Vol 5, No 1 (2016)

From editorial board

From editorial board

Mochalov O.D., Repinetsky A.I.
Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):8-9
pages 8-9 views

03.02.00 – General Biology

On the identification of ecological optimum of bryophytes

Bogdanova Y.A., Korchikov E.S., Prokhorova N.V.


This article describes a method for detecting synecological optima of bryophytes and the possibility of their use in phytoindication of ecological conditions of the biotope. Bryophytes may take a significant part in plant communities, they have the ability to accumulate heavy metals, they can be used to determine the degree of the anthropogenic load and of the formation of forest communities. All this makes them excellent bioindicators, which can give an almost complete description of the plant community. But to do this it is necessary to know the environmental optima of mosses. At the moment, there are sparse data on the environmental characteristics of the bryophytes, it is not always clear how these characteristics were obtained. Currently, there are several ways to determine the environmental optima of the bryophytes based on the occurrence data and the projective cover of mosses. These methods use L.G. Ramenskiy's scales for vascular plants, these scales are extrapolated to bryophytes. Using our experience in defining synecological optima of lichen, we offer a graphical method for identifying ecological optimum of the bryophytes in which A.L. Bellegard's ecomorph scales are applied in the modification of N.M. Matveev (for the forest-steppe zone) and D.N. Tsyganov (for the coniferous-deciduous forest subzone). The essence of this method is the plotting of a graph of the quantitative characteristics of a particular moss depending on the environmental factors. For this you need to carry out phytoindication of the biotope community by using vascular plants and determine the average cover of moss or vitality of this moss.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):10-14
pages 10-14 views

Flora of the settlement Lukh of Ivanovo Region

Borisova E.A.


In the article the floristic data of Lukh, one of the ancient Ivanovo region settlements, are given. The present Lukh settlement flora consists of 402 vascular plant species from 4 classes, 76 families and 255 genera. Compositae – 53 species (13,2%), Rosaceae – 39 species (9,7%), Poaceae – 27 species (6,9%), Fabaceae – 23 species (5,7%), Cruciferae – 18 species (4,2%) are leading families of the flora. The basis of biomorphological structure of the Luch flora is made up by the perennial grass plants (233 species; 57,9%), arboreous plants include 60 species (14,9%), among which 23 species are trees, 33 species are shrubs. Geographical analysis ascertained prevalence of native species. The native component of Lukh flora comprises 247 species (61,6%), the аlien component – 153 species (38,4%). The adventivity index is 0,38 which is typical for the small towns and large settlements of the Upper Volga region. 2 rare species (Gerntiana pneumonanthe, Populus nigra) included in the regional red data book, some native (Thelypteris palustris, Juniperus communis, Dactulorhiza fuchii, Platanthera bifolia, Convallaria majalis, Carex pilosa, Trollius earopaeus, Daphne mezerum) and alien (Atriрlex patens, Symphytum x uplandicum, Hesperis matronalis, Veronica persica, Zizania latifolia) rare plant species are briefly characterized.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):14-18
pages 14-18 views

The Crustcea and Rotifera in the pond near «Piramida» shopping mall (Samara) in 2013

Gerasimov Y.L., Shabanova A.V.


The composition and population sizez of the Crustacea and Rorifera species were studied in an urban pond after its melioration. 30 Rotifera species (52 species before melioration) and 20 Crustacea species (33 species before melioration) were found in 2013. Brachionidae, Synchaetidae и Asplanchnidae remain dominant in the Rotifera community. Cyclopoidae were dominant in the Crustacea community (Daphniidae dominated before melioration). The quantity of Bosminidae и Chydoridae considerably increased. On the whole the quantity of animal plankton decreased by 15% in 2013. In 2010 rises of the quantity were observed twice, in June and in August; in 2013 there was only one rise of the quantity of the plankton in July. The number of female individuals with eggs increased. The pond refers to the β-mesosaprobic zone, the level of contamination in terms of saprobity indicators decreased. The Shannon index of species diversity was calculated. Removal of macrophytes caused decrease of littoral species and growth of plankton invertebrates. The hydrochemical analysis revealed the excess of the maximum permissible concentration of BOC₅, АSАS, Cu, Fe and Zn.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):18-23
pages 18-23 views

Effect of weather conditions as ecological factors on vegetative somatic parameters of the preschool children organism

Gordievskii A.Y., Gordievskaya N.A.


Influence of meteorological environmental factors on people sensitive to severe weather changes manifests itself in the deterioration of health and violation of vegetative functions. One of the main systems of the body, which is sensitive to changes of atmospheric pressure is the cardiovascular system. In people with impaired preventive regulation of vascular tone, who are called weather sensitive, sudden changes in atmospheric pressure can cause jumps of arterial pressure, which can be represented both by its increase (hypertensive crisis) and decrease below the physiological norm, which leads to the decrease of muscle tone and subjective feelings of fatigue. Psychophysiological status of children of preschool age depends significantly on weather conditions due to imperfect preventive regulation of the blood circulation. Due to this, preschoolers feel unwell, their adaptation possibilities go down. This is manifested in changes in blood pressure and a certain decrease in the lability of the motor analyzer defined by means of the tapping-test. Cyclonic changes in climatic conditions have a more pronounced impact on the state of the organism, causing an increase in fatigue and decrease of adaptation reserves, indicating the decrease of one of the most important integral indicators of the vegetative coefficient. Hyperbaric effects associated with the passage of the anticyclone cause less visible changes of the cardiovascular system, compared to cyclonic events. Cyclonic phenomena accompanying low atmospheric pressure, cause depression of the vegetative status of children, a small decrease in tonic activity and as a result negative changes in the basic hemodynamic parameters.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):23-26
pages 23-26 views

Study of floristic structure of the territory using family range in the Sok River basin (Samara Region, Zavolzhye, forest-steppe zone)

Ivanova A.V., Kostina N.V.


Ecological approach to the study of flora implies an integral flora unit called elementary flora (EF), which is usually regarded as the elementary unit of floristic division. Identification of the minimum-range of EF is prerequisite for the research of flora of any territory. The aim of this research is to identify the number of EF in the research area (floral patterns) by comparing the values of certain parameters of the family range of flora in four minimum-ranges. The basin of the river Sok is the research area. Its landscape zoning varies in different literature sources. Florae of the four minimum-range habitats are formed on territorial basis with reference to the existing floristic descriptions. The following parameters of the family range of flora in four minimum-ranges were used: establishment of the order of the first triad of families depending on number of species in a sample, percentage of monotypic families and percentage of species in the top ten families. The considered values of florae parameters in the sample areas corresponding to the minimum-range habitats show a certain degree of similarity. The largest differences were observed in the study of the formation of top three leading families, depending on the number of species. This indicator reflects the peculiarities of individual sample areas due to the variety of intra-landscape. The authors reach a conclusion concerning the conditional affiliation of the researched territory to one EF. The conclusion is based on the analyzed parameters of the family range of flora of all minimum-ranges as well as their floristic descriptions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):26-31
pages 26-31 views

Synanthropic plants as indicators of the ecological state of city of Samara

Ivanova N.V.


