Vol 10, No 4 (2021)

From editorial board

Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education celebrates its anniversary – 110 years

Mochalov O.D.


In 2021, the Samara State Social and Pedagogical University (SGSPU) turned 110 years old. On October 16, 1911, the Samara Teachers' Institute was solemnly opened. Since that time, higher pedagogical education in the Samara region has been counting down.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):10-12
pages 10-12 views

General Biology

Distribution, abundance and bio-characteristics of the Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus L., 1758) in Tuva

Archimaeva T.P., Zabelin V.I.


The paper considers the distribution and elements of breeding bio-characteristics and abundance of the Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus L.) on the basis of literary and the authors’ materials. The necessity of the species state revision is connected with the all-round decrease of its number and its inclusion in the last edition of the Red List of Threatened Animals and Plants of the Russian Federation. Optimal breeding habitats of the Kentish plover are located in a very limited area on the coasts of the steppe lakes of the Ulug-Khem and the Ubsu-Nur basins. The Kentish plover nests regularly in Tuva but its numbers are subject to considerable fluctuations depending mainly on hydrological conditions of the season. The total number of plovers within the studied area does not exceed 40–50 pairs. The Kentish plover is more numerous and occurs more widely on migration. The main features of nesting bio-characteristics are similar in other areal parts but late nesting dates were recorded. Some deviations in oological characteristics were also fixed (totally 29 eggs from 9 egg clutches were described). Anthropogenic factors such as cattle grazing along the coasts as well as intensive recreational impact have a great influence on the condition of the local nesting population of the Kentish plover. The authors recommend including the Kentish plover species in the Red List of Threatened Animals and Plants of Tuva Republic due to their low numbers during their nesting and its extreme stenotopicity.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):13-18
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Nesting of fieldfare Turdus pilaris (Linnaeus, 1758) (Aves, Passeriformes) in floodplain habitats of the Abakan River basin (South Minusinsk basin)

Veysner T.V., Zlotnikova T.V.


This paper presents the results of long-term observations of the fieldfare breeding biology in the South Minusinsk basin. The observations were carried out at two sites in floodplain habitats of the Abakan River basin. Comparisons were made with the indicators of the breeding biology of the species in the North-Minusinsk basin, which were published. The fieldfare builds nests on all kinds of woody plants that are found in the floodplain. The time of Turdus pilaris reproduction beginning in the steppe basin varied from the 20th of April to the first five days of May. Differences in the breeding periods of fieldfare in populations from different altitude-belt complexes (steppe and forest-steppe) were revealed. There is a difference in the height of nests on woody plants, depending on the architectonics of the crown, and in areas with varying degrees of concern. Dimensional characteristics of nests and eggs are given. High intrapopulation variability of egg size was noted. The coefficient of variation for the larger and for the smaller diameter was 11–13%. The full clutch consisted of 4–6 eggs. The average clutch size was 4,9–5,2 eggs. Differences in the average size of the masonry on different territories were not revealed. The success rate of nesting in 2021 was high (50–72%).

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):19-23
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Botanical-geographical differentiation and succession systems on the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan

Gorichev Y.P.


On the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan the main regularities of landscape differentiation are manifested – latitudinal zoning, altitudinal zoning and the barrier effect, which determine the territorial differentiation of the vegetation cover. The existing schemes of botanical-geographical and geobotanical zoning reflect these patterns. The largest zoning units are zonal structures (forest, forest-steppe and steppe regions), within which, on the basis of geological and geomorphological features, smaller taxonomic units are distinguished – provinces, areas, districts. The zoning method proposed by S.M. Razumovsky which is based on the concept of a succession system is of interest. According to this concept, the vegetation cover of the Earth is divided between succession systems. The boundaries of successional systems are outlined by the boundaries of the geographical areas of key species – edificators of indigenous forest phytocenoses. S.M. Razumovsky presented a scheme of botanical-geographical zoning, made on a small scale. The boundaries of succession systems, with the exception of some areas, are not delineated. The author set a goal: to determine a list of succession systems common on the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan, to outline their boundaries and give their brief characteristics. As a result of literary sources study and analysis, the author has come to the conclusion that 4 succession systems are widespread on the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan: 1) broad-leaved-dark coniferous forests with climax species of Siberian spruce, Siberian fir, pedunculate oak, heart-leaved linden and Norway maple; 2) dark coniferous forests, with climax species of Siberian spruce and Siberian fir; 3) broad-leaved forests with climax species of pedunculate oak, heart-leaved linden and Norway maple; 4) light coniferous forests with sub-climax species of Scots pine and Sukachev larch.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):24-28
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The current state of the natural monument «Kalinovsky Elnik» (Chelno-Vershinsky District of the Samara Region)

Deynega M.T., Korchikov E.S.


On the territory of the natural monument «Kalinovsky Elnik» (Chelno-Vershinsky District of the Samara Region) almost all old-growth common spruces died in 2013 and belong to the category of old dead wood, there are isolated individuals belonging to the old windbreak, only 2–3 common spruce remained alive, a shrub layer from Lonicera xylosteum L., Padus avium Mill. is developed, in some places generative representatives of deciduous species – Acer platanoides L. and Tilia cordata Mill. are found to stand separately. Common spruce self-seeding is also found in the ecotone from the spruce forest to the meadow community. On the territory of this natural monument there is Norway-maple-linden community with Aegopodium podagraria, Betula pendula Roth, Pinus sylvestris L., Quercus robur L., Populus tremula L., in which at least 22 species of vascular herbaceous plants live, including Pleurospermum uralense Hoffm. from the Red Book of the Samara Region, 49 lichen species, including 3 new species for the Samara Region (Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Ach.) Th. Fr., Cresponea chloroconia (Tuck.) Egea et Torrente, Melanohalea septentrionalis (Lynge) Essl.). This community can be classified as a «biologically valuable» forest landscape. On this basis it is recommended to preserve the status of a protected area for this territory and to make appropriate amendments to the botanical description of this natural monument.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):29-34
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A comparative analysis of the breeding biology of the lesser whitethroat and chiffchaff (Passeriformes, Sylviidae) in habitats with different degrees of urbanization (South Minusinsk basin)

Zlotnikova T.V., Shcherbakova E.Y.


This paper presents the results of long-term observations of nesting of two species of warblers inhabiting territories with different degrees of urbanization – Sylvia curruca and Phylloscopus collybita. The research was carried out in the steppe and forest-steppe zone of the South Minusinsk basin. Both species are common and nest both in natural habitats and in the built-up part of the city. The lesser whitethroat arranges nests in the shrub layer only. The chiffchaff warbler has nests in a grassy tier in its natural habitats. The authors have revealed differences in the time of nesting in different altitudinal vegetation zones, as well as interspecific differences. The sizes of nests, clutches and eggs for different populations and in different years are determined. These parameters show variability, but no dependence on the environmental situation for them has been revealed. The survival rate of eggs and chicks and the overall efficiency of reproduction are evaluated. All the studied indicators of nesting biology, identified among the two species of warblers, are within the limits characteristic of the species. The differences revealed for populations located in natural and urbanized territories are manifested at the level of behavior of individuals (the nature of the nest location) and at the biocenotic level (the causes of the death of clutches). The authors have found no signs of isolation of «urban» populations.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):35-40
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Linear growth of lateral shoots of plants belonging to the genus Crataegus L. and the influence of the temperature factor during introduction in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation (Kola Peninsula)

Zotova O.E., Goncharova O.A.


This study is devoted to assessing the patterns of seasonal growth of lateral shoots of introduced Crataegus L. species beyond the Arctic Circle (using the example of the Kola Peninsula). The paper presents the timing of the onset and end of the linear growth of shoots, the duration of the shoots growth, the influence of the thermal regime on the duration and intensity of the growth of shoots belonging to some species of hawthorn. The beginning of linear growth of shoots in introduced hawthorn species on average occurs on June 1. The sequential series of hawthorn species according to the timing of the onset of linear growth of shoots from early to late is as follows: C. sanguinea, C. flabellata, C. maximowiczii, C. laevigata, C. dahurica, C. russanovii. The average duration of shoot growth for 2018–2020 was 38 days. The shortest increase was observed in 2019 for C. russanovii, the maximum increase was recorded for C. maximowiczii plants in 2018. The differences in the annual growth of shoots of the studied hawthorn species are due to the intensity, not the duration of growth. C. sanguinea, C. maximowiczii belong to the group of species with the highest requirements for heat accumulated by the end of the shoot growth period, C. dahurica plants were characterized by the least accumulation of positive temperatures.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):41-45
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The isotopic composition of hair among the population in the Vologda Region depending on the conditions of living and nutrition

Ivanova E.S., Rumiantseva O.Y., Zavertkina A.S., Bueva A.E., Elizarova A.S.


