Vol 7, No 3 (2018)

03.02.00 – General Biology

Future outlook of plant growth regulators application influencing callus induction from different type explant Hyoscyamus muticus L. in vitro

Abdelazeez W.A., Khusnetdinova L.Z., Timofeeva O.A.


The article shows the results concerning the problem of the influence of the hormonal composition of the medium on callus induction in isolated from different explants of Egyptian henbane areas (on the example of Hyoscyamus muticus L.). The authors study 11 variants of Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different concentrations and combination of auxins and cytokinins. It was important to find nutrient medium modification of Murashige and Skoog for callus induction. The article describes the fact that callus formation from different explant types of Hyoscyamus muticus L. in vitro was observed on Murashige and Skoog medium fortified with benzylaminopurine and naphthylacetic acid. It shows that the maximum callus induction was observed from root explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l of benzylaminopurine and 1.0 mg/l of naphthylacetic acid. And minimal callus formation was observed in the area with benzylaminopurine. Callus induction of leaf and stem explants both on the hormone-free nutrient medium and with the benzylaminopurine only was not observed. Thus, the results show that the frequency of callus formation with culturing root segment is higher compared to leaf and stem segment explants (on the example of Egyptian henbane in culture in vitro). This work aims to inducing callus formation from various explants of Egyptian henbane, which can be used for plant regeneration or as a source for in vitro production of secondary metabolites.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):10-13
pages 10-13 views

Features of Adenophora lilifolia (L.) A. DC. cenopopulations organization on specially protected natural areas of the Middle Volga and Southern Urals

Abramova L.M., Andreeva I.Z., Ilina V.N.


The study of rare plants at the level of cenopopulations throughout the range greatly contributes to the identification of their biology and ecology features. We identified features of the age and spatial structure of Adenophora lilifolia (L.) A. DC. cenopopulations in the ecological conditions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the Middle Volga (Samara Region) and the Southern Urals (Republic of Bashkortostan), as well as the mountainous zone of the Southern Urals. Adenophora lilifolia is included in the Red Book of the Samara Region in category 3 – a rare species. The study of A. lilifolia populations was carried out in different years on the territory of specially protected territories of different rank. We used standard techniques for determining cenopopulations structure. The studied cenopopulations are located on the fringes of oak-lime, birch, less often maple-linden or aspen forests, sparse forests or forest potholes. The total density of individuals varies from 0,8 to 4,2 specimens / m². The mean values of the generative fraction in the populations are 81,1%, the prevalent fraction is 19,3%. The basic ontogenetic spectrum of A. lilifolia is characterized as centered. Although the share of generative individuals in all cenopopulations is high, the distribution by ontogenetic groups in the two regions differs. The average values of demographic indices indicate a fairly high stability of the species populations. Of the 14 investigated cenopopulations of A. lilifolia, according to the «delta-omega» criterion, most are mature; in addition, transitional and maturing are identified. In general, the state of the populations in the Southern Urals is fairly prosperous. All studied populations in the Samara Region have a high anthropogenic load, and the number of individuals in specific habitats is low.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):13-19
pages 13-19 views

Mercury content in the wool of domestic animals in Cherepovets

Bachina E.S., Rumiantseva O.Y., Ivanova E.S., Komov V.T., Guseva M.A., Poddubnaya N.Y.


Mercury (Hg) and its compounds are considered as one of the ten major dangerous groups of chemicals. The content of mercury in the coat was 136 cats and 113 dogs in the territory of the Vologda Region in Cherepovets. The total mercury concentration in the wool samples was measured on a mercury analyzer RA-915 +. The values of the mercury index in cats range from less than 0,001 mg / kg to 13,00 mg / kg, in dogs from less than 0,001 mg / kg to 1,858 mg / kg. Statistical difference in the content of mercury in wool between cats and dogs was revealed. The Hg content in cats is 3,5 times higher than the dogs have. Comparison analysis showed the concentration of mercury in the wool of cats and dogs have no statistically significant differences. The authors noted that cats had 4 times more mercury who ate fish. The average content of Hg in the wool of dogs is slightly different for those who ate fish.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):19-23
pages 19-23 views

Ecological aspects of heavy metals accumulation in higher aquatic plants in the process of phytoremediation

Galdeeva O.F., Kozlovskaya O.V., Kopnina A.Y.


This paper deals with pollution of natural and waste waters with heavy metals in the conditions of technogenic impact. It describes one of the numerous methods for neutralizing various contaminants in the aquatic environment, in particular phytoremediation, which has been used for more than 50 years in various countries. The paper considers the role of higher aquatic plants which, according to a variety of confirmatory studies, can be used to extract toxic components from natural and waste water – heavy metal ions. The authors consider a possibility of inorganic origin pollutants extraction with the help of higher water plants of Myriophyllum verticillatum L. and Elodea canadensis Michx. in laboratory conditions. The authors determined pollutants concentration change dependence in the solution with a process duration of less than 10 hours. The authors proved that the maximum purification efficiency is achieved only with the combined use of higher aquatic plants and perfetron. The results of the studies indicate a possibility of water purification from heavy metal ions (ferric iron, bivalent copper, bichromate ions) with the help of higher water plants Myriophyllum verticillatum L. and Elodea canadensis Michx.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):23-27
pages 23-27 views

Environmental monitoring of the Sudomoyka river in the Volgo-Ahtubinsky floodplain

German N.V., Babicheva A.V., Manaenkov I.V., Sevriukova G.A.


The paper is devoted to ecological monitoring and system analysis of the Volgograd Region (the Sudomoyka Erik) reservoir. Environmental monitoring was conducted from March 2017 to February 2018. The set of studies included: determination of water organoleptic characteristics, the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, pH value, a dry residue and bioindication. The authors note microorganism number increase: Synedra, Spirogyra, Mougeotia in July and September 2017 and in February 2018 which are biological indicators of water quality. The presence of a high number of microorganisms-bioindicators testifies to the supersaturation of water with oxygen and the formation of organic substances. The authors found an increase in salinity of water in March, July and December 2017, February 2018. In winter in the water of the Sudomoyka Erik the authors found large amounts of mucus, eggs of various insects, organic dirt, which indicates the water pollution in the winter. Water quality in the Sudomoyka Erik is unsatisfactory, the Eric is classified as a slightly polluted body of water. The Sudomoyka Erik cannot be used for domestic purposes by residents of nearby settlements and is unfavorable for swimming in summer. The ecological state of the Sudomoyka Erik determines the ecological state of the entire natural complex of the Volga-Ahtubinsky floodplain

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):27-31
pages 27-31 views

Bioindication experience in forests in Tatarstan nowadays

Glushko S.G., Prokhorenko N.B.


Anthropogenic impact led to the destruction of forests and the destruction of a significant part of them in different regions. The process of destruction over a large area causes the new natural conditions forming. Thus, it is important to find the new methods to assess forests and forest conditions. The use of data regarding dominant, edifying, differential plant species allows assessing forest growing conditions at certain stages of community development. The results of such studies can be used for the purposes of short-term forest planning. The new research materials on the life strategy of forest plants and forest communities in general are important to do a long-term forecast of the dynamics of forest-growing conditions. Complex characteristics of plant behavior or their life strategy reflects the process of adaptation of vegetation to the emerging forest-growing conditions. The authors analyze the possibility of determining the natural conditions by the features of the life strategy of individual forest-forming species (on the example of forests of the Republic of Tatarstan). The type of the vital strategy of tree species was revealed by the indicators of the course or energy of growth, as well as life expectancy. Critically important question concern researching the main forest forming breeds in Tatarstan, which adapt to the emerging conditions, and show signs of pioneering behavior or operational strategy.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):31-35
pages 31-35 views

New locations of rare vascular plant species on cut-over peat lands (on the example of Kirov Region)

Egorova N.Y., Egoshina T.L.


