Vol 6, No 2 (2017)

03.02.00 – General Biology

Laboratory diagnosis of trade animals’ trichinosis

Andreyanov O.N.

Abstract

In this paper the author considers the possibility of using an automated method of diagnostics of the causative agent of trichinosis Trichinella spp. at wild trade animals. In the course of trichinosis monitoring in the Central region of Russia naturally infested carcasses of animals were selected. The infected animals were stored at a low (-5°C) temperature in the climatic camera before carrying out researches. With the help of AVT devices diagnostic tests on trichinosis of different types of trade animals’ muscular tissue samples (diaphragm, masseter, extremities muscles, tongue) were conducted. During the research refrigerated and later cooled muscles samples were used. Samples weighing 50±0,5 g. were used for the research. To get qualitative mincemeat fat and connective tissue were removed from muscular tissue. Pepsin produced by «Shako» (Rostov region) was used for an artificial peptoliz. Diagnostic samples of boars, foxes, martens increased the weighing mass to 40 minutes, of wolves to 50 minutes and of raccoon dogs to 60 minutes. Further tissue was fermented and weighing mass of the researched samples was decreased. The optimal period of time was found for trichinellascopy test of wild animals’ muscular tissue by the automated method on AVT devices.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):10-14
pages 10-14 views

Dynamics of ticks’ infection with a tick-borne encephalitis virus in some areas of Kirov Region

Bessolitsyna E.A., Nozdrina E.V., Volkov S.A.

Abstract

In this research we studied the dynamics of infestation of ticks with European and Siberian isoforms of tick of tick-borne encephalitis virus collected from 2007 to 2016 from vegetation cover, domestic animals and clothes in Kirov, Kirovo-Chepetsk, Orychevsky, Zuevsky, Slobodsky and Turinsky districts of Kirov Oblast. All collected samples were analyzed for the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in them. The virus isoforms were detected by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The analysis revealed the dynamics of the percentage of ticks infected with isoforms of tick-borne encephalitis virus. In the central regions, which share common borders, it was revealed the coincidence of the peaks of infection with the European isoform virus, but further studies are needed to determine the periodicity. It was also noted that for some areas, the maximum peak of infection and the increase in the time between peaks are characteristic. A low percentage of contamination in the territory of Kirov city could be associated with treatment with acaricides. Since 2011, in the Kirov region, there have been cases of ticks infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus from the Siberian isoform. Every year there is an intensive penetration of the Siberian isoform westward through the territory of the Kirov Region. Periodicity of peaks is approximately 3 years.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):14-18
pages 14-18 views

Vegetation cover and small mammals as the components of biocoenosis in the conditions of the Volga Upland

Boryakova E.E.

Abstract

The study of the nature reserve «oak forest near the village of Pelya-Khovanskaya» ecosystem was done in the region of Nizhny Novgorod. The investigated wood is unique for its complex structure. It is situated in the forest-steppe zone, characterized by a high species diversity of small mammals and vegetation, which indicates the complexity of trophic and spatial connections. Several series of sample plots were described: 41 of 20×20 m and a number of 1×1 m sites, totaling 300. Abundance of species by Brown-Blanke scale and the number of specimens of adolescence were specified for each 1 sq. m. plot. Mammals were trapped with the help of trapping grooves and transects method. Vegetation cover is characterized by the presence of a clear intra-differentiation as well as the existence of two basic ecologo-coenotic groups/cores - the nemoral (with Pulmonaria obscura Dum. as the center species of the core) and the meadow-fringe. The most distinct group is formed by forest-shoot species. It can be explained by more forest-steppe rather than nemoral nature of vegetation. Small mammals are represented by the following species: common and small shrews, small forest mouse, yellow-throated and field mice and harvest mouse, vole-housekeeper, common, plowed and red voles, European mole. Two species among them - vole-housekeeper and mouse-baby - are listed in the Red Book of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. Matching burrows of mouse-like rodents with soil richness with nitrogen and humidity, two well-defined peaks are observed. The greatest number of burrows is found in places where the soil is high in nitrogen. Moles were found in areas with a large projective coating of Primula veris: coefficient Spearman rank 0,50. There was a negative correlation of the number of moles and vegetation covering of Pyrethrum corymbosum (-0,46), which is the marker of the driest parts in the forest. In general, the nature reserve «oak forest near the village of Pelya-Khovanskaya» is of considerable interest, both from botanical and from zoological point of view. Long-term studies of biocoenosis will allow to monitor the facility and to correct the proposed protective measures.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):18-23
pages 18-23 views

Toxicity assessment of pickling liquors containing TiF₃, HF and HCl before and after neutralization using a phytotesting method

Bykovsky N.A., Zabirov T.Z., Ovsyannikova I.V., Puchkova L.N., Fanakova N.N.

Abstract

The paper evaluates the toxicity of spent acid pickling liquor (SAPL) formed in the production of titanium products during its etching with a mixture of hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids. The SAPL contained TiF₃, HF and HCl in the amounts of 21,9 g/l, 1,7 g/l and 6,2 g/l, respectively. To determine the toxicity of SAPL, a phytotesting method was used. As a phytoecological indicator, cress of Zabava variety was used. The experiment was carried out according to the procedure for determining the toxicity of drinking, ground, surface and sewage water; the toxicity of chemical solutions by measuring the germination index, average length and average dry weight of seed germs of cress (Lepidium sativum). The toxicity of the SAPL was determined before and after neutralizing with alkali. It has been shown that SAPL has an acute toxic effect both before and after its neutralization by alkali. To determine a safe dilution rate, the influence of SAPL dilution on seed germination, average length and average dry weight of the seedlings was studied. It was found that the seedlings average length-dilution rate equations most reliably describe the experimental findings. The safe dilution rate calculated from these relations is 669,2 for non-neutralized SAPL and 382,5 for alkaline neutralized SAPL.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):24-27
pages 24-27 views

Lactose-positive intestinal protozoa in objects under construction soil cover of the Samara Region

Vorobjeva K.Y., Prokhorova N.V.

Abstract

Samara Region is one of the largest industrial and agricultural centers of the Russian Federation. It is characterized by a high level of urbanization. Soil degradation, its chemical and bacteriological pollution as well as declining fertility are the result of versatile economic activity in the region. The rate and level of soil pollution are actively monitored however only very scarce data on its sanitary-epidemiological condition are available. At present Samara Region is facing a boost of residential, administrative and industrial constriction which requires sanitary-epidemiological testing of soil at construction sites. The paper deals with the above mentioned problem. It has been determined that the most reliable criteria in estimating the sanitary-epidemiological condition of soil are sanitary-significant microorganisms, a group of coliform bacillus in particular. The causes and effects of urban soil pollution by microbiological contaminants have been analyzed. The role of lactose-positive intestinal protozoa as sanitary-significant microorganisms has been studied. A quantitative evaluation of lactose-positive intestinal protozoa index has been carried out for the soils below residential buildings, administrative buildings, industrial constructions as well as the utility systems area. In particular, it has been measured that the level of soil pollution by lactose positive intestinal protozoa depends on the period they have been in human use. An aggravated level of soil pollution in certain areas can be observed due to uncontrolled littering as well as pet walking or an increasing number of stray animals. Industrialized areas (oil plants) are characterized by the lowest level of lactose positive protozoa contamination which is explained by the fact that those industries use modern technologies which are able to minimize ecological risks. However, such areas are polluted in a different way. Dangerous level of soil contamination by lactose positive protozoa is registered at several large automotive plants.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):27-31
pages 27-31 views

Introduction of Crataegus L. samples in the Kola North

Goncharova O.A., Poloskova E.Y., Zotova O.E., Lipponen I.N.

Abstract

The paper deals with the introduction of genus Crataegus L. samples in Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute. The paper presents long-term periods of phenological phases onset of 14 Crataegus L. samples. Features of generative phenological development of 11 Crataegus L. samples are described. In the introduced Crataegus L. plants the time for the phenological phases passage depends on the origin and age. Adaptive advantages are plants of natural origin. This category of samples record phenophases of linear growth and lignifications of annual shoots which favorably affects the degree of adaptation. The phenophases onset of the majority of plants of the older and younger age groups is noted at close time. In plants of the older age group the phases of linear growth end and shoots’ lignifications are marked earlier than those of 18-19-year-olds. The indicators characterizing generative development (the duration of the prefloral period, flowering) are appropriate when assessing the adaptability of introduced plants. The majority of the samples are characterized by regular flowering and fruiting. The studied plants belong to the group with the average flowering onset. Short prefloral period contributes to early start and flowering end, earlier ripening of.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):31-35
pages 31-35 views

Peculiarities of optimal structure of Orenburg Region agrolandscapes

Evstifeeva T.A., Glukhovskaya M.Y.