Isotope mass spectrometry methods are used to study changes in the isotopic composition of organisms in the food chain called trophic fractionation. In particular, with the help of isotope analysis of tissues, it is possible to determine the type of nutrition and possible place of residence of a person, which helps in solving the tasks of forensic examination. In this study, the isotopic composition δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N in the hair of residents of the industrial city of Cherepovets and the Kirillovsky District of the Vologda Region, remote from industrial sources of pollution, was determined. The determination of the isotopic composition of hair was carried out on an isotope mass spectrometer Thermo-Finnigan Delta V Plus in the Ecological and Analytical Laboratory of Cherepovets State University. The average values of isotopes in the hair of the study participants are −20,86‰ (δ¹³C) and 9,98‰ (δ¹⁵N). There are differences in the ratio of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the hair of residents of Cherepovets and Kirillovsky District. There are not statistically significant differences in the isotopic composition of δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N in the hair of female and male. There are differences of δ¹⁵N in the hair of people who consume different amounts of fish (people who consume fish more often have a higher ratio of δ¹⁵N).

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):46-50
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Vegetation and fauna features in the zone of influence of the solid waste landfill «Preobrazhenka» (Samara Region)

Ilyina V.N., Kozlovskaya O.V., Sazonova N.N., Tupitsyna O.V., Chertes K.L.


The anthropogenic factor has a significant impact on the natural-territorial complexes of the Samara Region. Solid waste landfills have a significant impact on the soil and vegetation cover and the animal population, which is due to the alienation of territories as well as the negative impact of leachate and emitted gases into the environment. The purpose of our research is to study the vegetation cover and fauna on the territory of the zone of influence of solid waste landfill «Preobrazhenka» (Volzhsky District, Samara Region), including the area near the filtrate storage ponds. In the course of the work, geobotanical, floristic, zoological and ecological methods were used. 15 stationary areas were established in the study area around the storage ponds. The authors revealed the composition of phytocenoses, including the associations Galatella villossaStipa lessingiana, Galatella villossaStipa lessingiana Onosma simplicissima, Elytrigia repens + forbs, Elytrigia repensPhragmites australis – forbs, Elytrigia repensPhragmites australis, Poa angustifolia + Galatella villossa, Quercus robur + Acer platanoidesAegopodium podagraria, Populus tremulaUrtica dioica, Poa angustifolia + Galatella villossa, Salix triandraSalix fragilis – forbs, Cyclachaena xanthiifolia – Polygonum aviculare. The total flora of the territory includes 140 species of vascular plants. The authors have found 36 species of animals, 16 are invertebrates and 20 are vertebrates among them. The general state of biogeocenoses in the area of storage ponds is considered to be unsatisfactory, downstream of the ravine-gully system and on its slopes – satisfactory. It is necessary to carry out reclamation of the object.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):51-60
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Ecological and biological features of Rosa glauca Pourr., Rosa canina L., Rosa majalis Herrm. in using as rootstocks of garden roses in the forest-steppe of Western Siberia

Kozlova M.V.


The paper presents the results of a comprehensive comparative study of Rosa glauca Pourr and Rosa canina L. – rose hips used as rootstocks of garden roses – in a continental climate. A representative of the local flora Rosa majalis Herrm served as a model object for studying seasonal rhythmics, winter hardiness, as well as histochemical features. Based on studies of the objects ecological morphology, the nature of damage to aboveground shoot systems during wintering is described, the determining role of the minimum air temperature in assessing the adaptive potential of plants is noted. Differences in the seasonal dynamics of starch in the tissues of shoots of three species are most characteristic in the pre-winter period: as for R. glauca, the average amount of starch is observed in the perimedular zone while the low one is in single-row core rays. As for R. canina, a low amount of starch is observed in the perimedular zone and in single cells of single-row core rays. As for a representative of the local flora of R. majalis, almost complete starch hydrolysis occurs; it was recorded only in single cells of the perimedular zone. The paper also contains the results of joint research with the Nikitsky Botanical Garden, including X-ray examination of seeds and expedition studies to increase the collection gene pool of wild rose rootstocks.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):61-67
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Some results of Ondatra zibethicus acclimatization in Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia

Levykh A.Y., Morgun E.N., Ilyasov R.M., Tupakhina O.S., Tupakhin D.S.


The paper discusses some results of Ondatra zibethicus acclimatization in the cold climate of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YaNAO), Russia. The study uses data from literature, archives and state records and gives a brief historical background on the first muskrat introduction into YaNAO water bodies. The study scrutinizes some of its expansion factors and peculiarities of its modern spatial and biotopical distribution in the Okrug. 1948–1960 YaNAO hunting reports show a considerable share of the introduced O. zibethicus in fur procurement, with the population peak and commercial hunting peak on the peninsula registered within the period from 1955 to 1960. As of today, O. zibethicus is listed as a common hunting species in the YaNAO Inventory of Fauna. At the same time, the YaNAO Department of Natural Resources Management, Forestry Affairs, and Oil and Gas Industry Development reports that there are no O. zibethicus ongoing censuses or spatial distribution records kept now; full scale muskrat censuses were held in 2008–2014 when regional natural reserves were being established. The paper also describes O. zibethicus and its lodge encounters in the 2021 complex expeditions to the Yamal and Shuryshkary Districts, YaNAO, Russia.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):68-74
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Species diversity and ecological features of the Voronezh reservoir algae

Melkumov G.M.


The work is devoted to the long-term study of the species diversity and ecological features of the Voronezh reservoir algae. The algological study revealed 228 species of algae belonging to 7 divisions, 14 classes, 38 orders, 60 families and 99 genera. Most species belong to the departments Bacillariophyta (110 species), Chlorophyta (60) and Cyanophyta (34). It has been established that most of the algae of the water reservoir have unicellular and colonial types of organization, spherical, pear-shaped or filamentous structures of the thallom, there are flagellar stages in life cycles. The largest number of taxa belongs to the groups of β-mesosaprobionts (74), xenosaprobionts and oligo-β-mesosaprobionts (29). Planktonic algae are more common in the water reservoir (116), while benthic (62) and «periphytic» (50) are less common. The main factors contributing to the «blooming» of water in the Voronezh reservoir are shallow waters, discharge of untreated sewage and stormwater, elevated temperature. To solve this problem the following measures are proposed: a competent and systematic approach to reducing the pollution of the water reservoir, development of effective methods for regulating water quality, reducing the proportion of anthropogenic load on the reservoir, increasing the number of aquatic fauna, development of safe methods to improve the condition of the water area.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):75-78
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Peculiarities of Hypericum perforatum L. reproduction in vitro culture and development of plants in the open field

Mikhovich Z.E., Echishvili E.E., Portnyagina N.V., Skrotskaya O.V.


The possibility of using the method of cell and tissue culture for microclonal reproduction of St. John’s wort is shown. Direct morphogenesis was obtained using seedlings without roots at the age of 12 days. It was found that the introduction of BAP in a low concentration (0,1 mg/l) with IAA 1,0 mg/l into the MS nutrient medium promoted the minimum bud formation with the maximum yield of morphologically normal shoots without the need for an elongation phase. At the stage of rhizogenesis, the process of root formation was observed in all variants of the experiment; the proportion of shoots with roots was high and ranged from 88 to 90%. The maximum height of shoots, the number of pairs of leaves per shoot, and the length of plant roots were reached on the MS nutrient medium with IAA 1,0 mg/l. The period of adaptation to non-sterile conditions was 30 days, while a high yield of regenerant plants was observed. The survival rate of the adapted regenerant plants in field conditions was high (100%). Regenerant plants developed rapidly and bloomed in the first year. It was revealed that before planting in open ground, St. John’s wort plants propagated in vitro culture and passed the stage of adaptation to non-sterile conditions in containers with soil mixture formed a sufficiently developed root system from regenerant plants with a large number of adventitious roots 6–8 cm long. At the base of the shoot, from 2 to 5 renewal shoots 9–12 cm in height were formed. On the 65th day after transplanting, the number of renewal shoots more than doubled and averaged 7,8 pcs. per individual with a shoot height of 23 cm. In the third decade of August, the plants entered the budding phase, and on September 20, they entered the flowering phase. It was noted that by the beginning of flowering, the height of the plants increased to 49–54 cm, and the diameter of the shoot – up to 0,4 cm. From 16 to 24 pairs of oblong-ovoid standard leaves were formed on the plant. The formation of the floral part of the shoot (inflorescence) 20–27 cm long began with the axils of 9–14 leaves and consisted of 7–10 pairs of lateral axes (paracladia). The average number of flowers was 82. The amplitude of variability of the main morphological traits of the shoot of the studied plants was at low and medium levels. It was found that the development of microclonally propagated plants by the end of the first growing season corresponded to the growth and development of St. John’s wort plants of the second year of life grown by seedlings.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):79-86
pages 79-86 views

The influence of carbon steel chemical composition on the biochemical activity of sessile sulfate-reducing bacteria

Nesterova E.V., Verevkin A.G., Prokhorova N.V.


