Vol 7, No 2 (2018)

03.02.00 – General Biology

Oil-oxidation properties of Micrococcus bacteria isolated from the Nakhodka Bay seawater of the Sea of Japan

Golozubova J.S., Buzoleva L.S., Bogatyrenko E.A., Kim A.V., Eskova A.I.

Abstract

This paper shows the oil-oxidizing ability of Micrococcus bacteria isolated from the Nakhodka Bay surface waters of the Peter the Great Gulf, the Sea of Japan. Micrococcus Bacteria are known to be the most active destructors of petroleum hydrocarbons in natural biotopes, contaminated objects. Voroshilova-Dianova liquid containing 2,5% oil or oil products was introduced into sterile penicillin bottles with 105 cells of the investigated bacteria. The ability to destruct petroleum hydrocarbons by bacteria of this genus was studied using a gravimetric method during 30 days. Destruction of oil, gasoline, fuel oil and diesel fuel was shown. Micrococcus bacteria showed a high oil-oxidizing ability and decompose 65-99,9% of oil and oil products within 30 days. Gasoline was the source of petroleum hydrocarbons with the greatest ability to utilize this genus of bacteria. The destruction of this hydrocarbons source by bacteria on days 15-20 was about 99% of the initial concentration. The lowest ability of destruction by Micrococcus bacteria was revealed for diesel fuel.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):13-16
pages 13-16 views

Broad-leaved plants of the Southern Urals broad-leaved-conifer forests (some results of the studies)

Gorichev Y.P., Yusupov I.R., Davydychev A.N., Kulagin A.Y.

Abstract

The paper deals with the study of broad-leaved plants of the Southern Urals broad-leaved-conifer forests. Stationary studies were conducted on the territory of the South Ural state natural reserve, where 9 forest sites in different types of broad-leaved forests were laid. The research used standard methods while microclimatic observations used digital thermometers-recorders «Thermochron». The authors have obtained some data on the structure and composition of the characteristic types of broad-leaved forests with oak and maple domination. The authors have classified ecosystems and plant communities, selected 3 types of biogeocenoses and 4 types of phytocoenoses. Studies have established that selected types of broad-leaved forests are associated to certain elements of relief and high-altitude levels. The obtained materials provide the basis for further monitoring of forests.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):16-20
pages 16-20 views

Characteristics of the world and Russian production of fruits products (apples and pears)

Demenina L.G., Petrova A.B., Savitskaya K.A., Kavelenova L.M.

Abstract

The paper deals with the peculiarities of the biological characteristics of the most important fruit crops of temperate climates - apple and pear (Rosaceae family, subfamily Maloideae), taking into account the world, national and regional cultivation. Both cultures are characterized by significant food and commodity value, have some differences in the chemical composition of the fruit, including the leading components of the mass and biologically active substances, which determine the peculiarities of their use in the human diet. In both global and national fruit-growing, pears play a secondary role compared to apple, giving way to the number of varieties, the volume of production and the areas occupied. Based on the analysis of available statistical data of the FAO database, the dynamics of changes from 1990 to 2016 of the world production of apple and pear fruits with visualization on the continents, identifying world leaders and major trends are considered. For the USSR (from 1962 to 1990) and in Russian Federation (from 1992 to 2016) the paper presents a picture of changes in the volume of fruit production, discusses the status of fruit production in the country. The features of the historical development and current state of fruit growing in the Samara Region and prospects are discussed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):20-26
pages 20-26 views

Flora of the K.V. Ivanov square of Cheboksary of Chuvash Republic

Dimitriev Y.O.

Abstract

The square named after K.V. Ivanov was founded in the 1930s. The total area of 5,3 hectares. Tilia cordata Mill. Predominates. The flora of the square contains 86 plant species from 74 genera and 35 families. The division Pinophyta is represented by two species - Larix sibirica Ledeb. and Picea pungens Engelm. Six species from the families Poaceae and Cyperaceae are monocotyled. The systematic diversity of the flora is very low. Virtually every genus is represented by only one species. The average level of species wealth in one family is 2,46. The number of families with one species is 19 (54,3%). The top ten in the number of species families concentrate 64% of the species. The spectrum of the leading families of the square flora indicates its thermophilic appearance. The share of synanthropic species in the flora as a whole is 61,6%. The index of synanthropization ( Is ) of the square flora is 1,61 and emphasizes the anthropogenic nature of the landscape. The aboriginal fraction of the flora is strongly altered ( Is = 0,61). In the spectrum of life forms hemicryptophytes (33,7%), phanerophytes (30,2%) and therophytes (22,1%) dominate. According to the biomorphs system of I.G. Serebryakov perennial herbaceous plants (41,9%) dominate, whose spectrum reflects the forest type of biocenosis, annuals (22,1%), trees (19,8%) and shrubs (10,5%). In the ecologo-cenotic spectrum weed species (36%), forest species (18,6%), cultivar species (17,4%), meadow plants (11,6%) dominate. In the hygromorph spectrum mesophytes (72,1%) dominate, then xeromesophytes (15,1%) follow, the share of the remaining groups varies from 1,2 to 5,8%. In the spectrum of trophomorphs mesotrophs (57%) and megatrophs (37,2%) dominate. The square named after K.V. Ivanov is characterized by stability of functioning, provided by wood and shrub plantations. The lawn is heavily clogged and requires its reconstruction.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):26-30
pages 26-30 views

Vegetation cover of the river Vyatka flood plain protected areas

Egorova N.Y., Suleimanova V.N., Egoshina T.L.

Abstract

The paper presents results of 4 protected areas investigation within the river Vyatka flood plain. We have conducted a floristic research in accordance with a hierarchy system of floristic complexes by a type-class-group principle, and classified vegetation. 3 types of floristic complexes (forest, meadow, and water), 2 classes (hilltop-flood plain, ridge and natural) and 8 groups of floristic complexes were defined. Small-leaved forest floristic complexes is presented by the following forest types: mixed-herbs-Aegopodium aspen forest, mixed-herbs aspen forest, herbaceous boggy birch forest, cowberry birch forest, aspen-linden birch forest, bilberry-herbaceous birch forest, and mixed-herbs-Filipendula alder forest. Dark coniferous floristic complexes are presented by bilberry spruce and herbaceous spruce forests. Light coniferous forest floristic complexes are: cowberry-herbaceous pine, green-moss-cowberry pine, and stone-bramble-herbaceous pine forests. Broad-leaved forest floristic complexes are presented by flood-plain oak and aspen-linden herbaceous forests. Oak ( Quercus robur L.) is also marked as an undergrowth component of deciduous and coniferous phytocoenoses. Flood-plain meadow floristic complex is formed by gramineous-mixed-herbs and Filipendula-Calamagrostis-mixed-herbs associations. Former river-bed floristic complex is marked within all studied objects. Communities with high level of biodiversity are restricted to water and hilltop-flood-plain ecotopes. Species richness of studied communities varies within 15 to 43 species. Less diverse ecotypes are ridge types. Investigated floristic complexes are habitats of rare and relict species of Kirov Region flora. The study of partial flora composition is a base for vegetation monitoring.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):31-36
pages 31-36 views

Assessment of seismic vibratory impact on experimental lakes ecosystems

Zhirkov I.I., Tyaptirgyanov M.M., Trofimova T.P., Sobakina I.G., Zhirkov K.I.

Abstract

The paper deals with the assessment of seismic vibratory impact on experimental lakes ecosystems. Changes of chemical and zooplanktonic composition of experimental lakes before vibration works were studied. Crucian carps were used for the assessment of vibratory impact. Hydrochemical researches included definition of organoleptic indicators, dissolved gases, biogenous elements, organic substance and the main ions, polluting substances and metals. The chemical analysis is carried out by standard hydrochemistry techniques. 18 samples on quantitative and qualitative structure of a zooplankton were collected and processed. Zooplankton organisms definition was carried out by means of widely used determinants. For icthyological researches fish caught in Nidzhili Lake was used. The bioanalysis was carried out by standard ichthyology techniques. The conducted pilot studies have shown that such quantitative and qualitative water condition changes and such vibratory impact on zooplanktonic organisms and crucians condition which we consider reaching catastrophic influences. If to take into account intensity and efficiency of fish, zooplanktonic and bentosny organisms’ restoration in the studied lakes, it is possible to consider that there are no cardinal changes in hydrobionts and fish fauna as a result of vibratory impact. It is also possible to assume that the essential part of such changes remains out of attention and opportunities of modern monitoring.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):36-40
pages 36-40 views

Radioecological situation on the territory of the Volga Region Department of Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring in 2016

Zalybina Y.N., Grigoriev V.S., Sklyuev V.V.