The paper presents the investigation data of 6 cut-over peat lands in central area of Kirov Region (on the example of Zuev, Orichev, Slobod, Kirov and Chepez areas). The authors found the new locations of 10 rare plant species enlisted in the regional Red Book and species that have limited distribution in a region or have narrow ecological range (Gymnadenia conopsea, Dactylorhiza fuchsii, Epipactis helleborine, Epipactis atrorubens, Platanthera bifolia, Trichophorum alpinum, Botrychium multifidum, Dryopteris cristata, Thelipteris palustris, Huperzia selago). They also describe the process of phytocoenoses. The study shows the development of new typical boggy plant societies as a result of secondary bogging (on the example of Trichophorum alpinum, Drosera rotundifolia, Carex nigra, Eriophorum vaginatum, Parnassia palustris). The paper estimates the state of rare species populations. The authors analyze the ability of the species to inhabit artificial landscapes and anthropogenically modified phytocoenoses. That shows an explerent component of ecological-phytocoenotic strategy. Secondary boggy landscapes can play the role of refugiums for the species which habitats were lost due to industrial impact.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):35-41
pages 35-41 views

Resource-saving methods of cultivation of grain crops and biological activity of ordinary black soil

Zaushintsena A.V., Romanov V.N., Kozhevnikov N.V.


The article analyzes the role of resource-saving technologies to grain crop cultivation. Although there is a growing interest to the problem there is still a lack of theoretically analysis. Thus, the authors show the importance of resource-saving technologies in different soil and climate conditions. The article analyzes the influence of technological methods of soil cultivation on general biological activity of the chernozem of the Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe. The soil of the virgin variant is characterized by the greatest intensity of soil respiration and cellulolytic activity. Long-term processing of the chernozem of an ordinary experimental field led to a decrease of overall biological activity by an average of 30,5–33,5%. As a result, it has been established that methods of soil cultivation have a strong influence on biological activity and soil respiration during vegetation period. The greatest biological activity is observed at minimum soil cultivation. Hydrothermal conditions influence on the process of biological activity. High humidity caused a significant growth in cellulose-decomposing activity up to 27–38% and soil respiration by 17–24%. Humidity increasing caused the process of soil respiration. Cultivated crops didn’t influence on the process of biological activity. Zero cultivation caused the increasing spring wheat productivity on 0,93 c / ha and oat and barley productivity reducing. Minimum level of cultivation caused little barley and wheat productivity reducing on 0,25 c/ha. Reduced production costs and resource-saving technologies influence on both profit and the level of profitability increasing. Direct sowing to wheat (139,58%) and barley (142,24%) cultivation caused the highest level of profitability.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):41-48
pages 41-48 views

Grade of recreational potential of Samara suburban forests

Kazantsev I.V., Matveeva T.B.


Authors provide materials in article revealing recreational potential of Samara suburban forests and use S.L. Rysin's technique, which considers a sanitary condition of the woods, extent of recreational transformation and esthetic importance of forest plantings in article. Researchers counted coefficients of appeal, comfort and stability of forest communities for carrying out complex assessment. On their basis authors judge quality of the surveyed forests. They have obtained materials of vital state are submitted and values of water penetration of the soil. This indicator of recreational disturbance is important for forest communities. For this reason, researchers considered different in degree of a recreational digression. Researchers have conducted a research and have revealed that appeal and comfort high and stability is average in Samara suburban forests. Therefore, experts have to hold complex of actions, which improve a condition of forest plantings and increasing their stability in the conditions of anthropogenic loading. These materials allow defining condition of Samara suburban forests and their suitability for use in the recreational and tourist purposes.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):49-52
pages 49-52 views

Diversity and number of woodpeckers (Picidae) in the Chuvash Trans-Volga Region in winter

Kolenov S.E.


This article gives some data on the winter fauna of woodpeckers (Picidae) in the Trans-Volga Region of the Chuvash Republic. We analyze the species richness, their number and trends of its changes. To do it, it is possible when the reserachers analyze the results of the collected materials of 2010–2018 (on the example of three routes during ornithological surveys according Y.S. Ravkin’s method). The author believes that the importance of work is to show the lack of surveys concerning the analysis of winter fauna of woodpeckers in the Chuvash Trans-Volga Region. Moreover it shows to determine what impact on the avifauna of the Transvolga was caused by destructive fires in the summer of 2010 (as it destroyed up to 30% of the forest cover of the investigated territory). The article presents that the Chuvash Trans-Volga Region is inhabited by 6 species of woodpeckers out of 9, named in the Chuvash Republic. A great spotted woodpecker was a numerous and dominant species, black woodpecker was ordinary species, and the rest were less common. The greatest variety of woodpeckers was noted on the route with the maximum variety of vegetation and plenty of dead wood. A reliable positive population trend was revealed for the black woodpecker. The population of the great spotted woodpecker as a whole remained stable although it showed considerable fluctuations from year to year, depending on the yield of coniferous trees. For other species, it was not possible to identify any long-term trend. Three species of woodpeckers (the black, the lesser spotted and the three-toed woodpeckers) demonstrated mutual changes of the average winter density. All these species showed a significant increase in numbers, which gave a way to a decline then. We believe that the growth in numbers was due to the fires and drought of 2010, which provoked an outbreak of xylophagous insects and fodder base of these species. The subsequent clearing of the burners and the sanitary cutting reduced the food resources available for insects, what decrease the number of woodpeckers. We believe that sanitary cuttings should be abandoned in some areas of the Trans-Volga Region to preserve these species.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):52-59
pages 52-59 views

Species diversity and photobiont localization specificities in epigene lichens (on the example of the genus Cladonia)

Korchikov E.S., Bolgov E.V., Ilyina E.S., Pankratov T.A.


The article describes the taxonomic composition and photobionts localization specificities in above-ground lichens of the genus Cladonia. Moreover it analyzes the amount and algal species in thallus homogenates due to their age: in zones of active growth, aging zone and destruction zone; alga cells in washings from surface of thalli. Also the article analyzes the influence of the mycobiont on the photobiont species and abundance of the photobiont. It gives the comparison analysis of these data in lichens in the north taiga zone (Murmansk Region) and steppe zone (on the example of Orenburg Region). The method of direct microscopy helped to determine the taxonomic affiliation of the photobionts to the genus. Here the authors mean the size, shape of the cells, the nature of the chromatophore, etc. The number of photobionts in samples was studied both by light microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The paper presents the comparison results of the amount and algae diversity in in the thalli of the above-ground lichens of the genus Cladonia due to their geographical location and the specificity of the age dynamics of the podecium. The research shows the fact that Asterochloris alga was the dominant group in the actively growing lichen podecia. However geographical location is not important. Chlorella, Stichococcus, Pseudococcomyxa were found in lichens algae. The authors believe that the new information about the changes in the taxonomic composition of algae, due to the age of the thallus is important for science. Pseudococcomyxa algae dominated in the old parts of the north taiga lichens and Stichococcus dominated in the steppe areas. Moreover the authors give the attempt of resynthesize lichen tallium from previously isolated cultures of the mycobiotic and photobiont. This attempt was unsuccessful at the period of the research work.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):59-64
pages 59-64 views

Small mammals in the biomonitoring system of protected areas (on the example of the Ishim District of the Tyumen Region)

Levykh A.Y.


The article presents the results of the field studies of small mammals carried out from 1997 till 2017 on three specially protected natural areas of the Ishim District of the Tyumen Region (on the example of subzone of the northern forest-steppe). The method of synecology helped to analyze both the species and structural diversity and integral indices of the state of communities. The method of epigenetics aimed to show the stability of development in the populations of dominant species (on the example of Myodes rutilus and Sorex araneus). The article shows that the level of species diversity and stability of small mammalian communities is directly proportional to the area of specially protected natural areas and reversely proportional to the level of anthropogenic load on the habitat. High anthropogenic load is the reason of neutrals and anthropophiles disappearing from communities of small mammals. The index of dominance of Apodemus agrarius increases as well as the exoanthropic species. The author establishes that the information structure of all studied communities is that of poorly disturbed habitats of the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia. The information structure of the small mammals community of the most protected areas (1108 hectares), experiencing minimal anthropogenic impact is consistently reproduced in the number of years. The analysis of small mammals’ community showed a low resource potential of a forest park with an area of 14,5 hectares, located in the center of the city. At the same time the integral indices of the fluctuating asymmetry of the nonmetric features of the skull in the investigated populations of M. rutilus and S. araneus indicate the stability of epigenetic processes and the good state of the land and air environment.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):65-72
pages 65-72 views

Amygdalus nana L. reproductive structures features study when introduced in the North

Miftakhova S.A., Skrotskaya O.V.