This article focuses on the analysis of synanthropic flora of Samara. It surveys the history of the research of the flora of the city of Samara, and states that it is possible to base the estimation of the ecological condition of the city of Samara on the process and degree of synanthropy. When studying urbanoflorae different authors define the concept of synanthropic flora differently. O.P. Vinkovskaya, E.P. Gnatyuk, and G.S. Antipina, K.V. Kachkin, I.G. Sokolova, T.V. Astakhova, T.A.Terekhina dealt with issues of terminology. The author believes that the synantropic flora consists of adventitious cultivated plants, adventitious ruderal weeds and apofyte types. In the conditions of the increasing anthropogenous change the process of synanthropization of the vegetable cover becomesquite urgent. The article describes the structure of the synanthropic fraction of the urban flora of Samara. The author notes that in the synanthropic fraction the share of monocotyledonous plants has considerably decreased, and that the adventitious species prevail, the flora being made up by forest-steppe boreal, nemoral and multizone plants. In the analysis of the synanthropic component of the flora such indicators as the flora synanthropy index, the adventivity index, index of the apofyteness and the index of cultivation have been calculated. The author comes to the the conclusion that synanthropy causes reduction of the flora variety.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):31-34
pages 31-34 views

Contents of heavy metals in the soil cover in the conditions of technogenesis

Kazantsev I.V., Matveeva T.B.


The paper examines pollution of soils with heavy metals under technogenic impact. The ways and means of pollutants receipt in soils and their accumulation in soils located in the drainage of railway are described. The role of roadside forest belts on the distribution of pollutants is examined. Determination of heavy metals content in soils was carried out by the x-ray fluorescence method. The results of heavy metal soil pollution in comparison with Clarke value, maximum permissible concentration and regional background levels are represented. The study of heavy metals content was carried out in the soils of right-of-way on the Samara-Syzran section of the Kuibyshev railway, as well as in suburban forests and urban parks of Samara (Botanical garden, Country Park). These areas are exposed to significant anthropogenic impact. Studies have shown that in these areas an increased content of some heavy metals in soils is observed. The main elements present in anthropogenic flows of pollution are copper, nickel, chromium, zinc and lead. This result does not contradict the standard environmental situation. These materials can serve as a basis for further monitoring of suburban forests of Samara green zone and transport facilities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):34-37
pages 34-37 views

On the fauna of house flies (Diptera, Muscidae) of Samara Region

Lyubvina I.V.


For the first time the resulting data of flies investigation (Diptera, Muscidae) in Samara Oblast territory are given. Up to the present time the revealed fauna of the houseflies is differed by the high taxonomic diversity and includes 75 species belonging to 26 genera. Among them 11 are the most frequent species Coenosia mollicula Fll., Coenosia testacea R.-D., Helina ciliatocosta Ztt., Helina moedlingensis Schnabl, Hydrotaea ignava Harris, Musca domestica L., Muscina levida Harris, Mydaea setifemur Ringdahl, Neomyia cornicina F., Pyrellia vivida R.-D. and Thricops semicinereus Wied. consisted of 15% of the all species regional muscid diversity. Main body of revealed muscid fauna in the region are represented by widely distributed and palaearctic species (by 45% in each group of distribution). Faunistic complex of muscid is characterized by richness of biotope clustering, habitat versatility of mostly species, and the most intensive flying period of the main species imagoes is noted in the summer period. It is supposed that compound of family in the generic level is revealed approximately of 79% and it is additionally expected 7 genera. Specific compound of the family is revealed approximately of 64% and it is additionally expected about 43 species of muscid in Samara Oblast fauna.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):38-41
pages 38-41 views

To the problem of classification of ecosystems of south-east Ukraine

Ostapko V.M., Shevchuk O.M., Prikhodko S.A.


This work addresses modern approaches to the classification of ecosystems as a tool for understanding of their diversity and relation to geographical and environmental systemic factors, as well as for solving practical problems of conservation and rational management. A classification of ecosystems of south east Ukraine is given based on the dominant vegetation classification. The basis of classification is the division of ecosystems according to the type of macroecotope (watershed, gully, above flood-plain terrace, floodplain) and edaphotope (developed black soil, washed away black soil on rocky sandstone outcrops, shale, granite, marl, limestone, chalk, sandy and meadow soils). The basis for the division of ecosystems of the same level of each class is based on different features: topical, physionomic, edaphic, dynamic. Classification is based on hierarchical principle. The class of natural ecosystems with dominance of phanerophytes includes ecosystems of coniferous forests and deciduous forest ecosystems of nemoral type, represented mainly by lowland-watershed, gully (ravine) oakeries. The class of natural grass and shrub ecosystems is represented by wetland, grassland and extremely diverse steppe ecosystems. Both classes include ecosystems with different moistening, soil erosion and confinement to edafotopes, developed at the outcrops of different rock types. Class of anthropogenic ecosystems is outlined in general and needs more detailed study. We compiled a lists of formations and subformations of vegetation, belonging to of the lower hierarchy level ecosystems.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):41-47
pages 41-47 views

Daily activity time budgets of leaf-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) at different stages of their generation cycle

Pavlov S.I.


Native (natural) motor responses in the active life phases (adult and larvae) of 4 species of leaf-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) of a one-year generation were studied in natural and laboratory conditions in the Samara region during 1974–2010. Depending on the dominant «biological program» at each stage of ontogenesis, type of motor activity (specific movements) and time budgets for the implementation of these movements, the entire generation (reproductive) cycle was divided into 4 stages – the functional unit of behavioral reactions. These powers include – precopulatory period (puberty adult), stage of copulation (mating adults), the stage of ovulation (the maturation and oviposition) and the stage of embryogenesis (hatching and larvae development). The dynamics of the duration of the light period of the day (when the beetles are active) is considered throughout the observation period. The duration of «useful» time of the light period of the day (for this latitude) is calculated, i.e. the astronomical day length minus the length of morning and evening twilight (when it is relatively cold, the dew falls, and the insects are inactive), exactly the period when the beetles are most mobile. Real time budgets of motor activity in the period of daylight hours at different stages of the lasting cycle are estimated. The main types of motor responses of leaf beetles are recorded and examined. It is established that all in all there are 13 such reactions, of them 5 are common for all stages, 8 are specific.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):47-51
pages 47-51 views

The genus Rosa L. (Rosaceae) in the herbarium Institute of Ecology of the Volga River Basin of Russian Academy of Sciences (PVB)

Saksonov S.V., Vasjukov V.M., Senator S.A., Rakov N.S., Ivanova A.V.


