Vol 6, No 1 (2017)

03.02.00 – General Biology
Phenotypic polymorphism pattern evaluation of the pronotum in the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) population in the Kursk Region
Babkina L.A., Balabina I.P., Trigub N.I., Mironov S.Y., Merzlyakova C.V.
Abstract

The population of the Colorado potato beetle is characterized by a high degree of polymorphism. This polymorphism provides a considerable adaptive potential and ubiquity of this species. The variability of the central pronotal pattern under the influence of habitat-forming factors (geographical location of the population, variety of fodder plant, group of insecticides) is considered in this paper. Differences in agrobiocenotic conditions determine a direction of microevolution changes and lead to disintegration of the intra-species structure of Leptinotarsa decemlineata . Evaluation of the phenotypic polymorphism in the Colorado potato beetle populations in the Kursk Region was performed by several indicators: ratio of nine main pronotum’s morphs, average number of variations (μ), share of the rare forms (h), populations similarity index (r) and identity criteria (I). In various parts of the Kursk Region from 7 to 9 pattern protonum phenoforms were encountered with varying frequency in the populations. The predominance of the 9-phenoform in the beetle populations was identified in the Rylsky, Oktyabrsky, Lgovsky districts. The 3-phenomorf prevailed in populations of Pristensky and Manturovsky districts. The highest level of a phenotypical polymorphism of a protonum was observed in the population in the Lgovsky district, the lowest level was detected in Manturovsky district. The comparative analysis of phenotypic structure of the investigated Colorado beetle populations showed that despite a spatial isolation the insect populations of the Rylsky and Pristensky districts are characterized by the highest similarity in pattern of variability of the central part of a pronotum. The obtained results will enable to improve the system of the plant protection against Colorado potato beetle and control its population.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):10-14
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Morpho-anatomical aspects of the firstand-second year leaf epidermis of some Rhododendron L. winter-green species in the Bugsko-Polessky Region
Bondar Y.V., Zerkal S.V.
Abstract

This paper discusses morphological and anatomical aspects of the first-and-second-year-leaf epidermis of the two winter-green species, genus Rhododendron L.: R. catawbiense Michx. and R. davidsonianum Rehd., grown in the Bugsko-Polessky Region from the seed reproduction of the Central Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. The representatives of the studied genus are promising crops for planting gardens, settlements and interiors. Therefore, the study of leaf anatomy lets to find plants adaptive features to different environmental conditions and identify their adaptation capacity in the new conditions of growth. The paper identified diagnostic features, as well as similarities and differences of morphometric parameters. The research method was a comparative anatomical one. The author made a code of diagnostic features of the leaf anatomical structure, which described the views of cross sections. The character of the natural confinement species lays its mark on the formation of individual elements of the leaves structure, ensuring their successful adaptation to the new conditions of growth. The studies have shown that both species quite successfully acclimatized and are promising for mass reproduction and wider use in the Bugsko-Polessky Region, and this is supported by qualitative and quantitative indicators of the morphology and internal leaf structure.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):14-19
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Naturalized alien plants in Penza Region
Vasjukov V.M., Novikova L.A.
Abstract

The paper deals with naturalized alien plants in Penza Region. There are 75 naturalized alien plant species in the flora of the Penza Region, the most dangerous for natural ecosystems of them are 10 transformers species ( Acer negundo , Bidens frondosa , Echinocystis lobata , Elaeagnus angustifolia , Elodea canadensis , Fraxinus lanceolata , Fraxinus pennsylvanica , Phalacrolomaseplentrionale , Salix euxina , Ulmus pumila ), 20 alien species, actively settled and invasive in semi-natural and natural habitats ( Amelanchier spicata , Conyza canadensis , Cuscuta campestris , Echinochloa crusgalli , Epilobium adenocaulon , Epilobium pseudorubescens , Geranium sibiricum , Heracleumsosnowskyi , Helianthus subcanescens , Hippophaë rhamnoides , Impatiens glandulifera , Juncus tenuis , Malus domestica , Oenothera villosa s.l., Parthenocissus inserta , Phragmites altissimus , Sambucus racemosa , Sambucus sibirica , Solidago canadensis s.l., Xanthium albinum ), 45 alien species, invasive and settled at present in disturbed habitats ( Acroptilon repens , Amaranthus albus , Amaranthus blitoides , Amaranthus retroflexus , Ambrosia artemisiifolia , Ambrosiatrifida , Anisantha tectorum , Arrhenatherumelatius , Artemisia sieversiana , Atriplex tatarica , Bassia sieversiana , Berberisvulgaris , Cannabisruderalis , Caragana arborescens , Cardaria draba , Centaurea diffusa , Chamomilla suaveolens , Crataegus monogyna , Cyclachaena xanthiifolia , Elsholtzia ciliata , Galega orientalis , Galinsoga quadriradiata , Galinsoga parviflora , Grindelia squarrosa , Gypsophila perfoliata , Hordeum jubatum , Impatiens parviflora , Kali collina , Lepidium densiflorum , Leymusracemosus , Lolium perenne , Lupinus polyphyllus , Oenothera biennis , Oenothera rubricaulis , Onobrychisviciifolia , Populusbalsamifera , Portulaca oleracea , Robiniapseudoacacia , Senecio viscosus , Sisymbriumvolgense , Symphyotrichum salignum s.l., Symphytumcaucasicum , Typha laxmannii , Vinca minor , Xanthoxalis stricta ).

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):19-22
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Assessment of the ecological state of the pond on the phytoplankton indicators (for example, Kuchane Lake, Pskov Region)
Drozdenko T.V., Kurka A.A.
Abstract

Aquatic ecosystems are in balance with the external environment factors and have a complex system of biological connections, disturbed under the influence of anthropogenic factors. First of all, the influence of anthropogenic factors affect the taxonomic composition of aquatic communities. Assessment of the degree of water pollution on the composition of living organisms to quickly establish its ecological condition. In summer 2016 the first time studied the planktonic algae Kuchane Lake located in Pushkinogorsky district of the Pskov Region on the territory of the Museum-Reserve of A.S. Pushkin «Mikhailovskoye». Phytoplankton is one of the main components of the aquatic ecosystem, quickly responding to any changes in the environmental conditions, and its structural characteristics are the important elements in evaluating the ecological state of the pond. The article discusses the use of phytoplankton to assess the water quality of Kuchane Lake. Showed taxonomic composition of phytoplankton of the lake in the summer. Algae is characterized by relatively high species diversity. One hundred twenty six species taxa of phytoplankton belonging to 8 phylums were identified during the research: Chlorophyta (45), Bacillariophyta (38), Euglenohyta (15), Cyanophyta/ Cyanoprocaryota (9), Dinophyta (7), Chrysohyta (6), Сryptophyta (5), Xanthophyta (1). The basis of phytoplankton up green and diatoms. Investigated ecological and geographical analysis of phytoplankton and saprobiological analysis of the quality of the lake water.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):22-26
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Taking account of environmental damage in the environmental protection activities of JSC Russian Railways
Druzhina N.A., Vasilieva D.I., Shimanchik I.P., Kholopov Y.A.
Abstract