The technogenic failure caused by biological corrosion of pipelines and other oilfield equipment is an urgent problem for all oil-producing countries of the world. It has been established that many types of corrosion are initiated by the development of sulfate-reducing bacteria on the inner pipe surfaces. This paper presents the results of model laboratory experiments aimed at assessing the effect of the chemical composition of pipeline steel on the number and biochemical activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria development on its surface. Three chromium-containing corrosion-resistant steels were selected for the experiment, steel samples alloyed with 1% manganese were used as control samples. The bacteria for model experiments, mostly belonging to the genus Desulfovibrio, were taken from the inner surface of the damaged pipe after exploitation at an oil field in the Samara Region. In model experiments a reliable influence of the chemical composition of pipe steel on the quantitative characteristics and biochemical activity of bacteria developing on its surface was established. The biochemical activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, determined by the stimulation of hydrogen sulfide formation and a change in dehydrogenase activity, significantly depended on the chromium content. An increase in the chromium concentration in the tested steel samples by up to 5% reduced the number of sulfate-reducing bacteria and their biochemical activity. The experiments allow us only to make a conclusion about the influence of the chemical composition of pipe steels on the number and biochemical activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, but do not reveal its resistance to bacterial corrosion.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):87-92
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Features of Melica virgata (Poaceae) seed germination in natural drought stress

Plyaskina I.N., Bondarevich E.A., Larina N.P., Chistyakova N.S.


The paper studies mechanisms of adaptation of the rare species Melica virgata Turcz. ex Trin for Eastern Transbaikalia to drought at the initial stages of ontogenesis. The species is listed in the Red Data Book of Trans-Baikal Territory and has the first conservation status category (Endangered). M. virgata occurs in special phytocenoses on the territory of Eastern Transbaikalia, being in such microclimatic conditions that correspond to its xeromesophytic nature. This cereal is characterized by seed reproduction. Researches of seed germination in conditions of physiological drought, caused by the presence of osmotic, have shown the ability of M. virgata seeds to germinate in a wide range of moisture availability, but growth processes with an increase in osmotic pressure are strongly suppressed. The ability to germinate in conditions of physiological drought may be associated with the exchange of free amino acids. The seeds of cereals were dominated by acidic amino acids and their amides, which are substrates for the formation of other amino acids, nucleotides, as well as after deamination reactions, carbohydrates and lipid components. The intensity of accumulation of free amino acids in water deficit can vary due to the use of these amino acids for the synthesis of substances with osmoregulatory properties. The rapid transition to growth processes in this cereal may be associated with the mobilization of prolamins and glutelins on the first day of germination.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):93-98
pages 93-98 views

Heavy metals and metalloids accumulation in organs of some representatives of the genus Paeonia L. under technogenic pollution conditions

Reut A.A., Denisova S.G.


The paper examines features of heavy metals and metalloids accumulation by decorative flower crops on the example of the generic complex Paeonia L. in the urbanized environment of Ufa. The objects of the research are four species (P. peregrina Mill., P. lactiflora Pall., P. lactiflora f. rosea, P. delavayi Franch.) (Family Paeoniaceae Rudolphi) and three varieties of hybrid paeony (‘Appassionata’, ‘Mustai Karim’, ‘Jeanne d'Arc’). The study of the elemental composition of the aboveground and underground parts was carried out according to the method «Determination of As, Pb, Cd, Sn, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni in samples of food raw materials by atomic absorption method with electrothermal atomization». Mathematical data processing was carried out using generally accepted methods of variation statistics using the AgCStat software package in the form of an Excel add-in. It was revealed that in the studied samples the copper content is 4,15–2520,00 times higher, and the cadmium content is 0,43–2520,0 times lower than that of other elements. The minimum concentrations of arsenic, chromium, manganese and iron were noted in the roots; lead, cadmium and copper – in the leaves; nickel – in the flowers of the studied paeonies. The maximum content of arsenic and chromium was found in the leaves; lead, nickel, manganese and iron – in stems; cadmium and copper – in flowers. The results of the correlation analysis showed that the absolute values of the concentrations of the studied elements in the considered taxon of paeonies correlate with each other to a moderate and strong degree.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):99-104
pages 99-104 views

New locations of rare and endangered lichen species in the Zavolzhye region of the Chuvash Republic

Sinichkin E.A.


The paper presents new data on rare and endangered lichen species found in the Trans-Volga Region of the Chuvash Republic from 2015 to 2020. Zavolzhye of the Chuvash Republic is the left-bank part of the republic, which is covered with coniferous, coniferous-broadleaved forests. According to the physical and geographical zoning of the Middle Volga region, Zavolzhye Chuvashia is included in the forest zone, province of southern taiga and mixed forests of the Low Volga region, in the mixed forest district, to the Vetluzhsko-Kokshagsky Polessky area, according to botanical and geographical zoning belongs to the Zavolzhsky Lowland-Polesky area of subtaiga forests, according to vegetative zoning – to the Zavolzhsky Boreal area. As a result of field studies we found new habitats of 11 rare and endangered lichen species: Agonimia flabelliformis, Cetraria islandica, Cladonia stellaris, Mycobilimbia epixanthoides, Mycobilimbia carneoalbida, Platismatia glauca, Ramalina dilacerata, Usnea lapponica, Usnea dasopoga, Usnea subfloridana, Xanthomendoza ulophyllodes. For each species, the coordinates of the points of growth, distribution features in the republic, ecological and substratum and phytocoenotic confinement are indicated. The information on ecology and distribution of rare lichen species is clarified. Agonimia flabeliformis is a new and rare species for the Chuvash Republic

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):105-109
pages 105-109 views

The assessment of environmental parameters of roadside territories on the example of the Orenburg Region cities

Stepanova I.A., Garitskaya M.Y.


Environmental management and planning of the urban environment, the inclusion of natural landscapes in it is becoming increasingly important today. The paper discusses the latest researches in printed Russian and foreign publications that study the impact of roads and roadside landscaping on the quality of the urban environment and the life of citizens. The dependence of the influence of urban greening on temperature, runoff, heat flows, carbon dioxide, the content of solid particles and gas pollution is shown. The analysis of studies in which environmental recommendations are given to reduce these impacts is carried out. Roads as a dangerous object of urbanized environment should be surrounded by a buffer green zone. The importance of studying the location of the main streets and identifying landscaping around them in urban centers is indicated. The paper contains an assessment of the environmental parameters of roadside zones, depending on the level of their landscaping and the remoteness of residential development from the roadway, in large cities of the Orenburg Region. General and specific recommendations on environmental optimization of spaces have been compiled, allowing to reduce the environmental burden on the roadside environment through effective planning of green infrastructure, which will provide a basis for improving the health of the population and their quality of life.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):110-117
pages 110-117 views

The distribution of lichen thalli Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. along the trunk Tilia cordata in the floodplain and watershed lime-tree forests of the Mari El Republic

Suetina Y.G.


