara province. The author defined groups of Samara trade institutions and industrial enterprises, revealed main kinds of trade and industrial activity of Samara. The paper contains changes and development tendencies of the groups allocated by the author. The conducted research showed that at the end of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th centuries the trade sphere of Samara unambiguously prevailed over an occupational sector by quantity of institutions. The study of activity kinds of trade and industrial institutions also unambiguously demonstrated rapid development of the Samara economy at the end of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th centuries – new kinds of activity, steady increase in the number of enterprises and institutions as well as their relative integration.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):237-241
pages 237-241 views

The level of literacy of the adult population of the Orenburg region according to the materials of the first Soviet census

Petrich L.V., Lyubichankovskiy S.V.

Abstract

This paper analyzes the evolution of literacy in different categories of the Orenburg region adult population according to the censuses in 1920, 1926 and 1939 as well as the influence of the educational policy of the Soviet state. The analysis of the census gives an opportunity to give literacy demographic characteristics: gender, age, nationality, social status, occupation, etc. The author notes that the proclamation of compulsory education principle for illiterate adults and the organization of universal education for school-age children gave an opportunity for education to all categories of the Soviet Russian population. Literacy level started to rise; it was reflected in the census. The censuses of 1926, 1939 showed that literacy level of certain age groups in different generations rose after the October revolution. The paper has a certain pattern: the older the generation age was, the higher the level of literacy was. Generalized materials of the first Soviet censuses allow us to conclude that the effect of positive and negative factors in the education of children and illiterate adults was different in urban and rural areas. As a rule, more women and men had a chance for education in urban areas. The results of the study allow us to conclude on the impact of the Soviet government activities to adult education.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):242-246
pages 242-246 views

Samara Regional Movement 1920-1930 and his contribution to the study and conservation of the middle Volga Region

Makeeva E.D.

Abstract

Studying Russian environmental history is one of the urgent tasks of modern science as it allows you to use useful historical experience in conditions of aggravation of relations between society and nature. Nature protection in Russia has always been closely associated with the study of his homeland and his native land, being one of the most important areas of both academic and Amateur Ethnography. This article describes a contribution to the study and conservation of the Middle Volga Samara local history movement in the 1920s–1930s, including one of the most important scientific societies of the time – Samara society of archeology, history, Ethnography and natural Sciences and his successor. In its composition in the «Golden age studies» (1920s) worked the most famous scientists of the Samara, leaving a unique scientific legacy. Their work laid the foundations of modern science history, nature conservation and public movements for the protection of nature in the Samara region. Sources for the preparation of this article was mainly the Central state archive of the Samara region. A significant number of archival documents for the first time introduced into scientific circulation, which is the scientific novelty of the research.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):246-252
pages 246-252 views

To the question about the historiography of the Caucasian war

Tovsultanov R.A., Galimova L.N., Ozdamirova E.M.

Abstract

This article is devoted to the numerous existing scientific literature with the relevant information of the history of the Caucasian war, on the basis of which an attempt is made to overcome the historiographical impasse in the evaluation and analysis of this controversial era in the history of relations between Russia and the peoples of the North Caucasus. As is known in the historiography of the Caucasian war, there are many controversies and disagreements. The most valuable factual material on the history of the present works of his contemporaries. This article first carried out a historiographical analysis of the existing points of view on this issue. The paper presents a detailed analysis of the state of historiographical development of the problem. As the historiography of the Caucasian war is the subject of intense debate, and are often interpreted very biased in the historical literature, the author tried objectively, based on an extensive historiographical material, to contribute in an objective study of the history of the Caucasian war. A great contribution to the study of the history of the Caucasian war has made the all-Union scientific conference, which opened a new stage in the study of the history of the test event. Factual material and system analysis allows to identify the nature, driving forces and nature of the Caucasian war, also define the reasons that caused this war to analyze the causes of the origin of the ideology of Muridism in the Caucasus, and a detailed study of the Russian-North Caucasian relations.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):252-258
pages 252-258 views

Russian cultural and historical tasks in the East in the views of S.N. Syromyatnikov

Suvorov V.V.