Abstract

The environment quality is an extremely relevant question, including taking into account radio-ecological situation. The development of local agriculture should take into account various radiation parameters that determine the current radiation situation. In particular, it is necessary to do regular radioecological monitoring of environmental pollution of the Samara Region and adjacent territories on the main types of radiometric observations. The paper focuses on the reliable and rapid detection of radioactive contamination, assessment of the radiation situation with the help of radio-ecological control of natural environment components. In the paper on the basis of the Volga Region Department of Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring data the authors assess the radiation situation in the settlements of Samara, Saratov, Orenburg, Penza and Ulyanovsk Regions. The paper contains values of aerosols β-activity concentration in the surface layer of the atmosphere as well as the data of the average annual values in Samara and adjacent regions. According to the data of radioecological monitoring the level of total β-activity of radioactive fallout from the atmosphere is shown. The maximum values of the total β-activity concentration of the atmospheric surface layer aerosols were recorded in summer, which is due to the secondary wind dust rise from the contaminated areas. It was shown that the average annual value of the total β-activity of aerosols according to the results of studies is within the normal limits. The paper also contains conclusions about the degree of danger of the atmosphere surface layer contamination by technogenic radionuclides.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):40-44
pages 40-44 views

Ornithological complexes’ structure of technogenically disturbed territories of the left-bank part of the South Minusinsk Basin

Zlotnikova T.V.

Abstract

This paper deals with the species’ and ecological structure of ornithological complexes on the territories of quarry excavations. The research was carried out in the left-bank part of the South Minusinsk basin. 6 quarries were researched all the year round, 4 quarries were researched incidentally. The quarries were of various purposes (extraction of sand, clay, rubble, storage of domestic garbage), age (from 1 to 15 years) and size (from 1 to 20 hectares). 39 species of birds have been identified, which is more than 15% of the avifauna of the basin. The largest numbers of species (from 4 to 6 each) are the Fringillidae, Corvidae, Sylviidae, Muscicapidae families. The nature of the species’ stay on the territory has been established. Nesting species have been recorded to be 19, visitors - 20. Only in summer there are 25 species, only in winter there are 7 species, 7 species more are marked on sites both in summer and winter. Dendrophilic and petrophilic species are mainly nested. The nesting of Passer montanus (L.) and Oenanthe oenanthe (L.) was marked on all sites, the nesting of Riparia riparia (L.) was marked on the majority sites. Most species are synanthropic. The species’ richness of birds is shown to be determined, first of all, by the habitat structure: the presence of vertical soil breaks, stone structures, trees, shrubs, grass cover, reservoirs. The presence of food waste and the nature of the surrounding biotopes are also of particular importance.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):44-49
pages 44-49 views

Territory heterogeneity study on the «types-areas» curve for a research of its floristic structure (on the example of the Soksky physiographic area)

Ivanova A.V., Kostina N.V., Lysenko T.M.

Abstract

The Sok district is an elevated-flat forest-steppe region located in the northwestern part of Samara Region. A sufficiently large area of its territory can provide a variety of natural conditions, as a result of which there may be differences in the species composition of the flora of its parts. After the accumulation of data on the distribution of species across the territory, it is possible to study the change in species composition in different directions using the curve «number of species-area». Zones of the most mass inflow of species can be considered as a different floristic region, having a different species composition. Taking into account the geographical configuration of the Sok district, the study was carried out in two directions: latitudinal (from north to south and from south to north), and also along the direction of the river bed (from the sources of the Sok River to the mouth and from the mouth to the sources). When studying the curve «number of species-area» in all cases, in addition to primary accumulation, there was an increase in the number of species in the middle region, and also at the end of the ascent. Accordingly, the identified heterogeneity of the species composition of the flora of the Sok district is divided into four zones. They were proposed to be considered as reference units for studying the floristic structure of the territory that is, determining the possible number of complete floras. When increasing the list with an increase in area, in addition to increasing the number of species, the position and proportion of some of the leading families were monitored. The constancy of families location should be noted: they do not change places and retain a sequence of locations. Only a share of the family in the series of floristic sampling is changing. The Sok physical-geographical district is a typical territory for the Fabaceae-zone. On its territory there is no change in the types of floras. We estimated the species specificity of the Sok physical-geographical district in relation to the Melekess-Stavropol region bordering it, located in the forest-steppe province of the Lowland Transvolga. The reference units of the flora of the two regions differ within different floras.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):49-55
pages 49-55 views

Wild ornamental plants of Samara

Ivanova N.V., Kuznetsova L.A., Ivanov P.A.

Abstract

The paper deals with the analysis of wild ornamental flora of Samara. At the moment the system of green spaces in Samara does not meet the norm standard. For planting trees and shrubs cities use plants grown and brought in from other regions of the world in recent years. But we believe that local wild species of plants should also be used for planting trees and shrubs in the city, as they are more adapted to the urban environment of Central Russia, and thus demand less care. Among wild-growing ornamental plants in Samara most ornate types are of the Asteraceae family. For the studied sector of the Samara flora perennial plants are considered to be typical, among them perennial grasses prevail. The analysis of the flora study helped us to come to the conclusion that the most numerous group is mesophyte plants, the leading environmental group on the degree of illumination and dimming are heliophytes. Among the studied plants meadow species of wild ornamental plants prevail. A part of ornamental flora of Samara are species noted in habitats of natural and anthropogenic origin, where the habitats of natural origin (forest, meadow and steppe «islands» of natural origin among residential areas) prevail. As wild-growing ornamental plants have adapted to the urban environment we recommend to use them for landscape gardening and landscape construction.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):56-59
pages 56-59 views

Ecological and floristic features of the Samara Region nature monument «Kopeyka Mountain»

Kalashnikova O.V., Murzyvanova S.V., Plaksina T.I.

Abstract

The paper presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of the nature monument «Kopeyka Mountain» flora nine years after the last descriptions of this area. To identify the ecology-floristic features of the mountain, a complete ecology-floristic characteristic was given according to the classical pattern. The taxonomic analysis has showed that on the stony steppe there are 150 species of higher plants, including 106 genera and 39 families. The leading families in the number of species are Asteraceae (28 species), Fabaceae (21) and Poaceae (11). A large number of species of the Fabaceae is one of the distinguishing features of Kopeyka Mountain. The predominant biomorph under the classification of I.G. Serebryakov is a group of herbaceous perennials, namely rod-root (39 species) and short-stemmed plants (25 species). The predominance of these life forms illustrates a high adaptability of plants to the conditions of their growth. The predominant hygromorph of xerophytic plants (67 species), revealed during the ecological analysis by N.M. Matveyev, also shows high suitability of the local flora to a lack of moisture in the mountainous terrain. Ecology-geographical analysis showed that the mountain-steppe group of plants was the largest in the number of species. A chorological analysis was also conducted, which showed the presence of all seven types of areals, of which Eurasian type (73 species) and European (34) were the leading ones. Endemic (45 species) and relic (15) taxa have been noted, which raises this monument of nature to a considerable height. In the flora of Kopeyka Mountain, 8 species are represented in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation and 43 species are in the Red Data Book of the Samara Region. A decrease in the number of species in the flora of Kopeyka Mountain is a concern. It is necessary to introduce monitoring to protect the nature monument «Kopeyka Mountain».

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):60-63
pages 60-63 views

The possible role of dopamine receptors DOP-1 and DOP-3 in behavior thermotolerance regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans Maupas

Kalinnikova T.B., Kolsanova R.R., Belova E.B., Khakimova D.M., Gainutdinov M.K., Shagidullin R.R.

Abstract

The paper investigates dopamine influence on the tolerance of swimming, induced by mechanical stimulus, to the temperature of 36°C during the experiments with nematodes of wild type strain N2 and mutant strains LX636 ( dop-1 ( vs101 )) and LX703 ( dop-3 ( vs106 )) with null-mutations of genes of dopamine receptors DOP-1 and DOP-3. The authors have shown that dopamine in concentrations 0,5-1,0 mM increased the behavior thermotolerance of C. elegans while in concentrations 7,5-15,0 dopamine caused its decrease. Null-mutation of dopamine receptor gene dop-3 prevented the decrease of C. elegans thermotolerance by dopamine. On the contrary, null-mutation of dopamine receptor gene dop-1 caused significant rise in sensitivity of behavior thermotolerance to dopamine. In connection with well-known conceptions assuming that the reason of heat damage of C. elegans behavior is acetylcholine deficiency due to inhibition of its secretion by hyperthermia, the dopamine influence on behavior thermotolerance can be accounted for the dopamine influence on acetylcholine secretion by motor neurons. It is known that in C. elegans motor neurons the coexpression of genes of receptors DOP-1 and DOP-3 takes place. Activation of these receptors in turn causes opposite changes in dopamine secretion.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):63-68
pages 63-68 views

Ecological status assessment of microbic population from cespitose-podsolic soil basic saprothrophic microbic pool at the Inzensky field diatomite biochemical destruction

Kozlov A.V., Kulikova A.H., Uromova I.P.

