Vol 8, No 4 (2019)

General Biology
The steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis Hodgson, 1833) and the Eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca Savigny, 1809) study on the territory of Central Siberia in the XX-XXI centuries
Baranov A.A., Erinkova A.N.
Abstract

This paper deals with the study of the steppe eagle ( Aquila nipalensis Hodgson, 1833) and the Eastern imperial eagle ( Aquila heliaca Savigny, 1809). The authors consider the research periods of these bird species: the beginning of the XX century to the 60th, 60-80th, 80-90th, and 90th of the XXI century and 2000. The authors use the materials of the researches and expeditions made in the XX-XXI centuries on the territory of Central Siberia. They also analyze the borders change of the steppe eagle and the Eastern imperial eagle habitat. The authors carried out a detailed analysis of these types study - they created an interactive map of the steppe eagle and the Eastern imperial eagle places of nesting and revealed an approximate border of their habitat. The study was carried out in four hollows: Uvs Lake Basin; Uregnursk Hollow; Tuva Depression; Minusinsk Hollow, located in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Tuva and Khakassia, the part of the territory of Southern and Central Altai. These eagles habitat border changes are a consequence of deep changes in activity of these types that undoubtedly will lead to a deeper study of this subject.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):10-13
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Bioecological assessment of a comfortable temperature component of weather and climate conditions and its effects on the health status of residents of the Middle Priobye
Bikmukhametova L.M., Rusak S.N.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to the analysis of weather and climate variability on the example of the northern territory of Surgut and its influence on the population health indicators. The author has evaluated the cases of emergency hospitalization of Surgut population with circulatory system diseases in the dynamics of 2010-2014 and calculated the seasonal index for these diseases for men and women, indicating the activation of seasonal factors for almost every month. It was found that the total health indicators for both men and women increased in cases of emergency hospitalization in transitional seasons, which is generally consistent with weather conditions during these periods: during the off-season maximum and sharp changes in weather and climate parameters are observed. The analysis of the dependence of Surgut residents’ emergency hospitalization cases against the backdrop of weather dynamics showed a stronger dependence taking into account a 3-day time lag compared with dependence on the same day. The ranking of emergency hospitalization cases taking into account the gender and age of patients revealed an increased risk group for working people aged 50-54. The assessment of the weather conditions using methods based on the chaos-self-organization theory showed clear differences in the atmospheric air temperature values within one month in the dynamics of 2010-2014 according to phase portraits, which indicated the limiting role of the temperature regime of meteo climatic conditions of the territory.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):14-18
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Growth dynamics analysis of the acrocarpous moss Dicranumpolysetum Sw. in artificial pine forests of the steppe zone
Bogdanova Y.A., Korchikov E.S.
Abstract
The paper discusses the growth dynamics of Dicranum polysetum Sw. in artificial pine communities of the Krasnosamarsky Forest (Samara Region) and the National Park «Buzuluksky Bor» (Samara and Orenburg Regions). These species are most commonly found in these types of communities. The authors note the vitality of Dicranum polysetum Sw. and its relation to the size of the moss curtain. The studies were conducted in the summers of 2015, 2016 and 2017. The moss was studied at 12 sites of the artificial pine forests of the Krasnosamarsky forest and the National Park «Buzuluksky Bor». Three individuals were selected at each site, the growth and vitality of them were noted during the study period. It was revealed that the smallest growth was on the sites of the smallest moss curtain in both study areas. It was also found that the microrelief and grassy layer can significantly affect moss growth. It was noted that the vitality score was higher in large clumps in the absence of any mechanical damage to the curtain, and that the shoots form twigs, on average, every two years, thereby increasing their biomass, because the area of curtains did not significantly change during the study period.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):18-23
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Urban forests in the city of Ivanovo
Borisova E.A.
Abstract
The paper deals with the issue of urban forests in the city of Ivanovo which were saved on the territories of three parks. On the basis of special studies during 2012-2018 the main types of forests have been briefly described. The data on the forest flora are presented (338 species were recorded in the park named after the 1905 Revolution, 235 - in the park named after Stepanov, 217 - in the park «Kharinka»). The forests are dominated by typical forest species, 5 rare plants preserved ( Epipactis palustris , Eryngium planum , Malaxis monophyllos , Ophioglossum vulgatum , Viola selkirkii ), they are included into the regional Red Data book. There are also old trees of native species. Planting trees, creating lawns and flower beds greatly enriched their flora. In general, the composition and structure of forests are disturbed, weed and ruderal alien species (groups of Acer negundo , Amelanchier spicata , Cerasus vulgaris , Cotoneaster lucidus , Fraxinus pennsylvanica , Malus domestica , Sambucus racemosa , etc.) are noted. Some species ( Cerasus maximowiczii , Crataegus monogyna , Padus pensylvanica , Parthenocissus inserta , Phellodendron amurense , Thladiantha dubia , Telekia speciosa ) belong to the rare invasive plants of the Ivanovo Region. The parks possess the status of specially protected natural areas, they are of great environmental, ecological, scientific and aesthetic value. As a result of the territory zoning of these valuable forest areas they have been assigned to the reserves with a strict protection regime.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):24-28
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Analysis of the accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in the soil cover of Samara and Syzran
Bugrov S.V., Makarova Y.V., Prokhorova N.V., Platonov I.A., Goryunov M.G.
Abstract
The paper presents the results of a statistical analysis of the data on the accumulation and distribution of a number of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn) in the soils of the cities of Samara and Syzran in the Samara Region, carried out using the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and principal component analysis. The authors show that the soils of Samara are more susceptible to the accumulation of Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd than the soils of Syzran. Higher gross concentrations of metals are observed in the functional zones of the cities characterized by increased technogenic load - near industrial enterprises and along railways. The fixation of metals in the upper humus horizon is facilitated by the organic matter of the soil. The exception is Pb, whose total concentration does not depend on the type of functional zone and the content of organic carbon. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance made it possible to establish the presence of a statistically significant relationship between the mechanical composition of the soil and the gross concentrations of Cr and Ni, the content of which increases in soils of heavier texture. According to the principal component analysis, natural and technogenic sources of metals have a decisive influence on the content and distribution of heavy metals in the soil cover of the cities; soil characteristics (mechanical composition, actual acidity of the soil solution, organic carbon content) and the intensity of exposure to sources of heavy metals play a less significant role.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):28-33
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Ecological diversity of some resource medicinal mushrooms of the genus Pleurotus in the Novosibirsk Region
Vlasenko V.A., Asbaganov S.V., Vlasenko A.V.
Abstract
In this paper the authors reveal features of substrate specialization and habitats distribution of the biotechnologically valuable medicinal resource species of Pleurotus pulmonarius mushrooms in the Novosibirsk Region. The authors show the distribution of the species on deciduous and coniferous tree species, in connection with substrate specificity, distribution in habitats and seasonal features of fructification formation. The studied species is confined mainly to deciduous trees; it was noted only once on Abies sibirica . In general, P. pulmonarius was recorded on 5 species of deciduous trees, most of the samples were collected on Betula pendula and Populus tremula . Less often the fungus is found on Sorbus sibirica , Populus sp., Acer negundo , Tilia cordata , Salix alba . P. pulmonarius develops in zonal small-leaved and mixed forests most often, it is rarely found in river floodplains and near-river communities. Quite often the fungus is found in artificial plantations, where it is one of the most common wood-decay fungi of anthropogenic habitats. Fructification of P. pulmonarius in the Novosibirsk Region occurs from May to October, its peak activity is in late summer - early fall (August-September).
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):34-38
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Tulipa tschimganica Botschantz. in the collection of the Central Siberian Botanical Garden of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences
Gerasimovich L.V.
Abstract
The paper analyzes the features of seasonal development of Tulipa tschimganica Botschantz. in the conditions of the recipient region. Comparative morphometric characteristics of ex situ and in situ are given. Representatives of the species T. tschimganica growing in high mountains are successfully acclimatized in the Novosibirsk Region. Late flowering and resistance to viral disease variegation adds value to this species in floriculture and gardening in the spring. The temperature characteristics of the initial stages of phenophases are established. The beginning of flowering in six of ten years of observations occurred in the second decade of May. By duration, flowering can be characterized as short - 7-8 days, with an average duration of 10-12 days and a long one - 13-15 days, respectively. It was found that, despite the high rates of maximum and average daily temperatures, lower temperatures increase the flowering period of T. tschimganica . The flowering period in the recipient region, compared with the city of Tashkent, shifts by two months and starts from the second decade of May. The range of experimental plants morphometric parameters, such as plant height, leaf width, length and width of the ovary, and fruit width, increases. The rest of the studied parameters remained in situ . The study of the ontogeny of individuals grown from seeds collected from introduced plants is being carried out. To date, the plants are going through a long pregenerative period of ontogenesis. Successful completion of the full cycle of annual shoots development and the formation of high-grade mature seeds characterize this species as successful for introduction and use in gardening in Novosibirsk.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):38-43
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Ecological and biological characteristics of Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All. in Mordovia
Labutina M.V., Maskaeva T.A., Chegodaeva N.D.