The paper presents the study of Evernia prunastri on Tilia cordata in 9 floodplain and 3 anthropogenically disturbed watershed lime forests. Two anthropogenic habitats are located along roads, and one of them is located in Yoshkar-Ola. The third one is located along power line forest clearing. The distributions of the number, size and vitality of E. prunastri thalli along the trunk were studied up to a height of 4 m (0–0,5 m, 0,5–1 m, 1–1,5 m, 1,5–2 m, 2–2,5 m, 2,5–3 m, 3–3,5 m, 3,5–4 m) at different exposures (north, east, south, west) by using a ladder. Most habitats are characterized by an increase of the number of thalli with an increase of the height of the trunk. In urban environment the number of thalli increases up to height of 2 m, with a sharp decrease at heights of 2,5–4 m. In floodplain habitats the largest number of thalli grow on the northern exposure. This pattern is not observed in anthropogenic habitats. Along the forest clearing more thalli were found at the more illuminated western exposure; there were no differences in the number of thalli between the exposures in roadside habitats. The sizes of E. prunastri thalli are larger at heights of 1,5–2,5 m in the most floodplain habitats. Thalli sizes do not differ at different trunk height in urban conditions and in a shaded floodplain habitat. The vitality of old potentially generative (g₃v) thalli of E. prunastri decreases with increasing height.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):118-122
pages 118-122 views

The dynamics of the number and territorial placement of osprey nests in the Sayano-Shushensky State Nature Biosphere Reserve

Shikalova E.A., Vinogradov V.V.


The paper presents information about the nesting and abundance of the osprey on the territory of the Sayano-Shushensky State Nature Biosphere Reserve and its conservation zone. During the analysis of the materials it was found that before the formation of the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir 3–4 pairs of ospreys nested on the banks of the Yenisei, in 1988 the number was 7–8 pairs, in 1994 7 residential nests were registered. Since 2012 observations have been resumed. In the period 2012–2018 it was found that the osprey lives on 9 breeding sites located on the territory of the reserve and in its protected area. In 2019 during the survey of the bays of the reservoir 12 nests with different status were mapped. The 2020 survey showed that there are 11 active nests (nests in which breeding takes place). Despite a decrease in the number of active nests and an increase in the proportion of unemployed the number of ospreys remains stable and amounts to 12 pairs. The fact that the number of birds is greater than the number of residential nests is explained by the fact that birds have not started nesting and are not associated with known nests, or not all nesting sites have been found. During the 2021 field season 2 new osprey nests were found within the reserve. In addition to accounting for adult birds, work was carried out during 2019–2021 to determine the number of chicks in the nests. A comparison of the results by year showed that in 2020, despite a decrease in the share of residential nests, there are more chicks compared to 2019. In 2021 the largest number of chicks was recorded for three years of observations. In order to improve the condition of the group living in the Sayano-Shushensky State Nature Biosphere Reserve, it is necessary to minimize the presence of humans near the bays in which the nests are located. This will allow the birds to safely form pairs and breed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):123-128
pages 123-128 views

Agricultural impact on agricultural landscapes of the Rostov Region

Shishkina D.Y.


The paper discusses various aspects of the modern agricultural load on the agricultural landscapes of the Rostov Region. The work is based on the generalization and analysis of environmental reporting and land statistics. The dynamics of the cultivated areas of sunflower and perennial grasses, the introduction of organic fertilizers and the content of humus in the soil over the past 60 years are considered. As a result, such negative aspects of regional agrarian nature management were identified as: loss of natural landscapes, a high proportion of arable land; transformation of the structure of cultivated areas, a shortage of forests, a small area of forest plantations on arable land. The author has found that many indicators of agrogenic load do not correspond to the optimal and maximum permissible values. Thus, sowing of perennial grasses is 1,8% of the arable land at a rate of 25–30%; the area of the field protection belts is 3,8% at a rate of 5–6%; application of organic fertilizers is 25 times less than the standard. Livestock indicators and grazing pressure, which dropped sharply in the 1980s, are currently not reaching the maximum permissible environmental parameters. The humus content in the soil over the past 60 years has decreased from 4,1% to 3,2%. To compensate for the loss of humus, it is necessary to adjust the structure of sown areas: to expand the cultivation area of perennial grasses and reduce the land occupied by sunflower.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):129-133
pages 129-133 views

Species structure and pharmaceutical features of forest communities fungi in the Voronezh Region

Shtern A.M., Melkumov G.M.


The work is devoted to the study of the species structure and pharmaceutical features of forest communities fungi in the Voronezh Region. The mycological study revealed 171 species of fungi belonging to 2 divisions of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, 7 classes, 19 orders, 58 families and 106 genera. Most of the species belong to the orders Agaricales (81 taxa), Russulales (23), Polyporales (21) and Boletales (19). Among the identified taxa of medicinal fungi, saprotrophs (85) and symbiotrophs (53) predominate. The overwhelming number of mushroom species belongs to edible (92) and inedible (51) categories. 108 representatives of the mycobiota of the Voronezh Region can be used for the treatment of oncological diseases, 89 – for the production of substances with antibacterial activity. To a lesser extent, fungi have antiviral activity (49), immunostimulating properties (36), anti-inflammatory action (28), antioxidant activity (22). Fruit bodies (158 taxa) and mycelium (22) are most often used as a source of release of useful substances. The identified species of fungi contain 23 types of toxins that lead to diseases of various etiologies, among which α-amanitin, grismalin, ibo-tenic acid, cordinarin, muscarin, muscimol and phalloidin dominate (in 3 representatives).

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):134-137
pages 134-137 views

Historical Sciences and Archaeology

Ritual model of «living space for the dead» from the Eneolithic to the Middle Ages (based on materials from settlements in Upper Tobol, Saryarka and Priirtysh)

Usmanova E.R., Merts V.K.


The paper presents materials from settlements with graves. It offers a brief overview of the history of «living space for the dead» ritual model development. On the basis of ten settlements, belonging to different time periods, groups of burials were identified according to their status in the synchrony and diachrony. The cause of the occurrence of burials in settlements is postulated as determined by the mundane and sacred conditions in the society. The early establishment of this ritual model is attributed to the Stone Age. The sacred character, natural and cultural environment, topographic dependency of the model preserved in the burial traditions of early and late nomads in the Eurasian Steppe. The cult character and topographical dependence of the model were preserved in the funerary traditions of the early and late nomads. The ancient style of the living space combination with burials exists as tribal burial complexes in the area of nomadic seasonal winter settlements of the Modern Time («ethnographic modernity»).

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):138-142
pages 138-142 views

The Odino-Krokhalev pottery type of Eastern Kazakhstan (problem statement)

Merts I.V.


The paper deals with the question of identifying the Odino-Krokhalev pottery type among the materials of the Early Bronze Age of East Kazakhstan. It has been recorded on 41 sites of the region, mainly within the Kulunda plain and the Irtysh River valley and accounts for 14% of the total number of recorded vessels. This ceramic type is mainly represented by open and closed can-shaped vases. The predominant ornamental element used to decorate the outer surface of the vessels is represented by dots or oblique lines that form motives in the form of horizontal rows. The decor is usually applied using the «pricking» method with a stick, an animal spatula, as well as a smooth or comb stamp, while the «false textile» ornamentation is not documented. The latter occurs in settlements associated with the Elunino and Chemarsk materials. According to the available radiocarbon dates the period of diffusion of the Odino-Krokhalev pottery type in East Kazakhstan is in the Early Bronze Age (3rd – early 2nd millennium BC). Apparently, the appearance of such elements as «notches» and «wolf teeth» is associated with the cultural influences of the bearers of the Odino-Krokhalev ceramic firstly in the decorative composition of the Elunino and then of the Andronovo vessels of the South of Western Siberia. The primary task is to find and study stratified sites with the Odin-Krokhalev pottery type.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):143-148
pages 143-148 views

Cultural and chronological features of the Novo-Ufimskii burial ground according to the data of natural science analyses

Shcherbakov N.B., Shuteleva I.A., Calgaro I., Suleimanov R.R., Golyeva A.A.


The Novo-Ufimskii burial ground is one of the largest sites of the Southern Urals, located in the southern part of Ufa, in territorial terms, correlated with the Kara-Abyz culture of the Early Iron Age. Located in the historical part of the city of Ufa, the Novo-Ufimskii burial ground was allocated by R.B. Akhmerov on the territory of the construction of Bashkir State University buildings in 1952-1956. The site of the Novo-Ufimskii burial ground has repeatedly been subjected to destructive anthropogenic impacts since the second half of the 19th century, from the period of active development in the southern part of Ufa. However, a systematic investigation of the territory of the site with the involvement of a wide range of natural science methods has not been carried out. Earlier archaeological studies of the Novo-Ufa burial ground were most often associated with the part of the monument destroyed by construction. Some of the burials discovered during the reconstruction of the «Dynamo» stadium were investigated. The archaeological research carried out in 2018 set the task of widespread use of interdisciplinary, natural-scientific methods on the materials of 22 burials of the Novo-Ufimskii burial ground. During archaeological work in 2018, a feature was recorded in the burial tradition of the population who left the burial ground. Two-tiered burials were identified. The main focus of the study was bronze and paleosoil items from the Novo-Ufimskii burial ground.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):149-154
pages 149-154 views

«Introduction to Astrology» by Paul of Alexandria: features of structure and content

Abdulmanova I.V.


