Vol 5, No 3 (2016)

03.02.00 – General Biology

Moss flora of Samara Region

Bogdanova Y.A.


Bryophytes are not numerous but a very ancient and original group of higher plants. Due to their small size the study of bryophytes has long lagged behind the study of vascular plants. According to the literature available to us the first information about mosses of the Samara Region was obtained only at the beginning of the XX century. According to available literature data the total number of bryophytes of the Samara Region are at least 192 species of mosses from 98 genera, 47 families and 17 orders belonging to 5 classes (Haplomitriopsida, Jungermannopsida, Sphagnopsida, Polytrichopsida, Bryopsida). On the basis of the data obtained Bryopsida class (10 orders, 37 families, 84 genera and 149 species) dominates in the number of orders, families, genera. The order Hypnales is most widely represented by 17 families, 49 genera, 75 species. Sphagnaceae (19 species, but the genus Sphagnum 1) leads in the number of species among the 47 families, Amblystegiaceae (10 genera, 13 species) leads in the number of genera. Sphagnum – 19 species, Brachythecium (7 types), Bryum and Plagiomnium (6) of the largest generas.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):8-13
pages 8-13 views

Morphometric analysis of the annual shoot of the Acer negundo L. plants, growing in conditions of exposure to technogenic pollution of Donbass

Vinogradova E.N.


For estimation of quality of the environment in industrial regions, along with the methods of instrumental analysis, the methods of bioindication are rather relevant, foremost phytoindication. The influence of air pollutants during ontogenesis results in violation of normal vital functions of arboreal plants, the integral index of the vital state of which is the intensity of vegetative growth. Parameters, characterizing the plant growth, can be quite informative for the bioindication of level of the technogenic contamination of environment. This article presents the results of analysis of coke production emissions influence and transport on the morphometric indexes of annual vegetative shoots of Acer negundo L. It is shown that the influence of airpollutants leads to inhibition of the development of annual shoot. The reduction in the length of annual shoot (22–26%) and the number of its structural elements is accompanied by a decrease in mass (33–49%) and area (27–45%) of leaves, indicating xerophytization of shoots under the influence of emissions. The greatest changes are revealed in A. negundo trunk from plantations, experiencing, along with the influence of exhaust gas, the extremely adverse conditions of root nutrition. High sensitivity to technogenic emissions of such morphometric parameters of A. negundo as the length of annual shoots, the total weight and area of shoot leaves allows to use them in monitoring researches of vegetation condition and environmental pollution in the industrial regions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):13-17
pages 13-17 views

History study of steppe vegetation in the Middle-Volga Complex Biosphere Reserve

Gorlov S.E.


Middle-Volga complex biosphere reserve is a specially-protected natural area in Samara region. The reserve was established in 2006 on the basis of Zhiguli reserve named after I. Sprygina and National Park «Samarskaya Luka» and became the first integrated biosphere reserve in Russia. The main purpose of the reserve is to ensure the conservation of Zhiguli landscapes and forest-steppe complexes of Middle Volga region, the organization of environmental monitoring and the development of careful environmental management system. The most valuable for research are fragments preserved in the reserve steppe areas, found only in small outlier unplowed areas in the southern and south-western part of Samarskaya Luka, in the Zhiguli and Sengileevskaya mountains. These are the remains of the steppe vegetation that once covered much of the plateau reserve. Although currently they are only small areas they cover all types of steppes in Samara region: meadow (north) steppe, present or feather-fescue (south), as well as special versions of steppe – shrubs, rocky and sandy. The uniqueness of the reserve nature, biodiversity, a large number of rare, endemic and relict species and communities could not but attract the attention of botanists from various periods. We consider the most important works from the point of view of studying the steppe vegetation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):17-21
pages 17-21 views

The chemicals (formaldehyde and toluene) influence on soil microorganisms of leached chernozem

Ilyina N.A., Fufaeva T.V., Kazakova N.A., Kasatkina N.M., Vilkova E.A.


The paper assesses the status of the soil cover associated with the pollution of its waste chemical production and consumption. The authors present the data of formaldehyde and toluene influence on the abundance of actinomycetes, heterotrophic bacteria and fungi, as these groups of microorganisms provide self-purification capacity of the soil and participate in soil formation processes. In this paper microbiological and physico-chemical methods of research are used. The study of species composition changes of some soil microorganisms groups of leached chernozem under the influence of formaldehyde and toluene showed that this factor causes changes in the complex of soil microorganisms. This factor is reflected in the decreased species richness and diversity and increase of pollution-tolerant microorganisms. These studies investigate a number of microorganisms that provide self-purification capacity of the soil and participate in soil formation. The results show the nature of the influence of different doses of formaldehyde and toluene on the structure and functioning of the complex of soil microorganisms, as well as reveal the mechanism of action of chemicals (formaldehyde and toluene) on soil microbiota associated with its resistance and the manifestation of toxicity of the soil.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):21-25
pages 21-25 views

Some data on raccoon dog’s distribution in the Samara Region

Kamalova E.S., Martynova V.V., Fokina M.E.


Raccoon dog is an invasive species which has successfully expanded on the new territory in the Samara region. The paper presents data on its distribution on the Samara Region areas. The studies were conducted on the floodplain, steppe, forest and riparian areas of the region, including both national park «Samarskaya Luka» and Zhiguli State Nature Biosphere Reserve areas. Collected data proves studied species’ presence (such as footprints, burrows, temporary shelters) in 12 municipal districts of the region. The paper contains information on the GPS-mapping of burrows and temporary shelters which have been found in the southern part of the protected area of the national park «Samarskaya Luka» during 2002–2015. Fifteen burrows and temporary shelters, footprints, urinary points, feces have been found in this area, and the detailed burrow’s descriptions were provided. Further spread of the population depends on the places suitable for temporary shelters and burrows, presence of water reservoirs areas where raccoon dogs may find food, as well as minimized influence of disturbing factor (anthropogenic press). The data obtained may be useful for employees of nature biosphere reserves, forestry and hunting organizations for invasive species’ monitoring.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):25-30
pages 25-30 views

The assessment of bio-ecological features of plants Tulipa biebersteiniana Schult. et Schult. fil. in the model forest habitats of the Krasnosamarsky forest

Kotelnikova M.G.