Abstract

The following paper considers reaction of the saprothrophic and ammoniphycal microbic populations, allocated from the cespitose-podsolic sandy loamy soil of the Nizhny Novgorod Region, to the Inzensky field diatomite substance. On this basis the ecological status of these microorganisms in relation to the studied high-siliceous breed is estimated subsequently. 7-day accumulative cultures of general saprothrophic and ammoniphycal bacteria were used in the study. Living cells were emitted from the cespitose and podsolic soil selected from the Borsky district field «Elitkhoz» by the standard rules in microbiological biotechnology. The result of the research was 30-day dynamics of the breed culture system regarding change of living cells number and proteolytic enzymatic activity of bacterial suspension at biochemical degradation of diatomite substance. The described reaction of microbic complexes in the form of positive dynamics of number and protease activity demonstrates direct destruction interaction of bacterial cultures with diatomite breed that, in turn, can assume their active reaction with this breed and organic substance of the soil with the subsequent release in soil solution of various nutritious elements and in general - stabilization of bacterial L-strategists in the general ecological status of soil microbiocenosis.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):68-72
pages 68-72 views

A new methodological approach to evaluation of mechanical resistance of green plantings in urban environments

Kornienko V.O., Prikhodko S.A.

Abstract

The trees growing in urban environments are exposed to the highest pressure of negative exogenous factors and, consequently, many tree species come to the critical age and become hazardous. A complex approach to evaluate the condition of green plantings under the technogenous load using visual, instrumental, biomechanical etc. methods allows timely and reliable identification of hazardous trees. For this purpose, we developed a new methodology of determining the hazardous degree of trees in residential areas. This method is based on the accounts of tree mechanical hardiness evaluation and up-to-date instrumental research data to be used by municipal services employed in plantings monitoring and care. The main parameters are: age, diameter of the base, diameter at height, trunk girth at the base, trunk girth at a height of 1,3 m, the height of the tree, the angle of inclination of the trunk, the vital status score for Saveleva, morphological damage to the trunk, the description of the crown architectonics, the presence of morphogenetic and exogenous damage to the leaf blade, the population of the trunk pests, the presence of hollows, the wind feature and the loading of this site, the mode of visiting the territory (recreational load), the direction of possible fall, percentage of sound rot, modulus of elasticity of wood, density of wood, the ratio of biomass to critical mass, mechanical resistance to static and dynamic loads according to calculations on biomechanics. In the case study of a model tree (London plane) the applicability of this approach to landscaping practices is shown.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):72-77
pages 72-77 views

Assessment of relevant and exchange acidity of cespitose-podsolic sandy loamy soil when the Hotynetsky field zeolite is used

Kulikova A.H., Kozlov A.V., Uromova I.P.

Abstract

The following paper considers influence extent of zeolite breed of the Hotynetsky field on indicators of relevant and exchange acidity of the cespitose-podsolic sandy loamy soil in the Nizhny Novgorod Region. A three-year experiment, representing microfield experiment, was started in 2014 in the Borsky District «Elitkhoz». Zeolite was brought in the plough-layer once in high doses - 3, 6 and 12 t/hectare. During the research (2015-2017) on allotments the main crops of the region were grown up. The acidity of the soil was estimated on рН indicators, defined from water and salt extracts which were selected during the autumn period after cultural plants harvesting. As a result of the conducted researches positive action of all doses of the studied zeolite on indicators of the acid and main mode of the cespitose-podsolic soil was established. The essential effect was traced already at the minimum dose of material: 12,0% increase of рНwater indicator and 6,3% increase of рНsalt indicator on average during the research time. Application of 6 t/hectare of zeolite breed in the greatest measure promoted reduction of the relevant acidity of the soil by 20%, exchange acidity - for 13% and also for 60% - to increase in an ionic exchanging of the soil solution system with preservation of the action force during the research time.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):77-81
pages 77-81 views

Structure and factors of forest birds diversity forming in the Ishim river area (Russia)

Levykh A.Y., Boldyrev S.L.

Abstract

The paper studies the relationship between specific parameters of habitats (the forest area along the route, the average age of the forest, the closure of the crowns, the condition of the crowns, the type of anthropogenic impact, the stage of vegetative succession, the wetting of the forest), the abundance of birds, Shannon and Simpson’s indices of the species diversity of forest ornithocenosis. This study is based on the materials of field bird records conducted in the seasons of 2014-2016 on 28 permanent routes in the forest habitats of the Ishim River area (Russia). A statistically significant effect of the anthropogenic impact on the Shannon diversity index and the significant influence of the plant succession stage on Shannon’s species diversity index and the abundance of birds have been established by the method of one-way analysis of variance using the nonparametric Kraskel-Wallis’s criterion. It is shown that the maximum value of Shannon’s index of variety is characteristic for the ornithocenosis of recreational forests; the one close to the maximum is in forests in which grazing is carried out. In the course of plant succession, there is initially an insignificant increase in the total abundance of birds, then a significant decrease in it, as well as a sharp decrease of Shannon’s diversity index. The obtained results show that the anthropogenic load in form of cattle grazing and recreation conditions an increase in forest habitats’ heterogeneity and thereby contributes to an increase in bird species diversity.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):81-87
pages 81-87 views

Flavonols pool distribution in the aerial mass of the Bunias orientalis L. in the North

Mikhovich J.E., Punegov V.V., Zaynullina K.S., Ruban G.A.

Abstract

The paper presents the results of a biochemical study of the aerial overburden mass of the Bunias orientalis L., grown under the conditions of the middle taiga subzone of the Republic of Komi according to the terms of its harvesting. The mass fraction of flavonols during the vegetative period of plants has been determined. It has been established that in mass budding and mass flowering phases in the row-leaves-buds (or flowers) the mass fraction of flavonols increases from 0,25% to 6,06% and from 0,6 to 15,43%, respectively. It is shown that when plants migrate to mass flowering, a sharp increase in the content of flavonols in all the above-ground organs of the plant is observed. A particularly large increase in the mass fraction of flavonols has been detected in the flowers of the overbearing of the eastern plants in comparison with the buds. Unconditional maximum of the pool of flavonols is observed in the flowers of the plant (15,43%). But, taking into account the fact that the mass fraction of flowers on the generative shoot is no more than 3%, in the technological plan, a promising source of flavonols from the aboveground mass of the studied plant are the leaves and flowers collected during the flowering phase in the Komi Republic in the third decade of June-July.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):87-90
pages 87-90 views

Vegetation of the natural monument «Gurev Ravine» (Shigonsky District of the Samara Region)

Novikova L.A., Saksonov S.V., Vasjukov V.M., Gorlov S.E., Senator S.A., Solovieva V.V.

Abstract

The nature monument of regional value «Gurev ravine» is located 1 km North-West village Klimovka of Shigonsky District in the Samara Region. The southern and South-Western part is occupied by the ravine, the mouth opening in the Kuibyshev reservoir. The right slope is less steep and is overgrown with deciduous forest, and the left slope is very steep and heavily nude, known as Gusikha mountain. At the mouth of the ravine as well as along the indigenous coast landslide terraces have been formed. We have described calciphyte flora and vegetation of the left slope, «Guriev ravine» (Gusikha mountain). We have made 5 descriptions, one (description № 14) is located at the bottom of this mountain and the other ones are at the top (descriptions № 15-18). All descriptions are made on very steep slopes (angle of 40-50°) of South-Eastern exposure. The described area is dominated by subshrub vegetation with dominance of different species: Artemisia salsoloides (from 1,0 to 30,0%), Ephedra distachya (from 0 to 30,0%), Bassia prostrata (from 0 to 15,0%), Thymus dubjanskyi (from 0 to 15,0%), Onosma volgensis (from 0 to 15,0%), Anthemis trotzkiana (from 0 to 5,0%); less common Linum uralense (from 0 to 1,0%). Artemisia salsoloides (descriptions № 14, 16) occupy the lower and middle parts of the steep slopes of Gusikha mountain. They belong to two different associations. At the bottom of the slopes there are Artemisia salsoloides + Bassia prostrata + Gypsophila juzepczukii , in the middle - Artemisia salsoloides + Onosma volgensis . At the top of steep slopes there are Bassia prostrata , Ephedra distachya and Thymus dubjanskyi (descriptions № 15, 17, 18): Bassia prostrata + Artemisia salsoloides + Stipa capillata , Ephedra distachya + Artemisia salsoloides + Bassia prostrate and Thymus dubjanskyi + Anthemis trotzkiana + Gypsophila juzepczukii Association. Different types of Stipa capillata gradually implemented into the community as well as Gypsophila juzepczukii or Artemisia salsoloides , Anthemis trotzkiana , which contributes to the resumption of these particularly rare for the Samara Region species.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):90-94
pages 90-94 views

Dynamics of leaf beetles density (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) in grain crops agrocoenoses of the Samara Region

Pavlov S.I., Yaitsky A.S.

