Vol 7, No 1 (2018)

From editorial board

Research results of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education in 2017

Repinetsky A.I.
Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):10-14
pages 10-14 views

03.02.00 – General Biology

The Euro-Siberian geographical element flora structure of the Middle Siberia forest-steppes

Antipova E.M.

Abstract

The structure of geographical (arealogical) elements is one of the most important flora characteristics, because genetic composite groups are established on the basics of generic and species areas analysis and regularities of flora formation are determined. The object of the research is a complete species composition of vascular plants, revealed within the boundaries of the researched forest-steppes - Krasnoyarsk, Kansk and Achinsk (Krasnoyarsk Region). The North forest-steppes flora was detected by the specific flora method established by A.I. Tolmachev. The aim of this work is to summarize materials of the Euro-Siberian geographical element flora structure in the North forest-steppes ecosystems of the Middle Siberia with the characteristics of geographical elements selected on the basis of the fitohorions concept. It is based on the accordance principle of species distribution to natural (Botanical-geographical) zoning of the Earth. To determine the areas we used modern planetary floristic zoning established by A.L. Takhtajan with some amendments: floristic zoning by L.I. Malysheva was taken into account to Siberia, etc., the Russian Far East - by R.V. Camelina. As a result of the work geographical elements of the boreal group were assigned: Circumboreal (133 species, 9,6% of the whole flora), Eurosiberian (384 species, 27,7%), Pontic-South Siberian (81 species, 5,85%), Siberian (154 species, 11,12%).

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):15-19
pages 15-19 views

Peculiarities of heavy metals accumulation by dooryard plantain’s leaves (Plantago major L.) in the urbanized territories

Babkina L.A., Lukyanchikov D.S., Lukyanchikova O.V.

Abstract

The paper reveals the content of extractable zinc, cadmium and lead in the soil of the territories with different level of technological influence. The peculiarities of heavy metals storage by dooryard plantain’s leaves Plantago major L. are observed. The soils of the industrial zone are characterized by pollution with cadmium and lead compounds. The content of lead and zinc ions in dooryard plantain’s leaves P. major , growing in this region, oversteps the accepted values. The plant material picked in the suburbs of the city close to the forest zones is ecologically safe. According to increasing of accumulation features, heavy metals are located in the following order: lead < cadmium < zinc that reflects the degree of their importance for plants and the similarity of their physical and chemical indexes. The higher indexes of the storage coefficients for cadmium in comparison with lead are connected with its translocation into cells by carriers for zinc biophile element. The increase of zinc and cadmium content in the soil leads to decrease of accumulation of these ions in leaves. Lead gets into dooryard plantain’s leaves P. major from both through roots from the soil and through mouth apparatus of leaf epidermis from the air.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):19-24
pages 19-24 views

Infestation of the Viviparus viviparus L. population of the Malaya Kokshaga River by the trematode parthenites and the carotenoid content in the tissues of mollusks

Bedova P.V.

Abstract

The paper presents the results of a long-term research (2001-2011) of the Viviparus viviparus L. population of the Malaya Kokshaga River, which is the 42nd left tributary of the Volga River and flows through the territory of the Mari El Republic. Density, biomass, sex structure and age structure of this population were the items of the investigation. The author defined the infestation of the gastropods by the trematode parthenites and the effect of parasites on the content of carotenoid pigments in the tissues of mollusks. A three-mark infestation scale was developed to determine the intensity of infestation. Throughout the whole study period, the infestation of V. viviparus by the trematode parthenites was consistently high. More than 50% of all individuals were infected by the larvae of various trematodes at all stages of development. Significant differences in the infestation of males and females were not registered. The author marked the influence of trematode invasion on the content of carotenoids. The infected individuals of both sexes in spring as well as in summer showed a higher content of carotenoids than uninfected ones. The V. viviparus population of the Malaya Kokshaga River was dominated by one year’s age individuals with a shell height of 18,0-25,9 mm. The sex structure of the V.viviparus population of the Malaya Kokshaga River was stable for the whole period of the research. The predominance of males or females in the population is insignificant. There are no significant differences in the number and biomass of V. viviparus over the years.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):24-28
pages 24-28 views

Bioecological analysis of Mountain Kuznetsov vascular plants

Golovlyov A.A., Makarova Y.V., Prokhorova N.V.

Abstract

According to the vegetation duration the vascular plants grow on Kuznetsov Mountain form such groups as: summer vegetative species (216 species, 80,9%), summer-winter-green species (44 species, 16,5%), evergreen, spring-green, spring-early-summer-green (2 species, 0,7% each) and summer-green or summer-winter-green vascular plants (1 species, 0,4%). Depending on the pollination ways the entomophillic plants prevail (206 species, 77,1%), whereas anemophiles (40 species, 15,0%), self-polinated (3 species, 1,1%) and species combining entomophilia with self-pollination (8 species, 3,0%), entomophilia with anemophilia (1 species, 0,4% %) are also presented. According to spreading seeds ways the species form the following descending series: diplohories and polychories (79 species, 29,6%) > ballists, anemochores (55 species, 20,6% each) > zoochores (31 species, 11,6%) > barochores (29 species, 10,8%) > automechanochores (8 species, 3,0%) > hydrochores (1 species, 0,4%). Depending on the ecomorph structure of vegetation, the cenomorphs descending row includes: silvants (75 species, 28,1%), pratants (48 species, 18,0%) and ruderants (46 species, 17,2%), the same for trophomorphs - mesotrophs (154 species, 57,7%), among the hygromorphs - mesophytes (98 species, 36,8%) and xeromesophytes (58 species, 21,7%), among heliomorphs - heliophytes (152 species, 56,9%) and scioheliophytes (66 species, 24,7%), among the thermomorphs - mesotherms (195 species, 73,0%).

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):28-31
pages 28-31 views

Peculiarities of human’s blood elemental composition inhabited in different radiation exposure

Jambayev M.T., Baranovskaya N.V., Lipikhina A.V.

Abstract

The paper deals with the features of chemical elements accumulation in the blood of the population living on the territories close to the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. The investigated territories as a result of earlier conducted radioecological research by the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan are referred to different zones of radiation risk. As a control area, the settlement of Kokpekty, referring to the minimum radiation risk zone, was chosen with a radiation dose of 0,1 to 7 cSv obtained for the entire test period. The study of the elemental composition of the blood of the population exposed to different dose irradiation on this territory has been carried out for the first time. A comparison was made of the concentrations of 28 chemical elements determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis in the blood of the population of various radiation risk zones. The summary indicators of chemical elements accumulation in human blood, characterizing the levels of established dose loads of the population, are calculated. Biogeochemical series of chemical elements accumulation in the blood of the population of the considered settlements, relative to the general average on the territory, have been built. The elements that make the main contribution to the total index of chemical elements accumulation in the blood of the population of the investigated radiation risk zones have been established. In general, it has been shown that the elemental composition of human blood can reflect the general radioecological situation of the territory.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):31-37
pages 31-37 views

Status of Astragalus cornutus Pall. populations in the Samara Region

Ilina V.N.

Abstract

This paper examines features of the demographic structure of natural populations of a rare representative of the steppe flora Astragalus cornutus Pall. (Fabaceae). The rarity of the species makes it necessary to include it in the Red Books of the Russian Federation and some steppe regions. In the Samara Region, species populations require additional protection in connection with the peculiarities of biology and ecology, a significant anthropogenic load on communities, and a reduction in the number of habitats. We studied the features of the structure of populations in the Samara Trans-Volga Region. A total of 84 cenopopulations were surveyed, tendencies of population change, features of demographic and spatial structure were revealed. The structure of populations is affected by the ecological and phytocenotic conditions of the environment and anthropogenic factors. The replacement and recovery of individuals in A. cornutus populations is slow. The ontogenetic structure of populations has a fluctuation dynamics. Assessment of the studied geographical populations by L.A. Zhivotovsky efficiency criterion (2001) showed that they are all mature. Specific cenopopulations of A. cornutus are aging (5%) and old (8%). The average density of individuals is about 3 individuals/m². The average effective density is 2,4 individuals/m², the largest - 4,1, the smallest - 1,3. The condition of all studied populations (even in a satisfactory state) on the territory of the Samara Region causes alarm. Populations of the species in the region need additional protection measures.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):37-41
pages 37-41 views

The influence of the bakery on the quality of the environment

Islamova A.A., Yambatirova I.V.

Abstract

Plants are extremely sensitive to the environment, because they assimilate substances simultaneously from two environments: from soil and air. In connection with the fact that plants lead an attached way of life, the state of their organism reflects the state of a particular local habitat. Since vegetation is directly affected by unfavorable factors, it allows the researcher to evaluate the entire complex of negative impacts exerted by the enterprise on whose territory they grow. This paper is devoted to the analysis of fluctuating asymmetry of sheet plates as an indicator of the quality of the environment. The coefficient of fluctuating asymmetry is often used to estimate the level of contamination of a particular area, taking into account the species-specific reaction of plants to unfavorable factors. A conclusion about the stability of the development of vegetation growing on the territory under investigation is made on the basis of the obtained value of the coefficient of fluctuating asymmetry. An important indicator of the state of the air environment is the condition of coniferous trees, in addition to the asymmetry of the leaves of tree plantations: the degree of defoliation of the crowns, the yellowing of the needles, the number of cones and the growth of shoots. The assessment of the life condition of coniferous trees was carried out on the basis of the analysis of the data relating to all of the above parameters established for the trees.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):41-45
pages 41-45 views

Ecological phytocoenotic characteristics of Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich. within the territory of Nature Reserve «Bylina» in Kirov Region

Kapustina N.V.