As a result of Amygdalus nana plant flowers structure study, when introduced in the middle taiga subzone of the Komi Republic, its conformity to the species features of the plant is shown. The authors also note teratological changes, expressed in the abnormal development of sterile or fertile flower structures. The number of petals increases, their edges become wavy; stamens transform into petals, there is pistil underdevelopment, etc. The life cycle of A. nana flowers was traced in the conditions of the North, the duration of the phases of their development was determined (Phase I – «dense green bud», II phase of «pink bud», III phase – «beginning of blossoming flower», IV phase – «full blossoming of the flower» and V phase – «fading»). The features of the fruiting process of A. nana are shown, where degeneration of fertilized ovules is noted, which is due to the possible violation of different stages of embryogenesis. In this case, a significant number of anomalies in the fertile parts of the flower, possibly, lead to a small number of fruits on plants. The analysis of the A. nana flower structure in the middle taiga subzone of the Komi Republic gives additional information on the intraspecific changes in the reproductive structures of this plant; the results obtained can serve as additional information for establishing anthocological differences within the taxon.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):72-78
pages 72-78 views

Invasive species of Asteraceae family in Kursk flora

Nagornaya O.V.


The paper deals with biological features and quantitative characteristics of populations of some invasive species of the family Asteraceae in Kursk flora and their distribution. Kursk, being the industrial and administrative center of the Kursk Region, is characterized by a strong degree of flora transformation, as a result of the active transformation of the territory in recent years, which determines the suitable conditions for the introduction of invasive species and their wide distribution. In Kursk flora there are 43 invasive species, the proportion of Asteraceae is 21%. The paper presents biological features and characteristics of Xanthium albinum and Cyclachaena xanthiifolia populations. The following population indicators were studied: number of individuals, height and total projective cover. It was revealed that the populations of Xanthium albinum in different growing conditions show significant differences in the studied parameters. In the populations of Cyclachaena xanthiifolia fluctuations were observed in the number of individuals per 1 m². The reasons that determine the parameters of populations of invasive species is the degree of disturbance and shading. The study of urban vegetation is a necessary step in the development of measures to optimize the urban environment. The obtained materials will allow to evaluate the consequences of the introduction of these invasive species in the plant communities of Kursk and will provide a scientific basis for monitoring in order to prevent biological invasions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):78-82
pages 78-82 views

Chemical composition and biological activity of peat deposits of oligotrophic bog

Porokhina E.V., Sergeeva M.A., Golubina O.A.


The article presents the results of the main general technical, physical and chemical, microbiological and biochemical properties of the oligotrophic bog (Tomsk Region). It shows that peat oligotrophic bog belong to low-ash (2,3–10,9%), high – acid (2,2–3,6 units of pH), with the degree of decomposition – 20–50%. The authors find that the concentration of ammonium nitrogen increases with depth, and nitrate – decreases. The largest accumulation of mobile connections of phosphorus observed in the upper layer of peat deposits (11,20 mg/100 g dry peat). The maximum population of bacterial was concentrated in the upper layers of the deposit (20,6–22,4 billion cells/g). Spores, mycelium was detected in the fungal biomass only to a depth of 175 cm. The correlation analysis showed a direct relationship of fungal mycelium from the readily hydrolyzable substance (r = 0,84). Catalase activity varies from 0,99 to 7,32 ml O₂ / g × 2 min in peat bog deposit. The activity of catalase was influenced by the botanical composition The activity of polyphenol oxidase varies in the peat deposit from 0,13 to 6,72 mg of 1,4-benzoquinone / g × 30 min, changing unevenly in depth. The limits of peroxidase activity in peat bog were 0,69–26,19 mg 1,4-benzoquinone/g × 30 min.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):82-87
pages 82-87 views

Morphological and biochemical characteristic of Tanacetum vulgare L. plant

Portnyagina N.V., Echishvili E.E., Punegov V.V., Fomina M.G.


The paper presents the results of studying the introduction of seven Tanacetum vulgare samples of different geographical origin in the Botanical garden at the Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of RAS. In the first year of life the plants of tansy ordinary are in the pregenerative period, from the second year they bloom regularly and bear fruit. It has been established that in the conditions of culture the species are highly resistant and long-lived (more than 12 years). The study of the seasonal development of plants Tanacetum vulgare has showed that all samples retain phenological rhythms peculiar to this species: stretched flowering periods (33–44 days) and fruiting periods (44–52 days). Early and late samples have been identified by the timing of the entry of plants into the flowering phase. The vegetation period from the beginning of vegetation to the formation of mature fruits is 116–138 days. The growth of plants in height (109–131 cm) continues to the phase of mass flowering. The highest average daily growth (2,6–3,6 cm) was observed in the budding phase. Morphological options of generative escape have been studied. It has been revealed that the signs characterizing the flora part of the escape vary in populations at high and very high levels, which indicates the real possibility of improving the population by the method of targeted selection. The productivity and component composition of the essential oil from above-ground phytomass Tanacetum vulgare have been determined. The obtained data indicate the possibility of cultivation of this species in order to obtain high-quality medicinal raw materials. The optimal method of growing plants to create long-term plantations has been revealed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):88-93
pages 88-93 views

Zhiguli hills endemic species in the Mogutova mountain flora

Sidyakina L.V., Vasjukov V.M., Saksonov S.V.


Mogutova mountain flora (Zhiguli hill, Samara Region) has about 700 species of vascular plants, 14 species are included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation (2008), 50 species are included in the Red Book of the Samara Region (2017), 7 species are the endemics of the Zhiguli hills. On the Mogutova mountain 48 plant associations were described: 36 associations are represented by forest vegetation, 1 Association is represented by shrubs, 11 associations are represented by herbaceous vegetation. In eight described associations there are 6 endemic species of the Zhiguli hills: in Cerasus fruticosa + Caragana frutex association one endemic species is found – Euphorbia zhiguliensis; in Stipa pennata – Caragana frutex association there are 3 endemics – Cerastium zhigulense, Gypsophila juzepczukii and Thymus zheguliensis; in Stipa capillata + Herbae stepposae and Stipa capillata + Echinops ruthenicus associations there is only Thymus zheguliensis; in Herbae stepposae + Stipa pulcherrima and Stipa pennata + Helianthemum nummularium associations there are 2 endemic species – Gypsophila juzepczukii and Thymus zheguliensis; in Thymus zheguliensis association there are 4 endemics – Cerastium zhigulense, Gypsophila juzepczukii, Sisymbrium pinnatisectum, Thymus zheguliensis; in Schevereckia hyperborea association Poa saksonovii is revealed. The endemics of the Zhiguli hills: Euphorbia zhiguliensis and Thymus zheguliensis are protected at the Federal level, and Cerastium zhigulense, Gypsophila juzepczukii and Poa saksonovii are protected at the regional level.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):93-98
pages 93-98 views

The impact of economic activity on the ecological state of the water reservoirs of Ishim

Suppes N.E.


This article analyzes the problem of the state of the water bodies in Ishim by anthropogenic pressures. The study shows that the water reservoirs are negatively influenced by the economic activities of the population. The author defines their main directions: industrial wastewater discharge to the city water bodies, construction and operation of engineering constructions, activity in the private sector. To assess the state of the water bodies the author uses the results of the visual assessment of the state of the riverbeds and their coastal zone, the organoleptic water indicators (turbidity, color and smell), the analysis of the hydrobiological studies (determination of the degree of saprobity of the water bodies as indicators ciliated infusoria). The study showed the satisfactory condition of all the water reservoirs and the non-critical impact. As the enterprises for light manufacturing and food industries in Ishim are not sources of chemical, organic and other pollution the visual assessment didn't reveal significant deformations of the riverbeds and any changes in the coastal zone. The impact of the private sector is local and not the significant cause of organic pollution.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):98-103
pages 98-103 views

Fauna and bird population of agricultural landscapes of forest and steppe zone in Tula Region

Chelnokova T.A.