Abstract

S.N. Syromyatnikov, whose views are commonly referred to as «orientalism», repeatedly dwelled on historical tasks, the «mission» of Russia in the Far East. The most important direction of Russia’s foreign policy in this region was to become «rapprochement with Asia», since by uniting with the Far Eastern countries, it could successfully resist Europe. China had to be at the center of Russia’s eastern policy, and Russia’s main task was to play the role of «patroness and cultural counselor», protecting the eastern neighbor from European countries and Japan. The attitude towards the East and the understanding of Russia’s tasks in Asia was largely determined through the rejection of everything from the West. A special task was assigned to the Russian population of the eastern borderlands, in which S.N. Syromyatnikov saw a special potential for the development of Russia and strengthening of its position in Asia. The East was perceived by S.N. Syromyatnikov as a «germ of a new Russia», to which he found a lot of evidence in the relationship between Russian and indigenous eastern peoples. Therefore, in S.N. Syromyatnikov’s point of view, to ensure the historical future of Russia it was necessary to concentrate the main efforts in the East.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):259-262
pages 259-262 views

13.00.00 – Pedagogical Sciences

Concentrated training of students in the holistic computer audiences of unified electronic information and education environment of a pedagogical university

Bogoslovskiy V.I., Aniskin V.N., Gorbatov S.V., Dobudko A.V., Dobudko T.V.

Abstract

The paper is devoted to the technology of the concentrated training in unified information and education environment (UIEE) that helps to achieve a synergetic effect and a systematic emergence in the teaching and educational process and increases university students’ proficiency level. The authors analyze the purpose, tasks and advantages of UIEE concept development in the Russian Federation. They say that the information and education holizm of defines the structure of the holistic information and education environment. The authors define ways of increasing a didactic potential of computer audiences due to their holistic configuration, which is carried out by various functions of the traditional technical means of training, modern and perspective electronic and communicative means, systems and technologies of training and educational and research means.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):263-270
pages 263-270 views

A model for the development of the creative potential of a technical university teacher

Burenina V.I., Kochetova N.G.

Abstract

The article considers issues related to the development of a technical university teacher’s creative potential and it’s special aspects. The analysis of the latest researches and publications in this field is presented, and the necessity of a special study of this issue is formulated. A model for the development of the creative potential of a technical university teacher is proposed, which consists of target, content-technological and diagnostic blocks. The paper presents the characteristics of the model of technical university teacher’s creative potential development designed by the author; each of its components is described. The target block includes educational expectations. The content-technological block consists of the following structural components: external conditions, the content of education, educational technologies and the forms of educational process organization. The component «External conditions» includes psychological resilience potential and opportunities for self-expression and self-realization. The «Content of Education» component includes all creative potential elements. The component «Educational technologies and the forms of educational process organization» consider the patterns of the activity approach in education, using students’ activity which simulate the professional teachers’ of a technical university activity: business and intellectual games, project tasks and etc. The diagnostic block monitors and corrects the results of the model implementation. It includes criteria and indicators of the formation of each component of creative potential, a description of the levels of development of technical university teacher’s creative potential.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):270-274
pages 270-274 views

Communicative competency as ability and readiness of the cadets to foreign conversation

Girenok G.A.

Abstract

This paper is devoted to the question of the development of the communicative competency at the English lessons in the departmental institutes of the FPS of Russia. At present much attention in education is paid to competencies development process that goes to show the effectiveness of the competency-based approach in this country. Under this approach the priority is given to the new style professionals’ training. Such professionals are able to cope with all professional problems quickly and in a proper way using all their knowledge, abilities, skills and experience. This approach is a basis for totally new education which provides the improvement of occupation mobility and adaptability of our graduates. It brings them an opportunity to be at the forefront of the latest developments and innovation and foresee all possibilities of the situation. In the paper the definition of the communicative competency is revealed as ability and readiness of the cadets to foreign conversation. Much emphasis is made to the fact that both formation of the internal readiness and ability to foreign conversation may be the basis for successful communicative competency development.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):275-279
pages 275-279 views

Morality as a property of human: the pedagogical aspect

Guschina A.V.

Abstract

In this paper the author shows that it is important to teach morality to prospective teachers. The author also shows that the solution of this task connected with the introduction of the student to the values that are in the norms of morality satisfies the need of our society in the moral teacher. The paper contains evidence that a moral educator is called upon to educate a person who can live among people. The author shows that a moral person honors the memory of ancestors, keeps memorable dates in his moral memory, and supports the preserved and preserved traditions. Two points of view of scientists regarding morality as human properties are revealed: according to the first point of view, a person’s morality comes down to knowing the norms of morality towards himself/herself as well as towards the surrounding reality in the educational process; according to the second point of view, morality as a property of man is manifested in social being, and its form and external manifestation are social, its function is the preservation of collective ties, and thus of society.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):279-283
pages 279-283 views

Structural and functional model of the future mathematics teacher’s professional competence formation

Zvereva E.Y.