Abstract

The author studied winter and spring wheat (Tríticum) development dynamics in the Volga Region left-bank forest-steppe zone during 1974-2010 in natural conditions and gardens on the Samara Region cereal crops fields, as well as generation cycles of 6 local species of leaf beetles, with 1-year development, 5 of which do a lot of harm to wheat ( Oulema melanopus L., Phyllotreta vittula Redt., Chaetocnema aridula Gyll., Chaetocnema hortensis Geoffr., Hispella atra L.) and 1 ( Cassida rubiginosa Müll.) is the consumer of a weed plant - Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.). The author also studied leaf beetles density dynamics and their localization on grain crops of different age. The author studied cereal crops agrocoenoses microclimate under different weather conditions, different plants vegetation intensity at different times of the day. The author also studied major stages of beetles harmful species generation and the timing of their implementation. The paper contains an analysis of the extent and timing of different harmfulness of leaf beetles; the economic value of their separate types. The author surveyed the conditions preferred by the pests of wheat as well as the factors depressing their larval stage and considered the cases of beetles and larvae massive aggregations formation and beetles migration into more comfortable areas. The author comes to the conclusion of the extraordinary plasticity and adaptability of the leaf to the microclimatic conditions of the habitat.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):94-102
pages 94-102 views

Reaction of macromycetes fungi on anthropogenic disturbances

Safonov M.A.

Abstract

The paper deals with the influence of the anthropogenic press on different levels of macromycetes fungi biota organization: the Bank of spores and propagules of fungi, individual fungal organisms and their communities. It is assumed that anthropogenic disturbances of the environment decrease some fungi spores viability and change the ratio of different species spores. Environment disturbances affect fungi directly and indirectly, but indirect effects are more significant, since the destruction of fruit bodies does not affect the state of the mycelium. Indirect effects include violation of physical and chemical properties of substrates (soil, wood), increase of their toxicity, and changes in vegetation cover, causing changes in qualitative and quantitative characteristics of detritus and plants that can form mycorrhizae. The mechanisms of reducing the diversity and functioning of mycobiota in the conditions of technogenic pollution are discussed. Communities of fungi respond to anthropogenic disturbances by changing the structure, especially functional, which increase absolute and relative number of phytopathogenic fungi in communities. It is concluded that the current trend of regional mycobiota development is aimed at preserving the natural state and currently there are no clear signs of its degradation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):102-105
pages 102-105 views

Analysis and ways to expand the species diversity of the assortment of perennial herbaceous flowering plants for landscaping urban areas of the Kola Polar region

Sviatkovskaya E.A., Trostenyuk N.N., Saltan N.V., Gontar O.B.

Abstract

The paper analyzes the selection of species of perennial herbaceous flowering plants to enrich the existing range in the landscaping of the cities of the Kola Polar region. The selection of the assortment of perennials for landscaping of the cities was carried out by the Polar-Alpine Botanical garden institute for the first time. Currently, the assortment of perennial flowering plants has enriched and it is represented by 115 species in 28 families. New species have a high decorative value, stability and passed a long period of tests on collection nurseries and in urban conditions. Analysis of the existing range and the study of the results of long-term tests of various plants in nature provide an opportunity to identify the main families and species, whose representatives have a high decorative value and stability in the Far North. Families Primulaceae and Rosaceae Juss are the most promising to replenish the landscaping assortment. When forming the assortment, the number of species is very important as well as their ratio in different groups by flowering period, color tone and height. As the analysis of species diversity showed, it is necessary to increase the early-flowering perennials, especially with yellow-orange and purple-red shades of flowers. It has been noted that the percentage of border plants with compact shrubs was low. In the existing assortment, the positive aspect is the balance of warm and cold tones. Due to the resistance to the harsh climatic and environmental conditions of the Kola North perennial herbaceous plants are perspectives for landscaping the cities of the Kola Subarctic.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):106-111
pages 106-111 views

Red fox sex ratio and changes in the number in the Krasnoarmeisky District of the Samara Region

Sklueva O.A., Sklyuev V.V., Khakimov R.I.

Abstract

The paper presents some data on the red fox ( Vulpes vulpes , Linnaeus, 1758) sex ratio in the Krasnoarmeysky District of the Samara Region. The results of winter trails traces of mammals show the placement of individual sites of males and females. The authors consider relationship between the population dynamics, sex and age composition and the placement of individual sites. Some aspects of behavioral adaptations and causes of changes in the number of animals in the study area are considered. The influence of a poaching factor on the dynamic indicators of the studied population and the possible danger of the epizootic process is described. A comparative analysis with the previously obtained data on the ratio of males and females in the litter is carried out. The paper indicates possible causes of animals number changes in the study areas. Poaching has a direct impact on the studied population homeostatic state maintaining mechanisms. There is also a forecast of poaching influence on deterioration of epidemiological and epizootic situation in the investigated region. In this paper we give recommendations to minimize possible damage by human activities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):111-115
pages 111-115 views

Features of vegetation, flowering and fruiting of the genus Spiraea L. species in the cultivation in the European North-East (Republic of Komi)

Smirnova A.N., Zaynullina K.S.

Abstract

The paper deals with the flowering and fruiting of introduced species of Spiraea L. genus in the collection of the Botanical garden of the Institute of biology of Komi SC of Ural branch of RAS, located in the middle taiga subzone of the European North-East of Russia. The collection of Spiraea genus by this time includes more than 40 taxa of plants of different geographical origin, including one species of local flora. Characteristics of vegetation, flowering and fruiting indicators of nine species of perennial plants of the genus are given based on the results of phenological observations during five years. It is shown that the seasonal rhythm of plant development in the new conditions corresponds to the climatic conditions of the subzone of the middle taiga. There are differences in the dates of beginning and duration of flowering in different species Spiraea of three sections, the total duration of flowering of studied species is almost 100 days. The species of Spiraria section are characterized by latest start and a long flowering period. Plants of all studied species are characterized by annual flowering and fruiting with the formation of benign seeds; some species are capable of self-seeding. The revealed characteristics allow us to consider that the studied species of Spiraea genus have successfully adapted in the Northern region and can be used in ornamental horticulture.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):115-120
pages 115-120 views

Hydromacrophytes composition in water reservoirs of the North-Eastern part of the Kurgan Region

Tokar O.E.

Abstract

Hydromacrophyte flora of 22 water bodies in the Kurgan Region was studied in 2017. The aquatic study was conducted within the 6 administrative districts of the Kurgan Region: Chastoozersky (4), Petrovsky (2) Makushinski (7), Lebyazhyevsky (4), Vargashinsky (2), and Mokrousovsky (3). The area of the research was between 55° 09 minutes of the North latitude and 55°48′ of the North latitude, from West to East - between 65°53′ of the East latitude and 69° 19 minutes of the East latitude. During the research we selected and recorded samples of macroalgae and collected herbarium of higher hydromacrophytes. The paper contains data on species composition and frequency of hydromacrophytes occurrence; new location of Ruppia maritima L. that is considered to be rare in the Kurgan Region was found. It’s the first time the specific structure of mаcroscopic algae has been given for the territory of research. It is noted that the species of Chara contraria A. Br., is a rare one, and here it is located on the Northern border of its distribution, therefore it needs protection. Most of the identified species of hydromacrophytes are common in the West Siberian plain (Northern Kazakhstan, Tyumen Region). The paper also contains information about the location of invasive species Elodea canadensis Michx. The obtained materials can serve as a basis for further hydrobotanical study of water reservoirs in the Kurgan Region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):120-125
pages 120-125 views

Restoration of soil fertility of the southern chernozem in conditions of the reserve regime of the Orenburg State Nature Reserve

Tyurin A.N.

Abstract

This paper presents a comparative-temporal ecological characterization of the southern chernozem under the regime of the Aituar steppe site command of the Orenburg State Nature Reserve. The degree of ecological rehabilitation of chernozems in specially protected natural areas is shown. Quantitative data are provided on the supply of soil with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and the content of heavy metals in the soil. Determination of the content of heavy metals and trace elements in soil samples (according to the method of Krupsky and Aleksandrova in the modification of the Central Institute of Agrochemical Services for Agriculture) was conducted in accordance with GOST 50683-94. The determination of mobile compounds of phosphorus and potassium was carried out by the method of Machigin (GOST-26205-91), organic matter by the Tyurin method (GOST 26213-9), alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen by Kornfield. The paper presents the results of a comparison of agrochemical and ecology-toxicological studies of southern chernozem in 1996-2016. The main morphogenetic characteristics of the soil profile of the chernozem of the southern carbonate low-humus low-mass medium loamy are given. Data of morphological, physical and agrochemical properties of soils were subjected to mathematical and statistical treatment. This allowed the authors to determine morphological parameters, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the soil and their variation within the elementary soil areas, depending on the position in the landscape and the nature of use. The data obtained indicate a positive dynamics in the provision of soil with humus and elements of mineral nutrition of plants, as well as a significant reduction in the content of heavy metals throughout the soil profile. Thus, we can talk about the natural restoration of soil fertility in conditions of a protected regime in specially protected natural areas.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):126-129
pages 126-129 views

Heavy metals content in organs and tissues of fish from the Belaya River

Khusnutdinova L.R., Iskhakova A.T.