The article analyzes the features of the composition and distribution of communities of different types of birds in agricultural landscapes (agrolandscapes, agricultural land and farmland) of forest and steppe zone in Tula Region. The author of the paper shows the materials and methods of study, research techniques and the results of work for several years. Moreover the author shows the results of information data of long-period research which help to see a wide diversity of birds (biological diversity) of the avifauna of agricultural landscapes. The article discusses the differences of aviafauna (on the example of different types of landscapes and the degree of transformation of the territory) which determine the necessity for further reseraches in Tula Region. To do it, it is important to analyze the results of researches of different authors concerning the situation in other surrounding regions. The author believes it will help to compare the fauna diversity and identify the reasons of diversity. The results of work are important for further reseraches concerning the monitoring of local avifauna of different agricultural landscapes in Tula Region and surrounding regions. Moreover it will help to create the new special lists, bird atlases, Red book, and documentation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):104-107
pages 104-107 views

Ecological state evaluation of the Tuzlukkol River (Ural river basin, Orenburg Region)

Shayhutdinova A.A., Nemtseva N.V.


The paper presents hydrographic and hydrological characteristics of the Tuzlukkol River (Belyaevsky district, Orenburg region), characterized by a gradient of mineralization and dynamics of the hydrological and hydrochemical regime within landscape-Botanical nature monument “Salt urochishche Tuzlukkol”. The studied section of the river and the surrounding area in the warm season are exposed to significant anthropogenic impact. The results of the study found that in the composition of the water in the Tuzlukkol River the concentration of ions of calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, sulfate ions varies considerably, which indicates a formed natural gradient of salinity. In general, the water from the Tuzlukkol River refers to a chloride class, with a predominance of sodium cations with salinity values more 1000 mg/L. It’s the first time data on the taxonomic composition of macrozoobenthos fauna in a landscape-Botanical nature monument “Salt urochishche Tuzlukkol” have been obtained. Fauna, macrozoobentos on the area under study is represented by 12 species of invertebrates. Larvae of amphibiotic insects: diptera (7 species), podenki (1 species), bedbugs (3 species), crustaceans (1 species) reach the greatest faunal diversity. The salty water of arid zones supports specific conditions for the development of the euryhaline benthic communities. The studies were conducted in May, July and October 2017.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):108-112
pages 108-112 views

Current state of the ecosystem of the reservoir cooler (on the example of the Surgut Power Station)

Shornikova E.A., Kukurichkin G.M.


Rapid development of an oil and gas industry in the north of Western Siberia in the middle of the 20th century has demanded a significant amount of the electric power. This strategic task was carried out step by step in the neighborhood of Surgut (the largest oil and gas industry center on the Middle Priobye). Two gas-fired power stations have been consistently constructed. The integrated reservoir cooler has been built on the river Chernaya for cooling of circulating water in the system of reverse water supply of power plants. The article presents the assessment of consequences of flooding at construction of the Surgut reservoir. The total area of the water area of a reservoir is 2211 hectares, including 50% of forest, 20% of meadow, 5% of peat bog communities were under flooding. The authors of the paper develop the basic ecological map of the reservoir and neighborhood with the indication of natural and technogenic objects. Moreover they give the results of two years' monitoring of microbial community structure in the coastal zone of the reservoir cooler. They find it is important to provide the assessment of intensity of self-cleaning processes of the water object and analyze the sources of anthropogenic load on the water object. The microbiological methods which important to use for bio indication of an ecological condition of the Surgut reservoir have allowed to estimate the trophic status, to reveal ecologically unsuccessful sites of the water area, and to define intensity of self-cleaning processes in the water body.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):113-118
pages 113-118 views

07.00.00 – Historical Sciences and Archaeology

Some words about Tatiana Dmitrievna Belanovskaya

Murashkin A.I., Tikhonov I.L., Matveeva E.G., Beliaeva V.I.


September 10, 2018 marks the 100th anniversary of the birth of Tatyana Dmitrievna Belanovskaya (1918–2010) – who was one of the first graduates of Archaeology Department of Leningrad State University. She graduated from the University in 1941 and completed postgraduate studies at Archaeology Department in 1948. From 1948 until 1988 T.D. Belanovskaya taught at the same Department. The most important courses made by her were «Prehistory and the basics of ethnography», «The Basics of Archeology», as well as special courses on Neolithic, Eneolithic and numerous regional courses in archeology of Western, Central and Eastern Europe. 52 master theses were written under the guidance of T.D. Belanovskaya; many of the graduates defended doctoral dissertations. Thanks to her educational activity, recent studying of Neolithic was formed in Russia and the countries of the former Soviet Union. Tatiana Dmitrievna conducted long-term field studies of the settlement of Rakushechny Yar – the unique multilayer site which includes Neolithic and Eneolithic materials. The stratigraphy of the site is a kind of reference standard for the territory of the South of Eastern Europe while the studying of the oldest pottery from the lower layers allows ones to solve the problem of neolithization of the region. The paper includes excerpts from the interview with Tatyana Dmitrievna Belanovskaya and memoirs of her students graduated from Archaeology Department of Leningrad State University in the 1960s and now working at the Department.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):119-126
pages 119-126 views

New investigations of early Neolithic layers (on the example of Rakushechny Yar)

Tsybriy A.V., Dolbunova E.V., Mazurkevich A.N., Tsybriy T.V., Tsybriy V.V., Szmańda J., Kittel P.



Rakushechny Yar has attracted interest for a long period of time. New questions arose around its materials and the site itself, which led to renewal of excavations and investigations of this site nowadays. New investigations of the place allowed the authors to distinguish early Neolithic layers, which were inaccessible before due to a high water level of the Don River. Particularities of Unio and Viviparus shells distribution show that these were different shell middens within several horizons. Also variety of spots full of bone debris and pits were uncovered here. New paleogeographical studies allowed reconstruction ancient landscape in the surroundings of this place. Shell tools, stone industry and ceramic assemblage, bone and antler tools are early Neolithic finds. The first time wooden artefacts and coprolites were found in a low watered layer. Finds of bones of domestic animals suggest even more complicated organization of this early Neolithic society.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):127-136
pages 127-136 views

Some review on the results of technical and technological analysis of ceramics (on the example of the Rakushechny Yar settlement)

Vasilieva I.N.


The article gives the results on the problem of pottery technology usage in the population which left a multilayered stratified settlement of the neo-Eneolithic Age of Rakushechny Yar. It is located on the island of Porechny in the riverbed of the Don river, which is near Razdorskaya village of Rostov Region in Russian Federation. This research is a long-term study concerning the problem of ancient pottery technology usage in Eastern European territory of Russia. The author found it is important to use both the historical and cultural approach and the method of A.A. Bobrinskiy. This method includes binocular microscopy, tracology and physical modeling experiment. The authors studied 294 samples of ceramics (separate vessels approximately) in Rakushechny Yar. Thus, the article describes the techniques and methods for selecting plastic raw materials, composing molding masses, making vessels, giving a general description of the Lower Don region Early Neolithic pottery. Moreover the author uses the comparative analysis to describe the new knowledge and give more information on the problem concerning the pottery technology usage in these regions. The author gives similar and different specific features of the neolithization process in the Don and the Volga regions as well as the questions concerning the origin and the development of early Neolithic pottery traditions in south steppe zone of the Eastern Europe.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):137-153
pages 137-153 views

Stone implement from the early Neolithic layers in Rakushechny Yar (on the example of the researches of 2016-2017)

Gorodetskaya S.P.


The article shows the analysis of the collection of the stone artifacts obtained as a result of excavations of the early Neolithic layers of the site Rakushechny Yar. The collection of the stone tools makes it possible to get an idea about the flaking technology, oriented to obtaining blades. However, the absence of the products of debitage on the site indicates that flaking and tool production were realized outside the site. For secondary modification inhabitants of the site used such techniques as retouching and polishing. The tools assemblage was represented mainly by points that were used as drills, end-scrapers and polished axes, which indicates the specific economic activities of the inhabitants of the site, associated with the woodworking. The stone implement of the site has analogies not only in the Neolithic sites of the region, but also in the Neolithic stone implements of the sites of the Lower Volga and Northern Caspian Regions. Taking into account that the investigated part of the site was a coastal zone at one time, as well as the presence of a large number of fish bones in the lower layers, it can be assumed that the use of the above categories of tools was somehow connected with fishing. This assumption can be confirmed by microwear analysis of the stone tools.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):153-159
pages 153-159 views

Archeological analysis of osteological material of Rakushechniy Yar settlement while studying the economy of the early Neolytic population

Sablin M.V.