Abstract

In this article the examines the degree of change of regional territories is examined with predominance of earth of the agricultural setting. In the Orenburg Region where in a number of administrative regions more than one third of the territory is plowed, necessity such the researches obvious. The analysis of the distribution of the land fund by category is carried out. Time changes in all land categories were studied, and the level of anthropogenic transformation was determined by the coefficient of land use, the coefficient that takes into account the intensity of agricultural land use and the coefficient of plowing of agricultural lands. A number of disproportions are formed in accordance with the maximum possible and optimal environmental parameters: a large agro-land plot (88,5%, with a norm for steppe zones of 60-65% and an optimal 40%), a lot of arable land (more than 50%, 40-45%), an extremely low proportion of forest land (5,16% in 10-15% and the optimal value of 15-20%), as well as a general lack of natural lands (OOP 0,19-0,64%). Undertaken studies testify to intensive development of agrolandscapes on territory of area, and necessity of artificial maintenance of the equilibrium state of agroecosystems, that can be arrived at only by totality of reclamative, agronomical and ecological events.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):35-40
pages 35-40 views

Taxonomic and ecological structure of weed medicinal plants on the territory of biosphere reserve «Pribuzhskoye Polesye»

Zerkal S.V., Bondar Y.V., Domas A.S.

Abstract

The following paper considers aspects of systematic and ecological structure of the weed medicinal plants growing in the biosphere reserve «Pribuzhskoye Polesye». The studied weed plants of the region are considered to be used in pharmacology and medicine. Therefore, a detailed study of environmental groups and economic importance of commensal medicinal plants can serve as a basis for new trends development in resource studies of medicinal plants. The paper identifies diagnostic signs, as well as similarities and differences of morphometric evidence. The collection of field data was carried out by reconnaissance of the terrain. The study shows that the territory of the biosphere reserve «Pribuzhskoye Polesye» is characterized by a rich species composition of synanthropic weed medicinal plants of 57 species growing in different habitats that can be used for the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, circulatory system and respiratory system. It is necessary to use weed plants for medicinal purposes to increase the base of receiving biologically active materials of plants.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):40-46
pages 40-46 views

Ontogenetic structure features of natural coenotic populations of Medicago cancellata Bieb. (Fabaceae) in the Samara Zavolzhie

Ilina V.N.

Abstract

The paper deals with natural populations ontogenetic structure features of <i>Medicago cancellata</i> Bieb. (Fabaceae). It is considered to be a rare representative of Samara flora. The rarity of the species determines the legitimacy of inclusion in the Red Books of the Russian Federation and certain regions. In the Samara Region it is a vulnerable species with a small number of habitats. We studied ontogenetic structure features of the coenotic populations in the Samara Zavolzhie. A total of 33 coenotic populations were studied, population change tendencies and demographic structure features were revealed and a basic ontogenetic spectrum was obtained. It was found that most of the populations of M. cancellata include uneven-aged individuals, being full-term. The structure of species populations is affected by ecological and phytocoenotic conditions of the environment and anthropogenic load. Sprouts and other individuals in the early stages of ontogeny badly need favorable conditions for growth and development. The centered spectrum of populations is formed in conditions of moderate disturbances (grazing, recreation). In case of strong disturbances of communities with participation of a model species (overgrazing, steppe falcons) the maximum of the spectrum shifts to the right. Populations of the species in the Samara Region are very vulnerable, since its habitats are subject to significant anthropogenic press, even in specially protected natural areas.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):46-51
pages 46-51 views

Environmental monitoring of drinking water quality of Birsk central water supply

Islamova A.A., Kolbina M.Y., Safikhanov R.Y.

Abstract

This paper examines effects of drinking water components, namely calcium and magnesium ions on the human body as well as it lists the main diseases that occur with prolonged use of hard water. Kostarevsky water intake is described as the only source of centralized water supply of the city. The paper contains data of ecological monitoring of drinking water taken from Kostarevsky water intake in Birsk from 2015 to 2017. The authors compare drinking water in Birsk and some other cities of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The chemical composition of the water was determined by titrimetric, gravimetric, colorimetric, organoleptic, and microbiological methods of investigation. The results of the analysis show that the water given to the population of Birsk along the central water supply line is microbiologically favorable. The chemical composition of water almost in all respects meets the requirements of Sanitary Regulations and Standards 2.1.4.1074-01 «Drinking water. Hygienic requirements for water quality». However, the analysis results show that the rigidity of the water exchange is beyond the permissible limit of the norm, which can adversely affect the health of the population. The results obtained during the work can be useful for further ecological monitoring of drinking water in Birsk, Republic of Bashkortostan.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):51-55
pages 51-55 views

LLC «Rzhevkirpich» impact on the environment and environmental management of the territory

Myagkova C.G., Savvateeva O.A.

Abstract

A sharp increase of anthropogenic impact on the environment has created a real threat to the ecological crisis. A huge variety of natural resources use in human activities led to the use of a systematic approach to the environmental management analysis, as well as to environmental management. This paper considers Rzhev brick factory impact on such environmental components as air, hydrosphere, soil and lithosphere. Currently, the production of bricks is one of the leading sectors of the building materials industry, accounting for more than 50% of the total production of wall materials. From the environmental point of pollution occurs at all stages of production: raw materials preparation (crushing, grinding, sifting, etc.), mixing of starting components into a homogeneous good shape commodity (preparation of press-powder with the use of emaciated and burnable additives, hydration, heating and mixing) and production with the help of various methods of pressing. As a result of the analysis the authors suggest a complex of measures to minimize negative impacts on the environment and health of workers and the public. As brick plants are widely distributed on the territory of the Russian Federation and as they are quite often located in urban areas, the market for brick production develops, the authors think that the subject is very relevant and important from a practical point of view.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):55-60
pages 55-60 views

Vegetation characteristics of the Gubinsko-Troekurovskie Heights (Samara Region)

Novikova L.A., Saksonov S.V., Vasjukov V.M., Gorlov S.E., Senator S.A., Solovieva V.V.

Abstract

In the flora of Gubinsko-Troekurovskie heights (Samara Region) the authors identified 467 species of vascular plants, including 26 rare species: Adonanthe vernalis , Astragalus zingeri , Bupleurum falcatum , Catabrosella humilis , Clausia aprica , Cotoneaster laxiflorus , Crataegus volgensis , Ephedra distachya , Ferula caspica , Fritillaria ruthenica , Galatella angustissima , Gentiana cruciata , Hedysarum grandifolium , Iris aphylla , Iris pseudacorus , Iris pumila , Jurinea ledebourii , Jurinea multiflora , Koeleria sclerophylla , Linum perenne , Polygala sibirica , Pulsatilla patens , Scabiosa isetensis , Stipa korshinskyi , Stipa pennata , Thymus zheguliensis. Bunchgrass real steppes with the domination of Stipa capillata and Cleistogenes squarrosa develop on flatter areas. Bunchgrass real steppes with domination of Stipa pennata , Stipa lessingiana and Helictotrichon desertorum are also formed on the gentle slopes (angle less than 30°). Calciphyte legumes real steppes with domination of Astragalus tenuifolius , mixed grass real steppes (Potentilla glaucescens , Centaurea carbonata) and semi-shrubs real steppe (Ephedra distachya , Onosma volgensis , Thymus zheguliensis) develop on steep slopes (angle more than 30°). Strong erosion steep slopes often contribute to the preservation and maintenance of the populations of many rare species for the Samara Region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):60-64
pages 60-64 views

Modern state and perspectives of amphibian and reptile synantropisation in anthropocoenosiss of Eastern Azerbaijan

Novruzov N.E., Bunyatova S.N.