The paper is devoted to the analysis of one of the most interesting works in the field of early Byzantine paranoscience – «Introduction to astrology» by Paul of Alexandria. The paper examines the structural and substantive content of the work, determines the connection of the work by Paul of Alexandria with the system of modern Western astrology, the famous work by Ptolemy and the directions of Eastern (in particular, Indian) astrology. The paper proves the idea that Paul of Alexandria’s «Introduction to Astrology» directly affected the formation of Western astrology, which is most obviously manifested in Paul’s use of key concepts for Western astrological schools – houses, sects, degrees, directorates, transits, etc. Paul’s work is also of particular value because it contains a detailed division of the signs of the zodiac horoscope according to various criteria (by gender, by habitat, by exaltation, by trigons, by parts of the human body, by the nature of the sign). The author of the paper carries out an idea that Paul in the work «Introduction to Astrology» demonstrated an example of a classical late-Antique-early Byzantine astrologer, who simultaneously acts as a professional scientist, capable of expressing the essence of astrological science, which, in the period under review, is part of astronomical and mathematical knowledge, by extremely professional language even if it is not the most stylistically designed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):155-158
pages 155-158 views

Social Darwinism discourse in the USA fiction at the turn of the 19–20 th centuries

Mukhataev P.N.


This paper presents an attempt to analyze the relationship between social Darwinism ideology and American literature at the turn of the 19–20th centuries. According to philologists, critical realism was customary of that period in literature. The famous authors nowadays such as Theodore Dreiser and Jack London or less well-known, for example, Edward Bellamy and Robert Herrick, presented their plots against the same intellectual background and described them using similar expressions and clichés. Such expressions as «struggle for existence», «natural selection», «survival of the fittest» became the usual ones in American public life at the turn of the 19–20th centuries. Social Darwinism rhetoric united the worlds of politics, science and literature. The language determines our ideas about what can be right or wrong, fair and unfair. Ideology and the language played a fundamental role in shaping behavior in the context of the «American dream» especially. The «American dream» contained an idea of equality of opportunities for individuals, provided that they have talent and diligence. The author analyzes the language used in American literature and the influence of social Darwinism ideology on public consciousness. This discourse reveals the essence of social problems and attitudes of the American society in that historical period.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):159-164
pages 159-164 views

Youth in the anti-religious propaganda discourse of the 1920s (based on materials from the Samara province)

Protasova A.V.


The cultural transformation of Russian society in the first decades after the October Revolution made significant changes in the spiritual sphere. Traditional religious beliefs had to be replaced by a new ideology. The citizens of the new state had to accept a new cultural code and everyday practices, discarding the previous pre-revolutionary traditions, including religious ones. The efforts of the authorities on this cultural transition were primarily directed at the younger generation of Soviet citizens. This research aims to study the participation and activities of young people in the framework of anti-religious propaganda of the 1920s, using the materials of the provincial center – Samara province. This paper analyzes and compares anti-religious work carried out by Komsomol organizations and other associations among the younger generation, as well as identifies the general level of religiosity. The study of materials on the Samara province will allow us to consider this problem at the micro level, which will allow us to more fully reveal the history of the development of religion in the USSR. The findings of the research illustrate the contamination of processes. On the one hand, the direct participation of young people in the new anti-religious reality was observed, on the other hand, the young people themselves were experimental subjects in this cultural experiment. The combination of these roles gave rise to special forms of behavior among Soviet youth and pushed them to commit certain actions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):165-171
pages 165-171 views

Horse breeding in the Urals in 1922–1941

Bakhtiyarov R.S., Fedorova A.V.


This work aims to study the history of one of the most important branches of animal husbandry of the pre-war period – horse breeding. The processes taking place in horse breeding largely influenced the results of the development of the entire national economy of the country in the 20–30s of the 20th century and the Ural economic region in particular. Normalization of the situation in horse breeding in the late 30s increased the country’s military and economic capabilities in 1941–1945. After the end of the Civil War in the USSR the total number of horses by 1923 fell by almost 2 times compared to the level of livestock available in the Russian Empire before the outbreak of the First World War. On some territories of the Urals these indicators fell to a larger size. The economic security of the state was put at risk, since horse-drawn transport in the early 20s had virtually no alternative dominance in the country’s economy. Thanks to the measures taken, by 1929 the number of animals managed to return to the pre-revolutionary level – up to almost 35 million heads. But the processes of industrialization and collectivization that began, which changed the structure of both the country’s agriculture and the entire economy as a whole, contributed to a sharp displacement of horsepower and a reduction in livestock. If in 1929 the agricultural sector of the USSR was horse-drawn by 96,2% of the energy capacity, by the end of the 30s this figure did not exceed 23%. Therefore, the number of horses from 1930 to 1935 fell from 34,5 million heads to a little more than 14 million. Nevertheless, the leadership of the Soviet Union, realizing the ruinousness of such a policy, took a number of effective measures that allowed during 1935–1940 to stop the decline in the number of animals and achieve a significant increase in the number of livestock, which by the beginning of 1941 reached 21 million heads. These processes were also characteristic of the regions of the Urals, which during the Great Patriotic War became the most important source of horses for the Red Army and the national economy.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):172-176
pages 172-176 views

Regional features of birth and mortality rate in the Volga-Vyatka, Middle Volga and Orenburg regions during the famine of 1932–1933

Nazarenko N.N., Bashkin A.V.


The paper analyzes the vital statistics of the 1932–1933 famine in the Volga-Vyatka, Middle Volga and Orenburg regions (Gorkovsky and the Middle Volga Krais with national autonomous areas and the Tatar ASSR within the 1933 borders). It has been established that a high level of vital statistics registration occurred in most studied regions, high underestimating occurred in the rural areas of the Middle Volga Krai and Mordovia especially. High underestimating mortality among non-local residents and unidentified residents has not been established. Birth and mortality rate of non-local residents and unidentified residents were registered by local statistical service structures and were included in regional statistical reports, but their presence in central statistical reports has not been established. A high percentage of dead migrants in the towns has been shown, it refutes the opinion of administrative migration limit during the famine. It has been established that mortality in the town population was not lower and even exceeded rural mortality in some cases. It refutes the opinion that peasantry suffered from the famine most of all. The author proves that there was no sociocide or ethnocide (genocide) in the studied regions during the 1932–1933 famine. The high population loss in the Low Volga region was compensated by natural population increase in the Volga-Vyatka and Middle Volga regions. The mortality as well as birth rate varied dramatically within different administrative borders, indicating specific local conditions (local government response, natural and climate conditions, etc.), that invalidate hypothesis of authorities-made famine. The mortality peaks in 1932–1933 may indicate not only the famine, but seasonal epidemics as well and require additional research. The author has established that it is necessary to consider regional climatic conditions when analyzing vital statistics during the 1932–1933 famine. The entire number of deaths excess during the 1932–1933 famine totaled up to 324 000 in the Volga-Vyatka, Volga (excluding the Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast in 1933) regions and 48 000 deaths excess – in the Gorkovsky and Middle Volga Krais, and Tatar ASSR in 1934. The total demographic losses due to a decreased birth rate in the Volga-Vyatka, Volga (excluding Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast in 1933) and Orenburg Regions in 1932–1934 came to 306 000 people.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):177-192
pages 177-192 views

Features of emigrant Baptist communities existence in the west, north and northeast of China in the second half of the 1940s

Drobotushenko E.V., Lantsova Y.N., Kamneva G.P., Sotnikov A.A., Sotnikov S.A.