The paper contains the study results of the settlement Rakushechny Yar fauna from the excavations of 2013–2017. It is a reference site for this region, because it has a unique stratigraphy. It was possible to determine 201 bones of mammals, birds and turtles at the early Neolithic layers of Rakushechny Yar. The fish remains at the settlement are numerous, but have not been investigated. The large ungulates were of the greatest importance here for the hunting. The largest number of the bones belongs to the red deer. Cutting the carcasses of this animal occurred at the settlement. It should be noted that the horse is represented by a wild form here. An important event was the appearance of domestic cows, sheep and pigs in this region. As a result of the analysis of the available osteological material we can confidently state that the process of domestication of these species passed long before the arrival of the settlers on the Don River. The Early Neolithic population in the Northern Black Sea Region, from our point of view, was heterogeneous in terms of material culture and, probably, the origins of the formation. It is possible that this is the reason for the difference in economic activity of people in that territory.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):160-165
pages 160-165 views

Complex experimental-trasologic and ethnographic researches of ceramics: technology of manufacturing and burning

Poplevko G.N.


Complex experimental-trasological and ethnographic studies of ceramics are shown on the example of their application to the study of technological methods for the manufacture of ancient ceramics. The paper considers the use of different research methods using the materials of Rakushechny Yar settlement on the Lower Don and Maikop culture in the North Caucasus and ethnographic data. Experimental modeling of flat-bottomed vessels of the Neolithic and round-bottomed vessels of Maikop culture is given as an example. It is shown that ceramics in different archaeological epochs were made using several techniques. The technique of making vessels was modeled by experiments. The study of ethnographic data on the technique of making round-bottomed vessels shows that the methods of modeling different vessels are much larger. The work presents archaeological, experimental, tracological and ethnographic data on the production of both flat-bottomed and round-bottomed vessels using the knockout technique. Recently, with the help of this technique, a series of experiments on the modeling of vessels and the subsequent tracological study of the technology of their manufacture with the help of a knockout was performed. For the first time the author shows the use of a combination of various methods of modeling in the manufacture of Neolithic vessels. The data of petrography and experiments on the burning of vessels are given.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):165-172
pages 165-172 views

Some similarity features in the Neolithic Lower and Middle Don

Gapochka S.N., Surkov A.V.


The paper considers the influence of Rakushechny Yar settlement research on ideas about the Middle Don Neolithic. Traditionally, the Lower Don Region was considered as one of the centers of the Middle Don Neolithic culture. The paper contains a comparison of the stone and ceramic inventory of the Rakushechny Yar with the materials of the Middle Don Culture sites. There are common features: stone inventory lamellar with a small number of geometric forms, acute vascularity, the use of pointed ornamentation, technological methods of vessel surface processing. At the same time, a large number of differences in the comparison of Early Neolithic materials of the Lower and Middle Don allow one to conclude that there is no genetic connection between the Middle Don and Rakushechny Yar cultures. In addition, the paper presents the study of the Cherkasskaya 5 site, its materials precede the Srednodonsk in chronological order and have many similarities with the finds from the lower layers of Rakushechny Yar settlement. Thus, the stone inventory of Cherkasskaya 5 is plate, geometric microliths are not found.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):173-176
pages 173-176 views

Cherkasskaya-5 site and its place in the Early Neolithic on the Middle Don River

Skorobogatov A.M.


The paper introduces materials of Cherkasskaya-5 site, located on the Middle Don River in the Pavlovsky district of the Voronezh Region. Under the two-meter thickness of the lake-alluvial layers, more than a thousand pieces of finds have been ceramics, stone, bone products and osteology. While analyzing the materials of the monument a ceramic and flint complex of the Early Neolithic appearance have been distinguished (7–6 thousand BC). The received radiocarbon dates, the data of technical and technological analysis and the features of ornamentation, ceramics, the typology of stone and bone inventory, help to find one of the possible ways of Neolithization of the Middle Don, in which the leading role belongs to the steppe component. Paleozoological analysis showed that the osteological collection is dominated by the bones of birds (64,4% of all bones), there are mammals (21,8%), fish (9,7%), turtle marsh (4,1%). Among domestic mammals domestic species (dog, horse, pig, sheep) are identified. However, the presence of late Neolithic and Eneolithic (srednedonskaya, dnepro-donetskaya, nizhnedonskaya, and srednestogovskaya cultures) in the ceramics layer leaves open the question of the domestic animal species belonging to the early Neolithic. The material of the site makes it possible to characterize this place as a series of seasonal short-term specialized sites intended for conducting network fishing, hunting for waterfowl, catching turtles and collecting shellfish as well as for processing the products of fishing and hunting in the Neolithic age.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):176-189
pages 176-189 views

Early Neolithic stone industry of the Upper Don

Smolyaninov R.V., Yurkina E.S.


Features of the flood plain settlements of the river Don watershed and its tributaries is the fact that almost all of them are multi-layered. Until recently it was not possible to talk about the Early Neolithic stone industry of the Upper Don. All conclusions about Early Neolithic material culture in this territory were done by A.T. Sinyuk, based on the Middle-Don site. He described tool industry as blade technique. The paper mentions the most important sites and gives a review of Early Neolithic stone industry of the Upper Don. Nowadays there are materials of the 4 Early Neolithic cultures on the Upper Don territory: Middle-Don (72 sites), Karamyshevo (26 sites), Upper-Volga (4 sites) and Elshanskaya (4 sites) cultures. The earliest materials in the research area date VI mill. cal BC. The data on the stone industries of the Elshanskaya and Upper-Volga cultures in the Upper Don are absent. There are stone collections, which could be connected only with the Middle-Don and Karamyshevo Early Neolithic cultures. This industry could be described as flake technique.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):189-199
pages 189-199 views

New data about the early Neolithic of the steppe Volga Region

Yudin A.I., Vybornov A.A.


The issue of early Neolithic isolation in various territories is one of the most difficult to study. The early Neolithic steppe Volga Region was unknown for a long time. This is due to the small number of Neolithic monuments in the region of interest. The situation changed after the study of the Varfolomeevskaya site. The lower layer of this reference monument of the Orel culture belonged to the Middle Neolithic, layers 2B and 2A – to the late Neolithic. This version was based on a limited source base and a few radiocarbon dates, some of which were of a debatable nature. New field surveys in 2014–2017 on three excavations in Oroshaemoe Settlement and significant series of radiocarbon dates for various organic materials obtained in various laboratories (including AMS) allowed us to revise the periodization of both the Varfolomeevskaya site and the Oryol culture on the whole. This allows you to make a typological analysis of materials, as well as technical and technological analysis of ceramic implements. Thus, the earliest ceramics are made from silt with a natural admixture of shells of mollusks. The lower layer of the monument is now defined as Early Neolithic, layer 2B – the Middle Neolithic, layer 2A – late Neolithic.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):199-204
pages 199-204 views

Comparison of geometric microliths of the Northern Caspian and Lower Don

Smagin V.A.


Geometric microliths are inherent in almost all the Mesolithic and Neolithic monuments in the Lower Volga Region. For the sites of the territory they play a key role. With the help of this type of tools, it is possible to determine the cultural affiliation and chronological position of the studied monuments. In this paper we mainly consider the Neolithic sites on the territory of the Lower Volga and Lower Donets, which have geometric microliths in stone implements. Most of these monuments have a fairly stable series of tools of a geometric type, which makes it possible to compare them among themselves and draw parallels. The results of radiocarbon dating for Neolithic monuments of the Lower Volga and Lower Donets are presented. There is a typological comparison of these sites. The paper discusses similarities and differences, as well as possible contacts, or the lack of population on the two territories – the Lower Volga and the Lower Donets. The author comes to the conclusion that based on the analysis of geometric microliths it is not possible to trace a significant connection between the population of the Lower Volga and the Lower Donets. In the development of the flint industries of these regions there are more differences than similarities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):204-208
pages 204-208 views

Soil-archaeological characteristic of the archaeological settlement Kalmykovka I in the Samara Volga Region

Ovchinnikov A.Y., Andreev K.M.