The herbarium of the Institute of ecology of the Volga river basin of RAS, Togliatti (PVB) stores about 200 samples from 22 species of Rosa L. (Rosaceae) from 8 sections: Rosa rugosa Thunb. (section Rugosae Chrshan.), Rosa acicularis Lindl., Rosa cinnamomea L., Rosa glabrifolia C.A. Mey. ex Rupr., Rosa pratorum Sukacz., Rosa gorenkensis Besser (section Cinnamomeae DC.), Rosa canina L. s. str., Rosa corymbifera Borkh., Rosa podolica Tratt., Rosa subafzeliana Chrshan., Rosa caesia Sm., Rosa lupulina Dubovik, Rosa dumalis Bechst., Rosa uncinella Besser, Rosa subcanina (Christ) Vuk. (section Caninae DC.), Rosa villosa L., Rosa subpomifera Chrshan. (section Villosae DC.), Rosa rubiginosa L. (section Rubiginosae Desegl.), Rosa glauca Pourr. (section Glaucae Tzvelev), Rosa alba L. (секция Rosa), Rosa spinosissima L. s. str., Rosa tschatyrdagi Chrshan. (section Pimpinellifoliae DC.), collected from the Volga region, southern Urals and adjacent territories: Bashkortostan, Mordovia, Chuvash Republic, Vladimir, Volgograd, Kirov, Penza, Samara, Saratov, Tambov, Ulyanovsk, Chelyabinsk region. Rosa tschatyrdagi Chrshan. are reported in Samara region for the first time.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):51-56
pages 51-56 views

Geographical conditions and evolution of vegetation cover of Middle Volga Region in the pliocene

Senator S.A., Morov V.P.


The development of flora on the territory of the Middle Volga region during the Pliocene is discussed. An attempt to reconstruct geographic conditions and vegetation cover is taken. A short description of the natural environment and landscape, of the vegetation cover of the Middle Volga and adjacent territories is done. The comparative scheme of the total and the regional scales of Pliocene is added. In the given paper one assumes the upper boundary of the Pliocene to be the upper boundary of the Gelasian Stage. The Pliocene is rather turbulent geological period during there was a relatively quick change of warm and cold phases, each of which is characterized by landscape and climate change. Landscape transformations took place against a background of progressive climate cooling with an increase in the contrast of summer and winter temperatures. Main geomorphological structures of the Middle Volga region, such as the Volga Upland, Samara Bend, Zhiguli Mountains, Obshhij Syrt, river network, appeared prior or during this period. Main plant formations in their broadest sense (taiga, broad-leaved and small-leaved forests, steppes) had already been formed by the beginning of the Pliocene. During the Pliocene period the depletion of those plant formations took place. It occurred due to the gradual extinction of thermophilic species and bringing in their composition to modern formations. Most of the species had taken modern form by the end of the Pliocene.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):56-62
pages 56-62 views

Microbiological monitoring of anthropogenically transformed soils

Simonova E.V., Maksimova E.N.


The article presents results of microbiological monitoring of artificial soils. These soils were formed in the process of reclaiming technical lignin in special drives of the Baikal Pulp and Paper Mill (Irkutsk region). The test drives are in Solzanskom landfill, which is located between the vil. Solzan and the r. Bol'shaja Osinovka south of Irkutsk – Ulan-Ude highway. Investigations were carried out in drives № 1, № 4, № 5, № 6. Soil samples were homogenized in a selected point on three levels. Evaluation of sludge lignin was conducted in accordance with generally accepted sanitary and microbiological methods of investigation of soils, using the integral index of general contamination of the soil. The research shows the role of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, bacteria and fungi in microbiocenosis. The degree of contamination of the soil is strong. The ratio of prokaryotic to eukaryotic microorganisms is 3:1 on the average. This suggests a significant role of bacterial forms in lignin biodegradation. The prevalence of the aerobic microorganisms over anaerobic ones shows that in the lower layers of sludge lignin biodegradation process is slow. The materials demonstrate that the methods of microbiological monitoring are proximate and provide a comprehensive assessment of the ecological status of the soil.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):62-66
pages 62-66 views

Characteristics of taxonomic structure of flora in the Middle Urals urban areas (Sverdlovsk Region)

Tretyakova A.S.


Research in urban floras is a major field of botanical science. By now, flora of many Russian cities has been studied. At the same time the Urals flora of urbanized areas has not practically been the subject of special investigation. This paper is the first to provide a detailed description of the features of the taxonomic structure of the flora of urbanized areas of the Middle Urals within the Sverdlovsk region and to compare it with the parameters of the regional flora of the Sverdlovsk region. Urban floras of 3 cities in the southern part of the Sverdlovsk region have been studied – Yekaterinburg, Krasnoufimsk and Kamensk-Ural, which form a latitudinal catena, covering the Urals region, the mountainous part of the Middle Urals and Trans-Urals. It is shown that the flora of the urbanized areas is characterized by a high level of species richness which increases relative to the area of the city. The taxonomic structure of urban floras, compared with the regional flora, is characterized by a reduced participation of spore plants, due to the extremely poor representation of lycopsids. In the flowering plants the proportion of monocots is reduced and, on the contrary, the proportion of bipartite species is increased. The composition of the leading families of urban floras is typical of the boreal floras of the Holarctic floral kingdom, it is distinguished by the lower rank of the Cyperaceae family and by the rise of the Fabaceae family. Generic spectrum of urban floras is marked by the greater participation of thermophilic genera Atriplex and Chenopodium and very limited representation of boreal genera Hieracium and Taraxacum. Species richness of families and genera in urban floras is markedly lower than in regional boreal flora.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):66-71
pages 66-71 views

07.00.00 – Historical Sciences and Archaeology

Early Neolithic structures on the Upper Don

Smolyaninov R.V.


The peculiarity of the flood plain settlements on the river Don watershed and its tributaries is the fact that almost all of them are multi-layered. Early neolithic structures are a very rare find for the Upper Don territory. There are only two of them that are known. The first of them was investigated by V.P. Levenko by Fish Lake 2 in 1964. The second was investigated by the author of this article in 2012. They are light ground structures. Both of them are oval-shaped, about 11 and 18 square meters, slightly recessed in the mainland. Early Neolithic sites were seasonal. The structure from the Fish Lake 2 settlement had a hearth and probably functioned in the cold season. Structure from Vasilevsky Cordon 3 settlement functioned in the warm season, as no traces of the hearth were found in the explored structure. It is interesting to observe, that in each of the buildings only fragments of only one vessel were found. The same situation is observed in two Early Neolithic dwellings from the Vyunova Lake and Ytuz ancient sites in the Middle Volga. Both buildings belong to Karamyshevskaya Neolithic culture. They both are dated to the same period in time. Ceramics from settlement Vasilevsky Cordon 3 settlement are traced to one and the same date – 5868 + 120 BP (1σ 5036–4458 BC) (SPb 1638).