The paper presents some preliminary results of the monitoring of Tulipa biebersteiniana Schult. et Schult. fil. plants (category of rare and endangered plant species). By summarizing the available sources of science literature we have compiled a general description of morphological and bio-ecological species characteristics. The results of the field study fulfilled in 2012–2015 in two population groups of the Krasnosamarsky forestry (Samara region) were used to determine morphometric parameters of Tulipa biebersteiniana plants. The data also helped us to assess the variability level and to make a comparison with plant quantitative traits given in the literature. It was found that the shoot length of Tulipa biebersteiniana plants varied in the range of 23 … 50 cm, the maximum average length of 40 cm are presented in plants of population group number two. The distribution of shoot length among individuals of the second population group is more stable, changes depending on the year of vegetation are poorly expressed. The lengths of shoots inside the range specified for the various parts of the area in the literature with a significant proportion of «high» plants in the population is studied. This may be a sign of good growth conditions for Fritillaria ruthenica that gives an opportunity to the plant conservation in natural communities in the absence of limiting anthropogenic factors.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):30-35
pages 30-35 views

Kazakhstan black soil organic substance agrogenic transformation

Kurishbayev A.K., Zvyagin G.A., Yaroslavtseva N.V., Kogut B.M.


Currently despite the extended study of the temporary dynamic of the cultivated soil organic substance on the global scale scientists pay much attention to the establishing the patterns of its quantitative transformation on the regional level depending on the systems of agricultural exploitation for the purpose of clarifying the worldwide estimate of humus reserve in relation to the issue of the «greenhouse effect». In this regard we have examined the modern dynamic (1990–2015) of the regular and southern black soil organic substance in the conditions of long-term stationary field experiments in the primary grain-sowing region of the Northern Kazakhstan. Based on the data from alternative time periods on the proportion of Соргand N in the upper (mainly 0–25 cm) layer of virgin and agrogenic black soil of Akmolinsk and Kostanay regions of Kazakhstan we have discovered the distinctive characteristics of changes in the content of soil organic substance. It has been demonstrated that the content of humus in the regular black soil is significantly higher than that in the southern carbonated black soil. Evaluation of transforming and inert pool of organic carbon in virgin and agrogenic variants of southern black soil has been made. It has been established that currently in the result of influence from various methods of southern black soil treatment the rate of humus percentage decrease is slowing down in comparison with that of the previous period of its agricultural exploitation, however, in practice, those methods, including the subsurface tilling, do not halt the de-humusization process. Content of humus in soil of the variants with continuous spring wheat is approaching that with continuous complete fallow. There are sufficient grounds to suggest that the reason for de-humusization of the southern black soil could reside in biochemical (mineralization), as well as physical (deflation) loss of humus. Particular danger comes from the wind erosion resulting in percentage of humus dropping even below its minimal value, i.e. due to the decrease of nearly unrecoverable inert part. In agrogenic regular black soil, during the closing period of its agricultural exploitation, there has been no humus loss detected, which is most probably related to the existence of protective anti-erosion forest belts in the studied fields area.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):35-39
pages 35-39 views

Structural features of local floor disturbed ecotops (on the example of the flora of railways)

Nikitin N.A.


The work deals with the structural features of the local floras disturbed ecotopes as integral components of a higher rank flora. In this study, the local flora is disturbed ecotope, as a collection of species growing in a certain area, the degree of responsiveness to anthropogenic impacts structurally divided into elementary components, the selection of which is based on ecological and botanical features of the plants composing them. Since the three components were identified: locally depressed flora (localdepressive flora) lokalconstant flora (localconstantis flora), loсalplastic flora (localvariabilis flora) and loсalnokosmopolit flora (locallatos flora). All components are connected to each other and regularly rebuilt during changing environmental conditions when moving from one climate zone to another, as well as changes in the nature and degree of exposure. Depressive flora experiencing declining trend in the number of individuals or the complete disappearance under the influence of anthropogenic impact, constant flora, usually consists of a species capable of operating with a significant manifestation anthropogenic factor to maintain their characteristic features of growth; Plastic flora is represented by the largest number of species able to expand its range in the conditions of anthropogenic stress; cosmopolitan flora species is represented, actively propagating in the conditions of natural phytocenosis and under anthropogenic loads. Quantitatively cosmopolitans may exceed the plastic flora, but only on the number of individuals, but not the species.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):40-43
pages 40-43 views

Syntaxonomic diversity of pasture ecosystems vegetation in south-east Ukraine

Ostapko V.M., Shevchuk O.M., Prikhodko S.A.


This work presents research data on pasture ecosystems vegetation in south-east Ukraine. This survey was carried out during 1998–2011 by route and semi-permanent methods. All botanical and geographical chorions of lower level within the territory of our region were explored. The representation of vegetation formations and associations were studied in following pasture steppe ecosystems: watershed ecosystems with differentiated black soil (43 formations, 425 associations), ravine-gully ecosystems with eroded black soil (81 formations, 750 associations), ravine-gully ecosystems with eroded to granite black soil (48 formations, 293 associations), ravine-gully ecosystems with eroded to limestone black soil (39 formations, 355 associations), above flood-plain terraced ecosystems with cretaceous soil (46 formations, 220 associations), above flood-plain terraced sandy ecosystems (24 formations, 140 associations). It is shown that syntaxonomic diversity of natural pasture ecosystems vegetation is dominantly represented by 1029 associations and 178 formations (37% and 33% from associations and formations of regional native vegetation). As far as steppe ecosystems are concerned, 920 associations and 147 formations are registered (33% and 27% from associations and formations of regional native vegetation). As for meadow ecosystems, we registered 424 associations and 80 formations (15% and 14% from native associations and formations, respectively). The highest syntaxonomic diversity is characteristic of ravine-gully ecosystems on eroded to loess black soil, the lowest diversity of all the steppe ecosystems is reported for above flood-plain terraced sandy steppes. Among meadows, vegetation of salt and marsh meadows has the lowest diversity.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):43-48
pages 43-48 views

Petrophytic-steppe communities of the Mogutova Mountain (Zhiguli Hills)

Sidyakina L.V., Vasjukov V.M., Saksonov S.V.