The paper publishes the results of soil research on the archaeological site – the settlement of the Neolithic and Bronze age Kalmykovka I located in the Krasnoyarsk district of the Samara Region. The paper briefly describes the archaeological site. Its cultural identity and the absolute age of the found artifacts are indicated. The morphological studies and analysis of the physical and the chemical properties of the modern soils, soil-forming rocks and cultural archaeological layers were carried out at the key site The taxonomic difference in soils was identified, related to the anthropogenic transformation of the soil in the middle and late Holocene. The physical properties of soils, and in particular, the granulometric composition, acquire lighter fractions in the direction from the watershed to the river terraces and slopes. Such pattern is recorded on other archaeological sites in the Middle Volga Region. The meandering of riverbed and the change in the level of rivers at different time intervals of the Holocene leaded to a change in the granulometric composition of the territory of the riverbed and river terrace. The preliminary results showed that an ancient man accounted for: a geographical location, a landscape exposure, the riverbed and the river level while arranging the settlement Kalmykovka I in different periods of the Holocene. The change in the paleogeographic situation on the given territory from the Middle Holocene to the Late one apparently influenced the river level content of the Sok River and its riverbed, which forced the generations of people to move the settlement deep into the watershed surface.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):208-214
pages 208-214 views

Origins of the pottery traditions in the early Neolithic European North of Russia

Ivanischeva M.V.


The following paper deals with origins of the pottery traditions in the early Neolithic European North of Russia. At present there is a prevailing scheme of ornamental styles development stages in the Early Neolithic antiquities forest zone of the European part of Russia – from pinned-point/without ornament to the later ornamental comb tradition. Among the series of dates taken as a chronological frame for the Neolithic forest belt around 7000 years ago, there are deeper/ancient definitions for pricked fragments, as well as vessels with comb-style ornamentation. The paper presents technical and technological analysis of the ceramic complex of monuments in Berezovaya Slobodka in Nyuksensky district and monuments in Tudozere and Kemozere in Vytegra district.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):214-225
pages 214-225 views

The Sperrings culture (current state of study)

German K.E.


The following paper deals with the study of the Sperrings culture. More than a decade has passed since the last general publications on early Neolithic of Karelia. During this period, new sites of the Sperrings culture have been discovered and studied, first AMS-dating has been received from the ceramic fragments, monuments of the early Neolithic in the neighboring territories have been studied. As a result of two decades of the archaeological research in Karelia more than a dozen of new monuments were discovered and investigated, including poorly explored areas of the Northern Ladoga and Karelian isthmus. The Sperrings culture centre is the Onega lake basin, where more than 200 settlements are known. The existence period of the Sperrings culture in the Onega lake basin on the basis of AMS-dates is 5306–4250 cal BC. These data are also consistent with AMS-dating of bones of Koirinoya III settlement in the North Ladoga area. The Sperrings ceramics appeared on the territory of Karelia at the same time.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):225-230
pages 225-230 views

Ceramic ware in the culture of mobile foragers of the Extreme north-east of Europe

Karmanov V.N.


In the paper the author summarized and systematized the initial data on ceramic ware of the Neolithic and Eneolithic of the Extreme north-east of Europe. He analyzed information about the archaeological contexts of ceramics, its quantitative (number of capacities in each complex) and qualitative (shape, proportionality and volume of vessels) characteristics. Critical analysis is used to assess the possibilities of available materials to extract information. As a result, the dynamics of quantitative and qualitative parameters of ceramic ware during the VI – first half of II millennium BC was traced. Its cultural and chronological features are determined as well. It is established that in the first half of the V millennium BC ceramics in the form of sets of vessels of different volumes and kinds becomes an integral part of the daily life of the hunters of the region. According to their lifestyle, the demand for ceramics was limited: the average number of simultaneously used vessels on average 3–4 containers per context. In this case, the simplest forms (round-bottomed pots with volumes up to 25 liters and bowl-shaped dishes up to 2,5 liters) predominate. Ceramic traditions presented in the region are associated with cultures that originate in different adjacent areas of the forest zone of Eastern Europe and Western Siberia, so the universality of the customary forms, volumes and, probably, the ways of using ceramic dishes, is universally accepted. The data obtained can be used as materials for the development of the problem of the distribution of early ceramics, for assessing the role and determining the place of it in the material culture of the prehistoric population.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):230-240
pages 230-240 views

Bone and antler implements of the Early Neolithic Dnepr-Dvina interfluve settlements: technological and functional features, context

Malyutina A.A.


In this paper we consider the results of the use-wear analysis of the bone and antler implements received as a result of excavation of the Early Neolithic settlements on the territory of Dnepr-Dvina interfluve. This kind of research is conducted for this category of archaeological material for the first time. For the analysis we have selected 27 bone, antler and teeth items occurring from two settlements of the Serteysky microregion – Serteya X and Rudnya Serteyskaya. The good preservation of items has allowed us to study macro- and microtraces connected with technology of processing of raw materials and receiving products, ways of usage of finished utilitarian and not utilitarian character items. The following categories of implements have been marked out: knives, awls, pendants, spear-heads, arrowheads, barbed points, preforms, fragments of items with processing traces. The obtained information is correlated to other materials of settlements – ceramics, stone artifacts, economic and cultural characteristic of settlements in general. Ceramic traditions in upper courses of the Western Dvina belong to 7 millennium BC. The earliest ceramic traditions are combined in Serteyskaya archaeological culture. Later, in materials of the Early Neolithic sites influence of Early Neolithic cultures of East Baltics is traced. As a result, on the territory of Podvinya the Rudnyanskaya Early Neolithic culture is formed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):240-247
pages 240-247 views

Morphological analysis of Novosvobodnenskaya culture ceramics from burials in the burial mound «Klady»

Rezepkin A.D.


Morphological analysis of the ceramics of Novosobvodnenskaya culture has not been carried out so far. In this paper, 19 fragments of vessels from the burials of the burial mound «Klady» were analyzed. As a result, it was found that the composition of the clay mass used in the manufacture of ceramics was very diverse – as whole types of clays – limestone, montmorilinite, hydromica, and in their various combinations – six more variants. Almost half of the vessels (nine) were made of limestone and montmorilinite clays. The composition of impurities is also diverse: sand, chamotte, limestone and grime in various mixed versions. The last few were fragments without impurities, only four. Vessels were subjected to both oxidative roasting and reducing. Only three specimens were subjected to combined, oxidation-reduction firing. A comparative analysis of Maikop and Novosvobodnensk ceramics is carried out. Thus, this method of investigation of ceramics showed that the carriers of the Novosobvodnenskaya culture had a great experience of ceramic production, which enabled them to use a wide range of clays, in their various combinations and methods of roasting in the manufacture of ceramics.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):247-254
pages 247-254 views

Catacomb incense burners of kurgans 1 and 4 of Kounakovsky-2 (on the example of Andropovskiy District, Stavropol Region)

Panasyuk N.V.


The author considers the data of Suvorov catacomb culture burials with incense burners, found in kurgans Kounakovsky-2, explored by the expedition of the «Nasledie» in Stavropol Region in 2005. The artefacts from burials of two kurgans (1 and 4) illustrate the typological variety of the catacomb ritual bowls. In addition these kurgans demonstrate good stratigraphy of burials that allows seeing the incense burner’s evolution. Such evolution has been already created on data of Vostochnomanych catacomb culture, when early and late types were identified. Suvorov catacomb culture’s incense burners of type I, II, VI, X are found in kurgans Kounakovsky-2, one item belongs to the early catacomb period. Stratigraphic data of kurgan 1 indicates almost synchronic construction of the burials, as evidenced by the finds of typologically close incense burners. Kurgan 4 was built at least in four steps, which are illustrated by ritual bowls of early (I, II) and late (VI, X) stages. As a result the authors of the paper justify that Suvorov catacomb culture may be divided in two periods of development, marked by different types of incense burners.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):254-269
pages 254-269 views

Cultural attribution of the dwelling-workshop on the basis of the Taldysay settlement ceramics analysis

Yermolayeva A.S., Kaliyeva Z.S., Dubyagina E.V.