The paper discusses issues related to the evaluation of the accumulated environmental damage, especially the elimination of consequences of negative impact on the environment. The authors enumerate the potential impact of oil products in soil on surrounding water bodies and groundwater. The problem of environmental damage consequences elimination for infrastructure companies of JSC Russian Railways is considered to be urgent. The authors investigated the object of accumulated environmental damage - oil contamination at residential area (near the Partisan ravine in Syzran, Samara Region) and discussed methods for its reduction and elimination. The authors registered underground pollution with oil products, which occurred due to the leakage of oil from storage tanks into the ground. The authors have analyzed the elimination activities on oil and oil products spill from underground tanks with a strategic reserve of fuel for the locomotive depot in Syzran. It is noted that the cleanup of soil and groundwater has been comprehensive. The authors come to the conclusion that it is possible to carry out efficient measures for accumulated environmental damage elimination.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):27-32
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Plantains role in the composition of the Southern Urals grassy cover
Karpov D.N., Karpov S.D., Atnasheva L.Z.
Abstract

The paper discusses the role and importance of various plantain species, found in the southern Urals in the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Orenburg Region. The paper contains description of the 7 species of plantain, their ecology, distribution, national economic significance, participation in various syntaxa extracted using eco-floristic approach of Brown-Blanke. Many of the species are plantains of taxonomic rank classes, orders, unions, associations: class SJ - Scorzonero-Juncetea gerardii, order SJg - Scorzonero-Juncetalia gerardii, union CH - Cirsio-Hordeion, TS class - Thero-Salicornietea, class FP-Festuco-Puccinellietea, order Fv - Festucetalia valesiacae, FB class - Festuco-Brometea, class M-A - Molinio-Arrhenantheretea. By origin they belong to different geographic elements: old Mediterranean meadow - Plantago cornuti Gouan; Pontian - Plantago maxima Juss. ex Jacq.; Euro-West Asian forest - Plantago media L.; Euro-West Asian forest-steppe - Plantago urvillei Opiz; Holarctic plyurizonalniy - Plantago major L. There is a species among the plantains that is found in the Red Book of the Republic of Bashkortostan - Plantago krascheninnikovii C.Serg. found in N.Yulbarisovo village of Khaybullinsky District (the Republic of Bashkortostan) near the Erangas river.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):33-36
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Rare component as an indicator of human flora transformation
Kozlovskaya O.V., Belyaeva Y.V.
Abstract

This paper discusses the use of the rare flora component of Melekessky-Stavropol landscaped area as an indicator of anthropogenic transformation. The paper contains an ecological-floristic zoning of Melekessky-Stavropol landscaped area (lowland Trans-Volga) and the value of anthropogenic stress factors for each elementary floristic subarea and for the landscape area as a whole. The factors value due to non-equivalent sub-areas and lack of research is formalized and pointed. Relative factors values are compared to the total factor value for the landscape area. Rare flora component was studied and rarity species saturation was calculated, i.e. their number per unit area for each of the elementary floristic sub-areas. The authors revealed the dependence of rarity species saturation on the level of anthropogenic load in elementary subareas - the higher the rarity species saturation, the less anthropogenically transformed flora. A corresponding graph is presented and described in detail that makes it possible to estimate the anthropogenic transformation of flora, not only its active, dynamic components - alien flora, but also the degree of preservation of rare species.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):37-41
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Bio-ecological features of some rare plants fruits in the Samara Region
Kotelnikova M.G.
Abstract

The paper presents some preliminary results of the monitoring of Fritillaria meleagroides Partin ex Schult. et Schult. fil. and Tulipa biebersteiniana Schult. et Schult. fil. plants (category of rare and endangered plant species). The results of the field study fulfilled in 2012-2016 in two population groups of quarter 80 and cenopopulation of quarter 69 in the Krasnosamarsky forestry (Samara Region) were used to determine morphometric parameters of plant species. The data also helped us to assess the variability level and to make a comparison with plant quantitative traits given in the literature. It has been found that the sample indicators fit into the range of values specified in literature sources, with a significant proportion of «large» fruit 2,0-3,0 cm in length. The dynamics of the fruit size of Fritillaria meleagroides Partin ex Schult. et Schult. fil. and Tulipa biebersteiniana Schult. et Schult. fil. plants in population groups of quarter 80, as a whole, has general patterns in the difference during some seasons of vegetation. Prevailing values of fruit length of plants in cenopopulations of quarter 69 changed slightly according to year of vegetation, these populations are more resistant and numerous comparing with the populations of quarter 80. As for variability of signs, the values of fruit length and width coefficients of variation does not exceed 25% for Fritillaria meleagroides Partin ex Schult. et Schult. fil. plants and 20% for Tulipa biebersteiniana Schult. et Schult. fil. plants which is optimal for this type of indicators and is consistent with the bioecological specificity of fruit plant. The conditions of ecosystems in 69 and 80 quarters of Krasnosamarsky forestry are favorable for the vegetation of two species plants, the successful preservation and restoration in natural communities can be in the absence of anthropogenic factors limits.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):41-46
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Water purification from organic contaminants by avalanche streamer discharge
Kuhno A.V., Makal'skij L.M., Tsekhanovich O.M.
Abstract

The paper deals with the influence of avalanche streamer discharges on aqueous solutions of organic substances such as phenols, methyl-orange and simulating amino acid and protein compounds. Studies have shown the possibility of universal water purification when using gas-discharge decontamination technologies. Complex impact of discharge phenomena, physical and chemical factors, radiation at different frequencies of avalanche streamer discharge lead to degradation of organic and inorganic substances in water impurities. The most frequently used discharges for water purification are electrolyte (discharge in liquid), glow, corona, microwave-frequency discharge excitation in several GHz, barrier discharge and avalanche streamer discharge. It is shown that application of avalanche streamer discharges allows to undertake the decomposition of organic matter in water with decomposition in carbon compounds, gaseous components and water more efficiently and with low cost energy. Applying of a discharge technology is a promising direction of water treatment and industrial wastewater disposal technology development. Energy electric shock changes chemical characteristics of the treated water, affects its Ionic composition, structure of dissolved organic matter, viability of the microorganisms in water without additional chemical reagents.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):46-51
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Woody plants in street landscaping of urban-type settlement Alexeevka (Samara Oblast)
Makarova Y.V., Korchikov E.S., Prokhorova N.V.
Abstract

Our results support that introducents (72,1% of 68 found species) might have important impact on ecosystem of urban-type settlement Alexeevka, Kinel Urban Okrug of Samara Region. The local community of woody plants include 68 species from 48 genera, 21 families, 2 classes (Pinopsida, Magnoliopsida) and 2 divisions (Pinophyta, Magnoliophyta). 30 species (44,1%) of trees and 25 species (36,8%) of bushes are dominant plants. They are basically summer-green, cross-pollinated (entomophilous) species, mesotrophes, mesophytes, sciogeliophytes and mezotermes, which fruits and seeds are spread by animals. Introducents (Eurasian, European-American and European types of habitats) were planted at different times. Rosaceae (21 species, 30,9%) are well represented and the largest number of species contain genuses Populus (6 species), Rosa (4 species), Ulmus , Crataegus and Acer (3 species). We found seven rare species used in street landscaping: Juniperus communis L., J. sabina L., Crataegus volgensis Pojark., Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb., Cotoneaster melanocarpus Fisch. ex Blytt, Populus alba L. and Salix alba L. The change in variability of local communities has significant implications for our ability to predict how the patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem function will respond to environmental changes.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):51-57
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General strategy of leaf beetles reproductive behavior (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)
Pavlov S.I.
Abstract