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):72-76
pages 72-76 views

Some results of technical and technological analysis of late bronze age ceramics of the Southern Urals tribes exemplified by the materials of Kazburun archaeological microdistrict (Republic of Bashkortostan)

Shcherbakov N.B., Quinn S.P., Shuteleva I.A., Leonova T.A., Lunkova U.V., Lunkov V.Y., Golyeva A.A.


This article discusses the use of «traditional» methods within the A.A. Bobrinsky historical-cultural approach to pottery analysis that allow us to consider each vessel as a source of information of the design and starting of the hollow body of the vessel. Thus, a more or less whole vessel may render information about a particular container design pattern or the skills of a particular potter group. This approach to ceramics allows you to study the cultural traditions in the manufacture of ceramics and, accordingly, closed family groups which have produced, and on the basis of radiocarbon dating to determine the time of its manufacture: Usmanovo I – III settlements (1930 – 1750 BC – Beta Analytic) and Kazburun I barrows (AMS 1820 – 1795 BC – Beta Analytic). However, ceramic archaeological complex Kazburun neighborhood has become one of the important factors in identifying cultural transformations and cultural interactions in the Late Bronze Age in the Southern Urals. Experimental methods of historical-cultural approach A.A. Bobrinsky to reconstruct the pottery of the late Bronze Age, the Southern Urals. Methods of technical and technological analysis of pottery made it possible to reconstruct not only the pottery tradition of the Late Bronze Age of the Southern Urals, but also allowed a glimpse into the past of the studied population. As a «new» method of ceramic petrographic study research method was applied, which revealed the inclusion of various minerals in the blood vessels dough, to determine the temperature and the intensity of the burning, and to prove the presence of sludge in ceramic test. Further application of this method will allow in the future to determine the locations of ancient Clay and ceramic technology to reconstruct the Late Bronze Age of the Bashkir Transurals.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):76-84
pages 76-84 views

Dromos burials of the saka time in the Nazar site (Central Kazakhstan)

Beisenov A.Z.


In recent years, numerous new sites of Tasmola culture have been studied. New materials significantly supplement the existing ideas about the culture of the population of Central Kazakhstan of Saka era. The present article focuses on three monuments of the early Saka time studied by the author in the Nazar site in Central Kazakhstan. This kurgan with stone ridges Nazar and two other kurgans compose the burial ground Nazar-2. The monument is located in the Karaganda region, which is geographically an eastern part of the Kazakh hills. In addition to the studied objects on the coast of the river Nazar, there are three unexplored burial grounds of the Saka era. All structures of these burial grounds, including those which have not been excavated yet, can be combined by common external features. As a result of excavations graves with dromos oriented to the east were discovered in all three mounds. The diameters of the kurgans are 20–23 m, their height is 1,5–1,7 m. A bronze arrowhead of the early Saka type was found in kurgan 1 of the burial ground Nazar-2. Such monuments, which are characterized by a large size and complex structure, belong to the early stage of Tasmola culture – VIII-VI cc. BC. Three radiocarbon dates obtained on bone samples from mounds № 1 and № 2 of burial ground Nazar-2 in the laboratories of the Royal University of Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom and the University of Miami, USA do not contradict that. According to the author, such detail of the funeral rite as dromos oriented to the east, can be genetically traced back to the cultural traditions of the people of the late Bronze Age in Central Kazakhstan. Tasmola culture of Central Kazakhstan was opened in 1960. New materials largely complement the existing ideas about this culture.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):84-93
pages 84-93 views

The concept of «state» in Cicero’s writings

Bragova A.M.


The article is devoted to the analysis of ancient Greek and Roman conceptions of a state which had been written at the time prior to Cicero’s; an extent to which Cicero adopts the ideas from those conceptions; Cicero’s usage of the term «state»; differentiation between the concepts res publica and civitas in his writings. Long before Cicero’s times the issue of a state system had been brought up by such philosophers, historians and political figures as Archytas, Hippodamus, Herodotus, Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, Cato, Polybius and others. They formulated simple state forms (monarchy, aristocracy, democracy) and a mixed form which they considered the best. On the whole, Cicero agrees with the opinion that the mixed form is the best but he also offers original thoughts about the Roman republic as an ideal state and gives many examples from the Roman history. Cicero often denotes the term «a state» by the word res publica implying the meaning of public work, public affairs, public interest, etc. We have analysed the definition res publica est res populi and come to the conclusion that Cicero considers people to be a mandatory participant of the process of state management. Some scholars draw attention to a juridical content of the word res in the above definition considering the term res publica as public property, whereas the Roman republic is an object used by the civil community (civitas Romana). We suppose this point of view is quite relevant. Cicero sees the political and juridical components of the term as a united whole: it was natural for the ancient mentality to regard juridical, political, social and moral components as one. This very approach to the term res publica is given in Cicero’s writings. The article also dwells upon rather a debated question about similarity or difference between Cicero’s concepts res publica and civitas. We subscribe to the opinion that, unlike ancient Greeks who do not separate a state from a community, Cicero knows a difference between the terms, res publica for him is a state form, whereas civitas is a community / citizens. Another thing is that Cicero uses the term res publica to denote the very Roman state; for describing other states or discoursing on abstract states he uses the term civitas. To support the opinion about the difference between the above terms, we would like to quote Cicero himself who writes that the concept «a state» embraces a community (rei publicae nomen universae civitati est) which means that res publica and civitas do not mean the same.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):93-97
pages 93-97 views

Administrative and management systems in territories of tatars living at the end of XVIII - the beginning of the XX centuries

Lyubichankovskiy S.V.


This article deals with the administrative and management systems which were used in the territory where Tatars lived (Ural-Volga region) in the Russian Empire. It is established that the living of the Tatar people wasn't considered as the main feature of the region. Thus, until 1917 there was no plan to set up a separate administrative unit covering the area of the prevailing Tatar population (unlike, for example, the Bashkir and Kazakhs). The then administrative system reflected the imperial character of the Russian state. It manifested itself in the formation of a vertical power structure supported by the local elite and taking into account local management traditions, but controlling all key institutes and positions. The hypothesis is proved that evolution of the Russian government in the territory of the Ural-Volga region was based on the process of gradually pulling up suburban territories to the standards of local management in central Russia. These standards didn't consider national traditions of management, were based on the unified principles of rationalization and bureaucratization of management with the priority of state interests in administrative practice.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):97-102
pages 97-102 views

Contemporaries’ memoirs about N.V. Charykov’s diplomatic activity

Chernov O.A.