Abstract

This paper considers the content and peculiarities of heavy metals accumulation in the organs and tissues of fish from the Belaya River, caught in the cities of Birsk and Ufa in the Republic of Bashkortostan. To determine the content of iron, copper, cadmium and lead ions, the muscles, liver and blood of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and common bream ( Blicca bjoerkna L.) were examined. Both species belong to herbivorous fish, but they prefer different habitats: carp is a ground fish, and the bream lives in the water column. The choice of fish species under study is related to their wide distribution in this river. Studies have shown that biogenic elements (iron, copper) are better accumulated in the fish blood, and for the other heavy metals (lead, cadmium) studied, the accumulating organ is the liver. Analysis of tissues and organs for the presence of heavy metal ions was carried out by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the laboratory of environmental monitoring of physico-chemical environment contamination in the Birsk branch of the Bashkir State University (Birsk). The results obtained can serve as a basis for monitoring the ecological state of the river water and the hydrobionts living there.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):129-133
pages 129-133 views

Ecological and social «risk factors» for students’ healthy lifestyle promotion

Shvechikhina Y.V., Kavelenova L.M., Rytov G.L.

Abstract

The most important condition for the sustainable development of socio-ecological and economic systems at all levels, from regional to national, is undoubtedly a balanced socio-demographic development. It is connected with the presence of sufficiently numerous social groups of a professionally competent, physically and morally healthy population that also serves as the basis for the national security of the country. The number of students in the Samara Region at the level of more than 100 thousand people provides good opportunities for qualified professionals’ training, whose activities are not limited to the space of the Samara Region. In addition to acquiring professional knowledge, skills and general and special competencies development, young people studying in higher education must also acquire a deep and conscious motivation to lead a healthy lifestyle. In this paper, we present a part of the comprehensive research that we are already carrying out, related to the ecology-population basics of student health status promotion. An important moment in this respect is, according to WHO, the fight against obesity, and one of the relatively accessible indicators is the body mass index (BMI). For model groups of Samara University students the distribution according to the body mass index shows a prevalence of the normal level of the indicator (from 20 to 24) - for young men and the indicator 20 (the lower limit of the norm) for girls. This is a good «starting point» for motivating students to lead a healthy lifestyle in the future.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):133-138
pages 133-138 views

Zooplankton of floodplain lakes of the river Kerzhenets (Kerzhinski Nature Reserve, Nizhny Novgorod Region)

Shurganova G.V., Zhikharev V.S., Kudrin I.A., Krivdina T.V., Moreva O.A.

Abstract

The paper presents the results of zooplankton research in June, July and September 2017 in eight floodplain lakes of the middle reaches of the Kerzhenets River located in the Kerzhinski Nature Reserve. The studied water bodies are shallow lakes with weakly acidic pH (5,40-6,23) and low mineralized water (46,90-68,40 mg/l), with increased chromaticity (202,00-1048,20 deg.) and content of suspended substances (4,40-22,90 mg/l). As a result of a carried out hydrobiological research, 106 species of zooplankton were identified. According to the zoogeographical characteristics, the zooplankton fauna of floodplain water bodies is typical for the European part of Russia, with the exception of two invasive species: the North American rotifers Kellicottia bostoniensis (Rousselet, 1908) and the Caspian branching diocese of southern origin Diaphanosoma orghidani (Negrea, 1982). In addition, in a number of lakes, the Arctic relict crustacean Holopedium gibberum (Zaddach, 1855) was found. The crustacean is listed in the Red Data Book of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. Alien rotifers in a number of floodplain reservoirs were the dominant species and had a high abundance. The Caspian southern crustacean was found only in two reservoirs, its number was not high, and it did not play a significant role in the zooplankton communities of these reservoirs. New findings of the Arctic relict species Holopedium gibberum (Zaddach, 1855) make it possible to recommend the introduction of a number of floodplain reservoirs into the Red Book of the Nizhni Novgorod Region as habitats of this rare species. Statistical redundancy analysis (RDA) has revealed four factors that related with development of zooplankton in a number of floodplains, such as water temperature, hydrogen index, dissolved oxygen content and suspended solids.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):138-144
pages 138-144 views

07.00.00 – Historical Sciences and Archaeology

Ancient archaeological complexes of southern part of Khantau Mountains

Goryachev A.A., Saraev V.V.

Abstract

The paper introduces new materials about archaeological monuments of the paleometal period and early nomads of the Khantau Mountains into scientific circulation. This region is the main one in the communication processes among the ancient population of the Central Kazakhstan steppes and the foothill areas of all North Tien Shan and Jetysu in particular. The southwestern slopes and the southern part of the Khantau Mountains were explored by the expedition of Archaeology Institute named after A.Kh. Margulan in 2017-2018, where series of ancient settlements, burial grounds and petroglyphs of the Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age were discovered. The materials of archaeological complex Kojabala show patterns of settlements location and burial grounds, which reflect the tradition of economic and cultural development of the region in Ancient times. We can associate the origin and existence of Kojabala-I burial with the process of Andronovo community Fedorovsky tribal groups migration from Central Kazakhstan in the XV and at the turn of the XIV-XIII centuries BC. The Bronze Age Kojabala tract materials analysis let us to assume, that economic and ethno-cultural intercourses of the population of Central Kazakhstan and Jetysu in this period were close. Such conclusion has perspective direction for further researches.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):145-150
pages 145-150 views

Petrov culture burial site near the village of Taldy (Karkaralinsk District, Karaganda Region)

Kukushkin I.A., Dmitriev E.A., Kukushkin A.I.

Abstract

The following paper contains investigation results of the randomly discovered ancient burial site near the village of Taldy (Central Kazakhstan). Accompanying inventory is represented by metal celt-adze, a highly fragmented bracelet with a spiral wound end and a ceramic vessel with a ribbed shoulder and geometric ornament. The obtained material allows attributing the burial site to the Petrov culture of the Bronze Age. The authors of the paper proceed from the weak argumentation of the regional analogue of «Petrovka», the Nurtai culture singled out at the end of the 20th century. The current base of sources is characterized by heterogeneity. In this connection, the early Andronian antiquities of Central Kazakhstan should be considered within the framework of the Petrov culture with the possible further allocation of a local variant or stage. Celt-adze found here is quite interesting. It has analogies with the Dolgaya Gora monuments findings (Abashevskaya culture), Tanabergen II (Sintashta culture), Nurataldy-1, Kenotkel XVIII (Petrov culture) and Shaitan Lake II (Koptyakovskaya culture). According to the formal and typological features, the specimens found are divided into two subtypes: the early one - Abashev-Sintashta and the later one - Petrovsky-Koptyakovsky. The Dolgaya Gora finding presupposes the birth of this type of tools in the late Abashev culture of the Urals. The well-known ethnographic parallels allow us to establish that the products were intended for straining poles, sanding the tree, removing the core from blanks and other works related to woodworking.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):150-155
pages 150-155 views

Chance finds of antiquities on the territory of the Samara Governorate in the second half of XIX - early XX centuries

Pisareva O.K.

Abstract

In the paper, separate information about archaeological finds and predatory excavations on the territory of the Samara Governorate in the middle of the XIX-beginning of XX centuries is collected for the first time. The process of archaeological study of the Samara Governorate in the pre-revolutionary period of development of the Samara archaeology remains unexplored. As a result the author has made a set of archaeological discoveries and excavations made on the territory of the Samara Governorate in the second half of XIX-beginning XX centuries. The list of finds includes all facts of the discovery revealed during the research of archaeological sites and individual artifacts with indication of detection time, place, and composition of the find or treasure. The author revealed 142 evidences of found antiquities according to the research of the second half of XIX-early XX centuries. They are hoards of coins, jewelry, household items, religious objects and other finds accumulated in the scientific centers and museums in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kazan, Samara, Saratov and Simbirsk. Many of finds are lost or their location is unknown. The issues raised in the paper are inseparably linked with the problem of accounting and protection of archaeological sites, preservation of cultural heritage.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):155-162
pages 155-162 views

Divorce and second marriage of Knyaz Roman Mstislavich

Abukov S.N.

Abstract

The paper focuses on a family conflict at the turn of XII-XIII centuries between the Kievan Knyaz Rurik Rostislavich and the Galician Knyaz Roman Mstislavich, who married Rurik’s daughter Predslava. In historiography the problem is one of the most controversial, since it is directly related to the dating of the second marriage and the origin of the second wife of Roman Mstislavich. The author, on the basis of available data, tried to determine the chronology of events, as well as to show close family relations between the knyazes of Rurik dynasty and the policy. The political conflict between Roman and his father-in-law Rurik Rostislavich, together with other reasons, led to the termination of his family relations with his daughter. The key topic in the paper is the probable mechanism of Galician knyaz’ second marriage legitimation, which allowed him to divorce his first wife and get married for the second time. According to the author, divorce from Predslava was not a one-time act for Roman Mstislavich. Despite the church divorce received from the Patriarch of Constantinople, the Galician knyaz went to the violent tonsure of his first wife to finally legitimize his new family life and children from his second marriage.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):162-166
pages 162-166 views

Revolutionary power perception by the Vladimir province population in March-October 1917: according to the district commissars and militia chiefs’ estimates

Ptitsina G.M.