Abstract

In this paper the author considers a structural and functional model of the future mathematics teacher’s professional competence formation through the contextual tasks of the mathematical analysis in the implementation of competence and contextual approaches in the training of bachelors majoring in «Pedagogical Education». The author analyses scientific and methodological literature on the competence approach and «Model» as the basic concept of this paper. In the research the main components of the future mathematics teacher’s professional competence formation process are defined: information and methodological, subject and methodical, social and communicative, personal and valeological competences, development of which occurs in the process of solving contextual tasks of the mathematical analysis, which are subdivided into subject, interdisciplinary, practical and professional. The unity of the structural (goal, methodology, content and organization of the process, result) and the functional components of the model (stages, criteria, indicators, levels of the future mathematics teacher’ professional competence formation) are described. In each structural component of the model, the content and determining moments are described in detail. The author comes to the conclusion that the developed model of the future mathematics teacher’s professional competence formation can be used to develop the professional competence of the future teacher of another direction.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):283-287
pages 283-287 views

Values of physical culture: structure, characteristics

Korovin S.S., Maloroshvilo L.N.

Abstract

Target development and justification of established theories, technologies, and structures of educational systems is the formation of cultural characteristics of the individual at all stages of continuous education, which reflects the mentality of society and the state (as a result) – development of the value-oriented «overbiological» programs of human activities, knowledge, abilities and skills of their practical and creative use. It is very important to develop components (their characteristics) of the individual basic culture, which include moral, aesthetic, labor, civil, intellectual (cognitive) and physical cultures. Nowadays, the structure of physical culture values can be represented by a group of material (the human body, sports equipment, sports facilities, mass media, scientific equipment, environmental – natural factors), spiritual (physical, intellectual, pedagogical, mobilization, intention) and artistic (a set of artistic images and works that reflects the values of the material and spiritual spheres of the society) values. The optimum ratio of the used physical culture values is believed to ensure the quality of the content of sports activity and as a consequence – the development of culture among students.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):287-293
pages 287-293 views

Professional communication in a foreign language: designing a practical workshop for bachelors

Malova N.V.

Abstract

The following paper discusses the actual task of modern technical specialist training: getting him/her ready to communicate professionally in a foreign language. Practice requests are naturally reflected in the development of curricula and programs of higher professional education. The author demonstrates the urgency of the task in connection with the constantly changing foreign language professional communication, especially computer-mediated part of it. The author identifies two main approaches to the organization of studies at the university: changing the structure, content, methods of the course «Foreign Language» and the development of new courses of the curriculum. Within the framework of the second approach, the process of designing an educational and methodical complex for a professional communication course on the basis of a process approach is considered in some detail. The paper emphasizes the importance of using professional skills of prospective specialists to increase the effectiveness of the educational process, in particular, the development of copyright audio and video materials. The workshop for audio engineers, developed by the author of the paper, is successfully used in the educational process of Samara State Institute of Culture.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):293-296
pages 293-296 views

Student Olympiad movement as a search tool and pedagogical work with gifted youth: principles, characteristics, experience

Repina E.G.

Abstract

The paper deals with the principles of organization of the Olympiad student movement in the Russian Federation, the author describes the purpose of the student contests in higher educational institutions of the country. The considered problem is solved in the process of identifying gifted students and pedagogical work with talented youth. The author describes benefits of student participation in the Olympiad movement, both for students and for institutions of higher education. The paper contains advantages and disadvantages of conducting these activities. The emphasis is on the features of Russian student Olympiads in mathematics, namely in such a subject area as probability theory and mathematical statistics. The paper also contains experience accumulated by the Department of Mathematical Statistics and Econometrics for conducting the Russian student Olympiad on the basis of Samara State University of Economics. To train the Olympic team of the University a computer simulator developed by the teachers of the Department is used. This software which is a graphical multi-window interface allows teachers to interact with students. The computer program contains tasks of previous Russian student Olympiads of various levels.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):297-302
pages 297-302 views

The concept of the teacher’s ethical worldview formation

Salov A.I.