The article focuses on N.V. Charykov, who was an outstanding Russian diplomat who played an important role in Russia’s foreign policy. His activity is reflected in many official documents. However, they not fully represent his interaction with other civil servants of the Russian empire, and, consequently, do not reflect in full the atmosphere in which the diplomat worked. At the same time, autobiographical sources containing a subjective approach by definition are not capable of giving objective characteristic of his activity. We do not consider the memoirs of the diplomat himself, as our objective is to find out his contemporaries’s opinion of him. The considered memoirs can be classified in two basic types – diaries and memoirs. Diaries can be divided into two types – business and personal. The latter are much less informative than the former. A personal diary has an advantage over a business one from the point of view of the emotional colouring and to a certain degree reproduces attitudes of the individuals described. The memoirist’s line of activity is important. Diplomats’ memoirs contain a better weighed appraisal of the diplomat’s activity. The authors, who were not diplomats themselves, display their incompetence. The memoirs contain different, sometimes opposite assessment of the diplomat’s activity, that is another proof of their subjectivity. At the same time, they help to better understand the motives of N.V. Charykov’s activity and the attitude of the milieu to him.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):102-106
pages 102-106 views

«The anti-soviet trotskist organization»: historiographical notes

Tochiony M.D.


Since 1956, historians, legal scholars and representatives of other social Sciences and Humanities have been trying to understand what happened to the population of our country in the second half of the 30-ies of XX century. Why did people lose common sense and believe in delusional fabrications of I. V. Stalin about the transformation of millions of Soviet citizens who piously believed in the ideals of Marxism-Leninism, into the malignant saboteurs? Why did most of them demand severe punishment of traitors, when the Soviet Newspapers reported the discovery of an enormous conspiracy in the ranks of the Red army? The article is an attempt to assess the General opinions of the so-called «military» («anti-Soviet Trotskist military organization), which resulted in the shooting of the prominent Soviet military leaders led by M.N. Tukhachevskiy – I.P. Uborevich, I.E. Yakir, A.I. Cork and thousands of brave, talented Soviet soldiers, committed to the cause of socialism. Thus the armed forces of our country, its defense was dealt a severe blow, which, in the opinion of some researchers predetermined the huge losses of the Soviet Union, especially in the first years of Hitler's aggression. We are especially interested in the following aspect of «the military» – was it fabricated, and the «Red Marshal» was its innocent victim, or, on the contrary, was it investigated in complete conformity to the law and the perpetrators got the punishment they deserved? The author has assessed the key issues – both liberal-minded researchers and apologists of Stalinism.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):106-109
pages 106-109 views

On the history of the trolleybus in Penza

Gorshenin A.V.


Urban transport is an integral part of the urban economy. Without public transport it is impossible to imagine the existence of large and medium-sized towns. The analysis in this paper discusses the history of the formation of trolleybus transport in Penza in the 1940s. In pre-revolutionary years local governors wanted to organize work of the tram in Penza, but all ideas remained unrealized. After the October revolution and the beginning of industrialization, city authorities faced the task of the organization of regular intercity transport again. In the 1930s at the request of workers in Penza the narrow-gage city train traffic was organized. But it did not operate long: 2 years later owing to the technical difficulties, it wascancelled. In the years of the Great Patriotic War, in connection with the growth of the city, a need arose regular work of passenger transport. It was decided to build a trolleybus line. The main sources of the research are based on the documents of the Federal and regional archives. They are the State archive of the Russian Federation, the Penza branch of the Russian state archive of scientific-technical documentation, the State archive of the Penza region and the Department of public funds-political organizations GAPO. The archival layer of source materials of local periodicals of the considered years complements this database. Complement the archival layer of source materials is supplemented by local periodicals of the historic period in question. The paper focuses on such processes as design, construction and first few years of operation of the trolleybus in Penza. It includes problems that arose during the construction of the trolleybus route and analyses its role in the economy of Penza.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):109-114
pages 109-114 views

Erosion work ethic of the soviet peasantry in the postwar decades (on materials of the Ulyanovsk Region)

Khasyanov O.R., Galimova L.N.


Modern problems in the agricultural sector are rooted in the fact that for decades the state agricultural policy was characterized by neglect of the interests of the main producer, non-economic coercion to labour, alienation from the land and produced goods, infringement of social rights of the peasantry which inevitably led to urbanization, population migration from villages. On the basis of the study of the scientific literature and archival documents which have been analysed for the first time, the complex process of destruction of the collective farmers’s attitude to work in the public sector is explored. According to the author, the material difficulties of rural society in the war years led to the recovery in the agricultural society of previous forms of economic activity, namely the one-man operation in its stead. The victorious conclusion of the war led to the restoration of the pre-war state policy in the field of agriculture, but farmers continued to ignore social work. The author believes that public campaigns aimed at the restoration of collective farmers’s labor discipline were unsuccessful because in the absence of material incentives the collective farmers were not ready for selfless labor in social production.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):114-119
pages 114-119 views

Demographic problems of the industrial cities of Irkutsk Region in the 1990s

Urozhaeva T.P.


The author analyzes the problems of demographic development of industrial cities of the Angara area (Priangarye) in the 1990s. In particular, it focuses on the negative trends in the natural movement and migration of the urban population, which, in turn, led to depopulation. Distribution of municipal formations of the Irkutsk region in the total value of the mortality rate allows you to detect only the most general trends. The minimum level of total mortality was recorded in the south-eastern and central parts of the region, as well as in most large and medium cities. The highest values of total mortality rates were observed in the northern areas of the region and a number of rural and single-industry towns in central and eastern part of the region. Mostly, it's economically depressed municipalities with single-industry economy. According to the author, the causes of demographic instability in many industrial cities were laid during the Soviet period and were associated with the practice of attracting population and populating areas of new industrial development. The economic crisis and the aggravation of social problems in the 1990s seriously complicated demographic development of the urban population in the region. The demographic crisis of the 1990s could have been significantly smoothed over, if the federal and regional authorities had taken steps to stop the steady depopulation. In the context of the collapse of the political system demographic policy for many years had been pushed into the background. As a result, the demographic crisis, which takes root in the 1980s, fully manifested itself at the regional level in the first post-soviet decade.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):119-124
pages 119-124 views

The first year of a child's life in an armenian family (in Samara)

Agadzanyan L.A.