Abstract
The paper discusses some of the ecological and biological characteristics of a perennial herbaceous plant - Polygonatum multiflorum seeds. Liliaceae. It is of interest due to the fact that the number of this species of the forest-steppe zone is reduced due to the increasing anthropogenic load. In addition, P. multiflorum is a valuable medicinal and ornamental plant. The studies were conducted in 2016-2017 on the territory of the Republic of Mordovia, in the surroundings of large and provincial cities. The study revealed the spatial and age structure of the four coenopopulations plants. The general terms of the vegetation P. multiflorum and the duration of the individual stages of plant development were determined. The level of potential and actual fruit formation is established. P. multiflorum plants were found scattered or in groups, but most often, the density was 3-4 individuals/m². The studied coenopopulations P. multiflorum are mostly normal, full-term. Renewal can be carried out both due to seeds and vegetatively. The latter is observed under favorable conditions for the P. multiflorum of existence. The studies have confirmed the view that the P. multiflorum is a fairly vulnerable forest species and there is a real risk of loss of the natural gene pool of this wild plant.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):43-48
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A comparative analysis of the spatial distribution of salinity and biomass of nekton and nektobenthos in the estuaries of the large plain river Razdolnaya and the mountain river Sukhodol (the Sea of Japan)
Milovankin P.G., Kataykina O.I.
Abstract
This paper discusses the two estuaries of the large flat river Razdolnaya and the mountain river Sukhodol (the Sea of Japan). The data of hydrological surveys on these estuaries are presented and the distribution zones of waters of different salinity are shown. The graphs of changes in the biomass of some hydrobionts along the river are given. The studies have shown that water with a salinity of >5% penetrates the Razdolnaya River up to the main channel for 15 km. In the Sukhodol River, it happens that almost the entire estuary is occupied by salt water, and fresh water is traced in a layer of water no more than 0,5 m thick, no closer than 500 m to the mouth of the river. In the Razdolnaya River, there is a tendency for the growth of hydrobiont catches from the outer estuary to the inner one (from the sea to the river) to maximum values at a distance of 5 km from the mouth, followed by a gradual descent upstream. In the Sukhodol River, the specific biomass gradually decreases from the top of the river to a minimum of 0,4 km from the mouth with a sharp increase in the area of the mouth itself (the mouth of the lagoon and the sea coast) and the subsequent smooth decrease. The specific biomass of hydrobionts in the inner estuaries of the Razdolnaya and Sukhodol rivers was 6,7 and 4,0 g/m² respectively.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):48-57
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The structure of coenopopulations and the protection of the rare species Dictamnus gymnostylis Stev. (Rutaceae) in the Samara Region and the Republic of Bashkortostan
Mustafina A.N., Ilyina V.N., Abramova L.M.
Abstract
The conservation of phyto-diversity should be based on original data on the structure and condition of natural populations, plant biology and ecology. The purpose of this study is to identify and compare regional features of the ontogenetic structure and state of coenotic populations of the rare species of the Southern Urals and Middle Volga Dictamnus gymnostylis (in the Samara Region and the Republic of Bashkortostan). In the Republic of Bashkortostan 20 geographical populations of the species are currently identified. In the Samara Region various published sources indicate 7-12 geographical populations of D. gymnostylis . The demographic structure, density of coenopopulations and habitat characteristics were studied with the use of traditional research methods in 18 trial plots: 9 in the forest-steppe zone of the Samara Region (Zavolzhye) and 9 in the southern forest-steppe zone in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Populations of the species were recorded in various types of communities: mainly meadow and shrub steppes, at the edges and under the canopy of oak groves. The number of populations in Bashkortostan is different: they number from 70-100 to 2000-5000 or even more. Presumably, the total number of species in the region is from 15 to 20 thousand copies. The total area of all known populations in the Samara Region is estimated by us at 5 hectares. The total number of individuals is approximately 2000-3000. Most of the coenopopulations of D. gymnostylis in the region are normal, incomplete. The absence in the spectrum of regenerative stages (seedlings and juvenile), as well as senile plants is typical. The absolute maximum falls on middle-aged generative individuals (24,1-59,0%). Almost all cenopopulations in the Samara Region are mature, and in Bashkortostan they are young (with a large share of regenerative plants). The recovery index is equal to or close to zero in the Samara Region; seedlings and juvenile plants are often absent here. In cenopopulations of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the recovery index in most cases is opposite to unity, which indicates a good replenishment of the population by young individuals. The aging index throughout the territory is close to or equal to zero (does not exceed 0,05). The state of the examined populations in Bashkortostan does not cause concern for their safety, but in the Samara Region they are vulnerable and require protection.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):57-65
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Environment features and protective behavior of chortobionts and dendrobionts species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)
Pavlov S.I., Yaitsky A.S., Miniyarov F.T.
Abstract
During 1974-2016, the protective behavior of 14 background species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) was studied within the Central and North-Eastern areas of the Samara Region: 7 - inhabitants of open areas and 7 - dendrobionts. During the 40-year period of the research, fine measurements of the microclimate of the grassland of steppes, meadows, ruderal vegetation and agrocoenoses, as well as forest stands, stakes and forest belts on 18 similar parameters were carried out. The qualitative microclimatic components of the boundaries of motor activity of insects in the environment of their typical habitats are determined; the rhythm and dependence of leaf eaters on the weather conditions of the natural environment are estimated; the types of protective adaptations, series of behavioral manifestations under the action of abiotic and biotic (mainly predators) agents of the environment are elucidated. The modes of the dominant effects on the body - the level of illumination, humidity regime, the strength of wind flows are revealed. Adaptations, passive and active motor protective reactions of leaf beetles in response to the action of 3 types of influences are considered. It has been found that for species existing in a certain climatic continuum there is a significant degree of tolerance to environmental factors prevailing in this biotope. In addition to the real protective motor reactions in the active phases of leaf beetles there is a whole system of congenital morphological and physiological adaptations that allow insects to experience many negative environmental influences.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):65-74
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The influence of ecological conditions on vegetative propagation of lilac varieties in the South Ural Botanical Garden (Ufa)
Polyakova N.V.
Abstract
The paper presents the results of a long-term (2001-2018) study of vegetative propagation methods of the Syringa L. genus varieties on the basis of the South Ural Botanical Garden Institute of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences. The objective of the study was to determine the most effective and affordable ways of lilac varieties propagating in the climatic conditions of the Southern Urals, as well as to identify environmental factors affecting the effectiveness of vegetative propagation. Throughout the research period, such methods of vegetative propagation of lilac varieties as spring vaccinations, summer budding, propagation by aerial roots, green cuttings propagation were studied. As a result of the studies, it was found that the maximum quantity planting material is obtained when varieties are propagated by green cuttings using sand or a mixture of sand with perlite as a substrate. In the South Urals, greenhouses in the open ground for rooting lilac cuttings are practically unsuitable, because rooted cuttings die in them in winter or early spring. Therefore, in the climatic conditions of Bashkortostan, the rooting of lilac cuttings is desirable to be carried out in a sheltered greenhouse. With the help of spring vaccination, you can rejuvenate old vaccinated specimens, and summer budding can be used provided that the grafted plants provide a comfortable wintering, since early frosts characteristic of the Bashkir Urals lead to the death of green and not yet lignified shoots. The method of aerial roots can be considered acceptable and promising for the vegetative propagation of lilacs varieties.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):74-77
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Flora and vegetation features of the stow «Chalk slopes to the Proval river» (Ulyanovsk Region)
Saksonov S.V., Novikova L.A., Vasjukov V.M., Rakov N.S., Senator S.A., Silaeva T.B.
Abstract

The paper contains the vegetation study results of the valuable botanical object «Chalk slopes to the Proval river». The stow is located in the vicinities of the village Beketovka (Veshkaymsky District of Ulyanovsk Region) and is proposed for inclusion in the regional network of protected areas. The data of floral and phytocenotic studies are presented. The flora of the stow «Chalk slopes to the Proval river» contains 287 species of vascular plants including 8 species listed in Red data book of the Russian Federation: Hedysarum gmelinii , Iris aphylla , Koeleria sclerophylla , Matthiola fragrans , Pinus cretacea [ P. sylvestris var. cretacea ], Stipa pennata , S. pulcherrima , Thymus dubjanskyi [ Th. cimicinus auct. p. max. p.]. The regional rare and requiring protection plants are Adonanthe vernalis , Anemone sylvestris , Asperula exasperata , Aster alpinus , Betula krylovii , Bupleurum falcatum , Carex pediformis , Centaurea ruthenica , Crepis pannonica , Delphinium cuneatum , Galatella linosyris , Galium hexanarium , Gentiana cruciata , Gentianella amarella , Helianthemum canum , H. nummularium , Helictotrichon desertorum , Herminium monorchis , Jurinea ledebourii , Linum flavum , L. uralense , Onosma simplisissima s. str., O. volgensis , Otites baschkirorum , Parnassia palustris , Polygala cretacea , P. sibirica , Pulsatilla patens , Scabiosa isetensis , Schoenus ferrugineus . Calcephitic florocoenotic complex of the stow «Chalk slopes to the Proval river» (Ulyanovsk Region) is characterized by a mosaic of vegetation. Here, in a relatively small area, meadow, petrophytic and grass-mixed steppes, forest edges communities are presented. The floristic composition of these communities is peculiar and characterized by the presence of a large number of rare species including relict and endemic elements. In addition, in the central part of the Volga Upland, only a small amount of erosion-chalk landscapes with a high degree of preservation is known. The studied stow is recommended for inclusion in the system of protected areas of the Ulyanovsk Region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):78-82
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Ecological and substrate characteristics of lichenoflora of the State Nature Reserve «Zavolzhsky» (Chuvash Republic)
Sinichkin E.A., Dimitriev A.V.