The Mogutova Mountain – domal erosive ostanets in the north of the Zhigulyovsk hill, lies in national park «Samara Luka». Communities petrophytic steppes are formed on calcareous exposures of steep slopes of the western, southern and east expositions of the mountain Mogutova. Petrophytic-steppe communities on a slope of east exposition are described – petrophytic-forbs-feather grass steppe (Stipa capillata + Stipa pennata + Herbae stepposae), on a slope of west exposition – petrophytic-sunrose-feather grass steppe (Stipa pennata + Helianthemum nummularium), on a slope of south exposition – petrophytic-thyme-sedge-feather grass steppe (Stipa pulcherrima + Carex pediformis + Thymus zheguliensis). In the studied communities three narrow-local of endemic species of the Zhigulyovsk hill grows: Euphorbia zhiguliensis, Gypsophila juzepczukii, Thymus zheguliensis and three of subendemic species grows: Festuca wolgensis s.str., Tanacetum sclerophyllum (endemics of Central Volga area), Koeleria sclerophylla (endemic of Central Volga area and South Ural); the relict element of flora is presented by three species: Alyssum lenense, Clausia aprica, Helianthemum nummularium. Five species are included in the Red book of the Russian Federation: Astragalus zingeri, Euphorbia zhiguliensis, Koeleria sclerophylla, Stipa pennata, Thymus zheguliensis; sixteen species are included in the Red book of the Samara region: Adonanthe vernalis, Alyssum lenense, Astragalus zingeri, Clausia aprica, Cotoneaster laxiflorus, Euphorbia zhiguliensis, Festuca wolgensis, Gypsophila juzepczukii, Helianthemum nummularium, Koeleria sclerophylla, Onosma volgensis, Pulsatilla patens, Scabiosa isetensis, Stipa pennata, Tanacetum sclerophyllum, Thymus zheguliensis. The most widespread plants of petrophytic steppes of the Mogutova Mountain: Astragalus zingeri, Carex pediformis, Echinops ruthenicus, Galium hexanarium, Gypsophila juzepczukii, Helictotrichon desertorum, Jurinea ledebourii, Onosma volgensis, Psephellus carbonatus, Stipa pennata, Tanacetum sclerophyllum, Thesium ramosum, Thymus zheguliensis.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):48-53
pages 48-53 views

Research of microflora of soils in forest nurseries of the Vologda region

Khamitova S.M., Avdeyev Y.M., Snetilova V.S.


Soil is a separate natural unit, its protection is a top priority issue when it is used by industry or agriculture. Urban environment is subjected to different changes because of the intensive anthropogenic influence. The soil surface of urban areas needs much attention as well as traffic influence consequences. Industrial and building sites have great impact on soil diverting its components (agrochemical and physical ones). It interferes with its important ecological function. Microbiota, biochemical parameters of the soils, its biological activity are the first to change that is why they are considered by many explorers to be the most sensitive to pollution of soil layers. Green areas play an important role for the urban population. The scientists often do not take that areas into consideration because their soils are traditionally believed not to be subjected to intensive anthropogenic influence and do not cause much of pollution and hereby are not dangerous. Meanwhile small recreational zones within cities are often influenced by industrial factors, as a result the vegetation and soils worsen though they play an important role in environmental recovery and fulfil recreational and sanitary functions. We have measured soil fungi and bacteria by a reproduction and insemination method by placing the soil suspension into dense nutrient medium.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):53-56
pages 53-56 views

Floristic component of ecosystem of the Karalyk River

Shakurov A.I.


Karalyk River – the right tributary of the river Big Irgiz. The channel has no permanent watercourse, in summer it occasionally dries up, so along the entire course meet earthen dams, retarding flood flows. The task of this work included a comprehensive assessment of the flora of the river, the characteristics of systematic, ecological and biomorphological composition. Furthermore, the authors investigated the resource value of the riparian-aquatic plants. A study of the flora revealed 53 species of semi-aquatic plants, hydrophytes amount to 11,3%, hygrogelophytes – 7,5%, galofity (15%), hygrophytes – 30,8%, hygromesophyte and mesophytae of 39,6%. The types of plants growing in the bed of the river Karalic and the coast represented by 28 genera from 24 families. The taxa belong to the classes Liliiopsida (11 families) and are represented by a (13 families). The greatest number of species observed for the Asteraceae Salicaceaе, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Lemnaceae, Potamogetonaceae, Polygonaceae, Lamiaceae, and Typhaceae, they contain from 7 to 2 species, the remaining 14 families represented by one species. Analysis of the flora of the river Karalic showed that the aquatic flora contains 18 species or 34% of the total species composition. Low species diversity is due to the high degree of erosion processes, active processes of sedimentation as a result of failure of coastal protection zones. Low water clarity inhibits the development of the typical aquatic plants.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):56-60
pages 56-60 views

07.00.00 – Historical Sciences and Archaeology

Neolithic site Algay in Low Povolzhye

Yudin A.I., Vybornov A.A., Vasilieva I.N., Kosintsev P.A., Kulkova M.A., Goslar T., Philippsen B., Baratskov A.V.


The paper reports the results of the research at Neolithic site Algay in Saratov region in steppe Povolzhye in 2015. The existence of two levels of cultural layer was traced. New data on the pottery of Orlovskaya culture and the technology of its making were obtained. The vessels were made of clay with clamshell additive or of silt. Stone tools are represented by plaques, scrapers, points and geometric microliths. The co-occurance of trapezoids with planed back and segments with Geluanskaya retouch was noted. The determination of osteological remains at the site shows tour, tarpan, onager and saiga prevailing. Domestic dog bones were found. They were in the layer dated back to 5700 BC. Radiocarbon dating of different materials (bones, charred organic remains, charcoal) from the site makes it possible to compare the results. The low level dates back to between 5800 and 5400 BC and the upper level to 4800 BC. These dates allow to confirm the site development from VI to the beginning of V millennium BC in calibrated meanings. It allows to correct the chronology of the Neolithic in the Low Povolzhye.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):61-68
pages 61-68 views

The results of the technical-technological analysis of Grenada camp ceramics (Central Kazakhstan)

Loman V.G.