The paper analyzes the processes that took place in the emigrant religious groups of Baptists in western, northeastern and northern China in the second half of the 1940s. The authors note that the problems of the history of the existence and activities of the Baptists who emigrated to the West (in 1944–1949 – the East Turkestan Republic), North-East and North China from the territory of Soviet Russia, the Far East of the USSR has not become the subject of a serious scientific analysis yet. There are not many scientific publications on the topic. This predetermined that the basis of the study was made up of archival sources. These are documents, documents of the State Archives of the Russian Federation (SA RF). It is noted that until the considered time the Baptist communities on the considered territories lived in isolation. The impetus for a change in the situation was the creation of the All-Union Council of Evangelical Christians-Baptists (AUCECB) in the USSR. This led to the stirring up of Baptist believers in the west, north and northeast of China. Some of the communities joined the AUCECB, some established contacts with it. There was correspondence with relatives and friends in the Soviet Union. There is a clear need for further study of the history of the emigrant Baptist communities in China.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):193-196
pages 193-196 views

Concert life of the South Ural province in the post-war decade

Trifonova M.S., Godovova E.V.


The paper studies the main patterns of productive life development in the South Ural province. The geography of the paper is limited to the rural areas of the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Chelyabinsk and Chkalov (Orenburg). The chronological framework covers the first post-war decade. This is a period when the country gradually returned to the realities of the world life. The source base for the research was the materials of the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the archives of Orenburg, Chelyabinsk and the Republic of Bashkortostan. The methodological basis of the paper is based on the problem-chronological method. To achieve this goal the authors consider the organization of professional and amateur business practices. Immediately after the end of the Great Patriotic War amateur performances returned to the houses of culture and clubs, the philharmonic society resumed tours, which played a key role in organizing the concert life of the province. An integral record of the cultural life of the province was the participation of the population in amateur art. Mostly these were small groups that met on a non-permanent basis. They made the musical life of their village more diverse. The authors of the paper come to the conclusion that the South Ural province took passive and active parts in the musical life of the region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):197-200
pages 197-200 views

Participation of microbiologists Z.V. Ermolyeva and L.M. Yakobson in a scientific discussion about the fate of the production of Soviet cholera bacteriophages in 1967

Gorshenin A.V.


Since the late 1920s in the USSR, along with many countries, there has been an interest in studying the phenomenon of bacteriophagy and its use in medicine. Bacteriophages are called bacterial viruses. Significant work on the study of bacteriophages and their use for medical purposes was carried out by Soviet microbiologists Zinaida Vissarionovna Ermolyeva and Lidiya Mikhailovna Yakobson. They paid especially great attention to the study of cholera bacteriophage, which during the Great Patriotic War helped prevent the cholera epidemic in frontline Stalingrad. In the 1940s due to the advent of the era of antibiotics with a wider range of applications, research interest in bacteriophages was waning. Nevertheless, in the prevention and treatment of a number of infectious diseases of bacterial origin, phage continued to be used in the following decades. In 1967, one of the country’s largest microbiologists sent an appeal to the Chief Sanitary Doctor of the USSR with a proposal to stop or reduce the production of cholera bacteriophage in the country. In this regard, a scientific discussion in which Z.V. Ermolyeva and L.M. Yakobson played an important role unfolded. Using the materials of the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the Russian State Archive of Economics, involving published scientific works on microbiology and medicine, an attempt is made to analyze this scientific discussion and establish its significance in the fate of the production of cholera bacteriophage in the USSR.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):201-207
pages 201-207 views

Gender characteristic of the party and political elite of the southern Urals in the second half of the 1960–1980s

Pakhomov A.V.


The main task of this paper was to study the representation of women in the party and political elite of the southern Urals during the second half of the 1960s and 1980s, which mainly includes the secretarial corps of regional, city and district committees of the Communist party, as well as the chairmen of Executive committees of the corresponding level of Councils. The research was based on unpublished archival documents, including personal files of nomenclature employees, as well as materials of statistical reports on the qualitative composition and turnover of the leading party staff. In addition, the author has done a serious historiographical work, which analyzes modern historical and political research on the topic of women’s political leadership. It was found that the number of women in the regional management corps was insignificant, which fully corresponded to national trends. It is proved that during the period under study, women were widely represented only in the positions of third secretaries of party committees responsible for the sphere of ideology. At the same time, the study did not reveal artificially created barriers and official installations for restraining women. According to the author, the current situation can be explained by the economic features of the studied period.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):208-213
pages 208-213 views

Spiritual and moral education of believers by metropolitan Ioann (Snychev) in the Kuibyshev Diocese in 1965–1990

Verbovoy V.A.


The paper examines spiritual and moral education of believers in the Kuibyshev Diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church in 1965–1990 as one of the key areas of the episcopal activity of metropolitan Ioann (Snychev). The author studied such sources as reports of the authorized agent Council for Religious Affairs in the Kuibyshev Region, diary entries of metropolitan Ioann (Snychev) and people close to him, as well as the memories of believers. Metropolitan Ioann (Snychev) was not initially a talented preacher, but thanks to his studies and constant practice he was able to achieve success. The main tools of spiritual and moral education were sermons during worship services and personal communication with believers. In the conditions of preaching activity control by the office of the authorized agent for Religious Affairs, the bishop was forced to focus on moral issues. But despite the restrictions, metropolitan Ioann (Snychev) managed to conduct an active preaching activity. In private communication with believers, metropolitan Ioann (Snychev) unobtrusively taught Christian virtues. Metropolitan Ioann’s (Snychev) high moral qualities helped him to gain love and respect of the believers. The result of the spiritual and moral education of believers by the bishop was the growth of his authority and the constant influx of parishioners to the Church.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):214-218
pages 214-218 views

From the fate of Russian emigrants in Israel in the late XX – early XXI centuries: an unusual finding in the scientist’s personal archive

Egorova S.L.


The paper presents some main features of the daily life of Russian emigrants who arrived in Israel as part of the Big Aliyah in the 1990s on the example of the details of the emigrant period in the life of Nadezhda Osipovna Fedorova (1921–2018), the widow of the people’s writer of the Komi Republic Gennady Aleksandrovich Fedorov (1909–1991). The sources of the work were the letters of N.O. Fedorova from Bishkek and Ashkelon to Syktyvkar to the literary critic I.M. Vaneeva (1933–2010), discovered in the personal archive of the scientist and poet A.E. Vaneev (1933–2001). Wide chronological coverage of correspondence (1991–1994; 1997–2010) and the volume of the archive file (226 pp.) allow presenting the reasons for N.O. Fedorova’s departure from Russia, the specifics of adaptation in a new social environment, some aspects of the everyday culture into which «Russian Jews» were immersed, finding out the role of correspondence with Russian friends and colleagues in the life of immigrants. The results of the work lead to a conclusion that the emigrants compensated for the absence of the previous social historical ground by stable bilateral contacts with the country of origin. The Big Aliyah emigrants did not get lost in the culture of the host country: adopting the experience of Arab-Israeli relations perception, local norms and customs, they brought Russian (Soviet) traditions and holidays into the culture of the indigenous population.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):219-224
pages 219-224 views

Samara banner as a cultural code

Vasiliev V.V., Kozlovskaya G.E.


The paper deals with the phenomenon of the Samara banner as a cultural code. It is emphasized that the period of the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries is increasingly considered by researchers as a source of elements transmitted and perceived as modern cultural codes. Epistemological, psychological, sociological and information-communication approaches to understanding cultural codes are presented, with the help of which ideas about the unity, cohesion of society are formed and the social uncertainty of modernity is reduced. The period of the Russian-Turkish war is characterized as a period of the cultural code formation associated with the activation of national self-identification, growth of patriotism, formation of civil consciousness and civil society. The process of formation and consolidation of the cultural code inherent in the modern inhabitant of the Samara province, which was influenced by notable socio-political, cultural and religious events of both the past and the present, is analyzed. Dynamics is noted in assessing the role of the Samara Banner phenomenon for various periods of Russian history. The authors give an example of systemic involvement of the younger generation of the Samara Region residents in the history of their native land, through acquaintance with the history of the Samara banner, presented in the textbooks «Stories on the history of the Samara Region» and «History of the Samara Region».

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):225-229
pages 225-229 views

Turkish political doctrine of «Neo-Ottomanism»: between symbolic and real content

Tovsultanov R.A., Tovsultanova M.S., Galimova L.N.