The following paper considers important characteristics of classical ceramic collection from the dwelling-workshop situated in the metallurgical settlement Taldysay. The workshop had one period of settlement and belongs to the Petrov archeological culture (the type of the monument is Nurtai for Central Kazakhstan). In previous years of the research, we made attempts to determine the cultural affiliation of the thermal engineering structures on the basis of ceramic material that constitutes ground and mine types in dwelling and production complexes that functioned in different chronological periods and contained various cultural materials. Due to the fact that the collection is quite limited, the present publication consists of the preliminary analysis of the artifacts and includes systematization of the accumulated ceramic materials from the settlement. From 100 fragments, only 41 specimens were selected for the further analysis, and 35 of which were found directly in the heat engineering facilities and near them. Importantly, even now we can conclude that the ceramic material proves that the thermal engineering structures of ground and mines types in a single-layer dwelling-workshop belong to the monuments of Petrov archeological culture of Nurtai type. Finally, the considered collection determines the start of the metal production on the territory of Central Kazakhstan by the first half of the second millennium BC.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):269-275
pages 269-275 views

New approaches to models of gender roles of the Late Bronze Age of the Southern Urals: Kazburun Archeological Microdistrict (on the example of the results of a bioarcheological analysis)

Shcherbakov N.B., Shuteleva I.A., Leonova T.A., Gorshkov K.A., Golyeva A.A., Baturina A.N.


Complex archaeological studies carried out on the monuments of the developed classical Late Bronze Age in the territory of the Southern Urals, Kazburun archeological microdistrict allowed to apply the method of osteobiography to the reconstruction of gender features of the funeral rite. The received radiocarbon dates allowed not only to overstate the history of the inhabitants of the Srubnaya and Alakul cultural tastes for a period of 350–400 years in this territory, but also to show the finding of all those buried in the same chronological horizon. At the same time, a comparative radiocarbon analysis of the materials of funerary and settlement complexes also showed their simultaneity. DNA data made it possible to distinguish the specificity of the funeral rite. A strong degree of crookedness as a gender characteristic of the buried Scorpion is suggested to be investigated both in the «traditional» description (crookedness in the hip joint and crookedness in the knee joint, and use the parameter of scorpionctomy in the elbow joint of the buried). Anthropological analyzes characterized a number of paleoblocks as a gender attribute for the homogeneous paleodiet of the ancient population of the Kazburun archaeological microdistrict. Soil research methods have made it possible to determine the nature of the interaction of the ancient population and the modern paleo-environment, thus revealing the level of ancient anthropogenic impact on the environment, to identify probable traditions in the construction of the ancient population.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):275-282
pages 275-282 views

The barrow 21 of the burial ground Filippovka I: items of horse equipment and date of the complex

Myshkin V.N.


This article deals with equestrian ammunition items found near the burial mound of the 21 Filipovka I burial ground in the Orenburg region in order to establish the time of construction of this burial mound. The burial mound Filippovka I was a necropolis of the social elite of nomads who inhabited the steppes of the Southern Urals in the middle of the 1st millennium BC. The richness of the funerary inventory and the complexity of the ritual actions performed during the erection of the burial mounds make it possible to study many aspects of the history and culture of these tribes. This determines the importance of a comprehensive study of the materials of this burial ground. Equipping a horse includes four bronze objects: two bridle plaques, check-piece and headband decoration bridle were found around the barrow 21 Filippovka I burial ground. Some of these items have close analogies among the details of equine ammunition from the Scythian monuments of the Black Sea North Littoral, dated by import items. The analogies that exist among the Scythian antiquities allow us to date the burial mound of the burial ground of Filippovka I during the time of the 4th century BC. The presence of such things as a headband in the form of a griffin head and a bridle plaque in the form of a wolf's head fixes the existence of the cultural interaction of nomads who left the burial ground of Filippovka I with the western Scythian world of the Northern Black Sea Coast.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):283-287
pages 283-287 views

Social protection of female workers at Saint Petersburg industrial enterprises in the second half of the XIX - early XX century as one of the aspects of everyday life female history

Severtseva O.V.


The paper refers to the measures of social protection of female workers at St. Petersburg industrial enterprises in the second half of the XIX – early XX century. Social security is an important part of any person’s everyday life, especially women. Laws adopted in the Russian Empire, within the framework of factory legislation, were aimed at supporting the interests of industrial entrepreneurs rather than female workers. Legislative acts that were supposed to guarantee social protection for women workers were practically not observed. Many of these laws were even abolished by later regulatory acts. Female workers did not receive equal wages with men. Women had to work long hours in unsanitary conditions. Female workers were almost «slaves» for the owner of an industrial enterprise. Factory inspectors could not help women workers solve their problems. The authorities did not provide social protection for women in St. Petersburg, who worked for factories in the second half of the XIX – early XX century.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):287-293
pages 287-293 views

The experience of steppe reserve organizing in Southern Pre-Urals in the late XIX - the first third of the XX century and the problem of Russian steppes sustainable development of the XXI century

Mishanina E.V., Mishanina E.V.


The article analyzes the history of two steppe reserves in the territory of the Southern Urals (Orenburg region nowadays). The first one was established by A.N. Karamzin in private grounds of Polibino, in Buguruslan Uyezd of Samara Region (Gubernia), in 19–20th centuries. Its area was 650 hectares, while its location, period of its existence, as well as the scientific and practical activities remained unknown. Flora and fauna as well as meteorological observations were conducted in this place. The results of the researches were published by the owner in a number of monographs. In early 1920's this area was totally changed. The second reserve named «Koziavka» was opened in Kurmanaevsky District of the Middle Volga Region by I. Sprygin, with the help of the director of Penza State Reserve that existed from 1930 to 1935. It was a significant area of virgin steppe and long-term fallow land with rich steppe biodiversity. It was lost during the land transfer reform - from the Middle Volga Region to Orenburg Oblast. Similar reseraches have a practical significance. That will help to design and find these sites with further transformation into specially protected natural areas, as well as to determine the conservation status of previously existing reserves.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):293-298
pages 293-298 views

13.00.00 – Pedagogical Sciences

Theoretical foundations of preschoolers’ social orientation readiness structure

Barcaeva E.V.


This paper presents a theoretical analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature devoted to the problem of preschoolers’ readiness for social orientation. The author examines the key concepts of the study: «socialization», «social orientation», «readiness», «readiness for social and domestic orientation» and «readiness for social and domestic orientation with regard to preschoolers». The paper characterizes preschool age as a sensitive period of social and household orientation readiness development. The paper describes main neoplasms of age, social situation of development, as well as specificity of the leading activity. The author considers the concept of «readiness structure». The paper also presents main structural components of readiness for social orientation in relation to preschool age: personal, cognitive and activity. The paper reveals the components of readiness for social orientation of preschoolers and characterizes the essence of each component. The personal component of readiness for social and domestic orientation of preschoolers includes: value orientation, motivation, emotional well-being, qualities that characterize the properties of the individual. Cognitive component of readiness for social orientation of preschoolers is represented by primary ideas about the natural and social world, primary mathematical concepts, primary socio-cultural ideas and primary ideas about social and domestic activities. The activity component of readiness for social and household orientation of preschoolers is characterized by general intellectual, general labor, social and household, communicative skills.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):299-302
pages 299-302 views

Humanistic values as a system-forming principle of the professional activity of a teacher

Bezdukhov V.P., Pozdnyakova O.K.


Critically important question concerns the problem of humanistic values as a system-forming principle of the professional activity of a teacher. That is motivated by the necessity of solving the task of educating a humanistically-oriented student in the framework of a damaged value paradigm. The article proves the values in the professional activity of the teacher and emphasizes the role of humanistic values as a system-forming principle of the professional activity of a teacher. That is important in the framework of the humanistic ethics. The article shows that the focus of humanistic ethics has always been under consideration. Moreover that is important to show that the key vision of the humanistic ethics is the knowledge of a man which is necessary concerning the values and norms of life as an individual, and society as a whole. It shows that humanistic ethics consider humanistic values to be accepted by all higher forms of culture and common to these forms. The authors of the article analyze humanistic values and find it is important to show that some scientists identify humanistic and universal values. The article shows that humanism values is a system-forming principle of the professional activity of a teacher and it helps the teacher to form, to educate and to develop the human in a child, participate in his up-bringing process. Thus, the teacher aims not to remain outside his field of humanistic vision. The article analyzes the factors affecting the effectiveness of the realization of values. Moreover the article describes the fact that moral values are becoming humanistic values. To do so, it is necessary to consider interpersonal collaboration between a student and a teacher. Humanistic approach has a big role. The authors of the paper believe the importance of «reflection-in-itself-reflection and-in-another» in a teaching process for further warm cooperation between a student and a teacher as well as understanding of the role and mechanisms of humanistic values. The essence of normative professional activity of the teacher is revealed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):302-306
pages 302-306 views

Methodological basis and the problem of a future teacher morality development

Guschina A.V.