One of the problems in archaeology of Kazakhstan is the uneven study of the sites belonging to different epochs. For example, in Central Kazakhstan there is a clear bias towards the study of antiquities of the middle and late Bronze Ages, Early Iron Age and Middle Ages. The study of the Stone Age stopped since the 90-es of XX century, the Early Bronze Age is practically not investigated. This article publishes the results of technical-technological analysis of the ceramics of the Grenada camp (Karaganda, Kazakhstan) dated from the late Chalcolithic to the beginning of the Early Bronze Age. Author studied raw materials (three kinds), the clay paste composition (six recipes), the features of the design of the beginning (two programs) and the hollow body. The diversity of pottery traditions, marked for all levels of ceramic production, speaks of the heterogeneous composition of the camp population. The vessels belonged at least to two groups of different origin. Mixed recipes with gruss and grog in the presence of «pure» demonstrate this process of cultural mixing that took place within the camp. The conclusion is made that the materials of the Grenada camp, including the features of pottery traditions, reflect the complexity of the cultural-historical processes that have taken place in the territory of the Central Kazakhstan in the end of Chalcolithic – in the beginning of Early Bronze Age.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):69-72
pages 69-72 views

The contribution of B.F. Zhelezchikov to the study of early nomads of the Southern Urals

Duisengali M.N.


This article is devoted to the heritage analysis of the Boris Fedorovich Zhelezchikov – the sarmatology scientist. It considers its contribution to the study of early nomads of the Southern Urals. The main target of the article is the generalization of theoretical development of famous researcher of Volga-Ural region. The scientific interests of researsher were linked with genesis questions of Savromatian and early Sarmatian cultures, with household activity and social and religious beliefs of nomads. He was elaborating the problem of the origin, of the chronology and the process of creating a culture of nomads of the Early Iron Age of the Southern Urals. Many of the provisions made by him, ideas and hypotheses are not lost its relevance todayHistorical adjustments introduced by B. Zhelezchikov in the reconstruction of historical and cultural situation in the region were developed in the works of his students and followers. Article describes field researchers work in 70-ies of Twentieth century. During this period, Zhelezchikov teamed up with archaeologists G.A. Kushaev, M.G. Moshkova and V.A. Krieger conducted extensive archaeological excavations at the previously little-studied areas of Western Kazakhstan. As a result of many years of field work at times was increased the range of the studied monuments, the new unique complexes became the property of the science. The research base of history was refilled for further summarizing works.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):73-77
pages 73-77 views

Dromos kurgans of the saka time on the Zharly River (Central Kazakhstan)

Beisenov A.Z.


The features of dromos kurgans of the early Saka time studied by the author in the cemeteries Nurken-2, Serekty-1, Kosoba in Central Kazakhstan are considered in the article. Unlike the materials received during the earlier studies by M.K. Kadyrbaev in 1950–1970, new data shows that the tradition of dromos graves was widespread in the region. On the basis of archaeological and radiocarbon data, dromos kurgans date back to the VIII–VI cc. BC. Studies have shown that they are primarily connected with the elite burials. Dromos kurgans are oriented to the east, south-east and in terms of size, layout, sections are of different types. Currently they are known in almost all habitats of the Kazakh culture having the early Saka shape, whose monuments were excavated in North, Central, East, South-East (Zhetysu) Kazakhstan, as well as in the East Aral Sea region. The author assumes that among all early Saka cultures of Kazakhstan dromos graves have been the most common throughout the different regions. According to the available materials, dromos graves appeared no later than VIII–VII centuries BC in the early Saka cultures of Kazakhstan. A little later, since VI c. BC, this tradition appeared in the monuments of Savromat and Sarmatian tribes in West Kazakhstan. For the early Saka cultures of Kazakhstan dromos tradition is associated with the culture of the preceding period – the period of the Late Bronze Age.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):77-86
pages 77-86 views

Analysis funerary ceramics of the Plotnikovo burial ground (on the basis of the excavation 2007-2015)

Bryukhova N.G., Batueva N.S., Lychagina E.L.


The article analyzes the pottery Plotnikovo burial ground, which belongs to the Rodanovskaya culture. Material culture this time has not been well studied. Finds discovered during the excavations, it was quite diverse. Jewelry, weapon, tools and household items represent it. Some things are similar to the materials of the Russian North, the Volzhskaya Bulgaria and Perm Vychegodskaya. The study was conducted typological and technological analysis of the fragments of 52 vessels. For the site is characterized by proliferation of cup-shaped vessel with a flattened bottom and a loop handle, weak ornamentation dishes with the prevalence of the use of a comb stamp for applying the patterns, the use of clay in the wet state with the addition of crushed shells in the molding composition. A comparison with ceramic complexes chronologically simultaneous sites Vymskaya and Chepetskaya culture revealed both similarities and differences. These differences indicate the presence of its own tradition of producing ceramics in funerary XII–XV centuries of the population, left the Plotnikovo burial ground. The study material of the Plotnikovo burial ground is great interest to address the issues of ethno genesis Permian Komis and clarify the chronology of late stage rodanovskaya culture.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):87-91
pages 87-91 views

Najib Hamadani and Ahmed at-Tusi’s Bulgarian oikonyms and their location in the former Volga Bulgaria

Belenov N.V.


This article attempts to localize the fortresses of the Volga Bulgars (first of all, fortresses Marj and Tehshu) known from medieval authors reportedly Najib Hamadani and Ahmed at-Tusi. In the course of solving this problem the question of these authors’ data reliability is raised, as well as the common source of this information borrowing. There is a good reason to see this in the source known among the Arab-Persian historical and geographical medieval manuscripts as «Rizal» by Ahmed ibn Fadlan, the Secretary of Abbasid embassy to the Volga Bulgars Elteber Almush, who visited the Volga in 922. This fact explains the absence of Bulgarian cities known from other sources in the given lists as well as the question of uniqueness of Hamadani and at-Tusi’s information. On the basis of the sources synthesis, place-and folklore studies, the article proposes some options for localization of some of these forts and etymology options of Bulgarian oikonyms mentioned in the papers by the considered authors. The author proves the importance of place names data at the present stage of Bulgar study research, especially of Volga Bulgaria historical geography as well as further studies are planned.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):91-96
pages 91-96 views

The epidemiological status of the Russian Empire: history of research in domestic science and practice

Mifteeva D.M.