Abstract

Ecological-phytocoenotic confinement of Platanthera bifolia in conditions of middle taiga subzone of Kirov Region was investigated. Studied coenopopulations are restricted mostly to spruce-birch, pine and rarely to spruce phytocoenoses. Herbaceous-shrub cover includes 78 species of vascular plants with dominance of Maianthemum bifolium L., Vaccinium myrtillus L. , Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Hieracium pilosella L., Equisetum sylvaticum L. , Pyrola rotundifolia L. , Linnaea borealis L. , Trientalis europaea L. , etc . Populations age spectres are in most cases normal and incomplete. Ontogenesis of P. bifolia has pregenerative and generative periods as well as juvenile, immature, virginile and generative age stages. Ecological positions of the species within «Bylina» Nature Reserve are given by Tsyganov scales. It was shown that P. bifolia is a mesobiont species. Maximum potential of P. bifolia is marked on soil acidity scale (11,54%) and illumination scale (11,51%). Estimation of habitat ecological conditions for P. bifolia was accomplished with Ellenberg scales. It was defined that P. bifolia is characterised by significant ecological amplitude. It is a subcontinental, semi-shade species which prefers semi-wet soils with moderate acidity and moderate nutritients richness. According to hemeroby parameters, P. bifolia can be considered a species that survives insignificant and moderate anthropogenic influence in the studied area.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):45-50
pages 45-50 views

Taxonomic analysis of saline habitats flora of the Southern Urals

Karpov D.N., Karpov S.D., Atnasheva L.Z.

Abstract

The paper presents a taxonomic analysis of saline habitats flora of the southern Urals. The authors have established vegetation of 317 types of glycophytic and halophytic higher plants belonging to 172 genera and 44 families on the saline soils of the southern Urals (including adjacent territories). The number of halophytic species in the studied area is low and estimated at 59 or 18,6% of the total number of species. Among them are representatives of the genus Limonium, of the family Chenopodiaceae - Halimione verrucifera , Salicorna perennans , Suaeda acuminata , S. corniculata , S. prostrata ; family Asteraceae - Artemisia lerchiana , A. nitrosa , Cirsium esculentum , family Poaceae - Hordeum brevisubulatum , Puccinellia distans , etc. The vast majority of flora - 316 species (99,9%) - belong to the division Magnoliophyta, 251 species (79,4%) are Magnoliopsida members and 65 (20,6%) are registered in the class Liliopsida. The ratio of monocots and dicots is expressed in a proportion of 1: 3,8. The largest families in saline soils flora of the southern Urals are: Asteraceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Fabaceae, Cyperaceae, Apiaceae, Rosaceae. Caryophyllaceae, Lamiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae number of species from 57 to 9, in total 247 species. There is a clear predominance of the hemicryptophytes - 232, 19 geoview, 11 - geloview, biennials - 9; one - biennials - 4, tirefits - 56, hamiphites - 19, nano phanerophytes - 5, - 1 phanerophytes. In halophytic communities on salted soils that form complexes with glycophyte ones 4 of relict and endemic species Koeleria sclerophylla , Glycyrrhiza korshinskyi , Nanophyton erinaceum , Ephedra distachya meet, 27 are in need of protection, including 4 halophyt ( Frankenia hirsuta , Limonium bellidifolium , L. macrorhizon , L. suffruticosum ).

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):50-53
pages 50-53 views

Heavy metals in soils of the train removal station Ussuriysk JSC Russian Railways

Klyuchnikov D.A., Platonova S.A., Soboleva E.V.

Abstract

The paper studies heavy metals in soils of the train removal station Ussuriysk JSC Russian Railways. An adverse effect of railway transport on adjacent territories is shown. Railway transport and subjects of its support are permanent sources of pollution. Long-term emissions to the air are reflected by essential accumulation of tocsins in the top horizons of the soil. The authors reveal the amount of heavy metals in soils of the train removal station Ussuriysk JSC Russian Railways. To identify the coefficient of heavy metals concentration in soil samples of 8 trial areas of technogenic and anthropogenic zones of the city were analyzed. To identify local technogenic anomalies concentration coefficients were calculated. The authors concluded that the territory of the train removal station Ussuriysk JSC Russian Railways was «very» polluted. The south of the railway station is characterized by an «average» pollution level. The authors revealed high concentrations of Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Pb in soils of the trial sites with a high transport loading.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):54-57
pages 54-57 views

Duration of colonial bird species egg incubation

Lamekhov Y.G.

Abstract

The paper deals with one of the aspects of bird early ontogenesis biology - egg incubation duration, which was defined as the time interval between egg laying and hatching from it. The oomorphological parameters are determined taking into account the ordinal number of the laid eggs. Parameters of early ontogeny of birds are studied on the example of colonially nesting species: blackberry toadstool ( Podiceps nigricollis C.L. Brehm.) and lake gull ( Larus ridibundus L.). Within the colonial settlement of these species, the biological center and the periphery of the colony were isolated. When studying the parameters of early ontogeny of birds and oomorphological characteristics, the same number of eggs was taken into account. During field and laboratory studies it was found that the incubation of eggs lasts longer in eggs from the nests of the biological center of the colony. The first eggs are incubated longer. These features clearly manifested in the early ontogeny of the gull. The increase in the egg incubation duration occurs against the background of an increase in their mass and a decrease in the concentration of lysozyme in the protein shell of the egg. Egg incubation duration is one of the results of embryonalization as a way of evolution of ontogeny. The manifestation of the results of embryogenesis was revealed for the first eggs in the nests of the biological center of the colony. Embryonalization leads to an increase in egg incubation duration as well as to a decrease in the intensity of elimination in early ontogenesis, which affects the number of individuals breeding in the colony and, accordingly, the structure of the colonial settlement of birds.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):58-64
pages 58-64 views

Ecological-coenotic confinement and resources characteristics of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. in Kirov Region

Luginina E.A., Egoshina T.L.

Abstract

The paper presents data on phytocoenotic confinement and resource parameters of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi in Kirov Region. The species is close to phytocoenotic optimum in pine herbaceous-lichen forests in coniferous-broadleaved forests sub zone. The highest productivity of A. uva-ursi coenopopulations is marked in pine hebaceous-lichen forests (56,1 ± 4,2 g/ m²) where the species has maximum coverage (16,8 ± 1,1%) and shoot length (17,7 ± 0,8 cm). Presence of A. uva-ursi in communities increases southwards within the Region. A. uva-ursi is restricted to sandy and sabulous soils with high acidity level (pH 3,4-4,0), humus poor and insignificant content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Reliable relation (р < 0,05) between A. uva-ursi leaves productivity and Mg content in soil (r = 0,85) was defined. We have also determined straight and reliable connection between coverage, shoots number and productivity (R² = 0,71-0,97). Raw material productivity can be presented by regression equation: P = Ао + А1C + А2N, где: P - Productivity (raw weight, g/m²), C - coverage (%), N - number of shoot (per m²). Biological stock (BS) of A. uva-ursi in Kirov Region reaches 285,5 t. Distribution of BS among vegetative subzones and administrative regions is uneven: 51% of BS (144,7 t) is concentrated in middle taiga subzone. Exploitation stock (ES) in the Region reaches 109,1 t. Volume of possible annual collection - 7,9 t, which is enough for local needs. In lichen pine forests with areas of A. uva-ursi in Kirov Region when 75% of peripheral shoots are cut , it does not recover within 5-years period between collections.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):64-70
pages 64-70 views

Taxonomic and biomorphological structure of Mountain Kuznetsov vascular plants flora (Samara Region, Volzhsky District)

Makarova Y.V., Golovlyov A.A., Prokhorova N.V.

