Vol 9, No 2 (2020)

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General Biology
Ecological analysis of agricultural environmental management problems in the Central Chernozem Region
Almobarak F., Mezhova L.A.
Abstract

Abstract. Land resources of the Central Chernozem Region are intensively used in economic activities that have affected the degradation of the natural environment components. The 100-year observation period revealed changes in biogenic components and humus in the region’s soils. To determine the environmental problems of agricultural environmental management, we have calculated modular indicators of geochemical impact of various agricultural sectors. We have calculated the modular indicator of agricultural impact assessment on agricultural systems of the Central Chernozem Region. In order to preserve land resources it is important to quantify the impact of agricultural production. To assess the impact the authors have introduced three types of coefficients: taking into account the agricultural, livestock and technogenic impact. They can be used as the main diagnostic indicators to identify environmental problems. The coefficients make it possible to determine trends in environmental management and by the results of geochemical analysis environmental problems and the degree of impact of different types of agricultural production are identified. Balance violations of the substance’s cycle in forest-steppe landscapes have been revealed. The landscape and geochemical approach reveals migration processes, the cycle of substance and violations of self-regulating properties of the natural landscape. The analysis of potassium and phosphorus distribution is important in agrochemical aspect. The coefficient was calculated based on the mass of matter introduced and removed from the soil in relation to their content in the soil. The degree of geochemical agricultural impact exceeds the natural geochemical background. It gives an opportunity to define negative features of agricultural nature use. A complex geochemical analysis of different nature users will make it possible to determine the degree of their impact on the natural environment in the region. Soil transformation in agrosystems is accompanied by ecological losses both for the natural environment and for life activity of the population. Due to wide application of chemicalization means for implementation of the agricultural intensification program, it became necessary to determine quantitatively the geochemical load on the landscape in order to optimize and protect it. In this regard, issues of renewal of natural material and energy resources are relevant for agricultural production.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):10-14
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The analysis of spatio-temporal features of microbiological and hydrochemical indicators of the rivers within Surgutsky and Oktyabrsky Districts in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra
Arslanova M.M., Shornikova E.A., Muzieva M.I.
Abstract

Abstract. The study of the environmental situation in river basins, including the assessment of actual water pollution, has recently become relevant. Water bodies located within the borders of oil production territories are experiencing constant and intense anthropogenic impact, which occurs not only during the operation of fields, but also during the preparation of areas for exploration and production drilling, construction of multi-well pads, communications, etc. This paper analyzes peculiarities of microbiological and hydrochemical indicators distribution of the rivers within Surgutsky and Oktyabrsky Districts in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra. The cluster analysis method determines cascade systems based on the total microbial number of the studied rivers. The characteristics of the generic composition and distribution of the identified microorganisms are given. As a result of the cluster analysis, it was revealed that organoheterotrophic microflora is found mainly in the studied rivers. 16 bacterial cultures and 3 cultures from the mycelial microflora were identified among the isolated microorganisms. The paper also presents the results of rivers monitoring in 2018–2019 on the following water quality indicators: pH, ammonium ions and acute toxicity. The time variability of hydrochemical indicators correlates with different phases of the hydrological regime of rivers.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):15-19
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Vegetation cover and microtine rodents spatial distribution under conditions of Nizhny Novgorod oakwood
Boryakova E.E.
Abstract

Abstract. This paper deals with the problem of the connection between small mammals spatial distribution and the vegetation cover. The study was carried out during the summer period of 2018 and 2019 in the landscape protected area «Oakwood of the NNSU Botanical Garden» in the province of Nizhny Novgorod. Three relevés were set up in various plant associations: Ulmetum pulmonarioso-asaroso-aegopodiosum, Acereto-Tilietum pulmonarioso-impatienosum (noli-tangerae), Querceto-Acereto-Tilietum asareto-aegopodiosum. A standard geobotanical description was carried out according to the generally accepted method using a series of Raunkier sites registration. Microtine rodents were trapped by standart traps and live traps. The caught animals turned out to belong to 2 genera and 3 species: the bank vole Myodes glareolus Schreber, the pygmy wood mouse Apodemus uralensis Pallas, and the field mouse Apodemus agrarius Pallas. The low population size of animals, as well as the fact that Apodemus agrarius is a co-dominant, may indirectly indicate the anthropogenic pressure in the investigated oak groves. Ecological plasticity of the species Myodes glareolus has been confirmed. Bank voles inhabit micro-habitats with the average data of illumination as well as shaded ones. In general, the vegetation projective cover and the presence of Norway maple undergrowth are crucial for the microtine rodents spatial distribution. Small mammals choose sites with a minimum number of Acer platanoides undergrowth, and gravitate to places where the projective cover of grass has moderate rates (from 35 to 50%). The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using a vegetation cover species spectrum showed the presence of a significant factor for microtine rodents, which is associated with nitrophilous species (common nettle and touch-me-not balsam). The presence of those plants may indicate a significant anthropogenic pressure on the vegetation cover. In addition, it is important that plants belong to a particular eco-coenotic group. The species Myodes glareolus and Apodemus agrarius differ on the «nemoral» factor, and their ecological niches do not overlap.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):20-25
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Features of heavy metals and metalloids accumulation in soils of Samara and Syzran large recreational zones
Bugrov S.V., Makarova Y.V., Prokhorova N.V.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper discusses the results of ecological and geochemical studies of soils in the Sokolii Mountains located near Samara and in a specially protected natural area Monastyrskaya Mountain located within the borders of Syzran, Samara Region. These territories are of great interest in connection with their active use for urban recreation. The studied parts of the Sokolii Mountains (northeastern, eastern and southeastern surroundings of the Kuznetsov Mountain) are natural forests, the protected area Monastyrskaya Mountain is an artificially created forest stand. The territories under comparison differ in their origin, typological characteristics of soils, including their granulometric composition and humus content, as well as in the degree of recreational pressure. It has been established that heavy metals and metalloids accumulate more actively (2,0–5,5 times) in the soils of the upper layer in the vicinity of the Kuznetsov Mountain than in the sandy and loamy soils of the Monastyrskaya Mountain, which are characterized by a more significant geochemical heterogeneity. In both territories, the average concentrations of chemical elements do not exceed regional clarks and maximum permissible concentrations. An analysis of the geochemical indices of the studied soils revealed the predominance of the scattering of heavy metals and metalloids over the concentration processes in them. According to the magnitude of concentration clarks and scattering for both recreational territories, an association of accumulating elements was revealed; it included only Se and Cd while the association of scattering elements included Sr, Rb, Cr, V, As, Pb, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn. In the soils of the Monastyrskaya Mountain dispersal processes are more presented while in the soils of the Kuznetsov Mountain surroundings accumulation processes are more presented. In general, the northeastern, eastern and southeastern environments of the Kuznetsov Mountain and the Monastyrskaya Mountain are characterized by a relatively low level of heavy metals and metalloids pollution, which makes it possible to consider these territories as environmentally sustainable, but requiring the development of a scientifically-based mode of recreational use.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):26-31
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The influence of the family-educator on the economic, biological and ethological characteristics of the queen honey bee (Apis mellifera)
Bykov A.R.
Abstract