Abstract
The paper provides an ecological and substrate analysis of lichens of the State Nature Reserve «Zavolzhsky» (Chuvash Republic). In the specified reserve 134 species of lichens were found. The ecological and substrate analysis showed that lichens were found on 20 substrates: on the bark of Populus tremula , Tilia cordata , Quercus robur , Acer platanoides , Betula pubescens , Padus avium , Sorbus aucuparia , Frangula alnus , Salix cinerea , S. pentandra , Alnus glutinosa , on the bark and branches of Pinus sylvestris , Picea abies , Abies sibirica , Betula pendula , on soil, on a dead organic substrate, on an anthropogenic substrate (on slate, concrete, wheel rubber). 6 main and 4 intermediate ecological groups of lichens were revealed: 1) epiphytic, growing on the bark of trees and shrubs; 2) epixylic, living on decaying wood; 3) epigeidic (ground lichens); 4) epibriophytic, living on mosses; 5) epiphytic-epixylic, growing on the bark of trees and a dead organic substrate; 6) epixylic-epigeidic, living on a dead organic substrate and soil; 7) lichens growing on the bark of trees and anthropogenic substrate; 8) epiphytic-epigeidic, growing on tree bark and soil surface 9) multisubstrate lichens that live on different substrates; 10) lichens of anthropogenic substrate. The largest number of lichens (61,2%) belong to epiphytic, 16,5% - to epiphytic-epixylic, 5,2% - to epixylic-epigeidic, 4,5% - to epigeidic, 3,7% - to epixylic, 2,3% - to epibriophytic, 0,7% - to multisubstrate lichens, 0,7% - to epiphytic-epigeidic. 3 species of lichens were found (2,3%) on the anthropogenic substrate. Epiphytic lichens were found on 15 forophytes. The largest number of taxa (40 species) were found on Pinus sylvestris ’s bark, 35 species - on Populus tremula’s bark, 33 species - on Betula pendula’s bark. 56 species of lichens were found on only one forophyte. The analysis of the confinement to phorophyte showed that the highest level of similarity in the species composition of lichens was found between Padus avium and Frangula alnus - 50%, Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies - 49%, Populus tremula and Sorbus aucuparia - 44%, Tilia cordata and Acer platanoides - 41%, Salix cinerea and S. pentandra - 37%.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):82-89
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Ecological features of some species of the Lily of the valley family (Convallariaceae) in the Kirov Region
Suleimanova V.N., Egoshina T.L.
Abstract

In connection with the anthropogenic load on the natural habitats of many medicinal plant species, it is relevant to assess the ecological conditions of growth in order to study the relationships between species and plant communities. The paper presents the analysis of ecological features of some species of the Lily of the valley family (Convallariaceae) in the Kirov Region. To identify the ecological-phytocoenotic association of the studied species in forest communities of the Kirov Region, 45 coenotic populations (CP) of Convallaria majalis , 10 CP of Polygonatum odoratum and 20 CP of Majanthemum bifolium were studied. When analyzing the ecological conditions of the species habitats, H. Ellenberg ecological scales were used. Geobotanical descriptions of plant communities were carried out according to generally accepted methods. It has been established that the amplitudes of the ecological spaces of the studied species in the Kirov Region practically do not fit into most ranges of ecological niches calculated on the basis of H. Ellenberg scales. The species have a wide range of adaptability to the studied environmental factors. All studied species are distributed on medium-moist soils (5th level of H. Ellenberg scale). The authors have shown that the studied species are similar in environmental factors such as moisture and soil richness with nitrogen. Convallaria majalis and Polygonatum odoratum - photophilous species, Majanthemum bifolium - shade-tolerant species are distinguished with respect to illumination. In the grass-shrub layer of the studied habitats of the species, 7 rare, small, narrowly araic species are listed in the Red Book of the Kirov Region ( Pulsatilia flavescens (Zuccar.) Juz., Potentilla humifusa Willd. ex Schlecht., Centaurea sumensis Kalen., Koeleria glauca (Spreng.) DC., Eryngium planum L., Geranium sanguineum L., Carex bohemica Schreb.). And 4 species that need constant monitoring and observation in the region (Annex 2) - Campanula perscifolia L., Pulsatilia patens (L.) Mill., Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich., Iris sibirica L.).

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):89-93
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Using of morphometric and phenological parameters of Tilia cordata Mill. for bioindication
Turmukhametova N.V.
Abstract
The paper contains the results of long-term bioindication studies of assessing the state of Tilia cordata Mill. in the conditions of Yoshkar-Ola city, which differ in the degree of environmental pollution by industrial transport emissions. The work analyzes a variability of Tilia cordata individuals of various ontogenetic states of the generative period according to a complex of morphological and phenological characters using statistical methods of principal components and an analysis of variance. The heterogeneity of ontogenetic groups of trees according to morphological and phenological characteristics is established. The individuals of the mesobiontic species T. cordata under the conditions of an average degree of pollution of the urban environment are considered to be small-leaved. With an increase in anthropogenic load the area of the leaf blade decreases, but the area of its damage increases. The index of fluctuating asymmetry of the leaf blade does not differ concerning the trees growing in various environmental conditions. A method of principal components helped to identify T. cordata’s most variable signs of shoots and rhythms of seasonal development, which can be used for bioindication: sizes and number of structural elements of buds and shoots, terms and duration of phenophases. The most sensitive to habitat pollution are middle-aged generative trees of T. cordata .
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):93-97
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New association of weed vegetation in the Southern Ural
Khasanova G.R., Yamalov S.M., Lebedeva M.V., Golovanov Y.M.
Abstract
A geobotanic survey was carried out and the diversity of weed communities of the steppe zone of the Orenburg and Ilek administrative Districts of the Orenburg Region was revealed. As a result of the synthaxonomic analysis, the studied communities are assigned to the new association Amarantho blitoidis-Lactucetum tataricae ass. nov. hoc loco in the system of units of ecological-floristic classification of Eurasia vegetation. The association united weed communities of spring wheat, sunflower, less often - rye, barley, corn and sorghum, emerging mainly on well-drained swollen soils in the flood of the Ural River. The cenophlora is characterized by the presence of bondate and optional psammophytes - Chondrilla brevirostris , Helichrysum arenarium , Ceratocarpus arenarius , etc. The communities of the association occupy an extreme position on gradients of aridity and moisturization factors among other weed vegetation communities of the Southern Ural. The North American alien species Euphorbia glyptosperma Engelm has been discovered for the first time in the Orenburg Region (subgenus Chamaesyce Raf., section Anisophyllum Roep.). Currently this species is expanding its range from the south of the Russian Federation. Other alien plants have been noted as part of the communities: Amaranthus blitoides S. Wats., A. retroflexus L., Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq., Xanthium album (Widder) Scholz et Sucopp.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):97-103
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Assessment of changes in the phytotoxic properties of oil-contaminated soils in terms of germination and seedlings length of Lepidium sativum L. after electrochemical cleaning
Shulaev N.S., Pryanichnikova V.V., Kadyrov R.R., Bykovskiy N.A., Damineva R.M.
Abstract
Different variants of electric treatment technology are used to solve environmental, technological and agro-melioration problems. This paper assesses the change in the properties of contaminated soil during cleaning by passing small amperage through it. The paper contains the results of the study of changes in the toxic properties of soil contaminated with oil and mineralized formation water at oil production after electrochemical treatment. A biotesting technique with Lepidium sativum L. is used for an integrated assessment of the hazardous properties of contaminated soil after electrical treatment. This biological test object has a high responsiveness to the presence of pollutants in soil and water, as well as the ability to rapidly germinate. The main parameters during the study are the percentage of seed germination and the total length of seedlings (underground and aboveground parts). A statistical analysis of the data is carried out. The phytotoxicity of contaminated soil is compared before and after cleaning. The conclusion is drawn about the potential suitability of this method for the full restoration of natural plant communities at the pollution territory, as well as for conducting complex phytoremediation.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):103-107
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Rare and protection needed species of petrophytic steppes of the Southern and Middle Urals
Yamalov S.M., Lebedeva M.V., Golovanov Y.M., Petrova M.V.