Abstract

Three species of amphibians and 21 species of reptiles were found on the investigated anthropogenically transformed territories of the eastern part of Azerbaijan, which was 32% of 75 species representing the herpetofauna of the republic as a whole. A consistent decrease in the abundance and index of species diversity was revealed with an increase in the degree of development of the territory and the level of anthropogenic impact. The ratio of species in anthropocoenosiss varied depending on the size of their areas. The recreational pressing has presumably less influence on the numbers, but more on the species diversity of amphibian and reptile. In less developed areas, their numbers increase due to the presence of background species. The effectiveness of adaptation of some species of amphibians and reptiles is apparently associated with an adequate response to environmental changes brought about by anthropogenic impact on the natural environment. As the research has shown, anthropogenic impacts contributed to the spread and growth of the numbers of 7 species (2 species of amphibians and 5 species of reptiles). For Absheron Peninsula and Gobustan, such species were Bufotes variabilis, Pelophylax ridibundus, Eremias velox, Cyrtopodion caspius, Emys orbicularis, Natrix tessellata, Macrovipera lebetina. During the period of research, all these species were observed practically in all anthropogenic landscapes and now can be considered promising synanthropes for the regions studied.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):65-70
pages 65-70 views

Complex of reactions providing protective behavior of leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

Pavlov S.I.

Abstract

Protective behavior of 25 background species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were studied in the conditions of the Samara Region during 1974-2014. Strategy of protective behavior is focused on conservation, enhancement and resettlement of a type in space. It includes 2 blocks of different and difficult reactions. There is passive protection, presented by 25 types of reactions and active protection, presented by more than 45 types of motive implications. Passive reactions do not demand an additional expenditure of efforts and energy. They are presented, mainly, by immobile posture of masking, concealment and others. On the contrary, active protection isn’t possible without expense of additional efforts. In addition, active protection is more difficult, and also includes a series from several protective reactions, it is more effective. It is related to behavior of imago and larva’s protection. Protective behavior can be individual and group. Protective behavior is closely bound to other functional behavioral blocks. There is trophism, communication and reproduction. Leaf beetles have a system of innate morphological, anatomic and physiological adaptations allowing them to experience many negative impacts of the environment.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):70-78
pages 70-78 views

Alien plants in forest communities of the Middle Volga Region: dissemination and degree of naturalization

Saksonov S.V., Rakov N.S., Vasjukov V.M., Senator S.A.

Abstract

In forest communities of the Middle Volga forest-steppe zone (within Penza, Samara and Ulyanovsk Regions) there are 60 alien species of vascular plants. 25 species of adventives (42%) have naturalized in forests, 7 species are epecophytes (Cotoneaster lucidus , Oenothera biennis, O. rubricaulis, and O. villosa, Populus suaveolens, Ulmus minor, Xanthoxalis stricta) and 18 species are agriophytes (Acer negundo, Amelanchier spicata, Bidens frondosa, Caragana arborescens, Conyza canadensis, Echinocystis lobata, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens parviflora, Fraxinus lanceolata, F. pennsylvanica, Lonicera tatarica, Lupinus polyphyllus, Malus domestica, Parthenocissus inserta, Salix euxina, Sambucus racemosa, S. sibirica, Ulmus pumila). Transformer-types are arboreal - Acer negundo, Fraxinus lanceolata, F. pennsylvanica, Parthenocissus inserta, Ulmus pumila, as well as herbaceous plants - Bidens frondosa, Conyza canadensis, Echinocystis lobata, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens parviflora. The introduction of alien trees and shrubs in the forest can lead to dense thickets, disrupt underbrush resumption and main forest-forming species growth, as well as negatively affect the herbaceous layer. Most vulnerable to the introduction of adventive plants are roadsides and the places where forests are close to human settlements. The introduction of alien plants in forest communities is the result of ornithochory (33; 54%), anemochory (11 species; 18%), anthropochory (8 species; 13%) or a combination of various ways of introduction.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):78-83
pages 78-83 views

Comparison of cobalt compounds content in organs and tissues of woody plants

Sibirkina A.R., Likhachev S.F.

Abstract

The paper presents results of a comparative analysis of cobalt compounds content in the organs and tissues of woody plants in pine forests of the Semipalatinsk Irtysh Republic of Kazakhstan. The investigated forests belong to the dry-steppe area of the Irtysh ribbon belt on the sands of the Irtysh and the provinces of the Priirtyshsky belt in the valleys of the ancient runoff. The investigated area of borons is characterized by a simple stand, formed by trees of approximately one height (20-25 m). The fluctuations between the heights of individual trees do not exceed 10-15%. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a species - edificator. Aspen (Populus tremula L.) and birch pendant (Betula pendula Roth.) are trees of the second size. They appeared after fires and intensive deforestation as a result of secondary succession. Particular attention was paid to needles during the analysis. Needles perform an assimilating function and determine the growth and development of other organs. The determination of cobalt compounds was carried out at the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy (IGM SB RAS) (Novosibirsk) using atomic absorption spectroscopy methods. The calculation of the biogeochemical cycle of the stand was carried out. The mass of cobalt compounds involved in the biogeochemical cycle with the total phytomass of the stand was 0,0090 t / ha, and the phytomass of the aboveground part of the tree was 0,0087 t / ha. The state of the stand according to the Kraft classification corresponds to the I-III class of vitality, depending on the site of occurrence. The stand of boron is characterized by high capacity of biological absorption of cobalt compounds. A comparative analysis of the accumulation of cobalt compounds by different types of trees was carried out. Leaves and branches of deciduous trees are characterized by the maximum accumulation of cobalt compounds in comparison with pine needles and Pinus sylvestris L. The leaves of Populus tremula L. accumulate more cobalt compounds than leaves of Betula pendula Roth. According to the series of biological absorption, cobalt is an element of strong accumulation for woody plants, based on the potential biogeochemical mobility of metals. Cobalt does not play an important role in the general circulation of substances in the forest ecosystem, based on the biotic index.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):84-87
pages 84-87 views

Materials on Ixodes tick (Ixodidae) of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra

Starikov V.P., Mayorova A.D., Sarapultseva E.S., Bernikov K.A., Nakonechny N.V., Morozkina A.V., Borodin A.V., Petukhov V.A.

Abstract

The paper contains information about ixodid mites of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra, obtained during expedition work in 2006-2016. Ixodes persulcatus dominates in the structure of the population of ixodid ticks. The list of small mammals serving as feeders of ixodid ticks is indicated. The highest indices of occurrence and abundance of ixodid ticks were introduced for Myodes rutilus and Craseomys rufocanus (28,6 and 25,0%, 0,8 and 0,9 respectively). Researches in Nizhnevartovsk region in 2016 confirmed the opinion about total absence of ixodid mites on flooded part of the floodplain because of usual overflows. All ixodid ticks are registered in rodents and shrews on mainland part. The same feature in location of ixodid matis in 2013 was observed in surroundings of Khanty-Mansiysk city. The paper contains the information about distribution of ixodid ticks on feeders in Nizhnevartovsk region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):88-91
pages 88-91 views

Assessment of ecological state of the Posyet Bay (the Sea of Japan) by heavy metals content in brown algae

Khristoforova N.K., Kobzar A.D.

Abstract

The paper contains the study of heavy metals in three species - Sargassum miyabei, Sargassum pallidum, Cystoseira crassipes in the coastal waters of the Posyet Bay. The analysis of the spatial distribution of trace elements revealed the highest contents of zinc, copper and nickel in the Troitsa Bight, due to recreational pressure and a high concentration of nickel and cadmium in Sivuchya Bight that was caused by transboundary atmospheric transport. All of detected concentrations exceed natural background values for the North-Western part of the Sea of Japan. The authors show that there has been a distinct change in the environmental situation in the the Posyet Bay since 1998: the concentration of lead has sharply decreased, the content of zinc, copper and cadmium has decreased, it could be connected with influence reduction in the free economic zone, located on the Chinese side on the Tumannaya River.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):91-95
pages 91-95 views

07.00.00 – Historical Sciences and Archaeology

Some discussion issues of the early Neolithic study in the forest-steppe Volga region

Andreev K.M.

Abstract

The PhD thesis «The early Neolithic of the forest-steppe Volga region» was presented by the author of this annotation on December, 15th. Some of the statements presented were taken into consideration on the basis of received reviews and a number of special works of concerned researchers. The following paper deals with some issues that are clarified and some problems referring to the study of this topic that are raised. It is strongly believed that only a discussion on a wide range of key issues will contribute to a better understanding of cultural and historical processes taking place in the reporting period in the region. One of the most controversial issues in the study of the early forest-steppe Neolithic is chronology. We confirm the idea that Neolithic process in this region started at the beginning of the VII millennium BC. There are additional justifications that elshanskaya culture was divided into two types. We implement a critical analysis of the hypotheses related to the search for the origins of early Neolithic ceramic traditions. It is also claimed that the process mentioned is connected with the Central Asian region. Another problem is connected with the formation of a ceramic lygovskoy type and the influence of Neolithic groups in the Lower Volga region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):96-104
pages 96-104 views

Technological analysis of Early Bronze ceramics of Shauke 1 settlement

Rakhimzhanova S.Z.