Reproductive behavior of 25 background species leaf beetles was studied in the conditions of Samara Region during 1974-2014 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Strategy of adult’s reproductive behavior, which fundamentally different from individuals of the opposite sex is a complex includes more than 60 types of locomotion behavioral reactions and aimed to attracting the active partner, usually the male, search and preparation of the female for the mate as final stage of the reproductive process. Adult-female undergoes five stages of reproductive transformation accompanied by 18 types of behavioral reactions after emergence. There are food of ripening, involvement of species-specific male of attractant, mating, ovulation and egg laying. Adult-male overcomes five stages too, provided almost by 30 types of behavioral reactions in the course of life. There are preparation, mating, and food maturation, search for females training females to mating, mating, and post-nuptial final cleaning. Temporal and physical resource of female and male survival in different situations, as well as time budgets, of both sexes daily activity at different stages of its generation cycle estimated. Occurrence of non-standard reproductive situations or failures, which are explained by objective reasons, for example errors in chemonavigation of males, violation of a genetically programmed sequence of stages of behavior, inconsistency sexual cycles of the partners discusses.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):57-66
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The analysis of phytophagous mammals’ excretory activity in forest ecosystems
Pilipko Y.N.
Abstract

In this paper the author considers the excretory activity as one of zoocenosis environment-transforming activity types. The paper presents the results of experimental data on the effect of phytophagous animals’ excreta on the soil-forming processes through adding organic substances to the soil in the process of decomposing the undigested plant residues. The organic substance (humus) is a source of mineral elements necessary for plant organisms. The value of phytophagous animals’ excreta is in their peculiar properties such as high content of humic acids performing a number of important functions in the biosphere. In this paper one of these functions - accumulative - has been considered. Decomposition of the organic substance in the form of the excreta of the elk (Alces alces, L.) as the largest phytophagous animal of the north-west proceeded in the course of the experiment in natural and laboratory conditions. Anthropogenically disturbed areas of the Vologda Region have been chosen as natural conditions. The excreta decomposition took place on medium-loamy and strongly podzolic soils on the cutting site after clear felling in the sorrel spruce forest. In laboratory conditions the experiments on excreta decomposition have been carried out in microlysimeters. Thereby we have chosen the three factor experiment with subsequent developing mathematical models (regression equations). We have used the winter variety of the elk’s excreta which differs in composition from the summer variety. Winter excreta appear as a result of digesting the coarse woody feeds. In the paper the results of the research on the group composition of humus and agrochemical NPK-complex have been given. As a result of decomposition it has been revealed that the content of the humus components under study and NPK have been influenced by the size of particles in the soil, microconditions and the time of organic substance decomposition.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):66-72
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Snow cover and the climate severity influence on the common fox (Vulpes vulpes) behavioral adaptation
Skluev V.V., Sklueva O.A.
Abstract

One of the ways to adapt to the changing parameters of the environment is behavioral adaptation. The paper presents data on the weather rigidity index use (G. Bodman) in environmental studies. The authors describe the behavioral characteristics of the common fox ( Vulpes vulpes , Linnaeus, 1758) activity depending on the amount of snow cover and the climate severity in Krasnoarmeyskiy district of the Samara Region. Relatively low temperature and quite high wind speed influence the heat loss of the animal more than high temperature in calm weather. In scientific literature (A.N. Formozov, 1946, 1990) it’s noted that it is possible to use «weather cruelty» indicator that defines the conditions that contribute to frostbite. It is determined by low air temperature and wind velocity that particularly affect cooling objects that have excessive heat in comparison with the environment. However, A.N. Formozov could not use this indicator due to rather large deviations as the wind speed and the temperature on the investigated territory, as even in the same locality there is a discrepancy with the data of weather stations located remotely from each other, this author didn’t study habitats independently (A.N. Formozov, 1946, 1990, 2010). At the same time it is also noted that snowfall is an important factor, a powerful element of the environment that indicates what life forms can live in vast areas with snowy winter. Snow cover leads to seasonal migration or switching to food located above the snow.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):72-77
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Results of Chernovskoe Reservoir hydro botanical monitoring from 1974 to 2015
Solovieva V.V.
Abstract

Features of reservoirs use make it necessary to collect, analyse and synthesise environmental information about the state of hydroecosystems with a purpose of their development forecast. Overgrowing processes are an important indicator of ecosystem. The following paper contains the results of the study of Chernovskoe reservoir flora and vegetation in different years. Floristic diversity is compared with other reservoirs and hydro botanic information about them has already been published in a number of the author’s papers. The comparative analysis has shown that the overall composition of reservoirs flora is random, while there is some regularity in the environmental spectrum - each of them is characterized by a small number of aquatic species and by the dominance of coastal plant species. The study of Chernovskoe reservoir vegetation has shown that the composition of dominants has changed over the past 40 years, from 1974 to 2015. There is a dominance of air water vegetation above the water one, but the borders of the water vegetation growth have widened. Chernovskoe reservoir is currently in dynamic equilibrium. The lifetime of aquatic ecosystem at this stage may be unlimited if there is an unstable hydro regime and impulsive character of water use. The reservoir water level lowering may lead to overgrowth and accelerate activation of waterlogging.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):77-82
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Ecological and geochemical features of the soils of different functional zones of Novokuybyshevsk
Startzev A.I., Prokhorova N.V.
Abstract

This paper deals with the problem of anthropogenic soil pollution of cities with oil production on the example of Novokuybyshevsk, Samara Region. To assess the modern ecological-geochemical state of soil cover in Novokuybyshevsk in August 2016 the field study was carried out and soil samples for laboratory analysis were selected. The study was carried out on 8 test areas, 7 of which were in different functional zones of the city, significantly differing in environmental conditions. The sample site was in a green area 10 km from the city. Soil samples were collected according to the methods generally accepted in soil science and Geochemistry. The quantitative content of oil products and heavy metals (Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Mn) in soil samples was determined in a specialized laboratory by certified procedures on the equipment, timely verified and calibrated. The data analysis revealed significant anthropogenic transformation of the soil cover in Novokuybyshevsk, which was enriched with petroleum and heavy metals. It also shaped the conditions that increased the migration of heavy metals in soils and their availability to biota. The soils of the city are characterized by relatively even distribution and high content of Zn and Cu. On the contrary, the Mn content is characterized by a rather low rate, which is especially evident for the soil sample area. The accumulation of Zn, Pb and petroleum products in the soils of the city is connected with the influence of the industrial zone. The motor component involves the contamination of soil by Ni, Zn, Si, Cd and petroleum products. No functional area in Novokuybyshevsk contains high levels of Pb concentrations, the content of which exceeded the MPC only in the industrial area. This fact can be associated with the ban of tetraethyl use in gasoline production in Russia in 2002. The obtained results can be used for environmental monitoring of the urban environment and predict changes of ecological-geochemical situation in Novokuybyshevsk in the future.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):83-88
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07.00.00 – Historical Sciences and Archaeology
Children burials of the Saka times in Central Kazakhstan
Beisenov A.Z., Bazarbaeva G.A., Duisenbay D.B.
Abstract