Abstract
The paper reveals a rare component of stony steppes of the South and Central Ural Mountains of the rare and needing protection species to their different types. The authors establish that 154 rare and needing protection species, relicts and endemics grow on the stony steppes of the region. That makes 20,8% of all coenoflora. Among them 18 species are included in the Red List of the Russian Federation, 98 species are included in the regional Red Lists. The authors also revealed 34 endemic species relating, mainly to group of rocky and steppes endemics. The relic flora contains 42 species. The most part of them (25 species) belongs to the Holocene, the group of the pleystocene relicts is presented by 13 species. The analysis of coenoflora allowed to reveal features of rare species dividing into the communities that characterize different types of habitats. The greatest share of rare species is noted in communities of the South forest-steppe zone on calcareous substrates (more than 30% - 81 species). The obtained data confirm a high nature protection importance of the petrophytic steppes of the Southern and Central Urals and can form a basis for the complex strategy of protection of these communities.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):107-115
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Historical Sciences and Archaeology
Techno-morphological features of items made of antler from the site near the village of Michnievičy (north-western Belarus)
Malyutina A.A., Vashanov A.N., Tkacheva M.I., Tkach E.S.
Abstract
The paper presents the results of a techno-morphological analysis of items made of antler obtained as a result of the collections from the 1960s-1990s from the site near the village of Michnievičy Smorgon District of the Grodno Region (north-western Belarus). Currently, more than 100 artifacts are known from this site, as well as a large number of fauna residues with no visible traces of processing. Radiocarbon dating was obtained for some categories of products, which link them to 9-2 thousand BC. The largest part of the collection refers to the period of the Mesolithic - Neolithic. At the first stage of work, the most expressive and numerous group of artifacts made of horn (24 exemplars), stored in the fonds of the Institute of History of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, was selected for a techno-morphological analysis. The degree of preservation of the external surface of objects is relatively good, which made it possible to analyze macro-traces related to the technology of manufacturing various categories of products, on the basis of which a process flow was proposed - from the selection of raw materials to the finished product. The analysis of the technological traces recorded on the products allowed us to highlight the differences in the manufacturing processes of the oldest tools. In addition, on the basis of the macro signs of utilitarian wear, preliminary observations on the functional using of objects were obtained. According to technological and morphological features, the whole of the analyzed material was divided into conditional categories of instruments with a selected «heel» and without it. The presence or absence of this element, apparently, influenced the method of using objects in various household situations.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):116-122
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The eneolithique settlement and burial site Vasilyevskiy Kordon 27: evidence of hunting and fishing (excavations 2016-2018, preliminary publication)
Smolyaninov R.V., Yurkina E.S., Yanish Y.Y., Zheludkov A.S., Shemeniov S.V., Soloviev A.V.
Abstract
The settlement and grave field Vasilyevskiy Kordon 27 was discovered by A.A. Klukoit in 2008 and it was investigated from 2016 to 2018. In the excavation within the area of 195 sq. m. six ancient buildings and four burials were identified. A large number of Eneolithique ceramics of the Srednestogovskaya and Volosovskaya culture as well as Ksizovski type vessels were discovered. A huge number of finds testify to the hunting and fishing on the monument. The accompanying flint inventory is represented by tools related to both economic activity and hunting weapons, with the latter predominating. In the outbuildings, burials and cultural layer 68 stone arrowheads and darts were found. 2245 residues of animal origin were also revealed. There are 1386 mammalian bones, 595 birds, 61 reptile bones and 138 fragments of mollusk shells among them. It is interesting to note that there were ceramic fishing weights carved from the broken vessels. On the monument animal husbandry was noted for the Upper Don for the first time, while poultry farming was absent. Bones of wild species of mammals, birds, fish and turtles confirm the importance of hunting and fishing as the main (but not the only) source of food in the settlement. At the same time, only four hunting tools were made of bone: two edges and two fragments of harpoons. The archaeological collection of the settlement Vasilyevskiy Kordon 27 refers mainly to the late Eneolithic period and dates the 3-2 quarter of the IV Millennium BC.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):122-130
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Cultural background and chronology of the multisegment populated settlement Salekhard-4 located in the Lower Ob River region
Tupakhina O.S., Tupakhin D.S.
Abstract
In this paper the authors study the issues of the cultural and chronological attribution of the Salekhard-4 settlement, the historic site, which was studied during the field works in 2017 for the first time. The site is located within the Salekhard city territory. Considering the vast historical and landscape context it should be noted that the territory of the Lower Ob River region (within the area of the modern Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug) includes several natural ranges: Northern taiga, forest tundra and tundra, and geographically spreads up to the Arctic coast. Moreover, it should be outlined that the historical retrospective displays multiple shifts of borders of the abovesaid nature and climatic ranges both, south and the northward, and such shifts affected migration of the ancient population considerably, which is clearly reflected on the archaeological remains. For instance the lower cultural layers of the Salekhard-4 settlement should be referred to the Chalcolithic Period (end of the 4th - beginning of the 3rd thousand years AD); this can be confirmed by the found ceramics referred to the Gorny Samotnel settlement. The cultural layers discovered above and containing the settlement and the burial complexes can be attributed to the Heyakh culture of the Late Bronze age (approx. 13th century AD). One of the tombs partially containing relics and remains is the subject of special interest as it contains the unviolated funeral accessories. The unique nature of this finding is that for today it is the only Late Bronze age burial located in the region under study. Undamaged condition of the antropological material made it possible to establish the sex and the race of the buried, as well as to determine the approximate age at death. The upper cultural layers of the site under study can be referred to the culture of the Lower Ob River region of the early Middle Ages (1st-4th centuries DC), they contain residuals of a wooden flooring, a fire-forge, and some amount of ceramics.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):131-138
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Sengir-tam 2: new research on the site in Eastern Aral Sea region
Kurmankulov Z., Utubayev Z.R.
Abstract

The paper presents the excavations results from the new site of the early Iron Age Sengir-tam 2, located in the lower stream of the Syr Darya River in Kyzylorda Region. The site is a grave consisting of 23 ground mounds. There are west and east groups located in chain order and oriented along the west-east line. To date, six mounds have been explored on the site. It has been revealed that the grave was robbed in ancient times. Archaeological works on the high ground of Sengir-tam 2 showed that burials were carried out here for a long time. The excavations revealed pieces of horse tack, iron knives, beads and helmet plaque, ceramics. The burial rite and equipment recorded on the site have direct similarities with other burial complexes of Eastern Aral Sea, particularly among the materials of the graves of South Tagisken and Uigarak dated by VII-V centuries BC. It should be noted that Sengir-tam 2 is still the third site discovered in the interfluve of Incardarya and Zhanadarya. According to the materials received, the population of Eastern Aral Sea region had links with the other cultures of the Saka time from Altay in the east to the Black Sea in the west.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):138-144
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Paleopathological features of the Late Bronze Age population: anthropological skeletal materials excavated from burial grounds near the village of Krasnosamarskoye, Samara Region
Pererva E.V., Kapinus Y.O.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to the analysis of anthropological skeletal materials related to the Srubnaya culture and excavated in 2010 and 2018 in the mounds near the village of Krasnosamarskoye, Kinelsky District of the Samara Region. One hundred and three skeletal remains were studied. In the course of the examination, a standard program for fixing pathological conditions on human bones was applied. As a result of the work, it was possible to establish that the population of the Late Bronze Age buried in the mounds near the village of Krasnosamarskoe had a high infant mortality rate and a relatively short men’s life expectancy. In the studied skeletal series, a specific pathological complex in the dental system is found. It indicates that the diet consisted mainly of meat and dairy. Widespread markers of micronutrient deficiencies in the body were observed on the children bones which is also an indicator of negative environmental and social factors such as famines or parasitic infestations. High frequency of discrete-varying characters on the bones of the postcranial skeleton indicates that a closely related population is buried in the mounds of the Krasnosamarsky IV burial ground. Specific traumatic injuries presence in buried skeletal remains as well as their positive correlation with diseases of the joints and spine allows us to assume its association with domestic or professional economic activity.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):144-153
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The first attempts to create archaeological maps of Samara and Simbirsk governorates at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries
Sukhova O.K.
Abstract
The paper discusses the experience of Russians and their attempt to create the first archaeological maps of Samara and Simbirsk Provinces, organized by V.N. Polivanov from Simbirsk and V.A. Miller and F.T. Yakovlev from Samara at the end of the XIX-XX centuries. The author introduces an archaeological map used by V.A. Miller and M.A. Miller into science. Due to the unpublished archival materials the author identifies the sources of information used to compile the archaeological map of the Simbirsk Province. For example, the use of a questionnaire describes the first steps in the centralized collection of information on ancient monuments in the Russian province in the 19th century. The questionnaires of the Central Statistical Committee of 1873 and the Moscow Archaeological Society of 1888 are noted for solving the problem of creating archaeological maps of individual provinces. For example, the questionnaires of the Simbirsk provincial scientific archival commission of 1896 solved the map problem of the Simbirsk province. The time gap is considered between the creation of provincial scholars of archival commissions in Samara and Simbirsk, organizations that were not only in-charge of the preservation and processing of archival documents, but were involved in archaeological research and conducted activities to study antiquities. It is summarized that the Samara and Simbirsk provinces were at different levels of involvement in the all-Russian processes, but, one way or another, prerequisites were laid in both provinces for drawing up plans for further archaeological study of the two regions.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):153-160
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Problems in the development of the Episcopate of Cyril of Alexandria
Zaytseva I.V.