Abstract

The presence of 267 vascular plants species from 190 genera, 63 families, 26 orders, 4 classes (Equisetopsida, Polypodiopsida, Pinopsida, Angiospermae) and 3 divisions (Equisetophyta, Polypodiophyta, Spermatophyta) was established for Kuznetsov Mountain. The absolute majority of species belong to Spermatophyta (258 species, 96,7%), Angiospermae (257 species, 96,3%), Dicotyledones (228 species, 85,4%). Vascular spore plants are represented by 9 species belonging to 6 genera ( Equisetum , Matteuccia , Athyrium , Cystopteris , Dryopteris , Pteridium ), 5 families (Equisetaceae, Onocleaceae, Woodsiaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae), 2 classes (Equisetopsida, Polypodiopsida) and 2 divisions (Equisetophyta, Polypodiophyta). The leading families according the species diversity are Compositae (44 species, 16,5%), Leguminosae (22 species, 8,2%) and Rosaceae (18 species, 6,7%). The leading families according the number of genera are Compositae (29 genera, 15,3%), Rosaceae (14 genera, 7,4%) and Labiatae (13 genera, 6,8%). The largest number of species is concentrated in the genera Trifolium (7 species), Viola , Campanula , Galium and Carex (4 species each). According to the climamorphic system of K. Raunkiaer, hemicryptophytes predominate in the flora (148 species, 55,4%). According to the biomorph system I.G. Serebryakov and T.I. Serebryakova - perennial polycarpic short-stemmed, long-rooted, and rod-root grasses (47,0%) predominate. 76,8% of the species are vegetatively still and immobile.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):70-76
pages 70-76 views

Salinity gradient meiobenthos distribution on the Razdolnaya River’s estuary

Milovankina A.A., Fadeeva N.P., Chertoprud E.S.

Abstract

The paper studies salinity gradient meiobenthos distribution based on the results of the benthic surveys of the Razdolnaya estuary (the Sea of Japan, Amursky Bay). The density was increased with salinity growth on the Razdolnaya River’s estuary. Meiobenthos was comprised by 8 taxonomic groups (Nematoda, Copepoda, Ostracoda, Oligochaeta, Mollusca, Amphipoda, Polychaeta и Chironomidae) with the dominance of nematodes. Most of meiobenthic species are presented by marine euryhaline species and registered throughout the Razdolnaya River’s estuary. Fresh water species Dorylaimus chassanicus, Hofmaenneria gratiosa, Theristus brevisetosus and nematodes of the genera Paradontophora , widespread on estuaries of Far East of Russia, were dominated in meiobenthos in oligohaline zone of estuary; Monhystrella sp. Oncholaimium japonicum, Anoplostoma cuticularia, Daptonema inversum and Harpacticoid Copepods Remanea naksanensis, Onychocamptus mohammed, Huntemannia biarticulatus, Halectinosoma sp. were dominated in mesohaline zone. Nematode community are changed by zones throughout the estuary: Paradontophora genera are dominated in freshwater and olihaline zones, as well as freshwater species ( Dorylaimus chassanicus, Hofmaenneria gratiosa, Theristus brevisetosus ) were presented; Monhystrella sp. are dominated and freshwater spicies are decreased in the number at the mesohaline zone; Paracanthonchus macrodon, Onсholaimium paraolium, Sabatieria finitima, Dorylaimopsis peculiaris and S. palmaris are dominated at the euhaline zone. The nematocenes of inner part of estuarine zone aren’t characterized by specific species assemblage and consist of species typical for nematode community of shallow water and of marine zones.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):76-83
pages 76-83 views

Integrated assessment of introduction prospects of Deutzia Thunb. genus representatives in the South-Ural Botanical Garden-Institute (Ufa)

Murzabulatova F.K., Shigapov Z.K.

Abstract

The paper contains results of introduced study of species, hybrids and sorts of Deutzia Thunb. genus in the South-Ural botanical garden-institute (Ufa). The collection of Deutzia is one of the largest among ornamental shrubs in the botanical garden. The objects of researches were 12 species, 10 hybrids and sorts of Deutzia . Introduced researches of all taxons were conducted within 10 years (2007-2017). Throughout the entire period of observations the following indicators were annually estimated: lignification of escapes, winter hardiness, preservation of a form of growth, sprout-formation ability, a gain in height, generative development, possible ways of reproduction in the culture. The analysis of the obtained data shows that specific taxons are belong to three groups: quite perspective, perspective and less perspective. The greatest possible indicators characterize 3 species - D. amurensis , D. glabrata, D. parviflora . All of them can be recommended for broad application in gardening of settlements of the Bashkortostan Republic. Perspective and less perspective groups contained 4 species each. Hybrids and sorts in the collection belong to three groups: perspective (II), less perspective (III) completely unusable (VI); in the latter group contains one hybrid.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):83-87
pages 83-87 views

Soil Algae and mosses role in biocenoses formation in the tailings of Mikhailovsky Mining and Beneficiation Plant of Kursk Magnetic Anomaly

Nagornaya O.V., Golovastikova A.V.

Abstract

The paper presents the results of studies investigating the role of representatives of Algae and Bryophyta divisions in the composition of biocenoses dumps loess-like loam and clay of the Callovian of different ages (5-, 15-, 25 years) of Mikhailovsky Mining and Beneficiation Plant of Kursk Magnetic Anomaly. The author considers the role of soil Algae and mosses as indicators of biocenosis changes in connection with the peculiarities of the lithological framework and age of the dumps. It is proved that successione changes in communities of soil Algae and mosses coincide with succesional changes in the phytocenoses of the dumps in General. Studies have shown that the primary satelitales dumps are the representatives of the department of blue-green Algae Cyanophyta. They form a mono community in 5 year dumps clay of the Callovian and dominate in 5 year dumps. Further formation of the algae Alps in all types of studied rocks is of zonal type. The first of the mossy plants of the Bryophyta dumps division inhabits Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.). It is the dominant species and persists on all breeds up to the age of 25 as the least demanding of the substrate. Further, the formation of the community of mosses is on a zonal type and lesavignon loam, on average, 15 years faster. It is found that algal communities and bryophytes cenoses form at different speeds on the soil stockpiles. It has been calculated that the stabilization of Algae cenoses will require about 19 years for the Quaternary loess and 32 years on the clay of the Callovian. Stabilization of the community of moss will require about 35 years for the loess and about 70 years on the clay of the Callovian.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):87-91
pages 87-91 views

Ecological and botanical features of the railroads flora of the Middle Volga Region

Nikitin N.A.

Abstract

The paper summarizes the study of ecological characteristics of the Railways flora in the Middle Volga Region. The author comes to the conclusion that in most cases there aren’t any significant differences between aboriginal and alien species of the Railways flora, as well as their settlement of functional zones. The most significant differences have been recorded between aboriginal and alien species in the addition of families, which in turn does not have a decisive role in their addition to the flora as a whole. The author thinks that ecological features of the territory of individual growth are more important than biological features of species and families in the formation of the Railways flora. The developed «scale of oppression» allowed to determine characteristics of a particular individual. In the course of the research the dependence between the degree of oppression of plant organisms and the distance to the railroad tracks was established. The author found no significant differences in reactogenicity between the indigenous and alien species at active human impact on the Railways - both groups showed similar trends of oppression.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):91-97
pages 91-97 views

Adaptive mechanisms of xerophytic cereals seeds germination in Eastern Transbaikalia

Plyaskina I.N., Bondarevich E.A., Kotsyurzhinskaya N.N., Boriskin I.A.

Abstract

The paper deals with the study of adaptation mechanisms of Eastern Transbaikalia wild cereals to environmental conditions at the initial ontogenesis stages. The authors have determined the germination of three species xerophytic cereals seeds ( Agropyron cristatum (L.) Beauv, Stipa krylovii Roshev, Tripogon chinensis (Franch.) Hack.). The authors have noted differences in rates of seed germination of these cereals depending on the relation to moisture deficiency. More mesophilic species ( A. cristatum ) had the highest rates of germination. A large contribution to the process of germination is made by storage nutrients, proteins in particular. The total amount of protein is related to the rate of germination. Seeds with more protein sprout faster, which may be due to the appearance of osmotically active substances as a result of hydrolysis, which makes it possible to effectively use soil moisture. Seeds of one type of cereal collected in different populations may differ in the content of storage proteins. The ratio of different fractions of storage proteins can characterize the origin of the species. A higher content of glutelin fraction was found in the seeds of S. krylovii . There is also a more effective use of glutelins in the seeds of A. cristatum , which can also provide intensive germination. In general, the studied species have a difference in the rates of mobilization of various fractions of storage proteins.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):97-101
pages 97-101 views

Species and sorts of lilac flowering duration in Ufa

Polyakova N.V.

Abstract

The paper presents characteristics of lilac flowering duration in the South-Ural Botanical Garden-Institute of Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. When selecting prospective species and sorts for landscaping purposes for each region, it is necessary to obtain a comprehensive assessment of decorative features. Lilac is now widely used in green building and is one of the most popular ornamental shrubs. The duration of flowering is one of the most important characteristics of ornamental plants and determines the decorative effect of the entire landscape composition. The paper presents the study results of the flowering duration of 11 species and 33 sorts of lilacs of the botanical garden collection for the last 7 years (2011-2017). The results obtained are shown in comparison with the data of earlier studies (2005-2009). The data analysis showed that in 2011-2017 the average lilac species flowering duration was 7-15, and that of varieties 13-15 days, which is 5-6 days shorter than the flowering period of the same taxa in 2005-2009. It is established that such a result is a consequence of changes in the climatic situation in the region. The obtained data on the lilac species flowering duration in Ufa, as well as the influence of climatic conditions on it, make it possible to successfully apply the studied species and varieties of lilacs for landscape design purposes in the Republic of Bashkortostan and adjacent territories.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):102-105
pages 102-105 views

Juglans L. genus trees influence on cellulolytic soil activity in Samara University Botanical Garden Dendrarium

Pomogaybin E.A., Pomogaybin A.V.