The paper is devoted to the modern foreign policy doctrine of the Turkish Republic, usually labeled as Neo-Ottomanism. Turkey’s leading politicians have declared their commitment to the Ottoman heritage. The latter is also actively promoted through television series and historical cinematography. The authors also note the internal political aspect of Neo-Ottomanism, aimed at softening interethnic relations and consolidating the country around the common historical heritage. However, based on the analysis of the real political practice of the Turkish leadership, the authors come to the conclusion about its predominantly symbolic (declarative-populist) purpose without denying the presence of Neo-Ottomanism in the Turkish political discourse. In their opinion, there is no reason to oppose the current political course of the Turkish leadership to the Kemalist heritage, the adherence to which, although not manifested as actively and vividly as the connection with the Ottoman tradition, is also inscribed in the populist discourse of the emergence of a new and great Turkey. R.T. Erdogan and his closest associates have a wide range of similar symbolic instruments, but in its real political practice, the Turkish leadership proceeds from the pragmatic interests of its country, which allows it to maintain and develop relations with various powers located at different geopolitical poles.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):230-234
pages 230-234 views

Sheep (ram) symbolism in folklore, rituals and customs of the Bashkirs

Ilimbetova A.F.


The paper analyzes the remnants of the sheep (ram) cult among the Bashkirs, which was one of the revered animals in their religious and mystical views. The consecration of the sheep (ram) by the ancient Bashkirs is based on the remnants of the totemic way of primitive people thinking about the identity, unity and blood relationship of man and the sheep (ram). Their vestiges are manifested in fairytale folklore, folk games, tribal ethnonymy and anthroponyms of the Bashkirs. The existence in the oral stories of the Bashkirs of a character – a king with ram’s horns – shows that the ancient Bashkirs revered as their first ancestor a mythical creature in the guise of a half-man-half-ram. In the role of the totemic ancestor the sheep (ram) in Bashkir folk art and beliefs acts as a patron, guide, savior, benefactor and healer of people, a guardian of life, a soothsayer and predeterminer of their destinies, an escort of the souls of the dead to paradise, symbolizes fertility, prosperity, prosperity and happiness. In some elements of the traditional Bashkir wedding and the sacrifice of a ram, a superstitious attitude towards the skull and links of the cervical vertebra of a sheep (ram), traces of the ancient holidays of the sheep (ram) with rituals of totemic taboo, collective communion with meat and blood, magical resurrection and reproduction of a totem animal are visible. In Bashkir legends, riddles and vocabulary, the evolutionary paths of ideas about the totemic ancestor of the sheep (ram) are traced, as well as the formation on their basis of views about sheep (rams) – supernatural divine beings, personifications of stars, attributes and companions of the gods.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):235-241
pages 235-241 views

Pedagogical Sciences

Principles and methods of civil identity formation in the modern conditions of the Russian State development

Buranok A.O., Selifontova D.Y.


The paper examines the features of the society development in the Russian State interacting with the teaching civil identity feelings to the young generation. Researchers pay special attention to the issue of methods and ways of educating the young generation in modern conditions of society development, working out the possible results of mastering new tasks and courses set for teachers. The pedagogical tasks for teaching history and social studies have been determined: fostering a sense of civil identity among schoolchildren, studying traditions, cultures and values of the peoples of the Russian State; unification of the Russian society and interaction for the favorable development of the country in the future; private principles of upbringing schoolchildren are considered to achieve a wider level of patriotic feelings of schoolchildren. The problem of civil position, responsibility, social culture and socialization formation is considered as one of the main ones. In the course of studying theoretical material of both Russian and Soviet teachers, the basic principles of civil identity formation were revealed. A set of methods is formed on the basis of the principles of self-actualization, personalization and indivisibility of the processes of education and training. The analysis of theoretical and methodological literature showed a significant variety of pedagogical methods, techniques and technologies.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):242-246
pages 242-246 views

Pedagogical conditions for civil identity formation

Buranok S.O., Levin Y.A.


Features of civil identity formation in the educational process depend on the pedagogical conditions. Scientific interest in defining the specifics of approaches and methods can be traced both at the school level and at the secondary special and university level. The researchers paid special attention to such subjects as history and social studies. At the present stage of the development of pedagogy and teaching methods of the designated subjects, the formulation of new research problems will help to highlight in more detail the meaning and role of existing approaches to civil identity formation and substantiate new approaches that correspond to modern state and pedagogical tasks. The posing of new topics and questions within the framework of this vast topic will help to approach the process of civil identity formation more substantively and purposefully for both students and teachers at the level of general secondary education and at the level of higher and further education. The trends and patterns discovered in the course of the study will help to create both a new model and a new concept of Russian civil identity formation in the educational process. In addition, the analysis of approaches and models to civil identity formation will help to determine the relationship of scientific developments with the practice of manipulating history, historical memory, images of the past. An integrated approach to the study of the pedagogical conditions for civil identity formation will help to create new concepts and approaches to teaching history.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):247-251
pages 247-251 views

Desmoecological approach to ecological culture formation during professional training of pedagogical university students

Busygin A.G., Lizunova E.V., Vershinina L.V., Bondareva V.V.


Modern humanity lives in the era of the third millennium, in a period of a huge number of global environmental problems. The majority of environmental scientists attribute the low level of ecological culture of the individual and society as a whole to the main cause of the global environmental crisis. Currently, environmental security has become a dominant element of the national security doctrine. The term «ecological culture» itself considers an individual to be a subject of public relations and relations, introduces it into various types of activity interaction between society and nature, due to certain reasons that are associated with technology, exchange and consumption, with the attitude to property, as well as with certain norms, rules, laws, services, codes, etc. Analyzing the works of scientists and the experience of interaction between the environment and society, ecological culture includes a great potential, is the guiding force of the scientific and technological revolution. It is the teacher who plays a central function in the development of the ecological culture of youth. During the training sessions and during extracurricular hours, teachers should form a complex of scientific knowledge, worldviews, and ideas among students that the global environmental crisis, which may soon turn into an environmental catastrophe, poses a huge danger to all mankind. These phenomena can be prevented only with the help of targeted environmental protection activities. Environmental protection activities include a set of environmental knowledge, skills and abilities that students can master in the process of special education and training in an educational institution (school, vocational school, university). It is necessary to have a reliable level of elementary ecological concepts from an early age, and this suggests that the teacher must be sufficiently competent in this matter. He or she must have the skills to apply theoretical knowledge in practice and develop this skill among students. But as practice shows, in most cases, teachers themselves are not yet ready to implement this function. This is manifested in the fact that they do not have enough skills to adequately assess the state of the modern natural environment, to carry out environmental protection activities. This paper substantiates the effectiveness of the desmoecological approach aimed at ecological culture formation among pedagogical university students. The authors defined the content of the conceptual and terminological composition of the pedagogical categories «ecological culture» and «desmoecological approach», developed a model of the integrative course «Ecological culture of the future teacher».

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):252-257
pages 252-257 views

Tolerance development while teaching foreign languages for business communication

Gorlova E.A., Gridneva N.A., Doskovskaya M.S., Zhuravleva O.V.


The paper deals with the problem of tolerance development while teaching foreign languages for business communication. The urgency of the problem regarded is justified by the need of developing a person ready to a balanced and happy life in the modern multicultural society, as well as by the significance of tolerance as a professionally important quality and as a factor of creating a psychologically safe and comfortable environment for educational process. The great potential of the course «Business foreign language» for tolerance development is explained through opportunities to use the axiological approach and the well-known idea of the dialog of cultures, through extensive communication practice, as well as through opportunities for familiarizing with the ethics of business communication always based on the respectful attitude to the partner. The process of tolerance development breaks into three main steps in accordance to the three components of the traditional psychological model of tolerance: 1) giving information about the tolerance and its social importance (cognitional component), 2) development of values-based attitude towards the tolerance (emotional-axiological component), 3) use of the newly acquired value system in communication (behavioral component). The thematic content of the course and the most effective teaching methods are regarded.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):258-264
pages 258-264 views

Superstitiousness of university students majoring in arts and its role in their professional development

Gorodetskaya I.M., Khatsrinova O.Y., Petrova A.V., Abitov I.R.


The study addresses peculiarities of superstitiousness and paranormal beliefs of students majoring in Arts (creative type of professions) and its role in their professional development. Superstitiousness is a rather wide-spread phenomenon among different professional groups. Besides there is scientific evidence that students are a socio-demographic group with high level of superstitiousness. There exist two general points of view on superstitiousness as a psychological phenomenon: negative and coping. Creative activity in general and creative professions in particular are characterized by high uncertainty and unpredictability of its outcomes, therefore it was logic to suppose that future creative professionals would be highly superstitious. Besides constant search for innovative solutions and Art itself focuses on irrational aspects of being. Empiric study however showed average and low level of superstitiousness among Arts students, but significant correlations between superstitiousness, paranormal beliefs and personality traits. Differences between various creative professions were also found. The findings may be used for the future studies and applied in the educational practice.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):265-272
pages 265-272 views

Methodology for isolation study as a factor of the evolutionary process for the university course «Theory of Evolution»

Lamekhova E.A.