The theme of childhood is one of the most important and interesting in the Russian and foreign ethnography, because for a long time researchers have not given attention to this problem. In the middle of the XX century scientists emphasize the description of children's cycle ceremonies, public education. Today questions of birth and care of a child, his education in ethno-cultural and another cultural environment are in the forefront of the study of the peoples. Our investigation focuses on the first year of life of the children of Armenian ethnos living in the city of Samara. In this paper two sub-ethnic groups (Armenians from the Republic of Armenia, «Baku Armenians») of the Armenian community, that take different approaches to bringing up children are considered. This paper presents a consolidated material on the education, traditions and customs of the first year of life of the Armenian children. The article highlights the current issues of ethnography: pregnancy, childbirth and naming the baby, the postnatal period in the life of the child and the woman, nutrition, clothes, amulets, etc. Thus, the study of this issue has shown that there are certain differences in some aspects of childhood culture between the two Armenian groups in Samara, albeit minor. «Baku Armenians» are more liable to other cultures and other ethnic influence, which manifests itself in the rites of baptism, fairy tales, cola-cabling, and you select a name for the baby.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):124-129
pages 124-129 views

Azerbaijanis in the multiethnic environment of Samara: factors of ethnocultural identity

Shirinskikh Y.N.


Increased cultural contacts between representatives of different ethnic groups affect the process of self-identification of their members. Especially it concerns migrant communities. Examination of the problem of ethnicity is especially important due to the fact that the ethnic community exists until there are ethnoconsolidating factors. Within the framework of this research factors of Samara’s Azerbaijanis ethnic identity were revealed. Representatives of the Azerbaijani community of Samara base their own identity on differential features. Language is the most important factor of ethnic identity. The Azerbaijani language is the most functional in communication with relatives, friends and acquaintances, in the family. The intensity of intra-ethnic contacts leads to the necessity of language skills and stimulates stable reproduction of the ethnic group. Language skills are transmitted to children from their parents and older relatives. Traditional family structure, traditional food, holidays and mourning days are also factors of ethnic identity of Samara’s Azerbaijanis. These components allow Samara Azerbaijanis to realize their national identity and to preserve themselves as a cohesive group. Azerbaijanis of Samara realize the importance of these identity factors whose preservation is one of the main aims of national and cultural associations.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):129-133
pages 129-133 views

13.00.00 – Pedagogical Sciences

Peculiarities of the consultative training method for laboratory work classes

Andryukhina T.N.


The method of consultative instruction is promising for training of bachelors, masters and specialists, who possess professional competences. This method involves the active use of modern gadgets in the learning process of students. The professional competences of a specialist – readiness or ability to rationally and productively use knowledge, skills, habits, methods of activity, necessary for their professional sphere. The advisory teaching method is being tested for the teaching of future bachelors in the Department of Automated machine tools and tooling systems in the Samara State Technical University. The method is used for the preparation of laboratory lessons in such disciplines as Fundamentals of Computer Graphics and Computer simulation. These courses were selected for the experiment, since the curriculum sets out only four- hour laboratory works. The teacher gives theoretical input on the construction of sketches, drawings, models, parts and units from the moment the computer is switched on and the program for the simulation is started until the end of the laboratory work. The article highlights the positive aspects of the method of advisory training both for teachers and for students. The author specifies some restrictions for use of the advisory training method. The experiment has shown that while doing laboratory work the students were much more motivated, productive and creative.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):134-137
pages 134-137 views

Origins of the concept of taste as the basis for forming artistic taste of art students

Birukov M.Y.


Implementation of the principles of democracy, humanitarian priorities in the higher vocational education determines profound changes in the formation of artistic taste of contemporary young people. The problem of the formation of art taste and personality is complex, ambiguous and examined by representatives of different sciences. The artistic taste is the focus of aesthetic evaluation criteria of all spheres of human activities, it serves as a basis for establishing the invariant personality-the unique forms of the individual’s behavior, thinking and creativity. This article examines the history, state and value of artistic taste in the formation of human personality in the historical and modern science, distinguishes between subjective and objective views on the conditions for the existence and formation of artistic taste, works out a definition of artistic taste at the present stage of society development. The variety of artistic tastes is explained by the unlimited richness of art objects themselves, as well as the constant development of reality – and, above all, social reality – by the emergence of new conditions of life, development of man and man-made objects. The question of the diversity of artistic tastes finds its solution, first of all, while considering the objectivity of their content; the variety of specific manifestations of beauty accounts for diverse taste preferences. Individual display of artistic taste is valuable in demonstrating the nuances of the qualities of the object and allows one to pass on to others the feeling one experienced. Thus, a foundation is laid for creative evaluating interaction, so the artistic taste serves as an effective means of aesthetic education of art students in the course of vocational training.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):137-142
pages 137-142 views

ICT on-line resourses as a tool of implementing the Federal State Educational Standard 44.03.01 pedagogical education

Voronina M.A.


The article considers issues related to the use of the ICT in the modern education and analyzes the requirements of the federal state educational standards of primary, basic and higher education. The attention is focused on the need to develop the ICT competence at all levels of education. The concepts of using information and communication technologies in the classroom as well as the concept of «informatization of education» are analyzed. A three-level model of the ICT competence of the teachers is described, which is stipulated by the professional teachers’ standard. The article analyzes possibilities of interactive lectures supported by the social networks or the use of cloud technologies. The article proposes the use of the case-study method in the virtual reality as a means of formation of the required competencies and increasing students' motivation. It analyzes the didactic potential of the pedagogical community network as a basis for lifelong learning. The experience of the use of the Internet community as a site of scientific pedagogical research is described. Videoconferences are proposed as a tool of teacher professional development. Google Hangouts application is evaluated as well. The author draws a conclusion about the necessity for higher school teachers to use modern information technologies in the education process, which make it possible to transfer learning beyond the walls of the educational institution. Such education will comply with the Russian standard of living, and will be acceptable internationally.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):142-147
pages 142-147 views

Comparative analysis of the views of Saint Petersburg teachers on the role and essential characteristics of pedagogical diagnostics

Gutnik I.Y.


Тhe article presents a comparative analysis of the perceptions of St. Petersburg teachers from a representative sampling and analysis of opinions of teachers one of the schools of St. Petersburg that has a lot of experience in pedagogical diagnostics aimed at the students’ self-determination. As a result of the comparative analysis it was ascertained that the teachers are aware of the necessity of pedagogical diagnostics in modern educational process. Our research confirmed the teachers’ awareness of the importance of daily, close to the intuitive knowledge of their students and that the existing experience of student support based on educational diagnostics, makes it necessary for the teacher to know the students’ problems and difficulties. Teachers lack knowledge and skills as far as the use of different sources for information about the student is concerned. Teachers do not quite understand the importance of applying qualitative and authentic methods of diagnosis, as well as the importance of taking into account the opinions of the colleagues and need to interact with them, the significance of collectively, jointly developing a mechanism and diagnostic support for all school staff. It is shown that the training in the theory and practice of pedagogical diagnosis allows teachers to eliminate many problems of pedagogical diagnostics, namely, its being labor- and time-consuming.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):147-152
pages 147-152 views

Improvements in the formation of econometric knowledge at training of bachelors - teachers of economic profile

Zelepukhin Y.V., Tsybina O.Y.