Abstract

The paper shows the importance of an ethical world view, which is a kind of «technology» for eliminating the worst enemies of mankind (terrorism, separatism, etc.), the «technology» of survival in situations that go beyond everyday life, leading to a common moral and ethical denominator of people’s efforts to suppress evil; it is pointed out that the ethical worldview of the teacher is a system of «values of values» as the ultimate meanings of life and activity that are directed towards the moral and value reality of the vertical of ethical consciousness, acting in the form of guidelines on the path of movement toward moral ideals, on top of which there is the ideal of «the man of Mankind»; different points of view of scientists as to their understanding of the concept «concept» are being comprehended; the concept of the formation of the ethical worldview of the teacher in the process of improving the pedagogical qualification is developed in the following logic: 1. The rationale for the idea a) being the backbone of the transition from the core of the ethical worldview of the teacher of basic values to the goal; b) unfolding into the ideal as an image of the desired. 2. Defining the goal within the transition from basic values to the idea. 3. Justification of the ideal, the approach to which the teacher, the student is carried out through the good, synthesizing the basic values. 4. Identification of moral and ethical principles for the formation of the ethical worldview of the teacher. 5. Defining the approach to the formation of an ethical worldview teacher.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):302-307
pages 302-307 views

Multifunctional training of future teachers in context of Federal State Educational Standards and Professional Standard of Pedagogue

Semenov A.A., Solovieva V.V., Yaitsky A.S.

Abstract

Pedagogical activity is multifunctional in nature. Multifunctionality of the teacher's activity is obliged by the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standards of Higher Education as well as the teacher’s professional standard. Multifunctional training of future teachers is the process (and result) of mastering by the pedagogic bachelors and masters of set of competencies aimed at fulfilling various teacher functions. There are six basic functions of the modern teacher identified: pedagogical, project, research, methodological, managerial and cultural-educational. The pedagogical function is complex in nature and includes a number of other functions: tutoring, education, developing and correction. All of them are interrelated. The article outlines characteristics of mentioned above functions, describes the track record of training of future teachers at Faculty of Natural Sciences and Geography of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education as part of baccalaureate and magistracy programs of pedagogical education. This consists of updating of courses content that are implemented according to the student selection, development and realization of new ones, organization and execution of training and production practices, educational and research works of students, scientific conferences, student competitions and olympiads, publication of scientific collected papers (including student ones). Article also presents the results of surveys of graduates on the quality of their preparation for the various teaching functions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):307-312
pages 307-312 views

Integrated English and Literature course in law schools sponsored by government agencies

Skobeleva O.O.

Abstract

This paper deals with the problem of improving linguistic and cultural skills of students by introducing integrated foreign language and literature classes into the educational process. The integration of cultures in the departmental law institutions is an important element in the training of specialists whose competence is largely determined by their professional skills as well as by the ability to use a foreign language in terms of establishing contacts with representatives of other cultures and the ability to work independently with scientific and practical documentation and literature, to conduct business correspondence and negotiations. The work outlines the basis for the development of an integrative course of English and literature and offers a series of sessions on interdisciplinary interactions. The conducted researches have shown that interdisciplinary connections in foreign language classes have a positive impact on the quality of the educational process: cadet’s horizons are expanding, motivational aspect of training is increasing, educational and research activity is becoming more active, moral education is formed, and communicative skills of trainees are developing. The obtained results testify to the need to develop such classes within any specialization and orientation, since integrated courses significantly expand cognitive and language skills of students.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):312-316
pages 312-316 views

Features of the course «Non-classical problems of mathematical physics» in the conditions of realization of competence approach to the training of masters of pedagogical education

Kholodovskii S.Y., Kononenko N.V., Tokareva J.S.

Abstract

This paper discusses theoretical, methodological and methodical aspects of realization of the competence approach to the training of masters majoring in pedagogical education in Physics and Mathematics during the course «Non-Classical Problems of Mathematical Physics» study at higher educational institutions. The paper describes the goals, objectives and relevance of the course aimed at understanding practical solutions of non-classical problems of mathematical Physics by undergraduates. In accordance with the federal state standard of higher education the authors present the competences that are developed during this course. The authors describe the process of the declared competencies development. This process has several levels. For each learning outcome the authors describe appropriate levels of competence (threshold, standard, reference). The authors’ materials reflect methodology of professional competences development in the process of training masters majoring in mathematical education on the basis of Transbaikal State University. The practical aspect of the competence approach implementation is examined on the basis of this training course through the boundary value problem of mathematical Physics in the field with film inclusions (the problem for a strongly permeable film). The positive experience presented in the paper and the received materials can be useful for university teachers.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(3):316-320
pages 316-320 views

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