Abstract
The paper deals with problems of the development of the Episcopate under one of the greatest person of the Alexandrian Church - Cyril of Alexandria. The paper analyzes the Historia Ecclesiastica by Socrates Scholasticus, the works of Eusebius Caesarea and John of Nikiu, that outlines the key issues of the establishment of power relations in the Alexandrian Episcopate in IV-V centuries. The research has shown that the Cyril’s inauguration was prompted by the practice of continuity, which was developed in the Church Hierarchy, beginning with Athanasius of Alexandria, when power was handed down from uncle to nephew. After following his uncle Theophilus of Alexandria in a position by descent Cyril of Alexandria faced a number of important issues that needed quick response and significant resources: a power struggle with his rival Archdeacon Timotheus, continuing the practice of getting rid of heresy in the Nicene Christianity, and a need to establish a unified intellectual Christian environment. To solve these tasks was possible by a mass of public support as well as by using military force of the commander of the Emperor’s troops. The paper also emphasizes an escalating confrontation between the Alexandrian Bishop, followers of Novatian and a large Jewish community.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):160-164
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The daily life of franks according to written sources at the time of Gregory of Tours: clothing, military affairs, urban life and customs
Kazakov I.V.
Abstract
This paper is a logical continuation of our paper «The daily life of Franks according to written sources at the time of Gregory of Tours, I: diseases, medicine, hygiene and food». This paper is an attempt to collect and systematize information about the material conditions of life in the Frankish state of the Merovingians in the 6th century in the descriptions of contemporary authors. The choice of the topic is due to the need to compose a complete picture of a person’s life from the beginning of the early Middle Ages, which until now has remained poorly researched, unlike the Carolingian period. The sources used are the writings of Gregory of Tours, Venantius Fortunatus, Apollinaris Sidonius, The Chronicle of Fredegar, «The History Book of the Franks» and others. The paper collects data on the clothes of various population groups, on the weapons and armor of the Franks and the level of military affairs development, on cities and urban life, and some features of the mentality of so far half barbaric society. The collected material allows us to state that: a) the sources of the early Merovingian period, in contrast to the Carolingian era, are distinguished by the extreme scarcity of data in the field of genesis; b) despite a rather primitive look of clothing, it possessed considerable material value, as well as it had a significant essence, c) Roman cities continued to exist on the territory of Gallia, but largely lost their urban character, turning into fortified centers, and c) Christianization had very little influence on the moral character of the Franks; society remained largely barbaric, although some features indicate the beginning of the formation of a new civilization.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):165-171
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Fortification in the South-Eastern part of European Russia at the end of the XVI - beginning of the XVII centuries
Dubman E.L.
Abstract
The paper discusses the features of the Volga city fortresses (Samara, Saratov and Tsaritsyn) development at its initial stage in the second half of the 1580s by knyaz G.O. Zasekin. The task is to consider the process of their urban planning appearance and defensive structures development as well as the composition of the inhabitants at the end of the XVI - beginning of the XVII centuries. The source base of the study is archival and published narrative, acts and other sources. A wide range of studies have been used, mainly in recent decades. It is concluded that until the end of the Time of Troubles, the population of the Volga fortress cities consisted of service people and members of their families. The settlements performed both military and commercial functions on the Volga route, but in fact, all of them were fortresses. Their garrisons were mainly supplied by the sovereign «bread and money salary» and were not able to provide themselves through fishing and other activities. The events of the Time of Troubles contributed to a deep crisis in the life of the Volga cities, the death of Saratov and Tsaritsyn. It was only after the end of the Time of Troubles when their restoration took place and a new system of fortifications was created.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):171-177
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Samara public figure and deputy of the State Duma of the Russian Empire V.A. Plemyannikov
Eliseev A.I.
Abstract
The paper analyzes published and archival documents, periodical materials, and memoirs of contemporaries; it is devoted to the socio-political activities of the member of the Samara Zemstvo Council, one of the organizers of the Samara Provincial and Buzuluk Uyezd Committees of the Constitutional Democratic Party, deputy of the first State Duma of the Russian Empire, Vasily Andreevich Plemyannikov. The author examines the work of V.A. Plemyannikov in the Zemstvo institutions of the Samara province and All-Russian Zemstvo Congresses, where he studied the situation in the region, gained rich experience in social activities, and formed his political views. The paper also contains an overview of Plemyannikov’s relations with Central authorities and regional public organizations. The author argues that the years of the first Russian revolution became the peak of Plemyannikov’s social and political activity. The paper is focused on the active participation of V.A. Plemyannikov in the State Duma election campaign and the organization of the local branch of the Constitutional Democratic Party in Buzuluk Uyezd. Due to his active propaganda work and political significance in the province, Plemyannikov was elected to the State Duma. In addition to the reconstruction of political activity of V.A. Plemyannikov, the paper introduces previously unknown biographical data.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):177-180
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Memorandums by M.A. Taube on the possible complications of the international legal relationships of the Russian Empire with Finland in the late XIX - early XX century
Pleshcheeva A.V.
Abstract
Discussions on the situation of Finland as a part of the Russian state have been particularly acute since the end of the 19th century, when the autocracy began to take measures to limit the privileges of the outskirts of the empire. One of the factors that put this problem to the forefront was also the development of the revolutionary movement in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century. The tsarist government needed to organize the control over the activities of revolutionary organizations in Finland as well as to solve the problem of the import of weapons across the Finnish border into the Russian territory. Thus, a special meeting on question of the Grand Duchy of Finland was created. Representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs were also invited to discuss this problem. The paper analyzes the memorandum by the Doctor of International Law and the Vice-Director of the Second Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs M.A. Taube, in which he investigates in detail possible consequences of revolutionary events development in Finland. The memorandum expresses a position of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which, in case of rebellion, considered that it was necessary and most beneficial for Russia to recognize the Grand Duchy of Finland as «a belligerent». This option did not receive approval from the emperor and the Council of Ministers, for whom the measures in regard to Finland were considered exclusively as a domestic question.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):181-184
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S.Yu. Witte’s views on the cultural and historical significance of the railway communication in the East of the Russian Empire
Suvorov V.V., Sulimin A.N.
Abstract

The paper presents the Minister of Finance S.Yu. Witte’s views on cultural and historical significance of the railway communication in the Asian part of the Russian Empire. Although Witte primarily attached importance to the economic factor of the railroad, designed to connect the western and the eastern parts of Russia, he nevertheless often noted the military-strategic and cultural-historical significance of the Siberian railroad and the China Eastern Railway. Attaching particular importance to the railway communication in ensuring both economic and cultural contacts of Europeans, especially the population of Russia, with the Eastern peoples, Witte saw the «awakening» of the East and the expansion of its ties with the Western world as consequences. According to the Minister of Finance, such connections opened by the railway made it impossible to maintain alienation for the peoples of the Far East. Understanding the scale of the consequences of cultural, economic and political ties that had opened up, Witte noted a special task that was assigned to Russia in bringing Western and Eastern peoples closer together. Russia, providing the opportunity for interaction between the West and the East through the railway built by it, was to use, according to Witte, all the benefits of their convergence, which boiled down to the socio-economic and cultural development of Siberia and the Russian Far East. It is important that Witte also saw geopolitical changes associated with the possible rapprochement between Russia and Japan on the basis of common economic interests as a consequence of the development of the railway communication.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):185-188
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The Social Darwinist ideology in American domestic policy at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries
Mukhataev P.N.
Abstract
This paper presents an attempt to analyze the interrelation between American domestic policy and the Social Darwinist ideology at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. Soviet and Russian historiography presents a deep analysis of socio-economic and political processes in that period in terms of criticism of liberal ideology and market economics. Significant social stratification was explained by insufficiently developed socially directed normative base, illegal interaction between representatives of large business and politicians, the purpose of which was personal enrichment, etc. In general, the economic and political system of the United States in the late XIX - early XX centuries was criticized from Russian scientists. In Soviet literature the conclusion was made about the insolvency of «bourgeois ideology», with elements of criticism of Social Darwinism as a minor component of this ideology. American historiography considers the subject of our study more wholly. Foreign historiography, basically, analyzes the connection of American domestic policy with the activities of financial magnates, who were becoming a new serious power in American politics. This paper attempts to explain the connection between the American domestic policy and the Social Darwinist discourse, which was an undoubted part of the intellectual and daily life of citizens in that historical period. The author points to the significant influence of the Social Darwinist ideology in the adoption of key inner-political decisions by the government of the United States.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):188-194
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Domestic topics in satire for news lovers: the possibilities of an adaptation resource (based on periodicals of the Volga city during the First World War)
Semenova E.Y.