The concept of modernization of Russian education raises the question about necessity of introduction of profile training to improve and develop the school system of education. It is important that the implementation of ideas to improve education a priority is the presence of expert teachers to work in specialized classes. One of the most difficult is to educate students to work in classrooms socio-economic profile. Future teachers enrolled in the profile "Economics", must use economic, mathematical and econometric methods in solving socio-economic issues, to know the achievements of world economic thought, have a General mathematical culture. To achieve these goals in higher education is taught econometrics. It is an interdisciplinary science, it is based on mathematical and economic knowledge. Over the past 40 years there has been a rapid development of econometrics as a scientific discipline. As evidence of international recognition and importance was the awarding of the Nobel prize in Economics for outstanding research in the field of econometrics scholars such as Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen, James Heckman and Daniel McFadden. It should be noted that all econometric methods are used more in different publications and studies. To econometrics deeply penetrate the latest information technologies and mathematical methods. Econometrics students, teachers of economic profile has a positive effect on the cognition of the world and the absorption of various knowledge, since the mathematical language is universal and the one who knows how to use it successfully will be able to apply their knowledge in various fields of science and industry. The article is devoted to the improvement of the formation of econometric knowledge at training of bachelors-teachers of economic profile.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):152-156
pages 152-156 views

Model of labour safety and health protection of college students from a special medical group

Il'mushkin G.M., Parhaeva O.V., Sudakova J.E.


This paper presents an overview of the state of health of students at the present stage of development of education in the Russian Federation, factors are justified which determine the progress of a number of resistant diseases associated with conditions of mental work at the university. On the basis of the facts available and analysis of medical and educational documentation of Dimitrovgrad Engineering-Technical Institute – branch of National Nuclear Research University MEPhI (Diti MEPhI) the paper shows the dynamics of the number of students assigned to a special medical group (SMG), as well as morbidity structure of the nosological status. This group of students have special needs as far as their physical training is concerned. In this regard, the authors suggest the optimal structuring of the content of physical education for the SMG students which is based on their physical health, psycho-emotional characteristics, motivation and attitude to physical self-improvement, as well as the introduction of competence-based approach in physical training class. At the same time physical education is considered in the context of labour safety and health protection. Thus, the authors propose a model of health protection of SMG students. In the model developed, considerable attention is given to improving the students’ physical education by introducing innovative pedagogical tools of communication in the educational process.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):156-161
pages 156-161 views

Structure of the analytical activity of the head of school

Koval N.N.


The article deals with the current pedagogical approaches to the components, structure and description of analytical activity. Different models of analytical activity are reviewed: activity approach (E.V. Naznachilo, N.A. Zinchuk, V.V. Yagupov, N.P. Pichugova), systematic approach (L.P. Polovenko, O.N. Yarygin, and A.A. Korostelev), structural-activity approach (L.M. Plakhova). Within each approach the main components and stages of the analytical activity are described. The emphasis is laid on the three-dimensional model of analytical practice of the school principal: the technology of the analysis of the results of educational system operation (A.A. Korostelev), the element of that is a heuristic algorithm of unmathematical character, consisting of five stages. This technology combined a motivational sense, target, technological levels. The structural components of the analytical activity of the school’s head are highlighted and described: value-motivation (personality attitude of leader toward analytical activity, value of parties and her meaningfulness in administrative activity, necessity of personality to improve and develop in this type of activity), goal-oriented (intentional aspect), cognitive-operational (complex of knowledge, abilities, practical skills, necessary for realization of effective and effective analytical activity) and reflective (self-esteem, self-awareness, self-management, self-design their own analytical activities).

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):161-167
pages 161-167 views

Preparing future teachers to work with children experiencing difficulties in mastering basic educational programs of general education, development and social adaptation

Kondaurova I.K.


The article describes the author's approach to the design and implementation of professional-methodical training of future math teachers to work with children experiencing difficulties in mastering basic educational programs of general education, development and social adaptation, including children with disabilities, in the context of the requirements of the National educational initiative «Our new school», the National strategy of actions in interests of children for 2012-2017, a number of other normative documents. Objectives of the study, expected outcomes and approximate contents of the section «Methods of teaching mathematics to students with difficulties in mastering basic educational programs of general education, development and social adaptation, including children with disabilities» discipline «Methods of teaching mathematics to children with special educational needs». The structure of the content is presented in three modules. The first is the study of psycho-pedagogical aspects and regulatory documents providing training, education and development of students with difficulties in mastering basic educational programs of general education, development and social adaptation. The second module includes general questions of methodology of teaching mathematics to students with difficulties in mastering basic educational programs of general education, development and social adaptation. The third module presents particular questions of methods of teaching mathematics to students with difficulties in mastering basic educational programs of general education, development and social adaptation. In conclusion, the article presents recommendations on organization of educational and research activity of future teachers of mathematics in the context of the methodological material examined.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):167-171
pages 167-171 views

The structure and content of the professional physical culture of the personality

Korovin S.S.


The primary factor of the development of society, production of its culture is the reproduction of a full-fledged personality combining adoption of socio-cultural values and commitment to their transformation and translation into social practices, primarily practices in professional activity, to the greatest extent responsible for creating material, spiritual and artistic values of culture. Such a large-scale (in time and qualitative senses) transformation of personality «through culture» and «for culture» in connection with professional activities and biosocial nature of personality in the aggregate determine the involvement of the values of professional physical culture (PPC). Mainly with their use the harmonious development of biosocial starts of personality is provided, also the system of its motor and personal needs and abilities in accordance with the specificity of professional activity in relation to the formation of specific and integrated personal experiences-professional physical culture of personality (PPCP), optimal and typical professional level of which is the factor and prerequisite of the quality of socialization, the process of filling in the values of the culture; a reflection of the quality of higher and secondary professional education. According to modern concepts the components of professional physical culture of personality and its chief characteristics are : physical (optimal physical development, applied motor fitness (psychomotor sphere), physical adaptation); cognitive-intellectual (theoretical preparedness in the sphere of PPC, the state of professionally significant mental processes); axiological (the value orientation in the sphere of PPC and system of social values); physical activity (motives and needs, involvement in profiled sports activities and instructor activities in it). The main features of formation of each of the identified components of PPCP are also presented.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):171-174
pages 171-174 views

Indicators and conditions of formation of technical university bachelors professional competences in the course of mathematical disciplines

Kochetova T.N., Ilina L.A., Eremicheva O.U.