This article discusses the history of the study of epidemic diseases in domestic science, analyses the main tendencies of epidemiology as a science in Russia. The importance of the work of scientists – practitioners is the fight against infectious diseases in previous centuries, the positive experience which is the basis of modern science of epidemiology. This fight against infectious diseases in previous centuries had mixed results. On the one hand, domestic and foreign epidemiologists outstanding results have been achieved in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases, which allowed significantly reduce of the morbidity and mortality rates in the XX–XXI centuries. At the same time, the history of the modern period is characterized by a set of social and economic changes: the growth of cities, the intensity of migration, transformation also affected the age structure of the population of the world. All these factors have led to a change in one of the main characteristics of the majority of infectious diseases – the limited territorial localization in the XXI century. It is observed the tendency of spread of epidemics to a considerable distance, they become global. New and unknown diseases such as SARS, swine and bird flu (H1N1 and H5N1), Ebola virus, the middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), etc. arise at this time. It is registered the return of liquidated infections: typhoid, cholera, yellow fever, etc. These processes show that humanity is still a long way to complete victory over infectious diseases, and to study the experience achieved in the previous century scientists – epidemiologists. They would make a significant contribution in the unequal struggle with the human virus.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):96-99
pages 96-99 views

The Senate under Paul I and the issue of fiscal status of petty szlachta in the Russian western provinces at the turn of the 19th century

Troianowski C.V.


After the partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795 the Russian empire faced a problem of determining the social status of petty Polish nobles (szlachta) in imperial hierarchy. At the turn of the 19th century the Senate was the governmental body that had to resolve this issue. In April of 1800 Paul I approved the proposal of the Senate’s 3d department to confirm lesser szlachta’s fiscal immunity and other privileges enjoyed by her under Rzecz Pospolita. Yet, in the same year the Senate’s 1st department when deliberating on a separate case of szlachta’s tax status in Novorossiysk province, passed two resolutions that contradicted the legal norm adopted in April. This paper focuses on the analysis of circumstances under which the Senate’s departments came to different decisions on the same problem. Their resolutions reflected two approaches to the policy of petty szlachta’s inclusion in the imperial nobility. The resolution of the 3department, supported by Paul I, envisaged a co-optation of szlachta as a social group through legislative confirmation of its privileged status in the empire. The approach of the 1st department emphasized the necessity of szlachta’s integration into imperial nobility on the individual basis (by submitting proofs of noble origin compliant to the Russian laws). As a result the imperial government gave preference to the second model of inclusion.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):99-107
pages 99-107 views

Historical transformation of cities originality of Samara province in the second half of the XIX century

Korneeva J.V.


The problem of historical cities formation is very relevant in recent years. The second half of the XIX century is a period of reforms in the Russian history, when many values were rethought. This historical period was a period of industrialization and urbanization, when a provincial city got its new development and prosperity. This paper is devoted to the historical development and transformation of the Samara province city in the second half of the XIX century. Every city of the Samara province passed a unique way of development during the study period and contributed to the development of the originality region. Both sides characterize the originality of the cities: economic and social. Economic uniqueness of the Samara province cities in the second half of the century was reflected in such indicators as: industrial production and development of trade relations (in the province there was a variety of places and forms of trade: fair, railway station and harbor). A social component of the originality of the region county town was made of the population characteristics: the number, class hierarchy, the mentality. Each element formed the uniqueness of the county towns as well as created a common image of industrial Russia.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):107-112
pages 107-112 views

Organization of the Village of Cossack self-government as the basis of everyday life

Lyubichankovskiy S.V., Godovova E.V.


The paper presents the evolution of the formation of the system of local government in the Cossack armies in Russia. Cossacks living in villages with towns belonging to it were Cossack society. Local Cossacks authority It was Village chieftain, Village descent, Village court, Cossack community. Organization of the Village government in the Cossack army was virtually identical to that due to the fact that the reform of the Cossack troops went on the model of the Don and Kuban troops. This system has been transformed at the beginning of the twentieth century. Fall elective responsibility, a manifestation of laziness and indifference of the Cossacks it was due to property, education and psychological disunity. Contemporaries noted that many members of the village office turn of the century were literate, prone to drunkenness and extortion. An increasing number of the Cossacks did not attend gatherings and did not pay the dues. But, despite this, the Cossack communities continued to live, to regulate agrarian relations, contributed to the development of health and education.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):112-118
pages 112-118 views

1890th prison reform implementation in the Orenburg Governorate

Lyubichankovskiy S.V.


This paper is about an implementation process of the 1890 law in the Orenburg province for organization of new regional structures of penitentiary management – provincial prison inspection and prison department of provincial board. Specifics of prison reform implementation in the region, the relation of the governor's power to emergence of new bureaucratic structures, features of interaction between the created governing bodies are considered as well as the place taken by representatives of prison administration in regional bureaucratic community after the reform implementation is determined. The conclusion is drawn that implementation of the 1890 law took place in the Orenburg province with essential regional features. Orenburg provincial inspection has been created later (1894) than in the Russian Empire in general because of prolonged implementation of judicial reform (1864) on the territory of the region. However this inspection became more influential than similar organizations in other regions of the Russian Empire as it has subordinated the prison department of the Orenburg provincial board and accumulated all main competences of the sphere of prison case. The status of the Orenburg provincial prison inspector was almost equal to the status of the vice-governor.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):118-122
pages 118-122 views

Features of the modernization of the Orenburg Cossack Army in the late XIX - early XX centuries

Meshcheryakov A.V.


This article describes the features of the modernization of the Orenburg Cossack troops at the turn of XIX–XX centuries. During the consideration of this issue highlights the main problems that affect the modernization in the army. These concerned the difficult economic situation, which arose due to the provision of medical problems. Another important issue discussed in the article – is the introduction of zemstvo. Considered the most important question of the transfer of land in perpetuity Cossack troops, the right, which confirmed the special position of the Cossacks in the government system, but once again confirmed in the tradition of modernization development. The study confirmed that the Orenburg Cossack army at the turn of the century, was clearly included in the governance structure, and Cossack troops controls were considered government agencies. Cossacks reformed according to the general idea of the modernization process took place in the Russian Empire. However, they are not used for the template, and had its own peculiarities. It is caused by several factors were: a special control system, the role of the Cossacks in the empire, the traditional way of life of the Cossacks. Therefore, each reform had its own characteristics, and some have not been implemented, that before the outbreak of the First World War and distinguished Cossack regions from the rest of the empire.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):122-128
pages 122-128 views

Some aspects of the everyday life of officials in the Russian Empire in the beginning of XX century (based on the «Vestnik chinovnika»)

Ospanova A.A.