The materials on the children burials belonging to Tasmola culture in Central Kazakhstan were studied by M.K. Kadyrbaev and A.Z. Beisenov. As the analysis of available data shows there are only nine studied children burials of Tasmola culture. It is possible that some of the children graves, represented by small mounds, do not contain accompanying subjects and in the early period of research they were not mentioned on the pages of scientific publications and reports. New research shows that, along with small mounds, there are significant ones distinguished by their parameters and structure. Two of the nine constructions have diameters higher than 20 m, one of them is 18 m and particularly notable is the kurgan 7 in the burial ground Akbeit studied in Karaganda Region. Its diameter is 21,5 m, height 2,5 m. A four or five year old child, probably a girl, was buried there. The child was buried in a rich dress, as evidenced by gold torque, worn around the neck, and two gold earrings, a bronze mirror, a bone case for cosmetics. Children burials of Tasmola culture as well as the adult burials indicate social strata of that society.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):89-94
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Round dwellings of the saka epoch
Beisenov A.Z.
Abstract

Based on the excavation materials from the settlement Tuyetas studied by the author on the territory of Karaganda Region, the characteristics of such a type of Saka dwellings as round houses are considered. According to archaeological research, on the territory of Kazakhstan rounded frame dwellings, along with rectangular, were commonly widespread in the Bronze Age. The frame house with round plan is known from the materials of Saka time Zhetysu (settlement Butakty-1). On the settlement Tuyetas on the excavated area of 408 square meters the remains of foundations of round houses and two annexes were revealed. The author suggests that it was the house of the yurt-shaped form with a powerful stone base with a minimum width of 1 m and a wooden top. The construction with the overall diameter of about 13 m had several rooms, extensive grounds which were also made of stone. One round room with a diameter of about 3-3,5 m was in the centre. Wooden poles on the frame walls of the room at the same time supported the upper structure of the house. Houses of round plan were opened at the Saka settlement Sarybuyrat, located near the settlement of Tuyetas. This type of construction is recorded in a number of other not yet studied settlements in Central Kazakhstan. The study of Saka settlements in Central Kazakhstan is at the initial stage. The source base should be broadened for a comprehensive analysis of many aspects, including features and types of dwellings.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):94-100
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The Russian-Chechen relations in XVI-XVII centuries
Tovsultanov R.A., Galimova L.N., Ozdamirova E.M.
Abstract

The following paper investigates the Russian-Chechen relations in XVI-XVII centuries. The authors note that the Caucasus was in the sphere of Russian foreign policy at the time of the Russian centralized state formation. With the annexation of the Astrakhan khanate, Russia came to the Caucasus border and the Caucasian direction started to occupy a leading place in the Eastern policy of the tsarist government. The Caucasus in the XVI century was an object of a tense struggle between the two most powerful States of the then Middle East - Ottoman Empire and Safavid Iran - and at the same time a bridgehead, where there was a constant threat to the southern outskirts of Russia from these States and the Crimean khanate. The strengthening of Russia on the Caucasian lands could become the most reliable means to ensure the safety of the South of Russia. So in the XVII and XVII centuries, the North Caucasus was Russia’s military-strategic interest or, in modern language, a geopolitical one. Chechnya came under the influence of Russia in 1567, when the first Russian militarized city Terek in the North Caucasus was founded. For the peoples of the North Caucasus and of Chechnya the appearance of a Russian fortress on their land was of great political importance. Thus, it was vital for Russia to gain a foothold in the North Caucasus, as the enemy (Iran and Turkey) could do it, which was unsafe for Russia’s southern borders. It was during this period (late sixteenth century) when close military and political ties of the Moscow government and the Chechens were established. The Moscow government was interested in Chechnya because of its geographical location - the immediate proximity to the towns of Terek and the fact that its territory was the most convenient means of communication with Georgia. The relationship between Chechnya and Russia at the end of XVI - first half of XVII century was almost an «ideal model» of a peaceful rapprochement of the Chechen with the Moscow government for those conditions and at that time. The Russian authorities did not interfere in the internal affairs of the Chechen societies, they did not impose their own rules or laws, being satisfied with the results of the hostages, the payment of tribute and, if necessary, temporary military service. This led to the fact that in the XVII century allied relations of Chechnya societies with Russia were established. However, at the end of the XVII century Russian-Caucasian connection was significantly weakened.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):100-104
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Ural-Caspian Region as a historical and geographical phenomenon (XVI - the beginning of the XX century)
Lyubichankovskiy S.V., Lyubichankovskiy A.V.
Abstract

This paper deals with cross-disciplinary historical and geographical research. The Ural-Caspian Region existing from the 16th century to the beginning of the 20th century is its main focus. The Assessment of new lands inclusion in the Russian civilization is carried out. The authors analyze the Ural-Caspian Region through assessment of dynamics of its cultural landscapes. The social processes happening in the region are characterized. The authors suggest considering the Ural-Caspian Region as a frontier, existing from the 16th century to the beginning of the 20th century. Ethno cultural space structure mosaicity, original culture of the Cossacks and the zone with special social conditions were characteristics of the Russian and Nogai cultures assimilation at the early stage of the development. The Orenburg Region with its «creeping-away» regional identity is the only outlier of the Ural-Caspian Region. In its population historical memory it is possible to find five spatial images of the Orenburg Region: «base to Central Asia», «citadel of "civilization"», «testing ground for reforms», «operation object with huge resources» and «the deaf province».

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):104-109
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The historical novels of Sir Walter Scott - the substantial factor in the formation of Scottish national identity at the turn of XVIII-XIX centuries
Fedorova T.A.
Abstract

The paper discusses the influence of Walter Scott’s historical novels on the formation of national identity of Scotland at the turn of the eighteenth to early nineteenth centuries. In the current geopolitical situation, considering the growing wave of separatism, the relevance of the study of national identity formation process cannot be overemphasized. In the paper the author analyzes the historical preconditions of Scots national consciousness formation. The author also considers characteristics of historical and cultural development of the region. According to the author, James MacPherson and Bishop Percy’s works were equally important for national disunity overcoming in Scotland and Britain as a whole. Particular attention is drawn to the role of Sir Walter Scott in the process of national revival in Scotland. Such novels as «Waverley», «Puritans», and «Rob Roy» introduced the general public with the mental basis of the Scottish people. Having opened national character features and religious foundations of the Scottish worldview for a wide range of readers, the author awakened the interest of the British society to the heritage of Scotland, thereby laying the basis for a successful integration of the two peoples into a single nation. Sir Walter Scott managed to revive national prestige of Scotland that had fallen victim after the signing of Union in 1707.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):109-113
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The spiritual and educational activities of the Tatars in the Kazakh Steppe in the context of the Russian Empire’s domestic policy (second half of XVIII - the beginning of XX century)
Makhmutov Z.A.
Abstract