Abstract
The paper explores possibilities of satirical materials as a mechanism for adapting the rear population to everyday living conditions. The themes of household satire, which were developed in printed products produced during the First World War in the cities of the Volga region, are revealed. They are presented in individual satirical publications, as well as in the unofficial periodical press, in the publications of political parties and official authorities. The author analyzed the materials, including domestic satire, in the following areas: providing the population of the rear cities, combating drunkenness, using war for profit, social conflicts, stability of the internal political course, leisure opportunities. It is revealed that in the periodicals that appeared on the territory of the cities of the Volga region, satirical materials were presented by a number of genres: ditty, feuilleton, proverb, parody, cited literary form of prose and verse. The author came to the conclusion about the importance of satirical materials to reflect the everyday problems faced by the urban man in the street. Emphasizing that the source base is indirect, it was suggested taking into account the possibility of the influence of satire on the habituation of citizens reading periodicals to everyday problems associated with the War.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):194-199
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Collectivization and public health system formation in rural Russia
Khristenko D.N., Krasovskaya Y.V.
Abstract
Collectivization in the USSR, without any doubt, became one of the most difficult and tragic pages in the history of our country. Not denying the devastating results of the socialization of agriculture in the 1930s, some positive consequences, nevertheless, should be noted, especially in the public health service. In this paper the authors analyze changes in the public health service for rural residents from the late 19th century to the end of the 1930s. They use various types of historical sources, such as statistical data, studies of Zemstvo leaders, government officials and memoirs of contemporaries. The state policy in the public health, the availability of medical care and the provision of medical personnel, the attitude of the population towards doctors and official medicine and the sanitary and hygienic living conditions of the rural residents are examined in detail. It is concluded that the depressing situation in the public health service for the rural population in pre-revolutionary Russia, aggravated by ignorance, numerous superstitions and distrust of doctors, changed dramatically only after the establishment of the Soviet government. In the process of collectivization in rural areas, an extensive network of hospitals, medical sites, maternity hospitals and pharmacies appeared. As a result, in spite of numerous problems in rural public health, it can be argued that it was in the 1930s that general medical care became an integral part of rural life.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):200-204
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The history of microbiologist Z.V. Ermoleva’s scientific activity: a brief overview of soviet historiography
Gorshenin A.V.
Abstract
The paper attempts to analyze the key lines of the soviet historiography in the coverage of scientific and organizational activities of Zinaida Vissarionovna Ermoleva, as well as to characterize the degree of information content of publications on the problem. Z.V. Ermoleva (1898-1974) is a famous soviet medical scientist, a microbiologist and a bacteriogenic, a winner of the Stalin prize I degree, an honored worker of science of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, a professor, a doctor of medical sciences, an academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR. Her scientific and practical activities helped to save thousands of people from death. One of the most famous achievements of Z.V. Ermoleva was the invention of the first domestic antibiotic - «penicillin-krustosin» and the establishment of its industrial production in the harsh years of the Great Patriotic War. There were also numerous works on the study of cholera vibrions, interferon, lysozyme, various types of antibiotics and their combinations. Z.V. Ermoleva’s life as well as the history of her research activities are not well reflected in scientific literature. Unfortunately, no historiographical work has been published on the history of this amazing woman scientist. This historiographical review is not exhaustive; it should be perceived as a ground for a further study of her scientific work. Due to the specificity of the subject under consideration, the historiographical review is based on the problem principle.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):204-208
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The Revolution and Civil War in Russia in Canadian historiography
Bandilet S.V.
Abstract
This paper is devoted to perception of the February Revolution, the October revolution and the Civil War in Russia in Canadian historiography. The paper considers, firstly, works of historians - Canadian citizens, secondly, works of scientists from other countries who have worked in Canada for a long time and, thirdly, works of foreigners, who published in Canadian scientific journals. All of the above works can be divided into three groups. Firstly, these are fundamental works on the history of the Russian Revolution and Civil War. Secondly, these are works devoted to foreign intervention in Russia and Canadian participation of Canada in this intervention. Thirdly, these are works relating to other particular aspects of this subject. The authors of all considered works refer to the February Revolution as an important step for democracy in Russia. Canadian historiography mainly condemns the October Revolution and criticizes Bolsheviks for authoritarianism and radicalism. The attitude of Canadian scientists to the White Guards is ambiguous. On the one hand, there is a certain sympathy for the Whites as allies of the Entente (and Canada). But on the other hand, the Whites are condemned for their ill-conceived domestic policies and for inability to reach a compromise with each other. The Canadian historiography of the 1917-1922 events in Russia is now practically unexplored, and therefore it is of scientific interest.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):208-214
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Economic problems and the threat of the Old World: the USA media assessment
Buranok S.O., Belyaeva K.V., Tulusakova M.I.
Abstract
The paper is dedicated to the evolutionary formation process of the American mass media perception towards the Soviet Russia during the severe Russian famine of 1921-1922, also known as the Povolzhye famine. The research novelty lies in the deep analysis of the US press assessments concerning the famine. The authors provide the results of their American newspapers examination regarding the image formation of the Soviet authorities, the Soviet people and the so-called «Red Scare». The authors’ research included a review of the main anti-Soviet arguments made by the media; the review revealed that the Povolzhye famine image had a crucial role in the labeling Russia as a «retrogressive» country. Studying this informational phenomenon allows researchers to understand what impact it had on Soviet-American relations, since it directly affected the perception of Russia and the Russian/Soviet people through the media. This, in turn, might help with comprehension of some stereotypes about Russia that can still be encountered in the American public opinion to date.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):214-217
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Traditional culture of migrants from Central Asian countries in the context of integration practices
Mukhametshina N.S.
Abstract
The paper deals with the results of standardized interviews with representatives of the peoples from Central Asia (Kyrgyz, Tajiks, Uzbeks) currently residing in Samara and the Samara Region. The interviews were conducted in 2018-2019 within the framework of the project supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. It has been established that ethnic culture retains its functionality in a new environment in all groups selected for the study. In particular, national cuisine and ethnic elements for the interior of their houses are widely used. The vast majority know and perform folk songs and music, have their recordings, and many of those people listen to them regularly or from time to time. They keep reading books and periodicals in their native language. Almost all of them keep their language immersion. All groups of respondents noted openness and readiness for friendly contacts regardless of nationality. The overwhelming majority of respondents communicate with their colleagues and neighbors. Communication is predominantly positive. Marital and family behavior reflects a rather positive perception of inter-ethnic marriages. Although the situation in this private sphere is not very clear. Based on the results obtained, the conclusion is that the majority of the representatives of the diaspora communities are successfully integrated.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):218-221
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«I have preserved my homeland, and here I am, like in my homeland»: features of ethnocultural identification and sociocultural integration of Samara Tajiks
Iagafova E.A.
Abstract
The paper presents the study results of the Tajik diaspora in Samara Region. The features of ethnic identification and socio-cultural adaptation of the community members were identified. The study is based on the materials from a field survey conducted in the region in 2018-2019, using qualitative (in-depth interviews) and quantitative methods (questionnaires). The methodology of the paper is based on theoretical and methodological developments in the field of diasporal research. The main factors of ethnocultural identification of Samara Tajiks are the language, community of origin and elements of ethnic culture represented in family-kinship communication, as well as in the public space of the region. Ethnic (Tajik) priorities in the construction of sociocultural space provide the functionality and reproduction of the cultural and linguistic characteristics of community members and determine the tendency to interethnic isolation. At the same time, contacts with the surrounding multiethnic population and the orientation towards integration into the local environment (to get education, citizenship, work, arrange living) destroy mono-ethnicity of Samara Tajiks social ties, primarily those of the young generation born in Russia. The study showed that the strategy of socio-cultural integration of Samara Tajiks is based on the preservation of ethnocultural identity, on the one hand, and the perception of the social characteristics of the host community, on the other.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):221-226
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Pedagogical Sciences
Axiological communication as a subject of pedagogical reflection
Bezdukhov V.P., Noskov I.A.
Abstract
The relevance of the paper is motivated by the importance and necessity of updating the educational paradigm on the basis of an axiological approach that fundamentally changes the style of communication between a teacher and a student as well as other participants of the educational process. The paper identifies the problems that scientists pose and solve while studying communication, i.e. highlight aspects of studying communication, conceptualize correlation between social relations and communication, communication and activity. The authors reveal that axiological communication is a form of values exchange. The values, which a teacher introduces to students, determine the content of such communication where the values are related and the meaning of one value is associated with the meaning of another one. The paper reveals that the product of axiological communication is the value relationship between a teacher and students, that while exchanging values in the course of such communication they are chosen. The authors specify a scientific concept of isolation of a personality in communication. The ideas of scientists on relationship between communication and activity (communication as a type of activity or a component, a part, a condition of another activity; communication as part of a single process of a human life; communication as part of activity) are revealed. The authors prove that a teacher’s axiological communication is a part of his/her ethical and pedagogical activity as a value-oriented type activity.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):227-231
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The model of schoolchildren successfulness development in the process of sports training in the system of additional education
Voronin A.D.