This article explains the necessity of studying the historical experience of the management organization of the Russian Empire. The article contains an analysis of the situation of contemporary historiography, which feature lies in the fact that it is necessary to study not only the degree of effectiveness of the mechanisms of power, but also the factors influencing it. Among these factors occupies an important place daily serving officials, their way of life, material security, way of life. The history of everyday life – a new branch of historical knowledge, the subject of study which is the sphere of human commonness of multiple historical, cultural, political and event-and religious-confessional contexts. The focus of the study of the history of everyday life repeating, «normal» and usual, design style and way of life of the members of different social classes, including emotional reactions to events and behavior motives. One of the main sources of this study advocates periodical «Vestnik chinovnika», which allows to understand the lifestyles of officials from the "inside." Analysis of this edition allows to draw conclusions about the limited salaries, lack of financial security, which is reflected in the number of employees malfeasance. The results can serve as a basis for further study of the factors influencing the efficiency of public administration and for the study of everyday regional officials.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):128-131
pages 128-131 views

Local communication companies in 1941-1945: domestic historiography

Khramkova E.L., Mokina N.N.


The authors for the first time study the historical literature published in 1941–2015 and devoted to activity of local communication establishments of the front and rear districts of RSFSR during the Great Patriotic War. The special attention is paid to the researches executed on materials of Central Volga area. The historiography is analyzed within two large periods: Soviet and Post-Soviet. The main tendencies of methodology development, references and the subject perspective are defined in each of them. The authors have drawn conclusions about the degree of study of civil operators contribution to the Victory in 1941–1945. The modern period of studying of the place and role of communication industry in military economy, information infrastructure, everyday life in the extreme conditions of the war is characterized by application of new methodological approaches (system, modernization, integration, biographic) which promote interdisciplinary judgment as well as expansion of the problem field of the Great Patriotic War communication history research. Among perspective questions which were earlier insufficiently studied by historians the authors note a role of local communication establishments in industrial enterprises and population evacuation, in development of military industrial complex of rear areas, structure of post military censorship bodies, standard and legal base of post and cable departures inspection, courier communication organization, material and household provision for regional communication institutions officers and others.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):131-136
pages 131-136 views

«Anarchy» Planning or self-regulation of the soviet economy: Ministry of Internal Affairs and the State Planning Commission in inter-departmental conflicts (1940-1950)

Zaharchenko A.V.


The study of Ministry of Internal Affairs economic activities gives an opportunity to look at relationships with other departments and its role as an economy agent. The studying of departmental correspondence materials allows us to speak about the conflict of interests among The Ministry of Internal Affairs, The State Planning Committee and other сommissariat-ministries. Contradictions were settled at the highest party and the state levels. All actors in the Soviet planned economy had their own interests and the most important was provision of resources for the government tasks and timely fulfilment of obligations by other economic organizations. During this process the departments involved tried to obtain more favorable conditions for themselves. Heads of different levels (from the ministries to separate agencies), who sent appeals and requests to the center, served as channels for information on the fulfillment of government directives. The conflicts helped to determine if a plan was impossible to fulfill and to correct figures and decisions. This allowed the Stalinist system to react and overcome contingent problems like a personal dispute with producers, and structural, such as economic capacity. The result was paid with material costs and overextended bureaucratic procedures for coordination of departmental interests.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):137-140
pages 137-140 views

13.00.00 – Pedagogical Sciences

Training and educational problems solving in the study of mathematics at university

Aniskin V.N., Ryabinova E.N.


The analysis of federal state educational standards for all steps of existing educational system shows that meta-subject approach in learning and bringing up activity is becoming more urgent. Orientation to the key strategic priority of continuous education such as bringing up activity and forming the ability to study are also urgent. The main types of universal studying activities are analyzed: personal, subject, meta-subject results; usage of learning activity matrix during the process of study. Federal State Educational Standard of basic common education sets the demands to personal, meta-subject and subject results of learning after basic educational program of secondary education. So, according to the succession principle we should develop the competence of the students following these three directions transforming them into educational environment of the university. Thus, meta-subject competence should include ability to use intersubject definitions and universal learning activities performing them at learning, knowledge and social practice. The achievement of meta-subject results is connected with the nature of universal activity. The basis of nature-coordinated education should lie in basic values – and the most important is morality which is formed from the human nature. That is why the standards of the second generation formulate four blocks of universal learning activities: personal, regulative, common knowledge and communicative. According to their nature meta-subject activities are functional-oriented ones and they form the psychological basis and determining condition of subject task solution success. Meta-subject competence development supposes various forms of studying process organization. One of such organization forms can be the business game which can be used as the means of diagnosis and forecast of personal behavior in various situations. Project technology is also aimed to develop wide range of competence and creative abilities and that is why it suggests the integrity of research, searching, problem solving and comparison methods. It has been shown that nowadays the role of each course in meta-subject competence development has been growing rapidly.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):141-147
pages 141-147 views

Difficulties of developing secondary school students’ spelling skills

Bukovtsova N.I.


The paper presents theoretical approaches to secondary school students’ spelling rule acquisition. It defines the main terms: spelling, skill, spelling skill, spelling activities, spelling task, spelling observation and control skill, dysgraphia, dysorthography. The author describes types of spelling skills developed at school: finding parts of words spelt according to the spelling rules, spelling words according to the rules, graphic marking of difficult spelling, finding and correcting spelling mistakes. The paper reveals conditions and criteria of successful school students’ spelling skills development: high scientific level of teaching spelling, correlation of spelling skills and speech development, knowledge of spelling rules and the scheme of their application, a thoroughly developed system of exercises to practice the rules. The author focuses on difficulties of using these rules in writing: difficulties of spelling rules acquisition caused by spelling rules variety, poor formedness of cognition, low motivation level, inability to process information and difficulties in applying spelling rules related to spelling task setting and its solution. The author describes mistakes caused by poor spelling rules acquisition such as mistakes in words and their significant parts, mistakes in cursive, separate and hyphenate word spelling, mistakes in capital and small letter usage, mistakes in word break. Differential diagnostics of specific spelling mistakes is presented. The types of dysorthography and their characteristics are defined. The paper lists the principles of Russian spelling the breach of which results in mistakes.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):148-154
pages 148-154 views

The problem of patriotic education in Russian pedagogical thought

Vereshchagina N.I.