Abstract

The paper deals with the analysis of the Vladimir province Provisional Government commissars and militia chiefs’ reports on the assessment of revolutionary power perception by the local population in March-October 1917. The author characterizes a complex of sources and methodology of working with them. The paper considers the Vladimir province inhabitants’ attitude to the change of power in February 1917, to the events in Petrograd in July, and to the October coup from the Provisional Government commissars’ point of view. Besides, the author characterizes a condition of the people’s militia, social behavior of rural and urban residents on the basis of official reports. The author concludes about an enormous information potential of such reports from the places, which, due to their structure and content, bear the imprint of the personal impression of the official from communicating with the inhabitants. The reports analysis has shown that their main topics were not political: unauthorized felling, seizure of forests, increasing robberies and hooliganism as well as disruption in food security. In general, the reports described the absolute apolitical nature of the peasants with their desire to solve the pressing issues of cold and hunger, as well as the open bellicosity of workers who were suspicious to all representatives of the government.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):167-173
pages 167-173 views

Dynamics of the Mordovians number in the union republics of the USSR

Shulgov E.N.

Abstract

The external parameters of the ecumene include the ethnos number and its dynamics. In the course of the historical process, the Mordovian population on the territory of the near abroad republics (in the Union Republics of the USSR) varied according to natural and climatic, social and economic factors. The history of population migration and the Mordovian population formation in the CIS countries is recorded by the results of the censuses of the Russian Empire and the USSR. The dynamics of the Union republics Mordovians can be traced by censuses of Byelorussia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, etc. Statistical data are confirmed by documents extracted from fund 473 of the Mordovian SSR State Committee on labor and social issues of the Republic of Mordovia Central State Archives. There are folders with various decrees, edicts, plans for interregional migration in the Mordovian ASSR; lists and questionnaires of settlers, acts-lists on workers transferred to enterprises, application forms compiled for resettlers, etc. The purpose of the study is to analyze the types of documentary sources and create a picture of the Mordovian population dynamics on the territory of the near abroad countries (the former Soviet Union Republics). A wide range of documentary sources made it possible to create the picture of the Mordovians migration in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, and others.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):174-179
pages 174-179 views

The role of scientific and engineering-technical intelligentsia of the South Urals in strengthening the country’s defense potential in the years of the Great Patriotic War

Kuznetsova Y.V.

Abstract

Significant territorial, material and human losses in the first months of the war determined the priority role of the Urals and other eastern regions in strengthening defense. Therefore, the scientific and engineering and technical intelligentsia of the Southern Urals played a big role in strengthening the countryэs defense potential during the Great Patriotic War. The author examines the activities of specialists of the leading industrial enterprises of the region during the war years; reveals the place of engineering and technical intelligentsia of the region in solving the problem of Soviet military equipment and other defense products quality. The author notes the contribution of concrete people to the solution of complex military-technical problems; shows creative search for technological and design teams. On the basis of archival documents, the historian analyzed the contribution of the scientific intelligentsia of the region to victory. The most difficult tasks in the conditions of wartime were also performed by the engineers of the construction organizations of the Southern Urals, who carried out the orders of the State Defense Committee to build new defense and industrial facilities of the country. The paper discusses leadership and participation of technical officers of the Southern Urals in the distribution, installation and commissioning of the equipment evacuated war factories. The researcher mentions schools and train skilled personnel for industry and transport, as well as participation of intellectuals in the patriotic movement to raise funds for the defense fund, warm clothes, gifts and food packages for the Red Army.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):179-184
pages 179-184 views

Physical culture and sport in the daily life of students in the first post-war decade (on the materials of Kuybyshev, Penza, Ulyanovsk Regions)

Kozlovskaya G.E., Lubaeva A.S.

Abstract

The paper is devoted to one of the problems of the Soviet everyday life of young people - the process of physical culture and sports development among students of higher educational institutions in the postwar period (1945-1955). The author examines students’ activity in sport sections, system of boys and girls health status control, analyzes the state of the material-technical base of universities to conduct classes in physical culture and sport in the first postwar decade. The author tries to reconstruct the joint activities of the leadership of higher education institutions and their students aimed at rebuilding the destroyed military infrastructure. The paper shows basic steps that could help to improve physical and sports work among students in accordance with the orders of the Soviet government in the difficult post-war period. The study introduced into scientific circulation documents of the State archive of the Penza Region. On the basis of archival materials the author provides information about the achievements and participation of Kuibyshev, Ulyanovsk and Penza students in sports competitions of various levels in both individual and team Championships. The paper contains a conclusion about sports clubs and sports organizations work aimed at promotion of physical culture and sports among students in the post-war everyday life.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):184-188
pages 184-188 views

Epidemiological transition of the urban Middle Volga Region population

Rumyantseva M.A.

Abstract

The epidemic transition is the most important part of the demographic transition, which in turn determines the current trends in fertility and mortality in modern Russia. The paper attempts to trace the main regional features of the process by the example of the Middle Volga Region. Using the statistics reported in the census, statistical handbooks, central and local archives, the author traces the changes in morbidity and mortality of the urban population of the Middle Volga Region, making the conclusion that the epidemiological transition in the region was essentially completed in the period of the Khrushchev thaw. There was also a rapid increase in mortality from malignant neoplasms and circulatory diseases, which is characteristic of the final stage of the epidemic transition. The author of the paper revealed some «lag» of the region in terms of exogenous morbidity. It was associated with the rapid growth of industry in the region, and as a consequence, not always appropriate conditions of hygiene and life of the urban population. However, mortality trends in the Middle Volga Region corresponded to those in the RSSR as a whole, which was primarily due to the achievements of medicine of the time: the emergence of antibiotics, mass vaccination of the population, improving the quality of medical services.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):188-191
pages 188-191 views

«Beer Hall Putsch» in the US press assessment

Tulusakova M.I.

Abstract

The paper studies the problem of the American press reaction to an attempted coup in Germany in 1923. The reasons for the «Beer Hall Putsch» from the point of view of the press were studied. The author shows the process of information accumulation about the putsch, the role and attitude of various representatives of the US press to it, and the international reaction to the Nazism. The role of Hitler in the coup attempt is analyzed. The author proves that there was direct influence of large American newspapers chief editors’ opinions on the information about the coup in Germany. The analysis of the US press reaction to the «Beer Hall Putsch» shows that American newspapers during the first days of the events observed these events closely. Moreover, the trends typical for the central press (coverage of international events, desire for analytics and forecasts) were also characteristic of small local periodicals. The Beer Putsch information support shows that in 1923 the US press was clearly divided in assessments about the most important issue: to support the rebels or to condemn them. The paper shows how the image of the «Beer Hall Putsch» influenced the policy of aggressors’ pacification in the future.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):192-196
pages 192-196 views

Federally administered tribal areas: British colonial legacy in postcolonial age

Tselera O.S.

Abstract

The following paper analyzes the role of administrative experience of the British Empire on Northwest boundary of the British India in 19 - the first half of the 20th centuries in Pakistan political policy choice concerning the federally administered tribal areas in the second half of 20 - the beginning of the 21st centuries. At the same time special attention is paid to the British colonial practices which saved the value during a post-colonial era in the tribes’ zone. The author also pays attention to the role of colonial experience in asymmetrical conflict settlement with the USA involvement in Afghanistan territory as well as to features of interaction of Washington and Islamabad in the tribes’ zone. The author concludes about perspectives of colonial knowledge in federally administered tribal areas administration during a post-colonial era taking into account historical experience of the British colonial administration on Northwest boundary of British India during the age of empires. The paper also reveals the impact of postcolonial practices on the history of modern Pakistan and on the choice of its way to reform the FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas), as well as the role of other regional players in the reform of the FATA.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):196-199
pages 196-199 views

Operation Ajax in the CIA analytics: colonial knowledge in postcolonial age

Levin Y.A.

Abstract

The paper is devoted to one of the first large operations of CIA in Third World countries of the Cold War period. The changes connected with the end of World War II and the beginning of a new global opposition led to the growth of national movements in all former colonies. Besides relations of the USA with the closest allies became more tense as Washington supported the breaking-up colonial empires which were favorable for the USA. Generally the USA wanted to replace the weakened European powers. There was understanding that the new independent states represented prospective important allies, both in the light of possible direct opposition, and within expansion of sales markets. In these conditions CIA that had recently been restored and reformatted got into active prospecting gear and search of the best mechanisms of work with the new independent states. One of the first critical situations in the relations developed in Iran where the Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddegh broke off diplomatic relations with Great Britain, enjoyed support of the local Communist Party and spoke about a possibility of rapprochement with the USSR. That was unacceptable both for Washington and for London. As a result, investigations of two countries made a decision to perform a joint operation which aim was to overthrow the objectionable government. The summary report of Donald Wilber, a CIA analyst, who was carrying out strategic planning and the leadership in the operation code-named Ajax, opens the most interesting details of a general course and the results of that action.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):200-203
pages 200-203 views

Colonial experience and the theory of counter-guerrilla warfare in the USA: a source study of materials from the RAND Corporation in the first half of the 1960s

Nesterov D.A.