Abstract

Woody plants change qualitatively and quantitatively the substances dynamics into the soil environment, acting on intercepting and saturating them with discharge from the leaves and material precipitated from the air. The arrival of the ground (leaf litter) and underground (root-slope) mort mass influences the chemical processes in the soil and its morphological structure changing. By forming and releasing litter, the trees indirectly activate the soil microflora. The nut plants, forming seeds rich in proteins and lipids, have been used by humans since ancient times as food, medicinal plants, a source of biologically active substances. The nuts ( Juglans ) introduction history in Samara University Botanical Garden begins from the moment of the garden creation. Our work presents the results of the evaluation of the cellulolytic activity of the soil under the walnut trees in Samara University Botanical Garden Dendrarium. The soil sampling were carried out in September 2011 in the sub-crown space for the trees of J. regia and J. nirga (for each species - old, middle age, young specimens), other Juglans species ( J. ailanthifolia, J. mandshurica, J. cinerea, J. сordiformis, J. microcarpa ) were also tested. The determination of cellulolytic activity was carried out by the application method in Petri dishes. Visual examination of exposed paper samples showed its sufficient safety in the control and strong destruction under the influence of the soil in variants J. regia (old tree), J. nirga (all variants), J. regia . A comparison of the results obtained with the data of 2009 showed that the cellulolytic activity of the soil varies from year to year, under the influence of weather conditions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):105-109
pages 105-109 views

Monitoring of heavy metal contamination of soil and plants (for example, Potentilla tanacetifolia Willd. ex Schlecht.) of natural ecosystems in Chita urban areas

Samoilenko G.Y., Bondarevich E.A., Kotsyurzhinskaya N.N., Boriskin I.A.

Abstract

The paper presents data on the content of gross and mobile forms of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper in the soils of Chita and its surroundings. The paper contains a comparative analysis of the accumulation (Kn) and movement (KP) coefficients of these microelements in organs ( Potentilla tanacetifolia Willd. ex Schlecht.), relative to their gross content and mobile forms in soils. The authors have revealed that soil samples of the studied sites contain unequal gross amount of heavy metals. In some points (6 and 3) the content of cadmium and zinc exceeded the Mac, that is why such soils have been attributed to heavily polluted. The index of biological activity on mobile forms of heavy metals in all sites significantly exceeded the same index on gross forms. It was found that Potentilla tanacetifolia are accumulators of heavy metal ions. Aboveground bodies accumulate and absorb cadmium and copper especially intensively, thus the content of mobile forms of these metals in the soil is insignificant. Excessive adsorption of trace elements in the phytomass of plants can be connected with surface contamination. According to the content of zinc and lead, the accumulation values in the organs of P. tanacetifolia were characterized by small coefficient values, against the background of their high concentration in the soil.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):110-115
pages 110-115 views

Assessment of «Leopard Land» National Park and the «Kedrovaya Pad» Reserve landscapes potential resistance to visitor impact

Somova E.G., Sazykin A.M.

Abstract

The paper considers potential resistance of the «Leopard Land» national park and the «Kedrovaya Pad» reserve landscapes to visitor impact. The landscapes resistance map to visitor impact for both protected areas has been created based on the materials of permissible visitor impact on the plant communities in Primorsky Region. It has been revealed that the majority of resistant plant communities to visitor impact are concentrated in southern and central parts of the «Leopard Land» national park, while the most vulnerable landscapes are located in the northern part. Relatively stable landscapes occupy 75% of the recreational zone and 94% of the economic zone of the «Leopard Land» national park that helps to develop tourism in the national park. The recreational use of the «Kedrovaya Pad» reserve should be strictly regulated due to its status of reserve and high amount of black-fir broad-leaved forests, which locate on 30% of the reserve area. The paper proposes a method for conversion the values of permissible visitor impact from areal to linear scale. It has been identified that the carrying capacity of the planned routes in the «Leopard Land» national park varies from 10 people per day (with an allowable recreational load of 0,5 people/ha) up to 70 people per day (with an allowable load of 3,5 people/ha) without construction of impact-resistant trails and additional management strategies. The obtained results would be of interest to managers of the protected areas and their goal of carrying out rational tourism.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):116-123
pages 116-123 views

Classification and ordination of lime trees in the south of the Tyumen Region

Sharafutdinova M.S.

Abstract

The paper contains a classification of lime trees according to the method of Brown-Blanke and ordination based on isolated syntaxonomic units in the southern part of the Tyumen Region. The material for this study was 115 geobotanical descriptions of the lime trees in the southern part of the Tyumen Region. Syntaxonomic diversity of lime trees on the territory of three regions in the south of the Tyumen Region in the system of ecological and floral classification includes 8 associations and 6 variants belonging to 3 orders, 3 unions and 2 classes: Asaro europaei - Abietetea sibiriacae and Brachypodio pinnate - Betuletea pendulae . Forests of the selected associations and variants are distributed by various relationships to humidification conditions from the more humid to the steppe forests. To study the syntaxonomic diversity of lime trees, a multifactorial gradient analysis was used, where a combination of several environmental factors was simultaneously considered. Average values for four soil scales of D.N. Tsyganov and two scales of A.Yu. Korolyuk discovered 12 patterns of syntaxonomic units that revealed a certain pattern of distribution on the ordinate axis with concentration from dry forests to moist forests. The main gradient factor of location in the ecological area of lime trees associations is the presence of moisture in the soil.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):123-129
pages 123-129 views

07.00.00 – Historical Sciences and Archaeology

Pokrovsky and srubna culture traditions of the late Bronze Age in the Samara Volga (ideological positions)

Zhukov R.V.

Abstract

In archeology, there are several approaches to assessing the monuments of the Pokrovsky and the logs of the final stage of the middle - the beginning of the Late Bronze Age, in the Middle Volga Region. The paper presents the results of these studies in archaeology on this topic: Pokrovsky and srubna culture funerary traditions of the late Bronze Age of the Samara Region (world-view positions). As the title suggests the paper is devoted to the problem of differences and ideological justification of funerary traditions of the pokrovsky and srubna culture of the Samara Region. The main objective of the paper is to provide theoretical understanding of the concept of chronology and description of the funerary traditions of cultures. The work consists of an introductory part (historiography), the main part (description of the burial of the Pokrovskaya and srubna culture) and conclusions (ideological substantiation of their funeral traditions). It also presents prospects for further research in this area. At the end of the paper the author analyzes burials of both cultures and the ideological justification of the funerary traditions. The paper has practical significance.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):130-133
pages 130-133 views

Barrow 5 of the «Sluiceway» group on the left bank of the Lower Dniester and Scythian cenotaphs of the North-West Black Sea Region

Sinika V.S., Telnov N.P.

Abstract

The paper publishes and analyzes the Scythian barrow 5 of the «Sluiceway» group of barrows located near Glinoe village, Slobodzeya District, on the left bank of the Lower Dniester. The mound was erected at the turn of the 4th-3rd centuries BC and contained eight Scythian funeral structures, three of which were cenotaphs. Only 14 such symbolic graves are known in the North-West Black Sea region. In addition to the three graves published in the present work, there is Balabany 6/1, Semyonovka 20, Kochkovatoe 48/4, Volovarskata Mogila 1 and 2, Glinoe 40/1, Glinoe/Sluiceway 6/3, 6/4, 8/1 and 8/4, Glinoe/Garden 7/3. They were made in the second half of the 4th-2nd centuries BC. A significant number of children’s cenotaphs (8), allows us to assume that they were all made by settled Scythians. The use of some of the complexes (4 cases) as cenotaphs can be impugned. At the same time, there are no doubts about the existence of real cenotaphs (under-barrow complexes, with or without funeral structures) intended for symbolic internment of people (10 cases), whose bodies could not be betrayed to earth for any reasons.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):133-144
pages 133-144 views

Clay plastic arts of the Ob-Irtysh interfluve in the first half I millennium AD

Lomov P.K., Novikov A.V.

Abstract

The paper deals with the early-medieval clay plastic arts of the Ob-Irtysh interfluves. It is an important and informative source that helps to consider some problems of West Siberia archaeology. For more than a century-old-archaeological study of the region, a small but considerably representative collection of clay plastic images referred to the early Middle Ages has been gathered. The paper is devoted to the complex analysis (i.e. morphology, semantics and functional use) of the early-medieval clay plastic arts of the Ob-Irtysh interfluve period. Special attention is paid to the history of the study of clay plastic arts in the Russian archaeology and to ethno cultural peculiarities of the early-medieval Ob-Irtysh interfluve. The paper reviews and generalizes a variety of items of early-medieval clay plastic arts known on the archaeological sites of the Ob-Irtysh interfluve. The items of clay plastic arts have been comprehensively analyzed: their morphological traits have been studied, stylistic analysis has been made and the location of the figurines on the archaeological sites has been described. Semantic analysis of two large types of images has been carried out. It has been suggested that the Potchevash culture bearers had a complicated ideology concerned with the field and stock-raising cults with such attributes as the items of the small statuary imaging horses and moose.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):144-149
pages 144-149 views

Ceramic traditions of monuments of the Harin Time in the Perm Ural Region: uniformity or diversity?