This paper discusses the spiritual and educational activities of the Tatars in Kazakh’s steppe in pre-revolutionary period. The Empress Catherine II let mass penetration of the Tatar mullahs into the steppe zone. They performed some of the functions of the tsar officials in addition to religious and educational activities. They completed parish registers and directed civil proceedings. The Tatar language became the main language of the clerical work in the steppe zone. After the Crimean and Caucasian war the attitude of imperial administration to the activities of Tatar preachers changed dramatically. Since that time, Islam and Muslim education in the Steppe zone started to be considered by officials as a threat to the Russian state. The Russian government limited the powers of the mullahs, subdued Muslim schools to the Ministry of Education and strictly regulated it, tried to introduce the Russian language into the mosques and madrasas. Minister of Internal Affairs through its secret messages made local administration offices translate clerical works from the Tatar language on Arab ligature to the «missionary» Kazakh language on Cyrillic alphabet. It was also strongly recommended to replace Tatar interpreters to Kazakh or Russian ones. Despite the internal policy of the Russian state had changed, the Tartars built powerful spiritual and educational infrastructure in the Steppe zone. At the beginning of the XX century it included the old and new madrasas, mosques, Muslim Library and publishing houses. In Muslim schools prominent people of Tatar and Kazakh culture were educated, first books and newspapers in both languages were issued in theses publishing houses. The spiritual and educational activity of the Tatars played a significant role in the formation of the Kazakh and Tatar intelligentsia and led to the rise of religious and political consciousness of both nations.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):113-117
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The introduction of vaccination practice in the Orenburg Region in the early XIX century
Mifteeva D.M.
Abstract

The purpose of this work is to research the process of introduction of smallpox prevention in the Orenburg Region in the early 19th century. The author focuses the main attention on the organization and activity of subsidiary medical institutions - smallpox committees. The author shows the role of Free Economic Society, doctors, clergy, civil people in the development of smallpox prevention in the region. Based on the analysis of historical sources which are represented in the state archive of the Orenburg Region (fund 6 «the offices of Orenburg military governor») the author makes an attempt to detect the main cause of civil resistance in the region. The author used chronological, historical, retrospective and inquiry learning methods. The conducted research showed that in the 19th century in the Orenburg province there was a system of vaccine prevention of smallpox among the population despite the difficult sanitary and epidemiologic situation, lack of medical institutions and shortage of qualified medical personnel. The formation of this process started in the early XIX century. Thus, effective activities of the state and public organizations during this period let to lower the general illness rate and death rates from natural smallpox among the population in the Orenburg province.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):117-120
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Samara and Simbirsk nobility role in education promotion and support at the turn of XIX-XX centuries
Kazantseva S.G.
Abstract

The paper deals with the nobility charity of the Samara and Simbirsk provinces at the end of XIX - beginning of the XX centuries. The provincial nobles because of their privileged class status sacrificed their money to promote and support education among both the nobility and other classes. Donations were sent to the noble educational institutions such as school, cadet corps, universities, as well as to schools for the lower classes: teachers’ schools, peasant schools and colleges, vocational schools, training workshops. The paper analyzes the main forms of support for students - establishment and payment of nominal scholarships to students of high schools, universities, military schools, content of education both for the nobility and for students from other classes. Students of such institutions were often on full board basis at the expense of the nobility. In addition the nobles were initiators of charitable societies, which were engaged in material support of students as well as led boards of trustees at various educational institutions. The study of pre-revolutionary Russian education support experience helps us to find ways to develop and encourage students nowadays.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):120-123
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Legal maintenance of labour market in special sectors of Russia’s industry in the late XIX - early XX centuries
Volkov Y.V.
Abstract

The paper examines a legal aspect of the hiring of workers in special sectors of Russia’s industry in the late XIX - early XX centuries. The conclusion is that the adopted factory laws put some grounds of contract law in the framework of mutual relations of workers and employers, with many exemptions, however, which excluded the equality of the contracting parties. Unlike Western countries the trend subordination of all categories of workers to general labour legislation was less in Russia. General factory laws originally concerned only enterprises of Ministry of Finance. Railway, construction, shipping workers, workers of military enterprises remained outside the subordination of the Charter of the industry. In other government departments there was its own legal framework regulating the employment relationship. Employment and work conditions were better in the Navy and worse in enterprises of the Ministry of Railways. The Mining department made big progress in the development of labor legislation. It limited the advance recruitment, hired well-organized cooperatives, banned the labor of women and children at night, it limited a working day to eight hours, established direct material plant responsible for the accuracy of the contractor in the payment of workers’ wages, allowed the establishment of special mining and metallurgical associations (partnerships). In general the legal maintenance of labour market in special sectors of Russian industry in the late XIX - early XX centuries was more organized and had better workers’ social protection than the main industry of Russia.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):124-129
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The question of tram traffic development in Ulyanovsk
Gorshenin A.V.
Abstract

The paper discusses the process of public transport development in Ulyanovsk. Special attention is paid to the tram construction projects that existed in the pre-revolutionary period and conditions they were implemented under. This paper examines the connection between the administrative status of the city and the public transport development. In 1920s Ulyanovsk lost the provincial center status and attempts to organize the city’s line of electric vehicles were postponed for a long time. Only during the Great Patriotic war, when Ulyanovsk became the center of a newly formed region, the authorities decided to create the city tram. Considering the stages of tram transport development the author tries to identify the causes of construction work delay. The main ones were the following: inadequate funding, prolonged execution of all necessary documentation, lack of material-technical base and skilled workers. This paper examines actions undertaken to address these problems. The source of the study consists of unpublished documents from the funds of Federal and regional archives: the State archive of the Russian Federation, Russian state archive of Economy, branch of Russian state archive for scientific-technical documentation in the Ulyanovsk Region, State archive of contemporary history of the Ulyanovsk Region. The author also uses articles of the regional newspaper called Ulyanovskaya pravda.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):129-135
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Life of workers in central Volga area during industrialization
Tokmakova L.P.
Abstract

The history of workers’ everyday life during industrialization when old vital foundations changed into new ones is of great interest when studying social history of the Central Volga area. Studying life of workers for industrial enterprises in large cities of the Middle Volga Region allows to understand the development of the Soviet society better during such a difficult period in general. At the same time the history of workers’ life in this region has a number of features in comparison with industrial centers of the country. This paper considers housing as the most painful question of urbanization in the Central Volga area in the 1930th. Its analysis is impossible without studying history of urban transportation development, sanitary and hygienic service of the population, improvement of the cities. At the same time studying history of life shows all problems and difficulties of working class development and the country in 20-30 of the XX century in general. This work is devoted to these interconnected problems.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):135-139
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Regional musical culture management in 1939-1945 (on materials of the Volga Region)
Tuzova O.V.
Abstract