Abstract

The paper introduces the first results of special technical and technological investigation of ceramic artifacts discovered during the excavations of the Early Bronze Age settlement Shauke 1 located in the Pavlodar Region of North-East Kazakhstan. The research of ceramic objects is conducted within historical and cultural approach following A.A. Bobrinsky’s technique. 53 samples from different vessels were selected for the technological analysis of ceramic artifacts found at the settlement. The samples were investigated with the use of a binocular microscope MBS-10. The main objective of the research was to identify cultural traditions at a preparatory stage of ceramic vessels production. The author studied initial raw materials selection skills and forming substance preparation. The author recorded the use of several conditional «spots» as sources of raw materials. Six different recipes of forming substances were identified at the settlement of Shauke 1. The most common amongst them are «clay + chamotte + organic solution» (60,38%), «clay + chamotte + bone + organic solution» (28,30%). This indicates the presence of artisans who followed different traditions of pottery production at the site.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):104-107
pages 104-107 views

Scythian barrow № 4 of the «Sluiceway» group on the left bank of the Lower Dniester

Sinika V.S., Telnov N.P., Zakordonets O.A.

Abstract

The paper publishes materials obtained during the study of Scythian barrow 4 of the «Sluiceway» group on the left bank of the Lower Dniester in 2016. The main burial, almost completely robbed in antiquity, was surrounded by a ring ditch with two ruptures - in the northwest and southeast. At the western extremity of the northern arch of the ditch a horse’s skull was found. Secondary burial of the barrow remained undisturbed. It was done in an oblong pit. Such constructions have not been fixed in the Danube-Dniester steppes so far, except for a pit of similar proportions, excavated in the barrow 5 of the same cemetery as the published complex. The analysis of the funeral rite and a few preserved inventories demonstrates that both burials belonged to ordinary members of the Scythian community. At the same time, the gold holder and bronze earring from the secondary burial have practically no analogies in the Scythian complexes of the steppes of the North-Western Black Sea Region. A nail-shaped earring from the secondary grave testifies to the cultural impulse from the population of the Middle Dniester Region (forest-steppe), reflected in the finery of the Scythians on the left bank of the Lower Dniester in the second half of the 4th century BC.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):108-113
pages 108-113 views

Symbolic of metal caldrons in the nomad culture

Jumabekova G.S., Bazarbayeva G.A.

Abstract

The paper briefly traces the symbolic role of the metal caldrons from the Early Iron Age. This category of items can be considered as attributes of the elite and aristocracy. Experts identified the connection of the caldron (kazan) with the funeral rite in the Middle Ages, traced its role as a marker of high social rank people. This dependence is also traced on the example of population change as a whole. These include the Jetysu district (South-Eastern Kazakhstan), the Southern Urals in the era of the early nomads, and the interfluve of the Dnieper and Volga in the late Middle Ages. Burials of men with a cauldron and other attributes of power in the era of the early and medieval nomads, probably indicates the fulfillment of their economic and military duties. The example of the functional purpose of boilers states the succession of the nomadic culture in the use of the power attributes. The value of the metal boiler along with some elements of the object complex (hryvnia, etc.), laid down even in the period of nomad culture development as a symbol of representatives of high rank people, preserved for thousands of years.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):114-117
pages 114-117 views

New sculpture of the era of early nomads from Turgay

Bazarbayeva G.A., Jumabekova G.S.

Abstract

The paper introduces a stone sculpture of the era of early nomads from Turgay into scientific use. This region is the western wing of Saryarka. In 2015-2016 the monuments of the Tasmola culture were researched. The finding is a rather rare case of the location of the statue in the mound complex with stone ridges. Field researches of the construction with a statue have shown an unusual character of its site. Laconism in the transfer of the anthropomorphic image finds parallels in the sculptures of Central Kazakhstan of early nomads. Sculptures from Central Kazakhstan are similar to the sculptures of the Northern Black Sea coast and the South Ural steppes based on their purpose and pictorial techniques. It is assumed that the aspect of military glory, traced in medieval sculptures, originated in the era of the early nomads, and the evidences are the findings of stele and stone sculptures.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):117-121
pages 117-121 views

Kashin princes in 60-80s of the XIV century

Abukov S.N.

Abstract

In the following paper the author researches the significance of Kashin as an important centre of the Tver Principality during the reign of Grand prince Vasily Mikhailovich and the confrontation between Moscow and Tver, Kashin unstable position of the princes, caused by the struggle of parties among the local ruling elite, caught between the two centers of power. As a result, the part of the elite continued to focus on Tver, while the other gave preference to Moscow. The latter position prevailed, which led to the refusal of the Prince of Kashin from the treaty with Mikhail and his involvement in the campaign against Tver in 1375. Special attention is paid to the growth of local separatism, the fate of the Kashin Principality under the treaty of 1375, securing its secession from the supreme power of Tver, as well as the short period of its formal independence and the circumstances of its return to Tver in 1382. The influence of the Kashin princes’ kinship ties, especially the marriage of Kashin prince Mikhail Vasilievich and the Moscow princess Vasilisa Semenovna, is also analyzed, the reasons, circumstances and significance of this marriage in the light of Moscow-Tver relations in the 60-80s of the XIV century in the general context of conjugal unions of the two leading principalities of North-Eastern Rus.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):121-125
pages 121-125 views

«Terek stockaded town, Terek redoubt, Terki?...» (the role of Terek in the history of the North-Eastern Caucasus in the XVI-XVII centuries)

Garunova N.N., Suzdaltseva I.A., Galimova L.N.

Abstract

This article examines the history of the disappeared Russian settlement-fortress, which refers to the period XVI-XVIII centuries. In earlier sources the city was called the redoubt of the Terek, the Terek fortress, sometimes there is a shorter name -Grater. Later they began to use the name Terek the city, represents the city and fortress near the mouth of the Terek, not far from the now not-existing of the river Tyumenka. In the modern period is the territory of the left Bank of the Old Terek to the North-East of the city of Kizlyar, Republic of Dagestan. Criticized the attempts to identify the history of the two fortresses: Walled town and Floats, as well as their role at the initial stage in the formation of Russian population of Dagestan. Characterized by the influence of the process of renewal of the Cossacks in military servicemen estate on the historical development of areas North-Eastern Caucasus. Attention is paid to issues such as the existence of different versions of the city name, the location where divergent opinions of researchers. Emphasis is placed on the role of the Terek city as the southern Outpost of the Russian state, the conductor's Caucasus policy on the North-Eastern Caucasus. The analysis of the problem, which allowed us to consider the integration of the provincial regions in the periphery of the Russian state in the South of the country, and analyzed the development of reference points to spread the influence of Russia in the XVI-XVII centuries.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):125-131
pages 125-131 views

Crisis phenomena in Central Asian direction development of Russian foreign trade in the Orenburg direction in the 1st quarter of the 19th century

Lyubichankovskiy S.V.

Abstract

The paper contains analysis of development tendencies of the Russian Empire foreign trade with Central Asian khanates in the first quarter of the 19th century. The authors found that the Russian State didn’t pay much attention to the Asian customs policy in this direction for a long time. It was due to the fact that the trade with Central Asian khanates was of exchange and caravan character. The author came to the conclusion that the heads of the Orenburg Region - military and civil governors - made great efforts to change that situation and made special rules for the foreign trade development in the Orenburg Region. It promoted commodity turnover increase. The author proved that in the first quarter of the 19th century the most important element of Central Asian trade development crisis in the Orenburg direction was the fact that merchants from Central Asia dominated Russian merchants in the numerical ratio. However, the ministry of finance and E.F. Kankrin refused to forbid Central Asian merchants to trade at internal Russian fairs as it would result in stagnation in trade and would make prices for goods higher. This problem for the first quarter of the 19th century couldn’t be solved as it was connected with the geopolitical status quo existing in the region. It only started to get solutions with an active military advance of Russia to Central Asia in the second half of the 19th century.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):132-135
pages 132-135 views

Designing the social estate of odnodvortsy of the western provinces in 1831

Troianowski C.V.