Abstract

This paper analyzes materials of the RAND Corporation of the first half of the 1960s, devoted to the study of the colonial experience of European empires and the theory of counter-guerrilla warfare. The entire set of documents created by the RAND Corporation allows researchers, firstly, to analyze the intellectual resource available to the American establishment before the invasion of Vietnam, and to understand the causes of the mistakes and successes of the US armed forces in this region, and secondly, these materials allow to analyze the role of colonial and anthropological knowledge in US foreign policy during the Cold War. The sources considered by us in the paper can be classified both by their typology and by their subject matter: from the point of view of typology, RAND Corporation’s materials are divided into articles, memoranda and symposia materials, as well as from the point of view of subjects on the research of the war for Algeria, the Malay Company, counter-guerrilla warfare in Vietnam and general theoretical issues related to counter-insurgency operations. In the conclusion of the paper the author says about the great role of these sources in the study, both colonial experience and the theory of counter-guerrilla warfare, as well as military, political, social and economic, thus contributing to the interdisciplinarity of scientific papers.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):203-208
pages 203-208 views

D.I. Mendeleev about the cultural and historical tasks of Russia in the East

Suvorov V.V.

Abstract

At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, the movement of Russia to the East became one of the topics discussed in domestic journalism and scientific thought. His views on this issue were also expressed by the outstanding scientist D.I. Mendeleev. In his works he stressed the historical necessity and inevitability of Russia’s access to the Pacific Ocean, the importance of its foreign policy development in the Far East direction. Showing the cultural and civilizational distancing of Russia from the West, he focused on the presence of eastern features in it, but at the same time he noted its cultural and historical uniqueness. In Mendeleev’s discourses, a departure from Eurocentrism in the assessments of the East and Russia can be traced. Speaking about the cultural and historical tasks of Russia, the scientist stressed that it was more important to maintain the «charm» of the name in the East than to imitate Western states, especially England. In Mendeleev’s papers, special emphasis was made on the peaceful strengthening of Russia in Asia and a friendly attitude towards the Eastern peoples. An interesting feature of Mendeleev’s reasoning is the motif of a fairy tale: on the one hand, it is a half-sketchy east, on the other, a fairy tale as the image of an ideal future for Russia.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):208-211
pages 208-211 views

Cultural peculiarities of Russia-Eurasia in Savitskiy’s conception

Bystryukov V.Y.

Abstract

The paper is aimed at P.N. Savitskiy’s evaluation of cultural peculiarities of Russia-Eurasia. As a leader of the Eurasianism, he based his works on the main idea of the movement, which is the acceptance of «Eurasian» civilization. The influence of the Eurasia concept was the key point to the whole concept of the Eurasianship and the views of its individual representatives. The reality of a new continent existence determined the texts of Eurasianists, made it necessary to search for the system in a variety of features, and in the system itself to see an ordering that could not be connected with anything else than with a new continent. Cultural peculiarities of Russia-Eurasia were conditioned by its geographic expansion and its political factors. P.N. Savitskiy admitted the importance of the Orthodox Church in Russia-Eurasia history. According to P.N. Savitsky’s mind Russia is «the third great Eurasian culture». However, the essentializing of Eurasia led to certain contradictions in the views of different representatives of the movement as well as of each Eurasian. According to the scientist, the manner of the new civilization development led inevitably to the «Eurasian» Russian future.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):211-215
pages 211-215 views

Methodological features of asymmetric conflicts historical modeling studying

Malkin S.G.

Abstract

The following paper deals with methodological features of studying of empires legacy role in policy of the leading powers in the countries of «the third world» through a prism of asymmetric conflicts historical modeling. The author pays special attention to the role of Great Britain and the USA foreign policy course defining after World War II during «Cold War» in the second half of the 20th century and «Global War on Terror» at the beginning of the 21st century. The author pays attention to methodological traps (such as the probability of the research problem on the given variable and terminological confusion) as well as to research opportunities which are opened by such approach in the field of the historical and political analysis (for example, evolution of the international relations theory and practice in the conditions of the world order transformation after World War II). Special attention is given to the value of such methodological reception as asymmetric conflicts historical modeling in expert estimates of the leading powers foreign policy. The paper also deals with the role of expert community and academic expertize as an important component of that analytical operation which is carried out within historical simulation of the asymmetrical conflicts.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):215-218
pages 215-218 views

13.00.00 – Pedagogical Sciences

Fundamental training of doctors in additional vocational education

Astanina S.Y.

Abstract

The paper presents methodology of doctors’ fundamental training in additional vocational education. The analysis of trends (humanization, standardization, informatization, integration, ecologization and fundamentalization) of doctors’ biological training development in continuous medical education has made it possible to determine how to improve physicians’ biological training in the aspect of solving the research problem - to determine methodology of doctors’ fundamental training in additional vocational education. The tendency of informatization of doctors’ biological training is determined by intensive development of biological sciences, as well as the widespread introduction of theoretical and technological approaches into medical practice. Integration as a trend determines modernization of goals, content, forms, methods of physicians’ biological training in the aspect of enhancing the interrelation and interdependent integrity of physicians’ biological and special training. The necessity of ecological regularities understanding and scientifically grounded attitude to nature requires systemic doctors’ biological training and dictates introducing a wide range of biological and ecological disciplines into doctors’ training and development program. These disciplines can help to understand the place of man in the environment and the biosphere as a whole from the standpoint of biocentric and polycentric approaches. Fundamentalization as a tendency for physicians’ biological training development requires training construction on the basis of a conceptual presentation of the educational content that contributes to the deepening of theoretical, scientific and vocational training of trainees and the expansion of their vocational training profile. Standardization defines requirements for physicians training level in biological disciplines (anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, immunology, genetics, etc.) of all medical specialties as well as requirements for medical personnel ecological literacy increasing. The tendency of humanization manifests itself in openness, in understanding the social role of a person in improving doctors’ professional competencies, contributes to imparting a personal meaning to the acquired knowledge and determines the preservation of the individual identity.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):219-224
pages 219-224 views

Meditation readiness as a Humanities bachelor students’ competence

Budarina A.O., Simaeva I.N., Chupris A.S., Shakhtorina E.V.

Abstract

The article deals with a number of interrelated social, methodological problems that impede the development of mediation as a professional activity in Russia, and put forward the idea of an integrated training of Humanities and Education bachelor students in the sphere of mediation on the basis of a competence approach. It is shown that this variational or optional module makes it possible to train professional mediators with a minimum of expenses for those with a humanitarian worldview and readiness to mediate as a social and humanitarian practice. This eliminates the discrepancy between the objective need of the state and society in mediators, the narrowly utilitarian interpretation of the mediator as a mediator in the settlement of disputes and conflicts, the diluted requirements of the professional standard for higher education of the mediator and the inability to use human resources among the BA graduates for mediation. It is proposed to introduce the universal competence «Ability and readiness for mediation» into the GEF3++ vocational training for Humanities and Education students. The paper considers the structure of this competence and the content of the cognitive, emotional-evaluative and motivational components of readiness for professional activity in the field of mediation. The paper also contains the results of the approbation of the elective module «Fundamentals of Mediation» and techniques of modeling the readiness for mediation on the basis of the competence approach, the theory of attitudes and ideas of a restorative strategy of responding to conflict and criminal situations.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):224-229
pages 224-229 views

Development of prospective IT teachers’ ICT competence while studying robotics

Buzhinskaya N.V., Grebneva D.M.

Abstract

The paper is devoted to the problem of development of prospective IT teachers’ information and communication competence as the most important component of the teacher’s professional competence. The urgency of the development of the ICT-competence of the teacher in the field of robotics is determined by the introduction of this subject to the school, which requires appropriate training of teaching staff. The purpose of the paper is to present effective methods and techniques for developing ICT-competence in the process of studying educational robotics by students of pedagogical universities. Based on the analysis of regulatory documents that determine the requirements of the state, society and employers for teacher training, the authors determine the general structure of the teacher’s ICT competence, which is the basis for developing the content and methodology of teaching educational robotics at the university. The authors suggest methods of development of prospective teachers’ ICT competence main components in the process of studying robotics. They give examples of assignments and criteria for their evaluation for each component of ICT competence in educational robotics classes. Evaluation sets for each of the components help to define the level of students’ ICT competence and to make adjustments to the proposed methodology, if necessary. The presented materials can be used in pedagogical activity of pedagogical university teachers in the fields of «IT and ICT», «Physics and IT», «IT and Mathematics».

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):229-233
pages 229-233 views

Cooperation of higher education and academic science in training of biodiversity conservation specialists

Vasilyeva O.Y., Novikova T.I., Vorobyova I.G., Fomina T.I., Buglova L.V., Sarlaeva I.Y.