The paper deals with some problems of musical institutions management in the Volga Region in 1939 1945 on the example of 8 musical cultural models of rear, frontal and front-line types: Kuibyshev, Ulyanovsk, Penza, Saratov, Engels, Kazan, Stalingrad, Astrakhan. The author reconstructs the structure and functional complex of the management component, describes the responsibilities of the commissioners of Performances and Repertoire Control Main Department at different levels and detects the role of the Communist party in the music management of the region. The author notes instability and incomplete correspondence of the administrative board in some models as a negative factor. A significant impact on musical culture management in the region provided emergency-revaluation processes: range of competencies and staff. Changes in the geography of governance structures affected the Stalingrad model of front type. Some actual data about the material provision of the management component are provided: departments’ placement and employees’ salaries. Structural complexity of administrative areas during 1939 1945 is stated. The author restores a number of regional culture managers’ names and their professional affiliation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):139-142
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Deployment of specialized hospitals for the Red Army wounded in the Southern Urals during 1941-1945
Degtyareva N.A., Alyatina A.G.
Abstract

This paper discusses specialized treatment of the wounded in the hospitals of the Southern Urals in the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945). It is proved that the specialized treatment of the wounded undergone significant changes during 1941-1945. The paper defines nature of injuries and damage, treatment time, forming, distribution of hospital beds and a contingent of the wounded and sick Red Army soldiers. The author states that throughout the war the surgical activity in the South Urals hospitals increased. The study deals with the problem of death in base hospitals. The number of Red Army soldiers’ deaths was undercounted. This study has shown that due to medical workers of the South Urals hospitals specialized treatment of the wounded made a qualitative leap in the development of the stage treatment. At the beginning of the war general surgery and general therapeutic hospitals were created. Then, in order to ensure the most qualified assistance to the wounded, specialized hospitals and offices were deployed. The authors estimated that the application of advanced methods of treatment in the evacuation hospitals of the South Urals helped to heal 72,3% wounded and 90, 6% patients and they returned to military service. These materials can serve as a basis for further research in the Southern Urals health history and, in general, the history of the South Ural Region, as well as the patriotic education of the youth.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):143-146
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To the question of the concepts of «historical consciousness» and «historical memory»
Repinetskaya Y.S.
Abstract

The article defines the concepts «historical consciousness» and «historical memory» which are studied by many social sciences and are termed differently. The author indicates multiplicity of social memory as a process. Besides the public (social) memory the author distinguishes «cultural memory» (researched, especially recent); «collective memory» (faced and meaningful common experiences living together); «individual memory» (represented experience); «historical memory», etc. «Historical consciousness» and «historical memory» are the terms that take a key position in the theory and methodology of historical science. The author of the article also draws attention to the analysis of the approaches of contemporary scientists L.P. Repina and Maurice Halbwachs (the founder of the theory of historical memory (1877-1945) to the interpretation of the problem. The essence of historical consciousness and memory is characterized, public consciousness is distinguished. The author draws attention to such an important aspect of the problem as identifying complex concepts-synonyms appearing in the theory and methodology of historical science like «historical consciousness» and «historical memory». Special emphasis is made on showing dialectical unity concepts mentioned above.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):147-151
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13.00.00 – Pedagogical Sciences
«Axiological communication» and «value relation» concepts relationship in the context of pedagogical knowledge
Avdeeva M.A.
Abstract

This paper deals with the problem of «axiological communication» and «value relation» concepts relationship. The importance of these concepts relationship is due to the need to fill gaps in pedagogical knowledge about the concept «axiological communication». The author thinks that it is possible to consider the concepts «axiological communication» and «value relation» as interchangeable ones. The paper contains similarities and differences regarding the interpretation of these concepts. The author regards axiology as a philosophical discipline and discusses different approaches to the category of «communication». Particular attention is given to approaches in which communication is regarded as a kind of attitude that carries a positive or negative coloration. The paper emphasizes the importance of communication and axiological value relations in the educational process in accordance with modern tendencies in educational standards, which are based on spiritual and moral education of the younger generation. The author analyses the problem of value relations in the framework of the object of pedagogical science, considers and explains the «subject-object» system and «subject-subject» relationship between the participants of the educational process in the teacher-student system. The observed relationship between the concepts «axiological communication» and «value relation» is the theoretical basis for the creation of a system that develops students’ readiness for axiological communication.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):152-156
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Practice-oriented approach use for prospective designers and teachers training at higher educational establishments
Ashutova T.V.
Abstract

This paper deals with the problem of results’ quality improving in educational programs and their development in connection with the introduction of new higher education standards, which require the usage of a practice-oriented approach in training future designers and teachers. Topical aspects of competence model in training students majoring in «graphic design» are elucidated in the paper. A trend that traditional education is losing ground to practice-oriented education is also considered. The paper deals with basic modern approaches to understanding and defining the essence of practice-oriented learning. The author's vision of knowledge-oriented and practice-oriented approach balance (with regard to the educational specifics of teachers-designers) is presented. It describes the implementation of practice-oriented training in the internship of designers and teachers of Arts and Service Department at Murmansk Arctic State University. It is necessary to create methodological support of the training process according to the requirements of a practice-oriented training model. Pedagogical literature in training, analysis of state educational standards, modern approaches to the design and implementation of e-learning, own practical experience, description of the main provisions were used in the development of practice-oriented electronic textbook «Information technologies in graphic design». The paper depicts a basic method of practice-oriented learning that is implemented in educational practice at Arts and Service Department at MASU.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):156-162
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Cross-cutting tasks system as a condition of professional training orientation of students majoring in «Applied Information Technologies»
Vaseva E.S.
Abstract

The paper deals with the cross-cutting tasks system use for the university education as a necessary condition of professional education orientation. The application of the cross-cutting tasks system promotes holistic students’ thinking and helps to master the means of action in a particular work situation. The paper contains a fragment of the system developed by the author for the course «Subject-oriented economic information systems» for bachelor students majoring in «Applied Information Technologies in Economics». The course consists of several modules, the cross-cutting tasks system is used in the module «Information systems of personnel management». The fragment of the system contains multiple «plot» lines that show methods of standard operations for personnel documents maintaining and enterprise personnel management, calculation and salary payment in the automated system. Specific tasks help to demonstrate continuity and connectivity of all sections in the module. The author of the paper considers some difficulties of the cross-cutting tasks system application: strict sequence of the methodology; difference in time that students need to perform the tasks; inability to include some tasks in the system; dependence on the results obtained during previous classes. The paper also contains possible ways of overcoming these difficulties.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):162-165
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Model characteristics of combat athletes’ competitive activities
Vershinin M.A., Plotnikov A.O.
Abstract