Abstract

This article investigates the process of designing of the new social estate in imperial Russia - odnodvortsy of the western provinces. This social category was designed specifically for those petty szlachta who did not possess documents to prove their noble ancestry and status. The author analyses deliberations on the subject that took place in the Committee for the Western Provinces. The author focuses on the argument between senior imperial officials and the Grodno governor Mikhail Muraviev on the issue of registering petty szlachta in fiscal rolls. Muraviev argued against setting up a special fiscal-administrative category for petty szlachta suggesting that its members should join the already existing unprivileged categories of peasants and burgers. Because this proposal ran against the established fiscal practices, the Committee opted for creating a distinct social estate for petty szlachta. The existing social estate paradigm in Russia pre-assigned the location of the new soslovie in the imperial social hierarchy. Western odnodvortsy were to be included into a broad legal status category of the «free inhabitants». Despite similarity of the name, the new estate was not modeled on the odnodvortsy of the Russian provinces because they retained from the past certain privileges (e.g. the right to possess serfs) that did not correspond to the 19th century attributes of unprivileged social estates.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):135-140
pages 135-140 views

Portrait of the landowner and Slavophil V.A. Panov

Sudakov M.A.

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to analyze V.A. Panov’s activities. He was one of the early representatives of Slavophilism. His biography is of great interest in the context of the Russian social thought history. The author characterizes V.A. Panov’s main activities in scientific, editorial and publishing fields. The author also shows his cooperation with N.V. Gogol. It is shown that the most important aspect of V.A. Panov’s activities was his work on two editions of the Slavophil anthology «The Moscow literary and scientific collection». This edition brought together almost all prominent representatives of this social thought and caused a considerable resonance. The author’s use of the Ulyanovsk Region state archive materials helped to portray the personality of the landowner Panov in his family history. The copies of charters, studied by the author, show that the consolidation of the economic positions of the Panovs’ family in the Volga region dates back to the 17th century. This process was associated with the active participation of V.A. Panov’s ancestors in the fighting on the side of the Tsardom of Muscovy against the Polish Prince Vladislav during the Russo-Turkish war 1672-1681. V.A. Panov owned lands in three provinces (Simbirsk province, Penza province, and Nizhny Novgorod province). A notable fact of his economic activity was his participation in the holding of a special land survey.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):140-144
pages 140-144 views

Public authorities’ role in public education organization in the Simbirsk province in the second half of the 19th century

Aizatullova A.S.

Abstract

This paper examines public authorities’ role in public education organization in the Simbirsk province in the second half of 19th - beginning of the 20th century. The state structures, the Russian Orthodox Church and other confessions managed the state-religious education in the country. The author examines the role of public authorities in the organization of state-religious education of people. The Ministry of National Education and the Holy Synod were responsible for it on the state scale. In the provinces this work was coordinated by the guardianship of the school districts, directorate of education and provincial and district councils. In secular educational institutions educational work was organized by the directorate of public schools, who controlled the educational work of school teachers and effective forms and methods use. The main responsibility of the national education directorates was joint Russian-Tatar schools opening, Russian classes opening in Islamic schools and compulsory Russian language study in Tatar schools. An important goal was to tighten control over the school activities. There was Orthodox missionary fraternity. These organizations were responsible for the same questions. Provincial directorates of national education had to coordinate all state-religious activities done by teachers, religious priests and missionaries. Thus, the system of the state-religious education management was complex, diverse; its parts copied each other, so it led to its activity efficiency decrease.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):144-149
pages 144-149 views

Activities of the all-Russian Union for women’s equality (1905-1907)

Bannikova N.F., Minachev V.S.

Abstract

The paper deals with the issue of the political activity of Russian society at the beginning of the 20th century. An important direction of this process was the strengthening of the women’s movement, which sought to expand civil and political rights. The position of the opposition parties is shown: the Cadets, Social Democrats, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Trudoviks, people’s socialists who advocated women’s suffrage. In the years of the first Russian revolution, new public organizations appeared where the All-Russian Union of Women’s Equality took a prominent place. The story of the foundation of the union is told. The main forms of the union’s work in the struggle for women’s right to vote are shown: participation in rallies and meetings, preparation of petitions and leaflets, agitation and propaganda work, collection of instructions among peasant women. Particular attention is paid to the agitation work of the members of the Union. The statistics of the signatures collected under the punishments in the State Duma with the demand of women’s suffrage for certain regions of Russia are shown. The contacts of the All-Russian Union of Women’s Equality with the Duma Opposition, especially with the fraction of the socialist parties and constitutional democrats, are highlighted, their close interaction is shown. Specific deputies of the State Duma most actively cooperating with the All-Russian Union of Women’s Equality are indicated.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):149-152
pages 149-152 views

The «Roman question» in N.V. Charykov’s assessment

Chernov O.A.

Abstract

N.V. Charykov paid much attention to the «Roman question». His interest to this issue was likely to have been formed when he was a Russian diplomatic representative at the Vatican. After his diplomatic service in the Vatican N.V. Charykov published its greatest scientific work that was dedicated mainly to the relations of Russia and the Vatican in the seventeenth century. The problem discussed in this paper is connected with Charykov’s views on the «Roman question» rather than his diplomatic service. The «Roman question» was covered in two articles «The Pope and Caliph» and «The Roman question, Leo XIII, and signor Mussolini». In these papers N.V. Charykov revealed the origins of the problem, its development and a solution of the Roman question, as well as potential problems. In his opinion, the problem arose during the unification of Italy and a solution was found under the Government of Mussolini who was interested in the support of the Pope. The author pays attention to the relations between Russia and the Vatican after their recovery, referring to his own diplomatic practice.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):153-157
pages 153-157 views

Southern Urals health authorities’ activities in combating malaria in the first decades of the Soviet power

Klementeva N.V.

Abstract

The paper considers one of the most important areas of sanitary and epidemiological activity of central and regional health authorities - the fight against the epidemic of malaria in the first decades of the Soviet power. It is concluded that a high incidence of malaria in Russia was recorded as early as the pre-revolutionary period, and the medical community took certain steps to combat it. However, malaria prevailed in the first decades of the Soviet power. The causes of malaria spread that led to the epidemic are directly related to the complex socio-economic and political situation that prevailed during this period. In this regard, public authorities and health authorities almost immediately gave the fight against malaria a national character. In an expeditious manner, they developed normative legal documents and action plans for combating malaria, especially in especially affected areas, to which the South Urals can be fairly attributed. The implemented measures brought their positive results, but the fight against malaria was complicated by a lack of funding and, accordingly, many activities were carried out late and not in full. Therefore, in 1930 the fading epidemic of malaria broke out with renewed vigor, which was finally eliminated on the territory of the USSR only by the 1960s.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):158-162
pages 158-162 views

Confiscation of church property in the Yenisei province (periodization and outcome)

Vdovin A.S., Bobrik I.E.

Abstract

The following paper focuses on the confiscation of church property in the Yenisei province, which was held from March 1922 to March 1923. Hunger in Volga Region was the reason for the campaign. The authors on the basis of central and regional archives review the results of the campaign, which was described earlier in the regional historiography. They also give periodization of the process in the province. The authors believe that the confiscation of church property in the Yenisei province took place in three uneven stages. The last phase was delayed for more than six months. The periodization is based on Krasnoyarsk and Moscow correspondence about the campaign. Yenisei province as most lagging in the campaign finished confiscation by the end of 1922. The authors have traced the path of church property of the local financial departments to the provincial finance department and then from Krasnoyarsk to Yekaterinburg and Moscow.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):162-168
pages 162-168 views

The alternative capital of the USSR: estimates of the American press and special services

Buranok S.O., Levin Y.A., Sokolova A.V.

Abstract

The following paper for the first time in Samara regional studies deals with the study of significance of Kuibyshev in the public opinion of the USSR allies. Having become a reserved capital, Kuibyshev ceased to be just one of the regional centers in the Soviet Union, it turned into a city known and significant all over the world. This paper uses many unique US documents on Kuibyshev during the war. On their basis the authors analyze formation and perception of the image of the reserved capital in American society. To study the history of Kuibyshev as a second capital at such an angle is important for imagology, study of local lore and comparative studies. The conducted research showed how the image of Kuibyshev was made in the conditions of the Second World War, how its perception changed. The paper also uses the data of the US special services that makes it possible to understand what place Kuibyshev was given at that time by representatives of the intelligence community of America. The study of Kuibyshev image in the assessments of the American special services opens a possibility for researchers to get acquainted with their work from a new perspective. The paper draws conclusions about the influence of certain journalists on the formation of Kuibyshev image. The conclusions drawn in this paper, as well as the introduction of new documents into circulation, will allow us to deepen and expand this topic in the future.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):168-173
pages 168-173 views

Social adaptation and employment of disabled people during the Great Patriotic War (on the materials of the Tatar ASSR)

Kabirova A.S.