Batueva N.S., Shmuratko D.V.

Abstract

The results of the technical and technological analysis of ceramics found on the monuments of the Perm Cis-Ural of the era of the Great Migration are presented in the paper. The analysis was carried out in the framework of the historical and cultural approach by AA. Bobrinsky. Five clusters were formed according to the results of multidimensional classification (cluster analysis by the method of k-means) of 67 vessels. Each cluster can be interpreted as an independent pottery tradition. The first tradition is represented by vessels made of without sand clay, taken in a wet state with the addition of a crushed clamshell to the molding mass. This tradition is most widely represented (58,2% of the vessels of the aggregate sample) and can be associated with the local Glydeen tribes of the early Iron Age. Vessels with organic impurities (manure, organic solution) in the molding mass constitute the second tradition - 16,4% of the vessels of the aggregate sample. The tradition has origins in the Sarmatian world of the Southern Urals and can belong to the tribes who migrated to the region. The third tradition can be traced on vessels made of without sand clay, taken in a wet state with the addition of crushed clamshell and organic solution to the molding mass - 19,4% of the total sample vessels. Tradition illustrates the process of mixing local and foreign populations. The fourth tradition includes a single vessel made of clay with a natural admixture of talc. We can find the origins of the tradition on the eastern slope of the Urals. The fifth tradition is represented by a single vessel made of clay in crushed condition. The fourth and fifth traditions are few; together they make up about 3% of the vessels of the cumulative sample. The obtained results allow us to speak about the motley cultural palette of Perm Cis-Ural in the era of the Great Migration. The results of the analysis do not agree with the opinion that all ceramics of the early Middle Ages in the Kama Region belong to the one same type and are left by one ethnic group.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):149-156
pages 149-156 views

Official hierarchy and city and urban village typology established at the end of XVIII-XIX centuries

Belov A.V.

Abstract

The article deals with one of the aspects of the cardinal reform of the city that took place in the reign of Catherine II. The reform of the city, taking place within the framework of the administrative and territorial reform of Catherine II, was closely related to the process of creating a network of new «small» provinces and the formation of a network of cities and urban settlements in each of the new entities administrative. The city network (a network of cities and urban settlements) was a complex (rather than a set) of settlements of a particular region, having (in the presentation of contemporaries) the status of the city or its official signs. In the course of its existence, a distribution of functions occurred within the network. The set of functions inherent in different urban settlements, determines their character and face in the broadest sense of the word. All functions can be conditionally divided into two groups: administrative and economic. In our study, attention was drawn to the approval of a set of administrative functions outside the city as part of the country’s spatial and settlement to the establishment of certain types of cities and urban settlements, with a set of features and responsibilities. In this case, between the types of settlements a stable hierarchy as administrative centers established. The reason for its appearance is wider than the need for formal subjection. The network of cities and urban settlements of the country, established by the beginning of the XIX century, was complex with a heterogeneous structure. It included settlements, officially called cities according to the rules of its time, and other structures that do not belong to this group. The latter also performed city functions and were considered contemporaries on a par with the «official» cities, separating themselves from rural settlements. The name of settlements did not always correspond to their economic quality. Along with the administrative type of cities, there were intermediate forms of urban settlements, which, according to the norms of that time, did not apply to cities (non-resident cities, supernumerary cities, settlements, small towns). In addition, archaic forms of settlements connected with cities and partly fulfilling their functions, were preserved. An important peculiarity of this historical period is the simultaneous existence of numerous and diverse forms of urban settlements including archaic ones. This circumstance is caused by the transitional nature of the time, the implementation of administrative reform, as well as the desire of the authorities to implement the process of transformation without a radical breakdown and social protest.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):156-160
pages 156-160 views

Russian language as a means of acculturation: development of Russian-foreign schools in the Orenburg Region in the middle of the XIX century

Lyubichankovskiy S.V.

Abstract

The paper analyzes the main development trends of the so-called «Russian-foreign» schools in the Orenburg Region in the middle of the XIX century. The author shows that five primary Russian-Kyrgyz schools functioned in the Orenburg Region in the early 1860s. The Orenburg archive material drawn to the analysis showed that up to the introduction of the «Rules» of 1870 there was no well-thought-out policy and system for education in the foreign environment in the Russian Empire. The paper concludes that the administration of the region initiated the creation of schools for «foreigners» with a compulsory study of the Russian language long before these «Rules». This was a feature of the Orenburg Region, connected with its border and border position. It is proved that the educational institutions for «foreigners» that arose on the territory of the Orenburg Region were brought to life by the needs of the regional administration in translators and lower employees. The conclusion is made that the problem of counteracting «tatarization» (changing the identity of the Kazakh inhabitants of the Orenburg province to the Tatar one) was extremely important for the regional administration. In addition the border authorities needed Kazakhs who knew the Russian language because they were interested in establishing a stable communication with the inhabitants of the steppe. It is proved that in the Orenburg Region there has been a systematic, well-thought-out course for creating a system of «foreigners» training only since the 1870s.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):161-165
pages 161-165 views

Upbringing of a revolutionary: the concept of «free education» in elite schools in late XIX - early XX centuries Russia

Veremenko V.A.

Abstract

The paper explores the influence of pedagogical concept of «free education» on the formation of the world view of adolescents from the noble-intelligent families of Russia at the end of the XIX - beginning of the XX century. Attention is drawn to the fact that this pedagogical setup could be fully realized only in elite educational institutions. It is concluded that the «new ideological parents» and «advanced schools» carried out a single educational approach, focused on formation of a special intelligentsia opposition, accepting, or even supporting, all means in the struggle of «citizens» for «freedom». Despite the fact that the group of «new ideological parents» could not have been a mass phenomenon by the beginning of the XX century, it, at the same time, spread its influence both to the rest of educated population of the country and to the Ministry of Public Education, which, in favor of advanced pedagogy, agreed on the widespread introduction of individual ideas of free education in secondary schools. As a result of purposeful efforts of family and school, young people from the early youth were drawn into political activity, which became one of the essential factors of the revolutionization of the Russian society.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):165-171
pages 165-171 views

Russia electrification plan in the USA and UK press assessment of the 1920-1929

Buranok S.O.

Abstract

The following paper deals with the research of the place and value of Russia electrification plan and its reflection in Great Britain and the USA public opinion. The study of information campaign around Russia electrification plan has its specifics and value: first, it gives a chance to establish new, unknown facts; secondly, to determine the level of knowledge of «Another» (in this case, American) society about the Soviet power; thirdly, to understand what place information about Russia electrification plan took in the USA and Great Britain in the system of the USSR image creation, the image of «the Soviet power revolution». This paper uses materials of the USA and Great Britain press about Russia electrification plan. Besides, the author analyzes the image of the Soviet power in the American and British society. The information campaign around Russia electrification plan could report to the world about the Soviet economy achievements as well as promote preparation (in the information plan) to the following large project - industrialization. Articles, reports, notes on Russia electrification plan helped to change the attitude towards Russia / the USSR in the USA and Great Britain and helped to correct the image of the USSR in the world.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):171-179
pages 171-179 views

Organizational structure of the Swedish Red Cross mission to assist the starving Samara province during the famine of 1921-1923

Tsidenkov G.G.

Abstract

In the period from December 1921 to August 1923 in the Samara Region, the expedition of the Swedish Red Cross carried out humanitarian activities. The paper presents the personnel structure and the principles of the expedition management. The paper also presents the staff and the principles for the expedition management. The staff of the expedition are personified with their positions and responsibilities. The author specifies the reasons for the growing increase in the expedition staff The basic data presented in the paper is a result of a three-month research at the National Archives of Sweden (Riksarkivet). The paper presents the point of view of the Soviet authorities on the effectiveness of the work of the Swedish Cross. All the main administrative districts of the Samara province, where the Swedish Red Cross delegates worked, are specified. The materials, presented in the paper, expand our understanding of the activities of foreign humanitarian missions in the Volga Region in 1921-1923 and can be used to analyze the effectiveness of the expedition of the Swedish Red Cross in the Samara province in this period.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):179-182
pages 179-182 views

Horse stealing in the Samara province in 1923-1925

Gizatulin S.T.