The paper explains the importance of the problem of student patriotic education and emphasizes the need to create a culture of patriotic students. The concept of «patriotism» is a basic component in the formation of patriotic culture of students. Critical thinking scientific knowledge about patriotism, methods and techniques of education lead to an understanding that the system of activities in the field of patriotic education requires changes based on education of spiritual values and development of the concept of formation of student patriotic culture. A central element of patriotic education as the basis of patriotic culture is a philosophical theory of values. In modern state programs and documents it is indicated that patriotism is one of the enduring and ineradicable values. Education value and moral oriented personality, with a sense of patriotism, responsibility and other qualities is one of the main tasks of the state policy in the field of education at the present stage of society development. Students – future citizens must be prepared to confront the global challenges of the modern era, they should be highly moral, creative, competent citizens who are aware of the responsibility for the present and the future of their country. Analysis of scientific pedagogical literature leads to the conclusion that the scientific community addresses the problem of patriotism in the historically urgent tasks of development of society in periods of social crisis. Scientists and public figures from different eras are unanimous in saying that patriotism is firstly love for the country and secondly the activity aimed at the goodness of the motherland, to the defense of its interests, willingness to serve the motherland.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):154-159
pages 154-159 views

Personality orientation and motives of profession choice: points of intersection

Gorshkova T.A., Gromova E.M., Berkutova D.I.


The paper studies the problem of features of professional career planning by provincial youth. The authors have analyzed the main scientific and methodological approaches concerning a task of peaceful co-existence and mutual enrichment of various cultures as well as in aspect of career pursuing by youth. The Frederik Gertsberg’s theory of motivation is considered. F. Gertsberg has created two-factor model where the first group of factors (hygienic) holds the personality at work, the second group (motivators) – motivates to work. Using F. Gertsberg’s test it is possible to define the motivation structure and to allocate the prevailing factors of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with work. Experimental selection of respondents constituted from the rates of 4-year-full-time-students of Technology and Design Department of UlSPU. The respondents’ diagnosing was carried out according to the F. Gertsberg’s test for tracking the interrelation of the personality orientation and motives of profession choice. B. Bass’s orientation questionnaire was used for identification of personality orientation. This technique allows to reveal the degree of expressiveness of three main orientations of the personality: self orientation, partner interaction and task orientation. The results of the carried-out diagnostics prove that motives of profession choice and personality orientation have points of intersection. These materials can serve as a basis for further developments of theoretical and practical aspects of the problem of professional career planning by provincial youth.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):159-163
pages 159-163 views

The problem of assessing the quality of specialized university graduate training

Yezhova O.N., Ulendeeva N.I.


The paper analyzes the problem of assessing the development degree of the specialized university graduate competencies that are found in state standards of higher education and the departmental order. We consider the existing practices and approaches to making a collection of evaluation tools. The paper presents the requirements for assessment tools to check the development of competencies: integrative, problem-activity tasks, focus on the application of skills and knowledge in the field of special situations in the actualization of the content of professional work tasks, expertise in the professional community, link criteria with planned results. These requirements are considered for innovative forms of control: level test (recognition – substitution – productive activity – decision-making in problem situations); test action (practical test); situational test (analysis of the situation of the future professional activity). Special attention is devoted to the consideration of this form of professional competence assessment as interdepartmental exercises that allow you to check special developed students’ competences when students demonstrate their knowledge, skills and personal qualities and carry out their professional activities in practice. Developed professional competence assessment tools for specialized university cadets and students can serve as a basis for further coordination of the educational process.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):163-166
pages 163-166 views

Implementation of synergetic approach in education based on the meta-project method

Noskov S.A.


The paper analyzes the approaches to understanding the educational synergy and concludes that the key moment in the realization of the synergistic approach in education is the integration of a variety of knowledge-based interdisciplinary connections. Analysis of Russian universities training plans for different areas of training showed that they differ in a small number of integrated courses, and therefore concluded that it is necessary to implement alternative methods of interdisciplinary connections formation in the educational process, taking into account the multidimensional professional and educational environment. The author considers the possibility of implementing a synergetic approach to the meta-project-based method. The educational meta-project as a special form of independent activity of students is defined; specifics and peculiarities of meta-projects implementation and stages of cognitive meta-project technology are described. Meta-projects implementation may include a variety of forms and methods of training from different educational technologies, but cause the specific challenges facing the lecturer which are presented in the content of the paper. The results of experimental testing confirmed the positive impact of the meta-project method application on the formation of interdisciplinary relationships and integral vision of the future professional work of students, as well as on the development of learners’ basic skills: thinking, understanding, communication, reflection and action.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):167-170
pages 167-170 views

Training handbook as means of organization of interdisciplinary connections in the process of bachelors training

Plekhanova T.M.


This paper discusses the theoretical aspects and relevance of the interdisciplinary approach in the pedagogical process. An interdisciplinary teaching aid for public relations, developed at Psychology and Pedagogy Department of SSTU, is considered to be a form of interdisciplinary connections formation in the process of bachelors training whose major is 42.03.01 «Advertising and public relations». This study guide is a part of the educational complex for the courses «Theory and Practice of Public Relations», «Theory and Practice of the media», «Fundamentals of communication theory» and is supposed to be used as part of their practical training. Interdisciplinary potential of this training manual is that the content and didactic units of different disciplines complement each other, forming a single integral perception of the subject. In terms of developing competencies students acquire a wide range of knowledge and skills as well as perceive a continuity and consistency between the results of the planned development of the disciplines. Implementation benefits Bachelors’ 3rd year learning process and lets the students majoring in «Advertising and public relations» improve the level of training due to the accumulation of knowledge and skills from different disciplines to solve professional problems.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):170-174
pages 170-174 views

Pedagogical aspects of spiritual and practical assimilation of reality to morality

Pozdnyakova O.K.


The paper considers the necessity of thinking about morality as a means of spiritual and practical development of human reality in the context of pedagogical knowledge. It is argued that the spiritual and practical assimilation of reality is carried out with the participation of the moral consciousness and the methods of social orientation in the human world, the world of values are in its functioning mechanisms. The author reveals the relationship of morality and moral consciousness. Morality can be found in behavior and actions, in activities and actions, in human relationships. The moral consciousness, consisting of ideas, opinions, estimates, allows you to make the choice of actions and activities that are implemented in behavior and activities. The author differentiates morality and ethics: morality is objective and ethics are subjective. It is proved that the moral consciousness of the teachers involved in the spiritual and practical assimilation of reality to morality is an ideal that in a certain way organizes and regulates his or her actions on education and training of children. It has been established that the spiritual and the practical reality in the development of morality takes place on the basis of moral consciousness in which deontological and axiological, evaluative and motivational are in unity and relationships. The teacher realizing axiological and deontological through familiarizing students to the values, achieving the purpose of education, develops the double motivation of students, the essence of which lies in the unity of the deontological and axiological aspects of the spiritual and practical assimilation of reality to morality.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):174-179
pages 174-179 views

System formation model of students’ experimental and research competence

Popov D.V.