Abstract

The article deals with the problems of social adaptation of disabled veterans of the Great Patriotic War in the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic after their return to peaceful life. Based on the documentary materials extracted from the funds of the federal and Tatarstan archives The author characterizes forms of state support for war-maimed people, resolution of their production training and employment, appointment of pensions, opening of boarding houses, organization of health care services, etc. It is noted that for the majority of disabled people this targeted support was often a determining factor in ensuring their livelihoods. The employment of disabled veterans of the Patriotic War made it possible to solve a two-fold problem: in the conditions of an acute shortage of workers, a new personnel reserve was created for the economy and at the same time social protection of veterans returned after treatment in hospitals was provided. Many disabled veterans of the Great Patriotic War showed themselves well in the workplace, became leaders and were nominated for leadership positions. But there were those who led an immoral lifestyle, begging. The authorities, called to solve the issues of social rehabilitation of disabled people, did not always cope with the tasks assigned to them. Evidence of this is the facts of the soullessly-bureaucratic attitude of certain officials to the needs and requests of disabled people, cases of appropriation of funds and squandering of state funds.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):173-177
pages 173-177 views

History of a children’s home

Repinetskiy A.I.

Abstract

The paper is devoted to history of children’s home 25 established in 1946 on the territory of the Kuibyshev Region. Children of Russian emigrants living in Austria were accommodated there. These children were transferred to representatives of the Soviet authorities by the American administration. Under the terms of the agreements between the USSR, the USA and Great Britain signed at the Yalta conference (1945) people with the Soviet nationality were transferred to the Soviet Union. Children of Russian emigrants born in Austria didn’t belong to this category but despite it they were transferred to the Soviet Union. Local authorities didn’t know what to do with repatriated children. That is why the children’s home was established in a remote rural area; life and material conditions of its inhabitants were heavy: there was no necessary furniture or school supplies. Its tutors and staff were in a more difficult situation. Some of them lost their jobs. Some children were returned to parents. Unfortunately, available documents do not allow tracking the future of the children from this children’s home.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):178-182
pages 178-182 views

Institute of Oriental Languages (Lazarevsky Institute) in the works of the Soviet historian and orientalist A.P. Baziyants

Avetisyan V.R.

Abstract

The author of the paper examines the contribution of the Soviet historian-orientalist Ashot Patvakanovich Baziyants to the study of the Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages. In the Soviet period, historians repeatedly touched upon this topic. However, they carried out the studies of the educational institution exclusively from certain aspects: financial and economic, pedagogical, educational, etc. The first person in historiography, who studied the subject in a comprehensive manner, was A.P. Baziyants. The result of his work was the writing of a number of works based on the study of a significant layer of archival materials from the state archives of the USSR. In his works he was one of the first to analyze the problems of Russian-Armenian relations on the example of an educational institution in the context of rapprochement of Russian and Armenian cultures, familiarizing Armenian youth with the advanced European culture and adaptation to Russian society. The historian touched on this topic in all his key works. Subsequently, all subsequent studies of the activities of the Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages were based on the results of scientific works by A.P. Baziyants. In addition, the experience of the educational institution in the processes of adaptation of migrants to Russian society, disclosed in his works, at the present stage acquires a particular urgency.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):182-185
pages 182-185 views

Historiography of agricultural modernization problem of Russia from the second part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century

Gavrilov A.V.

Abstract

The Russian history from the second part of 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century is a very significant period for the development of the country. One can say that at that time peasant community faced «globalization» challenge. Agricultural problem was a key issue, which penetrated the whole period bringing up political controversies, ideological strives, success in economical development, starvation in 1891, reforms and revolutions 80-90th of the 19th century were critical for the whole epoch as unsolved peasant issue at that moment was one of the reasons of revolutionary upheavals of the 20th century. For the last twenty-five years the study of different sides of peasant community life has progressed really far and has broken new ground. It is necessary to single out that this progress has been done due to extensive capabilities, which started in the soviet time as well as to the prerevolutionary study of this question. We single out following areas of focus in modern researches which form the problem of modernization of the agricultural sphere from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. Firstly, it is the policy to peasant community and race because of the governmental deal. Then it is a huge amount of works dedicated to social-economical village development - peasant autonomy, farming and landed property, land market development, productivity of land, condition of labor force, cooperation problem and development of peasant industry, financial issue of the peasant community. Traditionally social-cultural development of the village is in the great demand including popular education, common law for peasants and the evolution of the peasant family.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):186-192
pages 186-192 views

A systematic approach to history comprehension: debating reflections of some multilateral problem aspects in lapidary presentation

Ippolitov G.M.

Abstract

In this paper the author has made an attempt to research and discuss some aspects of such a complex and multilateral problem - a systematic approach to the knowledge of history. The style of presentation is lapidary with elements of conspectus. The author of the paper considers a fundamental postulate of the systemic nature of the object and subject of the study, shows a complexity of the subject and object distinction in historical science and their linking by means of a systematic approach. The author shows that in order to identify the elements of the system (in particular the structural relationships within it) particularly careful attention should be given to the recognizing of factors (both objective and subjective) that affect the constructed system. The author states that the development of new properties of the system elements reaches at a certain moment the extent and level that lead to a change in the inner nature of these items. As a result of this process the new quality of these elements is generated there. It appears to be the «crisis of the system». The paper is provided with extensive references to the literature, which analyze general philosophical aspects of a systematic approach to the knowledge of history. The paper also contains some examples of the author’s research practice.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):192-199
pages 192-199 views

13.00.00 – Pedagogical Sciences

Participation of professional associations of educators in the project «Socialization and management of the Samara Region youth talents and abilities development trajectory»

Andronchev I.K., Popova N.I., Popov D.A.

Abstract

The following paper deals with socialization of the Samara Region youth in the direction of the modern younger generation talents and abilities development. The authors consider modern social environment as a basis of a young person’s identity formation which directly influences his/her character. The authors offer to change methods of social interaction between public organizations and public authorities to increase their effective functioning. For this purpose, they analyze the work of public associations of educators of Samara. The authors offer to use a communicative (intersubjective) way of interaction of all participants of the process which is based on horizontal interaction where each interested party carries out a function within the competence by equal participation. As a result, joint activity gains a character of a community. This kind of interaction increases each participant’s ability to solve joint problems of any complexity, increasing at the same time abilities of others. Using a technology of multi-agent automated systems (MAS) in planning and management of the youth talents and abilities development trajectory, the most effective result in collaboration of public organizations and public authorities can be achieved.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):200-203
pages 200-203 views

Philosophizing as a pedagogical technique: European and Russian experience

Bakshutova E.V.

Abstract

The following paper assumes and proves that philosophizing is one of the most effective pedagogical technologies for the development of the individual and society, which actualizes the possibility and ability to generate new knowledge about the world and man, which, in turn, largely determine the human worthiness of intellectual and real social communications, including educational ones. It is shown that knowledge brings tangible benefits when it becomes an object and a part of public intellectual communication, including philosophy, pedagogy and social practices. The author’s interpretation of the history of philosophizing in topos of intellectual discussions is presented: the city - the monastery - the city - the university, the comparative analysis of the philosophizing principles of the western and Russian philosophical schools is generalized. The specifics of philosophizing in the Russian intellectual space, including the educational one, are revealed, its exclusion from the school and university into free creative communities - a circle or salon. Differences in the pedagogical orientation of European and Russian philosophical schools and traditions are described, when in the European experience «tops» acted as «learners», and in Russia philosophizing as a pedagogical technology in the XIX - early XX centuries was oriented to «bottoms», but in any case it was always practical. The assumption is made that in both cases the limitation of the educational audience is unnecessary, which is especially evident in the current conditions of the accessibility of education, from which quite often free philosophizing is emasculated.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):203-210
pages 203-210 views

Life on the basis of morality golden rule as the idea of students’ moral education

Bezdukhov V.P., Pozdnyakova O.K.