Abstract

This paper considers the problem of horse stealing in the Samara province in 1923-1925. The author conducted a study of causes and dynamics of horse thefts in the region, as well as of measures of the law enforcement agencies with a criminal activity. The paper shows the factors that contributed along with the generally unfavorable socio-economic conditions of the 1920s years to the growth of this type of crime in the region. On the basis of statistical indicators of militia and criminal investigation the author has studied methods of horse thefts in the province, the reasons for the growth of this type of crime in 1923 and the decline by the end of 1925. The paper considers problems of professional horse stealing and ethnic crime (criminal activity of representatives of the Turkic peoples). The author has revealed seasonal and spatial characteristics of the prevalence of cattle theft and established «centers» of horse theft in the province (Samara, Samara and Buguruslan Districts), as well as analyzed efficiency of militia activity and criminal investigation department of Samara province in the fight against this crime. The paper also contains the drawbacks in the organization of activities of local authorities, law enforcement and the court, as well as measures taken by the provincial authorities for the suppression of horse stealing in the period.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):182-185
pages 182-185 views

«...Inextinguishable spark of love for science appeared in me during the anniversary of the Academy...» (The memories of P.V. Ivanov - young participant of the 200th anniversary of the Russian Academy of Sciences)

Brovina A.A., Egorova S.L.

Abstract

The paper is devoted to one of the iconic pages in the history of academic science - the 200th anniversary of the USSR Academy of Sciences. A broad program of the «science holiday» on an international scale with the invitation of foreign scientists, pointed to the scientific and political significance of the event, both to raise the prestige of the Academy of Sciences, and to demonstrate to the international community the loyalty of the scientific elite to the new government. Researchers repeatedly turned to the analysis of this event and stressed its importance. However, on the eve of the next anniversary, it is interesting to show this event from an unofficial position, attracting sources of personal origin. The paper focuses on the unpublished memoirs of Pavel Vladimirovich Ivanov (1906-1990), scientist-teacher, doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor, honored teacher of the Karelian ASSR. In 1925 he as a young local historian from the city of Soligalich of the Kostroma province became a participant of the academic celebrations. The impressions of this event predetermined his future destiny and choice of profession. P.V. Ivanov having traveled from a pupil of a rural school, keen on local lore studies, to a schoolteacher, and then a university professor, laid down in his students - future teachers - the idea to raise the pupils’ interest, love and desire for young naturalists’, local lore, scientific and research work.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):185-190
pages 185-190 views

Creating a new way of life for the youth in the 1920s

Shmelev S.A.

Abstract

This paper deals with the problem of creating a new way of life for young people in the 1920s, which was of great importance in the work of the Bolshevik Party for the communist education of the younger generation. Creating a new way of life of the youth had its own peculiarities and was aimed at overcoming the traditional forms of individualistic way of life, educating the communist worldview, developing collective forms of relationships among the younger generation, involving young people in the struggle against religious and other everyday remnants. The party sought to establish control and manage youth through Komsomol organizations. The work of the Komsomol reflected all the contradictions inherent in the transitional era of the 1920s. The paper contains main forms and methods of practical work that created a new life among young people aimed at changing everyday relationships between young men and girls; it describes mass work for the youth through clubs, sports and dance clubs, cinematography; mobilization of young people to combat domestic remnants; creating new cultural and everyday traditions and their distribution through the youth to society as a whole.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):190-196
pages 190-196 views

Caves in catacomb movement of the Russian Orthodox Church on the territory of the Don and the Volga Region in 1920-1940s

Stepkin V.V., Gunko A.A.

Abstract

The paper examines creation and application history of cave space in catacomb movement of the Russian Orthodox Church on the territory of the Don and the Volga Region in 1920-1940s. Development of cave digging on these territories was promoted by the fact of their frontier position, allowing searching for a «hiding place for the ideas, differing from the mainstream society». The caves use as shelters and places of worship in the Don Region is exemplified by the territory of Voronezh Region, where in the revolution period caves were dug in the chalk mass near the village of Karayashnik, and traditionally honored by the people loci of sacred space were used like caves in Divnogorye and on Shatrishche Mount. Caves near the village of Karayashnik were used as a place of worship by a conservative part of peasants being supporters of both the Patriarchal Church and the ‘Fedorovtsy’ sect. Caves in Divnogorye were used by Joanites sect, caves on Shatrishche Mount were used by so-called True Orthodox Church. In addition to the chalk caves in the Don Region people used underground of houses as secret places of worship. Examples of such undergrounds are hidden caves in the villages of Troitskoe and Novopokrovka, equipped by one of communities of so-called True Orthodox Christians. The paper considers caves use in the Volga Region through the example of the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan, where communities of the True Orthodox Church acted, creating cult undergrounds under houses in the town of Bugulma and villages of Akkireevo, Zabugorovka, Crym-Saray Naumovka and Novoe Ilmovo. Together with territories of personal farmsteads, caves were created outside villages, usually in a forest zone. For example, near the village of Novosheshminsk there was an underground monastery, near villages of Volchya Sloboda and Elantovo there were underground temples. Activities of the underground religious communities referred to in the paper were ceased due to state punitive measures.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):197-201
pages 197-201 views

A test by the arbitrariness in 1937-1938

Fedorova A.V.

Abstract

Mass political repressions of the 1920s-1950s had serious negative consequences for the life of society and the state. Accurate statistics of political repression in the USSR does not exist, although their scale is extremely large. The author’s paper is dedicated to the victims of repression as well as it gives a description of the initiators, participants and executors of the «operation on repression». One of the orders of the NKVD № 00447 of July 30, 1937 contained this word combination. The author considers events related to the repression of 1937-1939 in the Orenburg Region, where the first arrests began in the second half of 1936. The author shows how the established command and administrative system, monstrous judicial arbitrariness, creation of extrajudicial bodies for repressions implementation, the triumph of lawlessness, the state of lawlessness and much more led to mass tragedies. The focus of the researcher is the destruction of the best party and people, industry captains, thousands of honest workers. The author in addition to documents extracted from the Orenburg archives, attracts memories of victims of arbitrariness, as well as materials from personal correspondence with their relatives. The Russian state condemned the long terror and mass persecution of its people as incompatible with the idea of law and justice.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):201-206
pages 201-206 views

Heroes of the Soviet Union - students of Kuibyshev State Pedagogical Institute (based on the archive of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education and Samara State Archive of Social and Political History)

Khramkova E.L., Khramkova N.P.

Abstract

In the spring and summer of 2017 personal files of the Soviet Union Heroes Vladimir Mikhaylovich Mikheyev, Alexander Mitrofanovich Bondarev and Alexander Vasilyevich Novikov were found in archives of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education (SSUSSE). Their names and feats made during the Great Patriotic War were known. However thanks to the found documents the authors managed to connect them with the pedagogical university for the first time. Established facts were supported by the documents of Samara State Archive of Social and Political History (SSASPH). On November 7, 2017 the memorial plate with images of heroes and dates of their training at the pedagogical university were created and placed on the university building (L. Tolstoy St., 47). In November-December of the same year personal records of two more Soviet Union Heroes - Boris Mikhaylovich Padalko and Mikhail Yakovlevich Romanov were found in archive of SSUSSE. They also graduated from Kuibyshev pedagogical university after the war. The received materials have been confirmed with the materials of SSASPH again. The paper considers new facts of life and activity of five Soviet Union Heroes of 1941-1945 on the basis of personal records which are stored in archives of SSUSSE and SSASPH. The number of the heroes who graduated from Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education as well as the number of the Soviet Union Heroes of the Samara Region has successfully increased.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):206-217
pages 206-217 views

The «British way» of counterinsurgency struggle: RAND, decolonization and «emergency» in Malaya (1948-1960)

Lyozin A.I., Nesterov D.A.

Abstract

This paper discusses the state of emergency imposed by the British in Malaya. The work in Malaya is based on the analytical work of the American RAND Corporation members. The Malaya conflict is successful for the British in the field of colonial knowledge. That is why the conflict was carefully studied by the RAND Corporation as a model of counter-insurgency; therefore, we can see the interest of the United States to the analysis and methods of struggle against the rebel movement before the era of the Vietnam conflict. Of course, RAND worked for the US government, i.e. the Ministry of defense has signed contracts with this Corporation. The United States will try to practice certain methods of fighting guerrillas in Vietnam, but it is worth considering that each conflict is individual. The paper shows the Communist movement evolution in Malaya - from the inception to the victory of the British and the gradual disappearance of the rebel movement. The conflict was successful for the UK, as the main population of Malaya was not interested in the departure of the British; the local elite supported the British crown. The paper demonstrates features of the Malay conflict.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):217-220
pages 217-220 views

Disagreements among ministries and pressure on the State Planning Committee in the Soviet economy in the early 1950s

Zaharchenko A.V.

Abstract

The following paper deals with mechanisms for working out compromise solutions when discussing the plan for the USSR national economy development in 1951-1955. The sources analysis (notes of ministries heads to the government, the Gosplan’s reports and its projects for the development of the Soviet economy for the period 1951-1955) shows there were disagreements between the central planning body and the economic agencies. The position of the State Planning Committee, which sought to draw up a balanced plan, consisted in the allocation of resources and economic obligations between ministries. The ministries, for their part, were inclined to offer lower figures for the growth of production indicators and overestimated amounts of resources to implement the plans. Divergences in positions were regulated by a special interdepartmental commission on disagreements, its proposals were taken as a basis by the government and the State Planning Committee to amend the current and future planning of the industrial development of the USSR. The results of the study allow us to conclude that the planned economy was actually the economy of «approvals». In this system, government directives were viewed as a result of an interagency struggle between «planners» and «production workers», where the State Planning Committee counterbalanced the ambitions of ministries. However, active «lobbyism» of ministers limited the possibilities of «planners», as evidenced by the documents of the Dispute Commission.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):220-224
pages 220-224 views

The agrarian question in the mirror of the discussions in the pre-revolutionary historiography

Gavrilov A.V.