Abstract

The paper considers the problem of bachelors, masters and graduate students training for work in the field of plant biodiversity ex-situ conservation (out of natural habitats), taking into account the modern strategy of biodiversity conservation accepted by the world scientific community. The long-term analysis of bachelors and graduate students training effectiveness was performed in Novosibirsk State Agricultural University, Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk State University of Architecture, Design and Arts. Some training materials of National Research Tomsk State University and experience of training of CSBG graduate students majoring in introduction of rare and useful plants were used. The authors show the leading role of the subject «Introduction of plants» for this major. The lack of valuable references on this course is noted. The authors justify the use of a complex of classical botanical techniques and modern ways of data analysis, including digital processing of images and parameters of plant objects in the educational process. Three main directions of experiments with introduced plants are characterized. The authors emphasize cooperation of higher education and academic science including students’ internship in research laboratories and centers of collective use of RAS institutes. This makes the most essential contribution to the training of young scientists who want their major to be conservation of plant biodiversity by methods of introduction and biotechnology.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):233-239
pages 233-239 views

Features of preschoolers’ gender education

Evtushenko I.N., Bistray E.B., Artemenko B.A.

Abstract

The paper emphasizes the importance of gender education of preschool children, determined by changes in the sociocultural background, by shifting the emphasis in people’s value orientations. The preschool age is characterized by intense physiological maturation of the body and psyche development. Besides, the child’s personality is formed exactly in the preschool age, the potential for successful further life is created. A great role in the gender education of preschoolers is played by socium and norms of social behavior, the value orientations that prevail in it at a given time. In this connection, the system of preschool education faces the problem of assimilating the child’s social experience, meaningful for the life in society, and the adoption of the existing system of values. The mediator in the communication of the preschool child and the socium is the teacher of the pre-school educational organization, who must understand that the anatomo-morphological and physiological characteristics of the child of preschool age form only the first level of the hierarchical ladder of adulthood and entry into the society A big role in the gender socialization of preschool children is assigned to parents, because in the process of monitoring the behavior of their parents, the child develops certain behavioral stereotypes feminically and masculinely colored. The gender socialization of preschool children is greatly influenced by peers.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):239-245
pages 239-245 views

Theoretical justification of pedagogical situations cognitive modeling

Kamaleeva A.R., Gruzkova S.Y.

Abstract

The following paper deals with the application of methodology of pedagogical situations cognitive modeling, which is considered by the authors as a process consisting of six consecutive and interconnected stages. The first stage is a formulation of the purpose and the corresponding tasks. The second stage provides collecting, systematization and analysis of a pedagogical situation with the subsequent allocation of the major factors influencing development of the situation and determination of interrelation between them, i.e. creation of a cognitive map. At the third stage a focused count is created as a result of accounting of the cause and effect chains reflecting the system of interaction between the educational process subjects and allowing to form a pedagogical theory on the basis of basic person study categories: consciousness, thinking, knowledge, understanding, etc. The fourth stage assumes combination of the cognitive map and the focused count in a uniform cognitive model of the studied pedagogical situation. The fifth stage is focused on a real pedagogical situation cognitive model adequacy check i.e. on its verification. The last sixth stage allows to define possible options of a pedagogical situation development by a cognitive model, to find ways and mechanisms of a situation impact.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):245-247
pages 245-247 views

Applied bases of the person physical culture education process management

Korovin S.S.

Abstract

The quality of school education as a system of the directional usage of the physical culture values is conditionally provided through the effectiveness of the teacher’s activities (as well as by all the school’s subjects) in realization of the management actions with regards to this system functioning optimization, its integrity and stability in the process of the base aim achievement - students’ physical culture education. Meanwhile the management activity itself as a system stipulates, in its turn, for the definite stages of the management work with regards to the fulfillment a corresponding content of the management actions. So, based on the existing notions about the internal school management system as well as on the experience in management the process of physical education in the bringing up a student’s physical culture, the following management activities stages and their main content are defined: collection and processing (analysis, synthesis) information about the object of management (physical education); diagnosis of the state of the object (subject) of management and the activity forecast, establishment of the aim (the anticipation of the results in physical culture and sports activities), private goals in the process of students’ physical culture teaching, management decision taking (the combination of the mental operations and actions, that define a problematic situation, its transfer to the task, formation of the physical culture and sports activities motives and hypothesis about the means of its decision); planning (foreseeing the way how the physical education process will be developed in time); working out a physical culture and sports activities content (system regulation of the elements and processes, that form the subject or phenomenon; the content of physical culture and sports activities - the system of knowledge, movement abilities and skills, experience of the creative value-oriented activity, that provide for the personality’s physical culture formation); activity organization (as a combination of actions for regulation and co-ordination of subject-object physical culture and sports activities in teaching, education and development of the personality); control (complex) of education activity (its biomedicine and psycho-pedagogical forms); collection and processing of education activities results; correction of the aim, planning, content and the processes of physical culture and sports activities and physical education organization.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):247-252
pages 247-252 views

Theoretical aspects of higher education internationalization problem in the modern world

Kuzovenkova K.O.

Abstract

This paper discusses conceptual aspects of higher education internationalization problem in terms of native and foreign scientists. The author of the study comes to the conclusion that internationalization of higher education is assessed differently by specialists and there is no consensus in assessing benefits and possible risks associated with the internationalization and in the terminological definition of the process itself. Key components of internationalization methodology in the context of the university are analyzed. In the course of the work the author determines that the internationalization of education is one of the factors in the formation of a global space for higher education and can be represented by a multitude of processes, including international academic mobility, introduction of world standards, internationalization of training courses, intercultural programs, etc. The author defines basic components of the university culture which must be developed in conditions of internationalization. The definitions of the concepts of internal, external, national, cross-border and international levels of the internationalization of higher education are considered.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):252-256
pages 252-256 views

«Methods of Biology Teaching» educational and methodical complex design and its use for prospective Biology teachers’ training

Marina A.V.

Abstract

The paper deals with one of the most important issues - educational and methodical support of basic vocational education program 44.03.05 Pedagogical education with two majors (bachelor level). The basic component of this support is an educational and methodological complex of the discipline. Particular attention is paid to the structure and content of the educational and methodical complex of the discipline «Methods of Biology Teaching» for students majoring in Biology and Geography. The author reveals methodological approaches of its design as well as the possibilities of its use for prospective Biology teachers’ training according to the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education. The components of the educational-methodical complex are characterized. Particular attention is paid to the design and development of the curriculum of the discipline as a key component of the teaching and methodological complex. The author describes many years experience of the use of teaching and methodological complex for pedagogical education bachelors’ professional competencies development. The main forms of work are presented in detail and the technologies used for organizing the educational process at the course are disclosed. The presented materials can be used by university teachers while teaching the course «Methods of Biology Teaching».

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):256-262
pages 256-262 views

Master students’ scientific research design as a teacher training professional development factor

Smolyar A.I., Zogol S.G.

Abstract

The paper proves that master students’ scientific research is the essence for teacher training professional development. The authors describe the model, substantiate approaches to master students’ scientific research position and content understanding based on their analyses of the experience of master students’ scientific research predictive model representation. Methodologically these are activity and research approaches; and their implementation principles are practice-oriented educational process principle, activity and creative content of education principle and the educational process personalization principle. The paper exposes to light the experience of master students’ scientific research organization pedagogical conditions implementation (scientific research building into the theoretical and practical courses of master degree program study; its presentation as a means of master student’s personal pedagogical experience and professional activity evaluation and correction; master student’s personal pedagogical experience use as a base in the process of theoretical course study; the connection of theoretical courses, practical trainings, work on master’s thesis). The paper highlights peculiarities of master students’ scientific research organization process. These peculiarities are: the search of leading pedagogical experience, academic research organization; teaching practice and theoretical courses educational program composition on the basis of research and education problems solving and projects implementation; the educational research and scientific research practical training content connection with master’s thesis subject; simulation training as a method of enquiry and transformation of pedagogical reality and etc.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):262-266
pages 262-266 views

Features study of physical education adaptive program «From sickness to health» within the health motive of students with the impaired health status

Tcherkashina A.G.

Abstract

Each student with the weakened state of health collides in a daily life with a problem of preservation and strengthening of the health. The period of training in high school is connected with increase in an academic load, downturn of impellent activity, overlapping of educational activity and part time job, etc. In this paper there are results of an ascertaining and a two-year forming experiment within the Adaptive Program «From sickness to health» (The discipline is Physical Education). The aim is to change the internal picture of students with the impaired health status. The internal picture of health is a set of cognitive knowledge, perceptions, and descriptions of human health of the person and also complex emotional experiences, sensations and behavioral reactions. Study results of the internal picture of health give students with the impaired health status an opportunity of all-round vision of health through a prism of cognitive, emotional, corporal and behavioral aspects, as well as they promote personal student’s health strengthening activity (a health motive).

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):266-272
pages 266-272 views

From editorial board

To the 100 anniversary of «Samara University Scientific News»

Mochalov O.D., Buranok O.M.

Abstract

To the 100 anniversary of «Samara University Scientific News»

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(2):10-12
pages 10-12 views

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