On the basis of retrospective analysis of scientific and methodological literature the authors consider model-wide characteristics of combat athletes’ competitive activity and describe the structure of competitive activities, with focus on achieving maximum rate of individual performance in a chosen form of martial arts. A wide range of technical actions and a broad spectrum of potential conflict situations, regularly manifested in the course of martial arts, particularly in Taekwondo, determine the features of operations, actions, and mechanisms for their improvement. This paper discusses the classification of specific activities (combat athlete activity in wrestling; performance of basic tactical and technical actions; combat athlete activities in separate parts (preliminary and final stage) of the competition; the activities of combat athlete in a separate co-efforts; the activities of combat athlete in the aggregate number of competitions), limited by temporal and spatial factors. The authors present a list of specialized and generalized model characteristics of competitive activity, in which according to martial arts include the following indicators: a variety of defensive and offensive action; the amount of defensive and offensive action; the activity of protective and attacking action; the effectiveness of defensive and offensive actions. In conclusion it is noted that the model characteristics of competitive activity must disclose the following aspects in combat sports: activity, variety and volume, effectiveness of the demonstrated technical-tactical actions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):166-170
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The functional aspect of assessing the language for specific purposes at Law Departments
Vikulina O.V.
Abstract

The paper analyzes an evaluation system of law students’ LSP level that is developed and introduced by the author in Petrozavodsk State University. The development of such an evaluation system is determined by the necessity of making the assessment of law students’ foreign language competence more systematic, objective, communicative, individualized, covering all language skills, less stressful and including self-evaluation. The paper draws attention to the functional aspect of the evaluation system as the functions of the assessment are responsible for the correct arrangement of testing, evaluation impact on the learning process, students’ motivation, grading and skills development by means of testing procedures. The author visually presents the application of the assessment functions at different stages of the learning process and their role in entry, formative, progress achievement and summative assessment. The paper also examines other aspects of the evaluation system - aims, developed skills and evaluation criteria.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):170-175
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Mnemonics use when memorizing physical quantities and formulae
Vinokourova R.P.
Abstract

This paper discusses the use of mnemonics-visualization when memorizing physical quantities and formulae by high school students. Visualization is represented in the form of a drawing of each physical quantity that is associated with a physical quantity concept. A letter denoting a physical size is accompanied by details that indicate the scope of the variable. The paper contains ways of application of a computer slide show animated presentation and a tabular method of modeling. The importance of this work is explained by the fact that its use for the study of physical quantities and formulae helps lagging students to remember values and formulas effectively. Studies of students mastering the material with the help of mnemonics show that the correlation coefficient of 2,9 is positive. This indicates a strong relationship between the indicators. Mnemonics use significantly increases the degree of memorization of physical quantities by students, hence increases the assimilation of the main sections of physics. This developed system for efficient memorization of physical quantities and formulae can be used in different types of schools.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):175-177
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The ideas of F. Bacon, R. Descartes, T. Hobbes about the morality and ethics relating to education
Guschina A.V.
Abstract

The paper provides evidence of the importance and necessity to resort to the ideas of modern time philosophers about morality. Understanding their application to education makes it possible to identify conserved and preserved ideas of moral education of humans. The author shows that the moral wisdom include the experience of mankind that has started to realize the value of each person, the equality of all people regardless of ethnicity and race, to understand that living in harmony with their own kind means to contribute to the prosperity of mankind. The author proves that identification of the relation between morality and ethics is conditioned by the need to solve a practical problem - to identify the ideas of F. Bacon, R. Descartes, T. Hobbes about morality and ethics who consume these categories as synonyms relating to education. According to F. Bacon, morality comes to a person from outside and a leading way of moral decency acquisition is teaching, turning into manners. Morality, from R. Descartes’ point of view, guiding human life and customs, is given to man from outside; following the rules of human morality is a key way of building a proper and moral life. Morality, from R. Descartes and T. Hobbes’ point of view, determines man’s inner world.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):178-182
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Development of IT competence of master students of pedagogical education in the context of the pedagogical university electronic educational space development
Dobudko T.V., Pugach V.I., Burtsev N.P., Pugach O.I., Tyuzhina I.V., Danilyukov P.A.
Abstract

A two-level education system «bachelor-master», designed to ensure transparency, academic mobility, competitiveness and integration with the European institutions acts as a subject of social and pedagogical discourses on a wide range of issues to this day. The paper discusses the issue of training of masters majoring in pedagogical education, the development of general and professional competencies, and readiness for pedagogical activities. The authors note the key role of IT competence of graduates, linking it with the continuous processes of education informatization, development of the electronic educational space of pedagogical universities. It is also noted that the development of IT competence of masters of pedagogical education is one of the most important conditions for «leveling» students and ensuring a personal experience with electronic educational space of the university. IT competence consists of electronic (mainly remote) education; digital learning resources; software e-learning system; virtual processes and resources of educational activities; technical means that generate electronic space. The authors propose to develop the basic level of the competence within the discipline «Information technologies» using a set of specially selected competence-oriented tasks. The assumptions made by the authors were reflected during educational practice which is also described in this paper.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):182-188
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The readiness of FPS of Russia departmental institute cadets for work with the convicted (theoretical aspect)
Zhiryakova E.A.
Abstract

The necessity of professionals who are able to take effective measures immediately and adequately for the purposes of achieving goals has conditioned the requirements increase to the system of the departmental higher professional education that trains personnel for the penal bodies (the Penal System). The effectiveness of the penal correctional facilities depends on the level of graduates’ readiness for work with the convicted. The concept «readiness» was introduced into scientific use in 1950-1960 by B.G. Ananiev, but a unified position on its understanding has not been worked out in pedagogy. Scientists define it in different ways; it depends on the researcher approach to understanding the essence of readiness for professional activity. In this paper functional, psychological, personal, integrative approaches are characterized. The readiness for professional activity is determined by the requirements imposed to the specialist. The performance of the penal staff has some specific set of features; the main ones are focused on the convicted, as well as on its legal, peremptory, strictly subordinated character. The readiness for work with the convicted is thought of as an integrative synthesis of cognitive, personal components necessary for successful carrying out of professional activities and providing the greatest efficiency.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):188-193
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Methodical bases of the modular training technology while studying grammar at non-language universities
Lopukhova Y.V.
Abstract

The paper considers the need of using a modular training technology while studying grammar in a non-language high school. At the same time the great importance is given to the module structure, which must be organized in such a way that final results have to be focused on individual success of students. It becomes possible because modern modular training technologies change the form of communication between a teacher and a student. Here, education is based on subject-subject communications as one of the main goals of the modular training technology is the development of students’ self-education skills. The awareness of educational activity makes it possible to change the role of a teacher from the source of information into counseling and management. The teacher is released from an informational function, delegating this role to the module and some management functions become self-management ones. Students study themselves most of the time getting self-planning, self-organization, self-control, self-assessment skills. Learning content is submitted in self-contained modules, which are at the same time the bank information and the guide. The implementation of modular training technology from the point of the perspective theory of certain skills stage formation supposes that the main educational purpose can be divided into superposes in the frame of individual elements of training modules.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):193-198
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Theoretical and methodological foundations of organizing students’ project activity in institutions of children’s and youth arts
Mikhelkevich V.N., Ovchinnikova L.P., Lisovskaya A.I.
Abstract