The article presents the research results of the formation model of students' professional experimental and research competences during performance of laboratory and experimental works. It explains the problem and solution of professional training of specialists in physical processes of oil and gas industry. It shows the meaning of laboratory and experimental works in competence paradigm of specialists in physical processes of oil and gas industry. Here author represents such concept as «professional experimental and research competence» and defines its functionality and content components. It points out the formation model of students' professional experimental and research competences during performance of laboratory and experimental works which is an algorithm and system navigator for developers and users of similar systems. The author notes descriptors of functionality and content components which use such as criterion of the formation level of students' professional experimental and research competence. The article points out the structure and content of the information and didactic basis based on the laboratory works complex in physical processes of oil and gas industry. The article represents the results of ascertaining and forming experiment. It determines the initial and final equation of formation in experimental and control groups. It shows the feasibility and effectiveness of using high innovative competence modular technology of laboratory and experimental works.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):179-183
pages 179-183 views

Formation of norms for the future translators professional behavior at the professional research lesson in the higher education system

Ryblova A.N.


The article touches upon an urgent problem to improve the quality of the personnel practical training, for which the author offers solutions to shape norms for future translators professional behavior at the professional research lesson in the higher education system. On the basis of theoretical and methodological analysis of the works of domestic and foreign scientists the author considers it necessary to modernize the technology of organizational process on the basis of needs of employers and individual needs of students. At the same time the main activity of students at the professional research lesson should be autonomous cognitive activity focused on their future profession, the realization of which the article offers a detailed description of different types of students’ group activities aimed at processing foreign language professionally significant information in professionally given situations under the supervision of a teacher at the professional research lesson. The author, based on many years of experience teaching activities in the university confirms that this type of lesson promotes the acquisition by students of professional experience, the formation of organizational and production skills and provides personal development training, which ultimately contributes to the intensive and high-quality practical training of translators in the system of higher education.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):183-189
pages 183-189 views

Moral and ethical principles as an object of pedagogical reflection

Salov A.I.


The paper grounds that moral and ethical principles guide the teacher to seek the meaning of life together with the students which explains to them the relations with the world, provides insight into the teacher’s and students’ world, exists in their mind as a world image and regulates their mutual activity in accordance with the logics of life necessity, i.e. Peace on the Earth. The author explains that the true morality considers a person and his/her life the most important moral values, which formulate moral and ethical principles, prescribing development of moral life strategy. The paper proves that person’s morality, his/her doings, outlook, evaluation, goals and motifs of activity and relations with people and the world depend on correct understanding of values. The author explains the categories «virtue», «good», in terms of which moral and ethical principles are formulated. The paper gives the meaning of the categories «virtue» and «good» and explains why one cannot teach virtue, that virtues are not inherent that is why they are nurtured. The author shows moral and ethical knowledge is necessary for a person to become virtuous and points out the importance of differentiation between life as it is and good life. The paper grounds that moral and ethical principles provide a teacher with an initial axiom (what for?) – for achieving the goal – Peace on the Earth, the strategy of moving along the way chosen (what way?) – making good for him/herself and for the students.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):189-194
pages 189-194 views

University students’ creative activity development as a pedagogical problem

Statsenko E.R.


The author of the paper considers the problem of university students’ creative activity development as an urgent social and pedagogical problem. Much attention is paid to the role of the concepts «creation» and «activity» that has equal meanings for the concept «creative activity». Creativity is regarded as a form of productive activity and autonomy of a person; creativity and innovation relationship is focused on. It is proved that human activity as a vitality sign is a prerequisite and the result of human development. It is alleged that a person gains experience activities on reproductive and imitative activity level referring to the experience of another person; takes tasks and seeks ways of performing on search and performing activity level; sets tasks and chooses new, unconventional, original ways of performing on creative activity level. The author proves that university students’ creative activity is the quality of an individual’s activity. The paper also contains characteristics of university student’s creative activity, forms, methods and means of university students’ creative activity development and some examples of the design studio work at Arts and Service Department. The efficiency of the design studio is proved and the principles of university students’ creative activity development, realized in the design studio, are noted.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):194-198
pages 194-198 views

Risks and chances prediction of school innovative development: substantive and methodological aspects

Sultanova T.A.


The problem of school innovative educational activities is considered to be urgent due to the competition on the market of educational services. Content, technology and teaching educational innovations become the source of competitive advantages of the modern school. Innovation is always a risk, because only a few of them are implemented in reality and lead to positive results. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the content and methodological aspects of opportunities and risks prediction as an integral part of school innovative development. The basis of the author's position is the probabilistic nature of school, which is manifested in the uncertainty and unpredictability of the effects of innovations introduction in the educational process. Subjects of innovative activity, innovative activity itself and the environment are thought to be the main factors of uncertainty. Chances and risks are considered to be the forms of actualization of school future development. Chances and risks are objective and subjective. The author describes a hierarchy of predictable chances and risks, including operational, tactical and strategic levels. Chances and risks prediction is considered to be a mechanism for reducing the uncertainty and unpredictability of school innovative development. The author represents methodological aspects of opportunities and risks prediction. The paper contains an example of real educational practice.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):198-203
pages 198-203 views

Quest as an innovative method of teaching English to preschoolers

Tkach I.V., Mineeva O.A.


The paper deals with the method «quest» as an innovative method of teaching English to preschoolers. The authors describe objectives and principles of early learning, psychological characteristics of children’s readiness to learn a foreign language and the contribution of learning a foreign language in the overall development of a child. The article discusses methods of game techniques, as well as the factors that determine the success of using games in the classroom for children of preschool age. The definition of «quest» is given in the paper, the possibility to use this method as one of gaming techniques in teaching English is described. The content of the quest includes modern audio-visual materials, tasks for listening, speaking, reading, recognition of the vocabulary. In addition to assignments aimed at learning a foreign language, the quest contains tasks for development of logical thinking, attention, motor development when creating an application. Practical application of this method for the study of the topic «Food» in the group of preschool students is considered: the overall concept of the quest, tasks, necessary props are described. The described method of learning a foreign language can be adapted to any age students and for any school subject.

Samara Journal of Science. 2016;5(3):203-206
pages 203-206 views

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