Abstract

The abolition of serfdom in the middle of the XIX century put the agrarian question into the first place for the thinking Russian intellectuals. The consequences of the Great Reforms for community development, peasant land tenure and land tenure, land ownership, the economy of the agrarian sector, the economic initiative of the population, the growth of agricultural production, the management and self-management of peasant societies, the adaptation of the peasant economy to the changing market conditions, socio-cultural changes caused by modernization processes, socio-economic contradictions both between individual categories of the peasantry and among peasants and representatives of other social groups - all these surveys were actively discussed by the Russian public at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The «specifically sociological» components of the agrarian question were transformed into an analysis of the role and significance of the peasant community for the development of the country, and this topic was undoubtedly of a political nature, and the polemics around it was extremely rich. Economists, historians, lawyers, doctors, businessmen, travelers, figures of Zemstvo, publicists, officials, politicians, revolutionaries, representatives of all social strata of Russian society wrote about the agrarian question and the ways of its solution.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):225-233
pages 225-233 views

13.00.00 – Pedagogical Sciences

Pedagogical system of military-professional competencies development of prospective reserve officers of the Russian Federation armed forces

Antonov G.M., Afanasev A.K., Mikhilkevich V.N.

Abstract

The paper presents theoretical and methodological foundations for the construction and practical implementation of the pedagogical system of military-professional competencies development of prospective reserve officers of the RF armed forces. The authors justify the urgency of social and economic expediency and specificity of the reserved for the Armed Forces officers’ training in civil technical universities. The authors give theoretical and experimentally confirmed justification of content and structure of military-professional competence of the reserved future officer. The authors have generalized an algorithmic model of pedagogical system of students’ (prospective reserve officers of the military-professionals) competence development. Its structure contains ten functional, interrelated and consistently implemented blocks. The authors describe a functional purpose and essential content of each block of the system model. Special attention is given to the modular technology of military-professional competence development, principles of organization, methods and techniques of its implementation. The authors provide data of a pedagogical experiment that identifies students’ level of military-professional competence development in the experimental and control groups at the levels of their cognitive, operational and activity components development.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):234-238
pages 234-238 views

Development of prospective teachers’ readiness to familiarize schoolchildren with the values of physical culture while studying «Pedagogy»

Borisov A.Y.

Abstract

The paper considers the urgency of solving the problem connected with the development of prospective teachers’ readiness to introduce schoolchildren to the values of physical culture in the context of preserving man as a social being and as a biological species. The values of physical culture are considered as a prerequisite for achieving a harmonious combination of bodily and spiritual principles in a person, as a condition for the full-fledged existence of a schoolboy, a student. Specific values of physical culture are singled out: «human motor activity», «human life», «health», «healthy lifestyle», «culture», «perseverance in achieving the goal», «moral perfection», «self-realization», etc. The author presents a structure of prospective teachers’ readiness to familiarize schoolchildren with the values of physical culture, including cognitive motivational-value and activity components. Opportunities of «Pedagogy» for the development of prospective teachers’ readiness to introduce students to the values of physical culture in theoretical and practical aspects are revealed. The theoretical aspect is the allocation of physical culture values at the scientific material level of «Pedagogy» sections (section «Introduction to pedagogical activity» - the values «human life», «culture», «persistence in achieving the goal», «self-determination», «self-organization» and others, section «Solving professional problems» - the values of «health», «healthy lifestyle», «perseverance in achieving the goal», «prestige of physical culture and sports», «freedom», «justice», etc.). The practical aspect is examples of development of prospective teachers’ readiness to introduce schoolchildren to the values of physical culture during lecture and seminar classes in the sections «Solving professional problems» and «History of pedagogical thought in Russia and abroad». The conclusion is that the values mastered by the students will become the reference points for the education of the schoolchild who responsibly relate to their own health and the health of the surrounding people.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):238-243
pages 238-243 views

Textual-dialogical approach to the development of humanistic person interaction ability of cadets - prospective penal-executive system employees

Vdovin S.A.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the problem of training a future employee of the penal system, which is able to build relationships with surrounding people, including people who have transgressed the law and who serve punishment on humanistic grounds. The urgency of humanistic interaction in the conditions of the criminal executive system is argued from the position of the idea: «a person by nature - i.e. initially, essentially - good». The author proposes a definition of a humanistic interaction between a cadet and a future employee of the criminal executive system with a person as a special type of relationship that fixes the understanding of the values and actions of another person; actualizing moral, humanistic values; reflecting the content of their own actions and actions in relation to the other; reflecting the perception of the spiritual world of another person. The textual-dialogical approach in education is presented as a learning strategy, as an educational technology, as a scientific approach. The content of the textual-dialogical approach to the development of cadets-future employees of the penal-executive system ability for humanistic interaction with a person is revealed through the content of the concepts «text» and «dialogue». It is justified that the texts presented to cadets while developing their ability should, firstly, contain such knowledge, which, speaking in the meaning of humanistic values, allows students to interact with other people on the basis of these values; secondly, to meet the criteria of significance, accessibility and credibility. It is shown that, in the context of dialogues, cadets acquire personal experience of humanistic interaction with other people, which allows them to choose a humanistic oriented sense of dialogical interaction with another, find ways of interaction with another person that are adequate for this situation, and reflect their attitude to another.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):243-248
pages 243-248 views

Features of remedial work with disorders of speech perception by ear

Vizel T.G.

Abstract

The paper touches upon the problem of auditory agnosia, and first of all, speech. The author discusses its place in the series of defects of auditory perception, the output of a specific hierarchy from hearing loss to violations of the understanding of speech phonetically. It is emphasized that the children mechanisms, for which speech auditory agnosia takes place, may have origins in the inferiority of the processes of perception of nonverbal sounds. A special place is given to the problems of differential diagnostics of various abnormalities of auditory perception as well as to the fact that the absence of one’s own articulated speech in a child directly depends on how well he perceives the speech of others. Thus, it has been affirmed that children articulatory apraxia is not primary. This must be considered in the construction of correctional education programs. Unlike primary hearing loss, the symptoms of speech auditory agnosia can be eliminated or reduced as a measure due to the use of special corrective techniques.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):248-251
pages 248-251 views

Peculiarities of training specialists in the field of regional nature management (on the example of maritime region of Arctic basin)

Denisov V.V., Mitina E.G., Svetlova M.V.

Abstract

The paper is devoted to the problem of training specialists in the field of regional environmental management. Environmental management in maritime regions of the Russian Federation has its own characteristics related to the inclusion of marine areas in the processes of natural resources extraction, protection and restoration of their reserves. The labor market of maritime regions requires bachelors and masters majoring in «Ecology and Nature» and «Geography», understanding of the maritime region as a special geosystem. Methodological development of the training model allows us to define the vector of students’ professional competence development in the field of regional environmental management. The authors present their vision of this model, including justification of approaches, definition of principles for establishing the objectives, selection of content, organization of learning process and evaluation of results of training of ecologists and geographers in maritime region. The authors think that system and environmental approaches most effectively enable the training of students in activities of professional communities. Learning outcomes of students - ecologists and geographers within the framework of the proposed model meet the needs of the labor market of the maritime region, and may be the basis for the development of the professional standard «Specialist in the field of environmental management».

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):251-256
pages 251-256 views

Art workshop as a form of student’s artistic and creative activity

Kalinina L.Y.

Abstract

The paper describes an innovative form of organization of educational art-creative activity of students - «art workshop». The author refers to the justification of the concept «art workshop» in the context of current ideas of the theory and practice art education. The contradiction between the content of student creativity in the XXI century and common in the practice of traditional forms of introducing them to the art may be withdrawn by the structuring activities in accordance with the phases of the creative process. Article submissions are a contribution to solving a larger problem of early diagnosis of giftedness, since supposedly this quality of the individual manifests itself more and more noticeable in terms of artistic and creative process. A definition of art workshop is given, its features are highlighted: polyart nature of children’s activities, productive and aimed at understanding the meanings of reality through creative experience; engaging of elements of expression from the «arsenal» of modern composers, artists and poets. The implication is that the teacher is able to perceive the environment with immediate disciples, directing, but without limiting the collective creativity. This work makes it possible to orient teachers of music, fine arts teachers and teachers of additional education, as well as students of a pedagogical high school to making children be creative in accordance with their interests, abilities and their outlook.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):256-259
pages 256-259 views

Criteria-evaluation apparatus of bachelors’ professional and legal competence development

Knyazeva A.G.