Abstract
In this paper the author makes an assumption about a multidimensionality of the «successfulness» concept based on studies from the point of view of various theories. The author gives his own definition of the concept «schoolchildren’s success in the process of sports training». It is schoolchildren’s sports skill that is successfully developed and continuously improving in the process of sports training, supported by a positive-self-esteem, accompanied by a sufficient level of motivation and positive emotional condition, as well as adequate social environment, all of which involves achieving positive sports results by schoolchildren. In addition, the author has identified the main components of students’ success in the process of sports training (physiological, psychological, moral, technical and tactical, cognitive), analyzed them and provided a description of each component separately. In this paper the author has also proposed a model for schoolchildren’s success development in the process of sports training, focused on martial arts. The essence of this model is that when the organizational and pedagogical conditions proposed in this model are introduced into the process of sports training and their successive implementation, a teenager will achieve high indicators in the above components and will be able to achieve success both in sports and in other areas. This model is designed primarily to improve schoolchildren’s qualities and adapt them to changing conditions of the modern world rather than to make them achieve sporting results. The author has determined that successful, effective and systematic sports development is necessary to solve some of the most important tasks. Due to the definition of the concept «schoolchildren’s success in the process of sports training» as well as the development of the model for schoolchildren’s success development in the process of sports training in the system of additional education the author plans to develop organizational and pedagogical conditions of schoolchildren’s success development in the process of sports training applied exclusively in the system of additional education (wrestling, judo, sambo, boxing, etc.).
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):232-241
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Historical and pedagogical outlines of promoting ethnic tolerance in military pedagogy
Vrachinskaya T.V., Budarina A.O., Kuznetsova T.A., Parakhina O.V., Kalyuzhniy E.V.
Abstract
The paper traces the historical and pedagogical outlines of promoting ethnic tolerance in military pedagogy. The philosophical and socio-political prerequisites for developing the attitudes on ethnic tolerance are revealed. The views of national teachers and the periodization of the development of attitudes on ethnic conflict and tolerance of military personnel in national military pedagogy are systematized. The study of the process of promoting and developing tolerance of Russian military personnel of the XVIII - beginning of the XXI centuries was carried out from the standpoint of extending the worldview principles to the spiritual activities and practices of all participants in the pedagogical process. At the same time, historical and pedagogical conditions and factors that influenced the process under the study and the degree of its development in the corresponding period were taken into account. The study has showed that the idea of the conditioning ethnic tolerance in Russian military pedagogy, its implementation in theoretical thought and practical activities underwent a certain evolution. The study of historical and pedagogical experience has made it possible to formulate the main trends in the emergence and development of the process of conditioning ethnic tolerance among military personnel at various historical stages in order to take into account the positive and negative experience of promoting ethnic tolerance. The experience of educating military personnel in various historical periods is undoubtedly useful for conditioning and promoting ethnic tolerance among cadets. At present, the development of ethnic tolerance among military personnel is no less relevant than in the considered historical periods.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):241-248
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Extracurricular activities as a factor of students’ personal development and education (as exemplified by the Faculty of Foreign Languages of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education)
Klyushina A.M., Shalifova O.N.
Abstract
Extracurricular activities are an integral part of the educational process of a university. The authors consider extracurricular work as a holistic entity with all the attributes of a system (goal, objectives, functions, structure, content, forms, methods and means). The authors of the paper believe that extracurricular work with students is an important part of education and it is carried out with the aim of creating a system of tools and actions that are responsible for solving urgent problems of education, creating favorable conditions for personal and professional development of university graduates, who should combine deep professional knowledge and skills, high spiritual and moral qualities, be noted for legal and communicative culture, creative self-expression and an active citizenship. The paper discusses extracurricular work features as a factor of students’ personal development and education, reveals the significance of the problem and suggests solutions. The authors examine the effectiveness of extracurricular activities and analyze the structure of free time of the students of the faculty of foreign languages at Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education, which allows to take a fresh look at the organization of extracurricular work.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):248-252
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An olympiad in Biology as an evaluation tool of the educational process quality at a university
Korolev V.A., Ryzhaeva V.N., Babkina L.A., Vasilyeva O.V.
Abstract
The paper discusses the importance of using extracurricular forms of education-Biology olympiads for the development of students’ creative potential, their professional development and quality improvement of the educational process. The tasks of the subject olympiad are grouped into three blocks depending on the degree of complexity, allowing to assess the level of intellectual capacity and creative thinking. The number of correctly completed tasks with a choice of one answer is more than 52%, it indicates the students’ ability to apply basic knowledge in the field of Biology for the solution of the standard problems. 86,06% of students are able to use critical thinking by performing tasks of increased complexity with a multiple choice of answers, to solve standard professional tasks in accordance with the algorithm. 56,74% of students have a high level of intellectual activity, creative approach for solving practice-oriented problems with a free answer. The tasks in the field of molecular Biology of cells, regardless of their type, caused students’ difficulties. A low average score is typical for practice-oriented tasks associated with the assessment of the organism response to environmental factors and patterns of several traits inheritance with different types of inheritance (0,72 and 0,39, respectively, with a maximum score of 5). The results of the olympiad indicate that the competence approach should be used in Biology teaching for education quality.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):253-258
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FMEA analysis of social and professional competence in monitoring of students’ personal and professional development
Lyalyuk A.V., Shaposhnikova T.L.
Abstract
This paper explains that FMEA analysis of students’ social and professional competence may become an essential component of psychological and pedagogical monitoring, and shows its performance as related to social and pedagogical follow-up of personal and professional development. It is proved that FMEA analysis allows to determine «critical points» of students’ social and professional competence development, i.e. to identify, diagnose and forecast the risks of his or her personal and professional development. The relationship between the FMEA analysis of social and professional competence and other components of psychological and pedagogical monitoring is detected (including SWOT analysis of competences and personal and professional qualities). The theoretical relevance of the research results is in the possibility of further scientific reasoning for the issue of personal development in the system of ongoing education, while the practical relevance is in the possibility of the development of innovative systems and techniques for psychological and pedagogical monitoring.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):258-262
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Technology of creation of electronic educational resources for training specialists in digital economy
Makarov S.I., Sevastyanova S.A., Kurganova M.V.
Abstract
The professional training of specialists in the field of the digital economy is a promising direction in the development of economic education. The transition to digital technologies in management, banking, manufacturing, commerce, communications determines the emergence of new requirements for the professional and general competencies of university graduates. It is necessary to create an innovative vocational training system based on the use of electronic teaching aids and digital technologies. The implementation of this task should begin with the development of scientifically determined approaches to the creation of teaching aids that take into account all kinds of efficiency factors. This determines the importance of the task of scientific and methodological substantiation of the technology for creating electronic educational resources for the training of specialists in a new format. The paper proposes an analytical approach to determining the content and structure of the basic component of the methodological system - an electronic textbook. The expediency of its use in order to develop necessary competencies of the individual and group levels is substantiated. It is proposed to use a matrix form of information representation and elements of matrix and vector analysis to structure the material. A mathematical model has been developed that describes structural relationships between the concepts of the thesaurus. The structural elements in this model are the glossary concepts of an academic discipline. The possibilities of using the model for unification and automation of information processing during the selection of textbook content in various educational fields are discussed. Examples of using the proposed model in various subject areas are given. The authors describe how to represent a model based on graph theory and methods for solving the problem of the presence of cycles in this semantic structure. The main conclusions and results of the study can be used for the practical development of electronic learning tools, automating the process of structuring their content and methods of use in the educational process.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):263-266
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A modern view on service and operational competence development of specialists dealing with hazardous production facilities safe operation
Panychev A.L., Gorina L.N.
Abstract
The paper presents the results of the study aimed at improving the quality of specialists training in higher educational institutions who will fork for industrial enterprises where hazardous production facilities are operated. The quality of training depends on the level of industrial safety of hazardous production facilities and as a consequence the likelihood of accidents. At the moment, despite the general trend of reducing accidents at hazardous production facilities over the past ten years, their number remains quite significant. At the same time, social and economic damage from accidents can be estimated at 600-700 billion rubles per year, which will have a negative impact on the economic stability of the Russian Federation. The obligations of industrial enterprises where hazardous production facilities are operated and its employees are defined by the legislation. The content of education should take into account these basic requirements, which should be formed into separate themes. Accordingly, the modular principle is used in the design of the training content. The development of content in the form of modules will ensure the organizational and substantive unity of students training. We accept lectures and practical classes, as well as group and individual ones as the main methods of the educational process. Learning the material based on the results of lectures, practical training and self-training should allow students to form the qualities specified in our profesionogram. How the educational material proposed for study is learned should be checked during the control activities, starting from the initial-input control and ending with the final control.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):266-273
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Quality management of higher education in the context of digitalization
Polupan K.L.