The development of the synthetic theory of evolution, which arose on the basis of the synthesis of Darwinism, genetics and ecology, was accompanied by the discovery of evolutionary factors that were unknown in the 19th century. The discovery of isolation made it possible to describe the mechanism of conservation of populations, species, as well as the process of speciation. The educational literature on the theory of evolution provides definitions of isolation, a classification of isolation forms, and the role of isolation in the evolutionary process. The study of isolation as a factor in evolution requires a development of a methodology for isolating mechanisms study. The achievement of this goal is associated with the choice of a variant of isolation definition as a factor of evolution. Methodologically successful is the definition of isolation, which describes the role of this factor at the initial stages of microevolution and leads to the emergence of new species and the preservation of their isolation. When formulating the definition of isolation, it is advisable to use terms such as population, species, gene flow and divergence. The isolating mechanisms are manifested in several forms, which necessitate their classification. The classification of E. Mayr (1974) makes it possible to describe the sequence, relationship and role in the evolution of the main forms of isolation when conducting classes. From the point of view of teaching methods, laboratory work is recommended when considering such forms of isolation as seasonal, biotopic and ethological forms. The implementation of the proposed methodology for isolation study as a factor in the evolutionary process while doing the university course «Theory of Evolution» makes it possible to increase the effectiveness of the assimilation of educational material by students.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):273-279
pages 273-279 views

Peculiarities of the civil-legal aspect of students’ environmental consciousness: the problem statement

Nikitin N.A.


The paper deals with a pilot study that has been conducted by the author. It is a part of the study of the peculiarities of the civil-legal aspect of students’ environmental consciousness. Theoretical prerequisites for studying ecological consciousness, civil law foundations of social interaction and peculiarities of civil identity have been determined. The study has been conducted at Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education with a help of a sociological survey using online questionnaires and the functionality of Google Forms. 269 students from various fields of training have taken part in this survey. The results provided an opportunity to assess the starting positions of the study and draw some conclusions about respondents’ moods and assessments regarding questions of interest. In general, the results obtained indicate a negative assessment of the environmental situation in the country, as well as in the world, the actions of the State to preserve environmental balance are not sufficiently assessed. The individual activity of students aimed at maintaining an ecological lifestyle is characteristic of almost half of respondents, while the knowledge about the main international environmental agreements and the largest natural-scientific concepts of the environment is also not familiar to more than half of respondents. The obtained results made it possible to determine the further direction of research with the involvement of specialists in the field of sociology, social studies, ecology, pedagogy and psychology in solving the set tasks.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):280-284
pages 280-284 views

Quest as a modern form of teaching physics and vocational guidance

Rusanova I.A., Nedopekin O.V.


The most important component of improving the educational system of a higher educational institution in the way of training students is the activity of the teaching staff associated with individual work with applicants and students by involving them in research work, involving students in projects and participation in career guidance work. Currently, there is an overestimated expectation of adolescents from the choice of their future activities after finishing secondary educational institutions and their vague idea of the profession when choosing a particular higher educational institution. This paper examines a game in the form of a quest as a means of increasing schoolchildren’s motivation to study Physics and as an example of demonstrating vocational guidance work of a higher educational institution with students in order to increase their interest in the conscious choice of further education in natural science. The forms of carrying out such quests at the Institute of Physics are given and possible ways for the development of such forms are discussed. Additionally, data is provided on the increased interest in their future profession among students participating in the quests. The approbation of this form of work with applicants at Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University showed a significant degree of involvement of applicants and contributed to the development of interest in Physics.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):285-288
pages 285-288 views

Communication activity of a digital society teacher

Strekalova N.B.


The paper examines the stages of society informatization (automation, informatization and digitalization) in historical retrospect and their impact on education. It also defines changes in the activity of a teacher in a digital society and education digitalization: specifics of the teacher’s activity in a digital society due to changes in the object (virtual learner), subject (digitized data, digital traces of the student’s educational activities) and tools of activity (digital technologies and platforms, video conferencing, information processing technologies); the peculiarity of the teacher’s activity due to the teacher’s remote interaction with students (online and offline communication); difficulties and problems of the teacher’s communication interaction with students. The theoretical conclusions are supported by the results of a pilot study in which teachers of educational institutions of higher and secondary vocational education participated. The empirical data obtained revealed difficulties affecting the quality of knowledge transfer in online and offline communications, problems of information flow management, as well as a tendency to reduce problems related to compliance with the rules of network ethics.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):289-294
pages 289-294 views

Electronic educational resources as a means of students’ information competence development in Geography at a modern school

Suppes N.E.


The paper discusses the relevance of the use of electronic educational resources (EER) in educational activities as a means of students’ information competence development. A variety of electronic educational resources, widely represented in the modern educational space, are actively used at Geography lessons and contribute to the development of students’ ability to work competently with information: to search for it in various sources; apply computer technology and use information devices to solve educational problems; independently select and analyze data; establish causal relationships; present information in a structured form using maps, presentations, virtual objects, tables, diagrams, etc. In order to study various aspects of the use of EER, a questionnaire survey was launched for Geography teachers at secondary schools in the south of the Tyumen Region. The paper contains a number of conclusions based on the analysis of the study results. Teachers note significant experience and high activity in the use of EER due to both the implementation of projects digitizing the educational environment and a change in the education format because of the pandemic. For solving various educational problems preference is given to electronic educational platforms, electronic textbooks and teaching aids, as well as Internet resources for preparing for the Basic State Exam and the Unified State Exam. Electronic educational resources have become an integral component of the educational process, significantly expanding educational opportunities for students’ skills and abilities development when they work with information.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):295-298
pages 295-298 views

Training organization on vocational educational programs with the use of a network form by departmental educational organizations of the penitentiary system

Ulendeeva N.I., Popov I.V.


The paper analyzes organizational aspects of higher, further and vocational training implementation using a network form of interaction. The authors have revealed conditions for professional training of employees who were first hired based on the results of questionnaires of employees working at educational organizations of the Federal Penitentiary Service, as well as interviews of employees working at professional and service training departments of the territorial bodies of the penitentiary service system. The analysis of the identified problems showed that at the current stage of network interaction there are two groups of problems: the first group (organizational problems) is the inclusion in the resources of the participating organization of the personnel potential of those responsible for training employees of penitentiary service institutions; the second group (methodical) is the effective use of methods and technologies for organizing synchronous and asynchronous training of young employees who are in the field of prospective professional activity. In the process of summarizing ways to solve the identified problems, the authors have formulated optimal techniques for conducting professional training of employees recruited into the penitentiary system using an online form of educational process; common approaches to organizing work on the use of various forms of students’ educational activities, current norms for calculating teachers’ work during lectures and seminars, during current, intermediate and final control, and when they develop educational materials.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):299-308
pages 299-308 views

Educational design as an intelligent foundation and creative source of prospective engineers’ professional development

Charikova I.N.


The innovative nature of engineering and technical education is focused on the digital production’s dynamics and is largely determined by the quality of knowledge acquired at the university. Lifelong education, continuous renewal and the production of new knowledge based on available knowledge has become a necessary requirement for the individual’s competitiveness in a modern society, where information and knowledge are the main resource and driving force. The subject of the study is substantiation of the educational project role as a result of professional education, which allows us to outline ways, techniques, methods that provide prospective specialists with an adequate understanding of the real world, successful adaptation to life in an information oversaturated environment and intellectual development in the digital world. The introduction of the «educational project» concept in the thesaurus of pedagogy allows us to strengthen the role of knowledge in professional and personal development. The paper establishes that the essence of educational design as a pedagogical phenomenon consists in the duality of educational and professional contexts; in the indication of the procedural manifestation in the project activity of prospective engineer’s professional and personal qualities; in the installation of an increase in experience of a value attitude to «living» knowledge when developing projects for creative transformation of the technosphere. The solutions given in the study are of a research nature and can be used in other similar Russian and foreign projects, as well as implemented when creating personalized e-learning systems and online courses in the dynamics of formation and development of educational design.

Samara Journal of Science. 2021;10(4):309-314
pages 309-314 views

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