Abstract

The paper raises a question of assessing professional and legal competence of bachelors majoring in social work at university. Professional and legal competence is a professional property of a graduate in the field of social work, which can effectively solve professional problems in the field of legal regulation of social protection of the population. Attention is paid to the relevance of this professional quality among specialists for modern Russia. The instrument of its evaluation is the criteria-evaluation apparatus, including motivational criterion (indicators: educational, professional motives, interest in law); content-cognitive criterion (indicators: knowledge of the theory of states and law, main branches of Russian law, knowledge of legal acts in the field of regulation of social protection of the population); creative activity criterion (indicators: ability to apply skills and abilities for solving professional and legal problems, sequence of tasks, knowledge of methods of search, analysis and application of normative legal acts in the field of social protection of the population); regulatory and reflexive criteria (indicators: stability in behavior, self-assessment of cognitive activity and sequence of tasks). The paper contains a brief review of research on the development of criteria and indicators for assessing various pedagogical phenomena. The author focuses on the systematic approach as a methodological basis for the analysis of the criteria-evaluation apparatus, which proposes to be considered as an integrative integrity, including the purpose, object, subjects, subject, content and result. Criteria-evaluation apparatus of bachelors’ professional and legal competence development can be used in the system of advanced training of specialists in social work.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):259-264
pages 259-264 views

Development of professional competencies of students, majoring in «Pedagogical education» («Primary education» and «Foreign Language»)

Kochetova N.G., Stroykov S.A.

Abstract

The following paper considers development of professional competencies of students, majoring in «Pedagogical education» («Primary education» and «Foreign Language»). The authors analyze legal regulations to teacher training and correlate demands to the teacher that are enumerated in federal state educational standard of general secondary education, in federal state educational standard of higher education and in the professional standard «Teacher». The paper also contains Primary Education Department experience of professional competencies development. Based on the example of Professional Competence 4 development the authors introduce its components characteristics as well as diagnostic methods of this professional competence development. The authors note that it is necessary to develop special professional competencies of students, majoring in «Pedagogical education» («Primary education» and «Foreign Language»). Based on the example of Special Professional Competence (Foreign Language) 2 the authors introduce its components characteristics. The paper also contains problems that Primary Education Department and Foreign Languages Department face while developing professional competencies of students, majoring in «Pedagogical education» («Primary education» and «Foreign Language»).

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):264-269
pages 264-269 views

The problem of students’ development in the theory and practice of the national school until 1917 (on the example of natural science)

Lamekhova E.A.

Abstract

The paper deals with the problem of interrelation between education, upbringing and training of students while studying natural sciences, which has always been interesting for teachers and methodologists. This problem is especially urgent now in connection with the further implementation of the GEF of secondary general education, which aims the school to create conditions for students’ development and self-realization. The paper considers interpretation of the relationship between teaching, upbringing and development in the educational process in Russian pedagogy in the period up to 1917. It is noted that views on education and upbringing of children in Russia and Europe developed roughly at the same time. Throughout the entire historical period, there was a struggle between supporters of the new education, advocating rapprochement with advanced Russian and Western European science and Russian clergy, preaching church dogma and their opponents, denying any development at all. Long enough unresolved problems were the lack of unified programs for all educational institutions and established terms of training. Principal changes in the system of domestic education are associated with scientific and pedagogical activities of M.V. Lomonosov and his followers. It emphasizes the importance of the idea that appeared in the writings of teachers in the middle of the 19th century. It advised to take into account the age and individual inclinations of children and develop a new methodology based on children’s activity and independence, which made it possible to pass to the inductive path of instruction. The process of natural science study from the nineteenth century is regarded as the most effective means of developing the sense organs, logical thinking and observation. It also explains the need to combine inductive and deductive teaching methods and justifies the need to use natural objects, experiments and observations in nature for students’ development.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):269-275
pages 269-275 views

Verification and evaluation of professional competence development: problems and ways of their solving (on the material of the discipline/module «Methods of Teaching Biology»)

Marina A.V., Galkina E.A., Makarova O.B.

Abstract

The following paper considers one of the key issues related to prospective bachelor’s professional competencies development on the example of «Methods of Biology Teaching». The paper presents a list of professional competencies developed by means of the discipline. The component composition of each of them is presented. The paper describes development procedures and technologies of professional competences components check - knowledge, abilities and possession. The author gives examples of each task. It is established that the least difficulties are associated with verifying competencies activity component development. The authors reveal criteria of students’ activity estimation within each of the designated procedures. The authors give criteria for the evaluation testing, exploratory abstract works, creative jobs, and multimedia presentations. The difficulties faced by teachers in the implementation of this work are shown. The main problem of the final forms control criterion evaluation is the disclosure of main knowledge component of the competence of the discipline. The presented materials can be used by university teachers, teaching the course «Methods of Biology Teaching».

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):275-282
pages 275-282 views

Integrative-modular technology of general chemistry teaching

Perederina I.A., Tveryakova E.N., Miroshnichenko Y.Y., Drygunova L.A., Zykova M.V., Zholobova G.A., Golubina O.A.

Abstract

The paper deals with integrative and modular technology of teaching General Chemistry to medical students that was developed and implemented at Chemistry Department of Siberian State Medical University. To design educational programs, the paradigm of training was exchanged to the paradigm of productive exercises with greater independence of students who become designers of their own knowledge, professional and universal competences. The content block of this discipline consists of two components: invariant and variant. Invariant component includes elective course on the chemistry of biologically active compounds. The paper describes the use of combination of academic and innovative methods and technologies of training. An approximate algorithm is offered for the course module, which focuses on the adsorption equilibrium and processes. It includes theoretical training, provided by textbooks, lecture text and teaching aids. Students assess the quality of academic work on their own with the help of tests and in the implementation of practical tasks in laboratory studies.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):282-286
pages 282-286 views

Study of students’ volitional qualities as one of the aspects of personal achievements in physical culture and sports activities

Safonenko S.V.

Abstract

The paper presents a study of strong-willed qualities of students, as one of the aspects of personal achievements in physical culture and sports as well as pedagogical conditions that develop various volitional qualities: purposefulness, determination and courage, perseverance, discipline, self-control and independence. The author reveals factors that contribute to strong-willed education in the process of physical culture and sports activities. The paper describes the experimental technique developed and introduced into the process of physical education, aimed at strong-willed qualities development. The basis of the experimental methodology for students’ strong-willed qualities development in sports and sports activities are various pedagogical methods that ensure the need for a systematic and gradual overcoming of objective and subjective difficulties while solving proposed tasks. They work under certain requirements: the increasing complexity of obstacles; the consistency of the magnitude of the difficulty with the capabilities of the practitioner in overcoming it; fulfillment of tasks in conditions of overcoming the state of fatigue; use of competitive method of training; complication of external conditions of activity; conscious activity development. Creating specially organized pedagogical conditions made it possible to develop students’ necessary volitional qualities, to increase motivation to engage in physical culture and sports activities, to acquire a positive experience of personal achievements in physical culture activities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):286-293
pages 286-293 views

Scientific and methodical support of intra-corporate teachers training

Khatsrinova O.Y.

Abstract

The paper deals with problems of industry experts’ professional development. The author reveals problems of additional educational programs of engineering personnel training. The author reveals conditions that help to create a system of intra-corporate training in the system of additional professional education on the basis of engineering pedagogy achievements. The following methodological approaches are chosen: competence-based, akmeological and andragogical. These approaches provide orientation to progressive professional development and self-development, creative self-realization in the professional sphere and consider individual experience of each listener. Professional standards define competences which have to be developed. The author shows that in the course of additional professional education developed competences have integrative character, i.e. they have to unite all training results. Competence content includes traditional results of education - knowledge, abilities and skills as well as personal components: ability of an individual to solve professional problems, mobilizing at the same time all internal and external resources. The author shows possibilities of the «Pedagogical skills of intra-corporate training teacher» program. It is defined that the teacher needs to develop methodical competence. Indicators of teachers’ methodical competence assessment are developed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):293-297
pages 293-297 views

Quest and case as elements of interactive technologies in modern biological education

Sharypova N.V., Pavlova N.V.

Abstract

This paper considers interactive technologies of teaching Biology using quests and cases. The structure and components of the training quest are studied. The classification of quest types is given and the peculiarities of the method of linear, assault and ring quests are described on specific biological examples. The use of educational quests requires a lot of time, space and a bank of different non-standard tasks. Familiarizing students with a solution of real situations is possible with a case. The case study is a carefully selected theoretical material that should be as informative as possible, contain contradictory data, include different points of view, and consider topical problems of biology and ecology. Some types of cases are designed to teach students to analyze biological information, give it a certain assessment, expressing their attitude to it. Such work becomes creative and opens opportunities to exchange different points of view and find for truth. The authors note that the main purpose of these technologies is to actively develop the child’s cognitive sphere, as well as his or her motivational basis, personal qualities (communication skills, mobility, search for solutions, generate ideas and test them, etc.). The educational and educational potential of the quest is highlighted. The paper describes the experience of quests and case use in the educational process of Biology and Geography with the Methods of Teaching Department of Shadrinsk State Pedagogical University.

Samara Journal of Science. 2018;7(1):297-301
pages 297-301 views

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