Abstract

This paper provides evidence of the importance and necessity of students’ moral education. The authors show that moral education should be based on the idea that is born in inter-transitions of thought (subjective) and conceivable (objective). It is revealed that the idea points to a lack of life, consisting in the fact that the notions of «good», «boon», «humanity» don’t correspond in a true way to the reality in which a person lives and thinks about life. The authors show that all the previous development of ethical and pedagogical thinking contains the proof of the idea of good. The authors reveal that the idea as a system-forming link of the transition from values «for oneself» to the value «for another» is the pinnacle in the hierarchy of norms. The paper contains an idea of students’ moral education - life on the basis of morality golden rule which as value it is a link of the transition from values «for oneself» to the value «for another», as the norm it normalizes mutual relations and human interactions with the world and people. The authors also show the difference between value and norm: value is an internal regulator of activity and behavior, norm is an external regulator. The authors reveal that the realization of morality golden rule, which contains the required, proper and prescriptive, by the teacher contributes to the ordering of the meanings of life that become its reference points and to the normalization of student interaction with the world and with people. The authors show that in the process of interaction in the context of morality golden rule, a teacher, provoking counter activity of the student in mastering his/her values, stimulates their implementation by the schoolchild in such a way that other people as well as himself/herself are guided by morality golden rule.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):210-214
pages 210-214 views

Historical and logical analysis of approaches to the problem of individual subjective position formation

Garanina R.M.

Abstract

The following paper from the point of view of logical and historical approaches unity examines the objective conditionality of university students’ subjective position formation and development process. From the logical point of view the author actualizes the idea of developing organization forms of teaching, educational, research and professional processes as a result of resolving contradictions in the design and construction of the educational process at the university. The process of a student’s subject position formation appears to be in this case a necessary, adequate and effective tool for the removal of these contradictions. From the historical point of view the author deploys the idea of the retrospective analysis and synthesis of diverse points of view on the problem of student’s subjective position formation and development. It provides access to the so-called integration of the theory of didactic encyclopedic knowledge, formalism and pragmatism, functional materialism, the theory of operational structuring, pedagogical theory of a holistic educational process, the theory of personality development, theories of self-development, copyrighted pedagogical systems of training and education. Logical approach realizes the idea of genesis of subjective position organizational forms and systems of formation as a kind of reaction to the contradictions that arise in the system of university educational space.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):215-221
pages 215-221 views

Educator’s innovative activity in the course of professional training

Diri M.I.

Abstract

The paper deals with modern education as a major factor of new quality formation of economy and society. The author analyses problems of education content change, problems of innovative technologies introduction in teaching and educational process. A teacher’s innovative activity as manifestation of his/her professional creativity is also studied. It is noted that professional training of a teacher is a continuous life-long process which defines a possibility of a person’s boundless development. It is shown that the process of professional training has some features, occurs in joint activity and communication. Theoretical and experimental researches in the field of a teacher’s innovative activity are analyzed, innovative development of the educational process is considered. The author emphasizes that today the majority of professional pedagogical public consists of teachers whose professional training began during industrial development of society, as well as teachers-trainees who quite recently passed a stage of vocational training. For this reason, possibilities of ensuring readiness of pedagogical personnel for innovative activity are considered at different stages of professional training. The author shows that understanding of theoretical knowledge and then obtaining practical experience allows to develop professional and pedagogical style of thinking, provide innovative updating of a teacher’s professional activity.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):221-226
pages 221-226 views

Organizational skills development in the sphere of entrepreneurial activity of penitentiary system prospective employees

Yezhova O.N., Ulendeeva N.I.

Abstract

The paper analyzes conditions and requirements for production activities organization at penitentiary system institutions at the present stage of social and economic relations development that imply the necessity for entrepreneurial activities organizational skills. The authors consider approaches to the definition of entrepreneurial activity organizational abilities and their own definition of this concept is given through the individual psychological characteristics of the individual that is necessary for successful productive activities organization that involves effective production resources and factors use to achieve economic goals. For effective professional competencies development in the field of production the authors propose to identify the composition and structure of cadets and students’ organizational abilities, including cognitive, emotional-volitional and behavioral components. They suggest organizing educational process of «Economics» and «Fundamentals of Management in Law Enforcement» students that could study nature and structure of production relations in the penal correction system, identify mechanisms, conditions and factors for convicts’ professional resources management. In elective classes the authors propose to introduce technology of organizational skills development in entrepreneurial activity through a practice-oriented model of training, which assumes the inter-faculty nature of education where the educational process has a continuous formative character. At the training sessions the authors propose to use integrated tasks that develop cognitive component of organizational abilities in business activity among cadets.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):226-230
pages 226-230 views

Students’ professional identity development through a sense-making activity

Karpova O.L., Nain A.Y.

Abstract

The authors of the paper have identified key challenges that make the process of students’ professional identity development difficult in modern society. The research is based on the study of needs of society, regulatory framework, as well as the authors’ own teaching experience. The authors found controversies that led to the scientific problem of students’ professional identity development through a sense-making activity. The paper contains an extensive theoretical basis that helps to identify the essence of students’ sense-making activity as a psychological and pedagogical problem. The authors analyze recent researches related to students’ semantic education development. They develop and illustrate the structure of students’ sense-making activity, which includes the following substantial components: identity, cognitive, motivational-semantic and value-regulatory components. The components of the developed structure perform determination and regulation functions of professional activities, development, self-development and self-identity as the basis for students’ professional identity development. The paper contains criteria for sense-making activity structure assessment: passion, professional activities; breadth of interests; professional identity; self-conscious and finding the meanings of professional activity in the system of life goals, plans and programs. The authors formulate pedagogical conditions promoting effective professional identity development of university students through a sense-making activity.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):230-233
pages 230-233 views

Pedagogical system of information-communicative competence development of students - prospective public relations experts

Mikhelkevich V.N., Myakinkova S.N.

Abstract

The paper discusses a pedagogical system of information-communicative competence development of students - prospective public relations experts. This competence is formed throughout the conscious human life and provides effective interpersonal and social interaction using obtained and processed information in accordance with professional tasks. The paper presents the authors’ definition of «information-communicative competence of a public relations specialist». The authors describe theoretical and methodological foundations and their qualitative conditions and synthesize a pedagogical system of information-communicative competence development of undergraduate students majoring in advertising and public relations. The authors think that the theoretical model of this system is urgent, significant and has a practical value from the point of view of its use as a methodological basis for pedagogical experiment. The authors present the results of the practical implementation of this theoretical model: a system of designed practical training in basic subjects of the curriculum; systematization and selection of existing educational technologies; training manuals, reflecting the targets of the educational system as well as the means of achieving them; a developed and tested methodology of the pedagogical experiment. The proposed criterion-diagnostic apparatus allowed the authors to make a preliminary assessment of the results and carry out the correction of the developed system to ensure maximum efficiency.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):233-237
pages 233-237 views

Mathematical training of prospective chemical branch engineers as an important factor of their professional training

Ran N.A., Nikolaeva Z.V.

Abstract

The paper deals with the problem of effective mathematical training of prospective chemical branch engineers. The chemical branch is one of the key branches of the Samara Region economy. The authors note that petrochemical enterprises need engineers who have sufficient all-professional and special knowledge, skills, as well as a high degree of professional mobility, able to react quickly and creatively to inquiries of dynamically changing practice; able to solve all range of production problems. The authors also note that the high level of professional competence of a chemical branch engineer is defined by the level of his/her mathematical knowledge. The authors reveal features of integral and differential calculus application for the solution of chemical tasks on the example of physical chemistry tasks. The authors suppose and prove that education process optimization and professional orientation of mathematical training in a technical college can be reached at the expense of such factors as: continuous mathematical training; modification of educational and methodical support; professional development of pedagogical staff; optimally structured content of mathematical disciplines by practice-focused tasks application intensification; motivation for mathematical disciplines independent study by students of a technical college; application of diagnostic techniques of students’ mathematical competence development.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):238-241
pages 238-241 views

Pedagogical reflection development in the course of prospective elementary school teachers’ training for professional activity

Sevenyuk S.A., Shamina N.P.

Abstract

The paper deals with features of pedagogical reflection development of prospective elementary school teachers during their training at a higher education institution. The authors analyze modern requirements to personal and professional qualities of a teacher, his or her social value and worthiness caused by radical modernization and cardinal transformations of Russian system of pedagogical education. The authors show that at a high school it is important for students to change position from a consumer of information to a creator of knowledge, to develop personal features, to understand the results of his or her pedagogical activity. The paper contains advantages of such an approach of ensuring systemacy of higher pedagogical education updates. Professional activity of each teacher has to be adapted to these changes. Each teacher has to understand the environment surrounding him; s/he has to be ready for continuous self-education to increase the efficiency of the daily practical activities. In this regard the authors suppose that reflection is a necessary and a major component of pedagogical activity structure. Reflection is supposed to be teacher’s personal analysis of his or her activity. The authors of the paper think that pedagogical activity has a reflexive character as a teacher who organizes pupils’ activity is obliged to correct his or her actions from a pupil’s position, it is obligatory to take their views into account, to see their inner world and their emotional state. On the basis of the given arguments the authors come to the conclusion that a teacher’s significant professional quality is his or her ability to reflect.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):241-244
pages 241-244 views

The unity of moral and aesthetic education of prospective teacher-designers

Statsenko E.R.