The paper presents theoretical and methodological foundations of students’ project activity organization in institutions of children’s and youth arts. The retrospective analysis of scientific publications and advanced pedagogical experience related to young people creative development in the system of supplementary education (centers of children’s and youth arts et al.) proves that project technology plays a dominant role in encouraging students to learn modeling and design engineering as well as acquiring skills of independent creative activity. Values and advantages of project technology distinguish it favorably from traditional and innovative pedagogical technologies. The paper shows that project technology is oriented to integration, synthesis of students’ theoretical knowledge and their practical activity: it means that carrying out a project we not only set a specific creative task but also do our best to put it into practice in the form of pictures, drawings, applications, software, dummies, devices, robots, etc. Undertaking a particular project the student is supposed to learn how to identify social and technical contradictions and problems and overcome them. Project technology is focused on students’ creative work which helps to develop and strengthen the skills required to organize their independent work. The paper introduces the typology of training projects used in the center of children’s and youth arts as well as the techniques of their individual and selective choice. There is a focus on basic classification criteria of training projects: leading modality of students’ training and cognitive activity; the levels of interdisciplinary integration of knowledge acquired by the students while carrying out the project; subjects and conditions for project activity organization.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):198-203
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The system of formation of readiness to self-educational activity for prospective bachelors majoring in mechanical engineering
Podnebesova M.I.
Abstract

The paper deals with the problem of professional training of technical University bachelors majoring in Engineering. The author proves that it is necessary to develop prospective specialists’ ability to self-education. The author presents an efficient system of self-educational activity development for prospective bachelors majoring in engineering by means of information and communication technologies and active methods of teaching «Informatics» including a special component, facilitating the development of indicators in the structure of readiness. The system of self-educational activity development for prospective bachelors majoring in engineering is a form of educational system that includes methodological, substantive, procedural and efficient elements. The principles of systemic-structural, acmeological and competency approaches are fundamental and allow designing the components of the system and choosing the appropriate means of readiness development. The specific of professional activity of bachelors majoring in engineering is the reason for choice of «Informatics» as a means of readiness formation. These materials can serve as the basis for students’ educational activity organization and monitoring the quality of their professional training

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):203-207
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The study of pedagogical university graduates’ readiness to organize school students’ moral self-education
Polukhina M.O.
Abstract

The paper presents the results of the experimental work on development of student-pre-service teacher’s readiness to organize school students’ moral self-education. The author describes the variations that took place in cognitive, motivational-axiological and activity components of pre-service teacher’s readiness to organize moral self-education of school-students. A cognitive component was studied by the method of conceptual vocabulary; the value orientation method developed by V.A. Yadov was used for motivational-axiological component and there was a questionnaire for activity component. The paper reveals the comparative results of variations in students’ perceptions about morals, values, moral ideal, moral self-education, as well as the methods of moral self-education, moral education methods and methods of moral behavior experience development received at the control stage of the experiment. The paper also presents changes that have occurred in the motivational-axiological sphere of students’ consciousness. It has been found that students are now focused on the intrinsic motivation of activity when organizing moral self-education of school students rather than on the external one. In the activity-component during the experimental work, the perceptions about skills have changed in the graduates’ consciousness, which are now based on scientific knowledge.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):207-211
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Teaching prospective teachers of physics how to control the intellectual development of schoolchildren procedurally
Samoylov E.A.
Abstract

The article analyzes the different approaches to the control of the intellectual development of students in teaching physics in school, due on the one hand, to the diversity of psychological interpretations of intelligence and models of its formation and, on the other hand, used in the study, methodological orientations (classical, no classical, or postnonclassical). A description of the procedural model is proposed by the author, it shows how to control the intellectual development of students, which is built in accordance with the type of post-nonclassical rationality based on a holistic (holistic) understanding of the nature of intelligence, taking into account the value of the information society and the influence of the disciples of the collective on the effectiveness of individual educational activities for teaching physics. The proposed procedural model allows to develop recommendations for effective adaptive learning physics students, taking into account the laws of intellectual development and the specificity of operation holonic organizational systems. From a procedural point of view controlling the intellectual development of students is a regulation of consistent educational change states of inhomogeneous collective of students, which leads to the desired enrichment of the intellectual resources of each school-nick for Learning Physics. The approach of controlling the intellectual development of students, described by the author, is the subject of study by students - future teachers of physics - in the framework of forming pedagogical experiment in Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):211-215
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Features of common cultural competence development at bachelors majoring in «Physical Culture and Sport»
Serper S.A., Buranok O.M.
Abstract

The paper deals with features of common cultural competence development at bachelors majoring in «Physical culture and sport». The federal state educational standard of the third generation, approved by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, involves common cultural competence development at bachelors majoring in «Physical Culture and Sports». This competence is important for the implementation of the program that develops a modern expert and trainer’s personality. The value of common cultural competence in the system of modern education is increasing due to the personality-oriented education paradigm establishment when the society requires active, capable of self-development and self-education professionals, especially in areas that are vital for the development of the Russian society and the state. The paper shows that the development of fitness has formed a fitness pedagogy: it is necessary to determine a set of professional and general cultural competence, content and curriculum framework for future professionals in the field of fitness as well as what common cultural competence contribute to the training of future experts in fitness and how professional and general cultural competence interact in the educational process. Solving this problem will allow to reform the system of experts’ training and will help to achieve national objective to preserve the nation’s health.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):215-219
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Features of mathematical concepts formation at school students on the basis of bilingual education
Spiridonova N.I.
Abstract

The paper deals with mathematical concepts formation at students on the basis of bilingual education. It describes the results of experimental work, including the questioning of students and teachers, aimed at identifying preferences of native or the Russian language as the language of instruction, screening efforts to identify the level of mathematical language learning at pupils of 5-6 classes on the basis of the two languages. As a result of psycho-pedagogical and educational materials and dissertations analysis the author describes peculiarities of bilingual educational process aimed at mathematical concepts formation in educational institutions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). This process takes place in stages and is implemented through the combined action. The author concludes that the primary means of performing steps corresponding to the steps of mathematical concepts formation can be bilingual didactic complex, aimed at concepts formation and pupils’ mathematical speech development. The findings of the study can be used as the basis for designing a technique of mathematical concepts formation in terms of bilingualism, for educational materials creation, as well as used by school teachers with native language training.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):219-225
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The model of primary education bachelors training for the development of students’ ability to predict
Fedorova T.V., Kochetova N.G.
Abstract

Formation of prospective primary education teachers’ readiness towards the development of universal educational activities, including forecasting, is an urgent problem of modern pedagogical science. Orientation of primary education program on the achievement of metasubject results requires a revision of prospective teachers’ training. The problem of bachelors’ training for the ability to predict development in pupils remains open to theoretical understanding and experimental study. This paper presents a developed model of primary education bachelors’ training for the development of students’ ability to predict based on competence-based and task-based approaches. Competencies components such as knowledge, abilities, skills and personal characteristics are described in the paper as a result of bachelors’ education. The authors concretize and clarify professional competencies of prospective teachers from educational standard of higher education, which are necessary and sufficient for bachelors’ training in the framework of the considered problem. The aim of the model and its organizational unit are described, organizational, pedagogical and methodological terms of bachelors’ training and the ways of their realization in the learning process are presented (methods and forms of educational process organization, based on practice-oriented learning and professional experience). The paper shows that the developed model represents an integrated process of prospective primary school teachers’ training for development of students’ ability to predict.

Samara Journal of Science. 2017;6(1):226-232
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