A set of competences is the result of the modern professional school education. This set of competences is set by federal state educational standards of higher education.To achieve the required level of training is possible if the educational organization creates conditions for fundamental and at the same time professionally oriented education. It is necessary to develop tools and to describe evaluation procedures in order to describe the outcomes of education. The article describes the training of bachelors of «State and Municipal Management» and focuses on professional competence PC-7, which in accordance with the basic educational program of the Samara State Technical University, is to be formed by the disciplines comprising the basic part of the curriculum. To develop this competence one must master the method of investigating the phenomena and processes through the construction and study of their mathematical models. Application of this method reduces the solution of professional problems to mathematical modeling and subsequent study of the resulting model. To provide students with practice in resolving professional problems in the field of economy management, the authors developed a scheme of the use of real process modeling. Experience of teaching mathematical disciplines allowed the authors to outline organizational and pedagogical conditions, the implementation of which contributes to the formation of the competence in question. The effectiveness of the outlined conditions is proved experimentally. Indicators and performance criteria for the evaluation of the competence formation in the course of mathematics and basics of mathematical modeling of socio-economic processes are formulated.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):175-180
pages 175-180 views

The content and development of biochemical concepts in the school course of biology

Nalivayko I.V., Bobrova N.G.


The article reveals the content of biochemical concepts constituting school biology course, shows their development during the study of all the units of the subject mentioned above: from the vegetable organism to the general laws of nature. Biology as a school subject is a system of biological concepts, developing in a logical sequence. The handling of the relevant concepts shows the degree of assimilation of biological knowledge. That is why the teacher’s work on assimilation and development of biological concepts is so important. The study of biochemical concepts is included in the school course of biology. They can be classified according to the nature of the content, along with morphological, anatomical concepts etc. Some biochemical concepts belong to the group of basic biological concepts, i.e. concepts about the biological regularities concerning with the whole wildlife. They are: «metabolism and interchange of energy», «nutrition», «breathing», «selection», «photosynthesis». A number of biochemical concepts such as «proteins», «carbohydrates», «vitamins», «enzymes» and some others are special, as they are studied within a specific section. The article analyzes school curricula and textbooks on biology; it allows making a conclusion that biochemical concepts are formed and developed throughout the biology course from 6 to 11 grades. There is a succession in formation and development of these notions: at first they are special and are studied as processes characterizing the functioning of a plant; considering the processes occurring in animal organism, biochemical concepts become general. In the «General Biology» unit they become special again. Such regularity is substantiated by the logic of construction of biological material. The formation of biochemical concepts is contributed to by all kinds of verbal, visual and practical methods of teaching biology, the role of the latter is particularly important. It requires the use of activity approach during the formation of biochemical concepts, because one of the conditions for their proper formation is the application of knowledge in practice. Skills acquired by students are the indicators of the effectiveness of education, together with the amount of subject knowledge.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):180-185
pages 180-185 views

The ways of optimization of legal education in Russia

Ramazanova P.K., Gadjiyeva Z.A.


The article reveals the problems that arise during the preparation of law specialists. Moreover, the increasing number of universities are not able to resolve the situation. The authors analyze the reasons of deterioration of the quality of law education. An attempt to identify gaps in the field of law education has been made, as only proper diagnosis of the disease allows you to select effective treatment. In order to reform law education, it is necessary to involve members of the community who will watch the process of the university optimization, establish contacts between the faculties and various organizations. It is necessary to be more exacting to the teaching staff. The core problem is a drop in the quality of secondary education. The reforms have had a negative impact on the educational process. The opportunity to graduate for a fee leads to a further devaluation of education, to the unprecedented scale of corruption in educational institutions, to the rapid increase in the number of low-grade law schools and faculties producing ignoramuses with lawyer diplomas from year to year. Unjustified multiplication of the university branches has not led to either an increase in competition between them or to improvement of the quality of law education in our country. A serious drawback in preparation of future lawyers is a lack of attention to the practical aspect of the training, as a result, having textbook knowledge only, the students getting down to real work experience a kind of inferiority complex. Ways of optimization of legal education aresuggested.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):185-189
pages 185-189 views

The artillery and engineering gentry cadet corps as an important part of the system of military personnel training in Russia

Starodubtsev M.P.


In the course of modernization of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, the transition to the new image of the officer, military education of the Russian Federation today faces a complex and important task of the scientific study of processes of formation and training of officers, capable of solving problems of the security of the state, and reform of the system of military education that meets the priority tasks of the Russian Armed Forces. These facts lead to the need to turn to the history of the formation of the system of military education and the necessity to examine military education in Russia in second half XVIII century with the aim of summarizing, organizing, recording and use of past experience in contemporary Russia. In the process of training at the artillery and engineering gentry cadet corps pupils were taught to love Russian history, Russian army, the Navy, and developed high moral standards. Cadets were notable for their extensive professional knowledge, broad outlook, patriotism, honor, duty, and comradeship. Until the end of the eighteenth century, the training of future officers in the cadet corps took place on the basis of the revitalization of moral education, free and comprehensive development of personality of a future officer of the Russian army. The author makes use of some archival sources that have not yet been examined.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):189-192
pages 189-192 views

Peculiarities of using the demonstration principle in ballet pedagogy

Fomkin A.V.


Demonstration is one of the most important teaching principles. The foundation for the scientific study of this principle was laid by the outstanding pedagogue Ya.A. Komensky, who called it «the golden rule of didactics». Later, Komensky’s ideas were developed by J.H. Pestalozzi, K.D. Ushinsky, and other pedagogues. A special role in clarifying and specifying the functions of demonstration belongs to Russian pedagogues and psychologists developing the ideas of «the unity of consciousness and activity» (S.L. Rubinstein), the theory of activity (A.N. Leontyev), and the theory of gradual formation of mental actions (P.Ya. Galperin). Demonstration has been used in teaching dance since the ancient times, when various visual aids were used to illustrate the teacher’s words. Yet, despite the presence of extensive literature in other areas, in ballet pedagogy the study of demonstration has been limited to just a few researchers – N.I. Tarasov, E.P. Valukina, and A.A. Alferova. This paper presents the first attempt in ballet pedagogy to comprehensively analyse the use of the principle of demonstration in ballet teaching. Drawing on the historical traditions of ballet education, the author shows the leading role of demonstration in teaching professional skills to ballet artists and reveals the essence of the main types of demonstration – figural/«pictorial», verbal, image-based and natural. The paper highlights the leading role of figural demonstration, in which showing of movements is traditionally the main teaching tool. The combination of the four types of demonstration – figural, verbal, image-based and natural – facilitates the visual, audial and motor perception of a movement (or its model, image) by the students allowing them to internalize movements into their psyche and body.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(1):192-196
pages 192-196 views

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