Abstract
This paper discusses the main scientific results of the study associated with the introduction of a new understanding of higher education quality management in pedagogical science related to the digitalization of the educational process at the university. The point is that when a student interacts with other subjects of the educational process, conditions are provided in which the student can realize his or her importance as a subject of the educational process, as a person who models the process of knowing his or her future professional activity, as a future member of the professional community. This allows the student to see the paths of his or her development, to identify key areas in self-organization of activities, in self-development of individual characteristics and personality traits. The implementation of the «manage-help» scheme, coming to replace the «influencing» scheme, ensures the participation of the student in building an individual learning path, in the choice of «customized» forms, methods and technologies of professional training in accordance with individual capabilities, needs and abilities. The research result is the development and scientific justification of the digital quality management system of higher education in the interactive intellectual environment developed by the author. The developed system allows the student to «move away» from the existing templates and stamps of professional activity, expands his or her opportunities in development (and self-development) and creativity at university.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):273-278
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Methodological and methodical aspects of carbohydrate metabolism study in plant cells as the adjoint system
Pohlebaev S.M., Ageeva D.F., Tretyakova I.A.
Abstract
The choice of the research topic is not accidental. Photosynthesis is the basis of anabolism for plants as well as for all living organisms on Earth, while breathing is the basis of their catabolism. In turn, anabolism and catabolism are the links of metabolism, which determines the vital activity of any type of cells and the whole organism. The paper deals with the methodological potential previously justified by the authors of the conjugation category studying such important physiological and biochemical processes as photosynthesis and respiration. The application of this category by students while developing the concepts of photosynthesis and breathing will equip them by an effective methodological means of knowledge. Reflecting the conjugation category extends the ways we understand the principles of the structural organization of matter as a whole, and opens up new prospects, new approaches to solving the most important problems of science and their role in understanding the structure of rational knowledge. The figurative-sign model developed by the authors will allow to develop more effectively the concepts of photosynthesis, breathing and carbohydrate metabolism as a conjugated system at the theoretical level.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):279-283
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Training programming to prospective IT teachers: tasks with a spiral-increasing complexity
Pugach V.I., Tyuzhina I.V., Makarova E.L.
Abstract
This paper discusses one of the urgent problems of prospective IT teachers’ training - the development of a special competence: the ability to use the programming methodology for solving tasks of the school «Computer Science» course. In contrast to the classical approach in teaching methods, when each topic under the section «Programming» is fixed by the solution of a number of simple tasks, we propose to solve problems with spirally increasing complexity (such tasks will be understood as large projects, the implementation of which can be improved throughout the study of the programming course, while at each stage the result of the work will be a full-fledged workable program). Any «round» of the solution, except for the first one, can be omitted without loss of functionality, and each block of the task can be independently evaluated by students. The paper provides an example of such a problem, describes in detail the stages of its solution, as well as the evaluation system. This technique has been tested at Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education with the students majoring in 44.03.01 Pedagogical Education («Computer Science»). The proposed method has shown good results both in the field of motivation and in terms of learning.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):283-288
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The use of logical reference schemes as a means of increasing the level of students’ environmental knowledge
Repin D.V., Repina N.V.
Abstract
This paper describes the results of experimental work on the use of logical support circuits as a means of increasing the environmental knowledge of students of technological, economic and graphic arts departments of I. Yakovlev Chuvash State Pedagogical University. The research was carried out from February 2019 to May 2019. During the experiment, students of Technology and Economics Department were selected as a control group, and students of Art and Graphics Department as an experimental group. In the control group, training was carried out without the use of logical support schemes. In the experimental group, the educational process used logical support schemes. The determination of the initial level of ecological knowledge of students of both groups revealed close values of this parameter. After the experiment on the logical reference circuits use in the educational process, a repeated testing was carried out. Its results in both groups were higher than at the initial stage of the experiment. At the same time, when comparing the data of the control and experimental groups, significant differences were revealed. The students who used logical support schemes had significantly higher test scores than the students of the control group.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):288-291
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Technological process of extracurricular individualization of foreign masters training in education management
Ryblova A.N., Kang Q.
Abstract

The paper poses and solves the problem of the technological organization of extracurricular individual activities of foreign undergraduates. The technological effectiveness of the individualized educational process during graduate studies, developing on the basis of the implementation of the capabilities of information and telecommunication technologies, provides faster and better mastery of knowledge, skills and abilities by foreign undergraduates. Information library resources play a significant role in their development, offer great didactic opportunities for individualized training of foreign Masters in education management who do not speak Russian well and, as a result, need tutorial support outside the classroom to process professionally significant scientific information. The authors present a theoretical and methodological substantiation and the results of modeling and testing the technology of extracurricular individualization of foreign Masters training in education management under the guidance of a librarian using a set of information library resources. This technology provides for the interconnected educational and research activities of a foreign undergraduate and the advisory activities of a librarian, implemented during extracurricular times and aimed at the individual processing of professionally significant scientific information in professionally defined situations using a set of information library resources used as means of pedagogical communication to achieve professional goals. The complex of information library resources includes: print collections, electronic catalogs, search platforms and electronic databases and takes into account the direction of training of foreign undergraduates. The technological process of extracurricular individualization provides an algorithm for the interrelated actions of a librarian and a foreign undergraduate in the design, organization, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and diagnosis of educational results and difficulties of extracurricular individual scientific activity. The organizational and pedagogical conditions for the effective implementation of the authors’ technology are determined and diagnostic tools are developed, including tests and diagnostic criteria for the level of mastery of complex of information library resources. The simulated technology provides individual informational, methodological support to each foreign undergraduate and improves the quality of their research activities, implemented in the virtual educational space of libraries.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):291-297
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Results of the pedagogical experiment on the implementation of the elements of yoga gymnastics while teaching physical culture and sport bachelors
Serper S.A.
Abstract
The development of new directions in both sports, physical education, and in the field of physical education teaching is an urgent and popular direction in modern pedagogy. This direction is aimed at fulfilling the tasks facing higher education, as well as at implementing state programs to promote the health of the nation. At the present stage of the development of education and science, it is important that state programs are combined with the requirements of Russian society, therefore teachers and methodologists are paying more and more attention to such a direction of health policy as yoga. The scientific and pedagogical study of yoga as an element of sports education is currently at the initial stage. Therefore, the information presented in the paper is of a unique nature: on the basis of a pedagogical experiment, the first conclusions were made about yoga elements integration into physical education and sports education in the new federal standard. The author’s conclusions relate both to methods of solving the problem of motivating students in physical education, and to determining a set of universal competencies that it is advisable to form during the introduction of a new academic discipline based on yoga gymnastics into higher education. The paper emphasizes that the success of this task depends on the integration of the efforts of the state, higher education and fitness centers, which should become the basis for students to practice. The results of the experiment in the control and experimental groups of students give reason to predict that the wider use of yoga gymnastics in the educational process will significantly increase the effectiveness of physical education, as well as will also make graduates more competitive on the labor market.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):297-301
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Pedagogical technology of students’ negotiation in emergencies competence development at penal system institutions
Tarasova S.A., Oshchepkova O.V.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to the problem of professional and psychological training of employees of the penal system at university. The authors have developed a technology of teaching negotiations to students on the basis of competence-based approach while studying psychological disciplines. The authors define the concept of «a negotiation competence of the penal system employee», which is understood as a professional and personal readiness to negotiate with convicts in emergency conditions. The negotiation competence is considered in the context of conflicts resolution in case of group disobedience and mass riots at institutions of the penal system. The structure of the negotiation competence: motivational value, cognitive, efficient, practical and reflective components, reflecting the nature of the negotiation activity. The technology of negotiation competence development consists of the target, substantive, procedural, criterial and assessment units. The paper describes the content of training on the basis of organizational, communicative, ethical, technological, information components of the competence. The list of the planned educational results is given. The authors consider a procedural part of negotiation skills development, reflecting the content and sequence of stages. Methodical techniques used for training are described, examples of tasks are given. A business game is presented as an interactive form of training at the practical stage. The ways of checking if the educational results are developed with the help of the current and final control are discussed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):302-306
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The impact of project studies while teaching undergraduates on the choice of a master’s program
Khaertdinova A.A.
Abstract
The paper presents the results of the identified internal contradictions of MA and BA courses and the facts that influenced the choice of a master’s program on the example of students studying at Kazan National Research Technological University, at Innovation in Chemical Technology Department. One of the features of teaching bachelors at Innovation in Chemical Technology Department was the introduction of project training in the educational programs of the department as part of the university development strategy. The introduction of the project training method affected the degree of teaching students of the department. Students’ project activities are aimed at revealing their mental and creative abilities, implementing personal leadership or performing skills, applying theoretical knowledge gained to solve problems related to the implementation of innovative projects, assessing their effectiveness and efficiency in practical innovative projects. This type of training allows to teach students to independently develop in the real sector of the economy, as well as to evaluate the knowledge gained during BA course training, as well as to assess the shortcomings and gaps in the field of individual disciplines for the entire period of study. Such a conscious self-esteem is necessary to make a decision on continuing education at a MA course.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(4):306-309
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