The article analyzes the importance of a future teacher‘s morality development. The author finds it is necessary to show that the idea of «selecting the strongest, best, thoroughbred, domination of some people over others» generates a crooked memory, and the idea of «brotherhood of people, the dignity and value of each person» generates a moral memory. Moreover the author gives a methodological basis for morality development and believes that it is necessary to distinguish two interrelated and self-independent sides (consciousness side and behavioral side). As well he reveals the role of moral knowledge in the education of virtues. The article analyses both the ideas of Socrates about the connection between knowledge and virtue and Aristotle's ideas about the impossibility of equating virtue with knowledge. It shows that ethnical knowledge is the key factor to virtue development. It reveals that it is a good life if we use the golden rule of morality. Moreover it shows that the process of golden rule of morality is important to students’ virtue development. The article gives the role of functions of morality. It proves that the attitude is the connecting mechanism between the moral consciousness and the moral behavior. The author finds it is important to find the new methods to teach morality. As well they aim to help to see the interconnections between morality sides. Moreover these methods will help to provide both relative self-reliance and the sides’ connections concerning the consciousness and morality behavior side.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):307-311
pages 307-311 views

Methods of pedagogical institution electronic information and educational environment evaluation

Dobudko T.V., Gorbatov S.V., Dobudko A.V., Pugach O.I.


This paper discusses one of the actual problems of examination and quality management of education in a pedagogical university – evaluation of its electronic information and educational environment (EIEE). The analysis of this problem is carried out in the light of the digitalization of the Russian Federation economy, which could not but affect the sphere of education. The current steps in the development of electronic educational environments of pedagogical universities and the construction of a single electronic educational space of pedagogical universities in Russia are primarily the result of this process. The authors consider traditional approaches to the development of complex distributed social engineering systems, which can be divided into two large groups «descending» (from top to bottom, developed under the auspices of the government of the Russian Federation) and «ascending» (from bottom to top, developed by individual universities or associations of universities) design. The paper describes eight integrated parameters (consistency, mobility, openness, informality, completeness, freedom/determinism, accessibility, security (information security)), by which it is possible to assess the state of a particular EIEE. The authors propose how to evaluate the current state of a university EIEE by machine learning methods. The obtained materials can serve as a basis for the development of EIEE monitoring system of pedagogical universities in Russia.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):311-316
pages 311-316 views

Using mobile technologies for studying foreign languages

Drygina M.V.


In our modern world mobile devices play an important role in the learning process and provide more opportunities for access to educational resources. The use of mobile devices in the learning process is a promising direction that attracts researchers all over the world. Although mobile devices are widely used and they are accessible means of studying, they are still not perceived as means of foreign language learning. The use of mobile technologies will make it possible not only to induce the learning process visibility, divisiveness and interaction, but also to improve the quality of education, and to expand the possibilities for both students and teachers. The paper presents a systematic review of resources on the problem of mobile assisted language learning. The results of the research have shown that this method is widely used by researchers in Scandinavian countries. The classification has been made on the basis of the existing concept of mobile learning. In addition, the paper describes main technical, pedagogical and psychosocial factors which influence the development of modern resources for mobile learning of foreign languages.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):317-321
pages 317-321 views

Support for decision-making on nominating research and teaching staff to awards

Zheleznov D.V., Asabin V.V., Garanin M.A.


Nomination to awards is among the tasks of the head. The drawback of this work is the subjectivity of the decisions made. In the long run, this can become an irritating factor for employees, so this could be avoided by a transparent and understandable procedure. Within the framework of the research conducted in Samara State Transport University, a procedure has been developed to support the decision-making on nominating research and teaching staff to awards. The calculation is carried out on the basis of several indicators: work experience, presence / absence of disciplinary penalties, efficiency of an employee’s activity over the given period, frequency of employee’s awards and the history of awarding. The criteria for assessing the staff efficiency are digitized. The boundary conditions of each criterion are also described. For separate criteria a logarithmic function is adopted. So the paper presents a mathematical interpretation of the procedure «Support of decision-making on nominating University staff to awards». Practical implementation is illustrated on the cases of 20 employees. The proposed procedure is applicable in educational organizations of any level, but it is most optimal for industrial educational organizations of higher and secondary vocational training. This is due to the fact that the procedure allows you to take into account the industrial component. Mathematical interpretation enables to introduce it into the electronic systems of employees, for example, 1.C system, «Personnel» module.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):321-327
pages 321-327 views

Speech creative skills activities development (on the example of students of language departments in pedagogical universities)

Kizrina N.G., Yankina O.E.


The article discusses the problem of speech creative skills development in the process of teaching foreign languages (on the example of the students of pedagogical departments in pedagogical universities). Thus, it analyzes the creative activity and the process of creative skills activity development. These skills include receptive and productive skills of reticular activity. The authors consider these skills as an indispensable condition to the development of the secondary language personality of students. Moreover they find it is important to consider creative expression as the key factor to students’ foreign language activity development. The article shows the characteristics of a foreign creative expression, which are taken as a basis for the criteria for assessing students' spoken activity in foreign languages. The principles of teaching foreign-language recitative activity are analyzed. The article presents a complex of special exercises which the teacher can use while teaching a foreign language activity. It includes analytical, reproductive and productive and productive exercises. Analytical exercises are aimed at developing skills in text analysis. Reproductive-productive exercises include exercises which help to specify, to transform and to reconstruct the text. Productive exercises are focused on learners’ skills development to make full creative statements in a foreign language. A teacher can use these exercises both in universities and other educational institutions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):327-333
pages 327-333 views

Project activities in professional training of bachelors of the pedagogical University (on the example of the profile «Foreign language»)

Lazutova L.A., Levina E.A.


The article shows the project activity as one of the most important method in the system of professional training of bachelors in the process of teaching a foreign language. Project activities have both a number of requirements and a certain sequence of actions. The authors of the paper consider the role of system-activity and communicative methods to project activity development. The system-activity method is based on the principles that are necessary for the organization of the pro-long process of learning the activity paradigm of higher education. The communicative method of teaching is fundamental in the modern methodics of teaching foreign languages. The article presents the classification of projects, describes the basic requirements for the implementation of projects. The main type of projects used in teaching a foreign language at the University is a creative project, as they do not require a detailed structure of joint activities of students. The implementation of a creative project in a foreign language class involves a modular approach. Each module is aimed at the development of skills in various types of speech activity and contributes to the formation of communicative competence and comprehensive development of the students ' personality. The results of the study can serve as a basis for further study of project activities in the process of teaching foreign languages.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):333-339
pages 333-339 views

Formation and development of school biological education in modern Russia

Semenov A.A., Saito H.


Russia inherited the Soviet system of science and education with its advantages and disadvantages from the Soviet Union period. In recent years it has experienced goals diversification as well as the content of school biological education changes. Primary school aimed propaedeutic of biological knowledge; secondary school aimed the basics of biological sciences development; secondary school at the basic level aimed the culture of knowledge of wildlife, natural-shaped and careful attitude development. The goal of the profile school is to generalize, deepen and expand biological knowledge. Moreover it is important to develop research skills and influence on the process of students’ proorientation in the world of biological professions. The content of biological education focuses on the problems of physical and mental health, healthy lifestyles and ecological literacy development. The authors notice that the construction and structure of the school biology course has changed. The concentric construction of the object makes it complete. A graduate of the basic secondary school receives a relatively complete biological education, which is necessary for his life and further education for professional self-determination. The biology course includes three sections: «Living organisms», «Human and his health» and «General biological regularities». The authors mention that secondary school children have Biology classes one hour less in comparison with the Soviet Union period. Both system-activity and student-centered approaches are the key approaches to teaching biology. They aim the subject results and universal learning activities development (personal, regulatory, communicative and cognitive). Moreover that is important to speak about the key competencies, education and socialization of students, the organization of their extracurricular activities, inclusive education and work with gifted children.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(3):339-343
pages 339-343 views

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