Abstract

In the paper the problem of university students’ education is considered to be an urgent social and pedagogical problem. The authors think that it is important to combine moral, aesthetic, labor, physical, etc education in the educational process of a higher education institution. The importance of moral and ethical education of prospective teacher-designers is substantiated. The relationship between Good and Beauty is revealed as the value basis for moral and aesthetic education. Students’ moral qualities development, their aesthetic tastes and ideals development correlates with the development of the value sphere of their consciousness. The process of university students’ education is seen as their involvement in values. The authors prove that the unity of moral and aesthetic education of students - prospective teachers of design - is a complementary process of their involvement in moral and aesthetic values, when, regardless of a particular situation, moral values are meaningfully complemented by aesthetic ones while aesthetic values - by moral ones. The authors think that an effective means of moral and aesthetic education of university students is art as creative reflection, reproduction of reality in artistic images. The paper contains methods of moral and aesthetic education: talk, discussion, debate, ethical dialogue (classroom work); reading conference, viewing and subsequent analysis of movies, organizing amateur performances, excursions, etc. (extracurricular work).

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):244-248
pages 244-248 views

Development of existential aspects of professional competence of penitentiary system prospective employees

Tarasova S.A.

Abstract

The paper discusses the problem of professional competence of penitentiary system employees. The author says that employees of the penal system should be ready for the challenges of the vital and professional way. The author defines existential aspect as part of holistic professional competence. Existential setting is included in the existential aspect of professional competence. Existential setting is defined as readiness of a future specialist for self-development and self-improvement. Existential setting is a spiritual resource of a person. Existential setting helps to maintain interest in the professional activity of penitentiary system employee in difficult situations. Existential setting is formed in the process of reflection development. The paper considers forms of educational work: existential dialogue, essays, solution of situational problems. The author gives a brief description of these forms of work and specific examples. The paper contains indicators of effectiveness: students’ interest in the spiritual side of life as well as in problems of the meaning of life and professional activities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):248-252
pages 248-252 views

Cross-disciplinary integration as a high intensity method of gifted students’ training

Timoschuk N.A., Mikhelkevich V.N., Ryabinova E.N.

Abstract

The paper contains successful pedagogical experience of Samara State Technical University in the field of exceptional children’s advanced and accelerated training. On the basis of this experience possibilities of the advanced and accelerated training are analyzed. This kind of training is considered to be one of the most effective ways of gifted youth’s development. On the basis of the available theoretical and practical experience the authors note that technical universities with their multilevel structures of higher education can become very effective intellectual centers of the integrated systems of continuous education, including various educational institutions of pre-university and additional postgraduate training. The paper contains experience of an integrated educational system of continuous and differentiated (on abilities) education «School - HEI» in homogeneous groups. It is shown that training of gifted students in groups with equal mental capacities favorably influences their self-assessment and they in such situation should study wholeheartedly forces, feeling continuous stimulation from schoolmates. Characteristics of capacity of the academic college as the associated educational institution of the new type functioning on the basis of organizational and methodical merging of the university and school and at the same time being structural division of both founders are given as an example. It is noted that the considered models of structures of the integrated educational systems possess various degree of intensity of training, in communication with what rationing of average loading of students in the academic college acquires the special importance and relevance. Proceeding from the standard maximum permissible week educational loading of the young man caused by his psychophysiological opportunities, social conditions and cultural requirements the technique of her flexible rationing which efficiency is confirmed with long-term monitoring of the graduates of the academic college who have become subsequently successful scientists, inventors, experts is described.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):252-258
pages 252-258 views

Substantial aspects of municipal education bodies strategies and projects development

Fishman L.I., Ivanov M.Y.

Abstract

Theoretical approaches to municipal education bodies’ strategies and projects development are presented in this paper. The conceptualization of municipal system of education as territorial-sectoral complex which is structurally isomorphic to holding helps to understand institutional character of a municipal education body as similar to the character of management company while the position of schools and other organizations which provide education services as similar to the position of holding production units. Having studied the peculiarities of relationship of a municipal education body and schools we suggest the functions of municipal education body, which assigns tasks to schools and provides schools with different resources. We also suggest the classification of resources, which are the management objects of municipal education body: organizational resources, financial resources, human resources, public relations recourses and information resources. On this base we group the management mechanisms of municipal education body: the mechanisms of school and other organizations structure optimization, the mechanisms of schools and other organizations financing, the mechanisms of schools and other organizations human resources development, the mechanisms of schools and other organizations interaction with the subjects of the environment, the mechanisms of control and monitoring of a municipal system of education. That is why the objectives of municipal strategies and specific targets of municipal projects need to be connected with the modernization of these mechanisms.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):258-265
pages 258-265 views

Technical universities students’ readiness for eco-oriented values development

Kholopov Y.A., Slugina A.N., Stikhanova S.A.

Abstract

The article discusses issues related to assessment of readiness of students of a technical College to form the foundations of ecological culture. Emphasized that the problems of modern society due to the long dominance of an anthropocentric attitude towards nature. Increasing anthropogenic pressures are often based on artificial heating of consumer demand. It is shown that the formation of eco-friendly values is impossible only through the educational process. The data of sociological survey of 183 students of the Samara state (133 boys and 50 girls) aged 17 to 22 years, who have not studied ecology. The impact of students on the environment assessed according to the method of the «ecological footprint» proposed by William Reese in 1992: in terms of consumption and way of life, only 16% of girls and 20% of boys fit into one planet. It is marked that a key moment in the formation of environmental culture is the choice of information sources. Revealed the following patterns of circulation the youth audience with information that the students prefer as information sources, television and online media, but trust more tutorials - 84% of girls and 70% boys; in the modern media for environmental information is presented in a minimal volume that shows the development potential of this mechanism of formation of ecological culture. Girls interested in the environmental, food safety, housing; tackling environmental issues at the level of educational institutions; environmental problems and their solutions in the region of residence. Men prioritize the following topics: activities of public ecological organizations and movements; scientific achievements in the field of ecology; global environmental issues. Only 50% of girls and 37% of boys consider themselves to be environmentally educated.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):265-269
pages 265-269 views

Development of personal forms of students’ moral consciousness as an idea of personally oriented education

Tsepkova A.N.

Abstract

The paper justifies that a personally oriented educational model is one of the ways of solving a problem of student’s personality development. The author explains the reasons for the declarative nature of personally oriented education in modern schools: classical foundations of the traditional educational paradigm, transformation of education into service and incorrect understanding of personally oriented education by teachers. The author reveals the role of future teachers’ orientation on implementation of personally oriented education. The author considers development of personal forms of students’ moral consciousness as an idea of personally oriented education. Special value of consciousness personal forms is proved. The author shows that specific personal forms of teachers’ moral consciousness can be presented as personal forms of students’ moral consciousness. The paper contains the essence of personal forms of students’ moral consciousness. Such personal forms of moral consciousness as kindness, dignity, mercy, responsibility, etc. are necessary for a student to build value judgments as well as for assessment which is the starting point for the spiritual and practical mastering of the world.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):269-273
pages 269-273 views

Teachers’ health-corrective activity management in connection with students’ educational work with computers

Shcherbakova N.B.

Abstract

The author of the paper pays attention to the problem of safe computer use by students. Schoolchildren’s work with computers has such negative factors as: eye strain, mental stress, physical stress associated with prolonged static muscles tension of a personal computer user. That is why it is so important to train teachers for health-corrective activities with students who work with a computer. In this paper the author proposes to consider the algorithm of teachers’ health-corrective activity management in connection with students’ educational work with computers. The author notes the following components of teacher’s health-corrective activity: subject, object, means, process, result, environment, conditions. The author defines management of teachers’ health-corrective activity. The paper contains an algorithm of teachers’ health-supporting activity management; the stages of this activity are defined in accordance with the management functions: designing, organization, regulation, control and accounting.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(2):273-278
pages 273-278 views

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