Abstract. This paper discusses the change in the economic, biological and ethological characteristics of the uterus of the honeybee under the influence of the teacher’s family. This issue is currently of concern to many breeders, as it has not been fully studied. It is the phenotype variability that is the determining component of selection. The method of evaluating the uterus by their key features, which are an integral part of the selection, is described. These key features are peace, loyalty, honey productivity and perseverance on the frame. The author considers the possibility of using non-tribal families (families taken without analysis and selection) as a family-educator, as it most often happens in uterine apiaries. The results show the differences between the groups of mother-sisters from different families-educators. From these results it is clearly seen that different breeds of bee colonies make changes in the useful economic characteristics of the queens, according to their pedigree characteristics. Such changes are unacceptable in this case, and therefore deserve attention. An analysis is made of exactly how the qualitative signs of the uterus change and what is most often worth paying attention to. A more thorough selection of foster families according to their pedigree characteristics is proposed. After all, the future of breeding depends on the quality selection of families-educators, maternal and father families.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):32-35
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Studying the agrochemical features of undisturbed soils on the territory of the Mokhovsky coal mine in the Kemerovo Region to assess their use in biological reclamation
Vityaz S.N., Yakovchenko M.A., Stenina N.A., Berezina A.S., Kosolapova A.A.
Abstract

Abstract. This paper describes the results of the study of the Mokhovsky coal mine undisturbed soils in different horizons of the soil profile. The study was conducted on the Sartakinskoe, Mokhovskoe and Karakanskoe fields. In each field the authors have determined the species composition of phytocenoses and soil types, and studied soil horizons and agrochemical characteristics (particle size and soil composition, humus content, hydrogen index, nutrient content, hydrolytic acidity, the amount of absorbed bases, absorption capacity, etc.). It has been established that the vegetation of the phytocenoses of the studied fields is represented by birch tree trunks with the inclusion of pine, sections of meadow and small fragments of steppe communities, where perennial herbaceous plants play a significant role, which is typical for temperate floras of the northern hemisphere. The results of the analysis of the structural and particle size distribution of the agrochemical characteristics of undisturbed soils in the Mokhovskoe, Sartakinskoe and Karakanskoe fields of the Mokhovsky coal mine indicate that these soils are of agronomic value, therefore it is recommended to remove and store the fertile layer from these sites with a view to their further use in biological reclamation to increase quality, productivity and environmental value of the restored lands in the Kemerovo Region. The fertile soil layer (PRP) and the potentially fertile soil layer (PRSP) from the Mokhovskoye field is recommended for forestry while the Sartakinskoe and Karakanskoe fields – for agricultural restoration.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):36-41
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Species and coenotic composition of phytocoenoses in Jurassic clay dumps of the Callovian layer of the Mikhailovsky Mining and Processing Plant of Kursk Magnetic Anomaly
Golovastikova A.V., Nagornaya O.V.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper presents the results of research on overgrowth rate in Jurassic clay dumps of the Callovian layer of the Mikhailovsky mining and processing plant of the Kursk magnetic anomaly with herbaceous and woody-shrub vegetation. The authors have revealed some features of dumps overgrowth of different dumping times (5, 15, 25 years) and the nature of various exposures of dumps overgrowth. The study has shown that by the age of 5 a pioneer grouping is formed on the Callovian clay, where the dominant species are the coltsfoot Tussilago farfara L. and the meadow horsetail Eguisetum pratense Ehrh. By the age of 15 a thicket-group community is formed, belonging to the category of simple, since it is represented by single species or has a bed character of overgrowth with a small number of weeds and meadow species. The authors have established that by the age of 25 the predominant types of overgrowth are group-thicket communities, where edificant species (the silver birch Betula pendula Roth and the common pine Pinus sylvestris L.) have a sparse distribution. It was found that the areas occupied by grassy vegetation on 25-year-old dumps in general have a bed character of overgrowth and are represented by monodominant communities of medicinal melon, which has a two-year period of development. At intervals of a year, with a dominance of the coltsfoot and the dandelion medicinal Taraxacum officinale L., the projective coverage reaches one hundred percent. A number of ruderal and meadow species (yarrow Achillea millefolium L., coltsfoot, narrow-leaved cypress Chamerion angustifolium L., forest parsnip Pastinaca sylvestris Mill., dandelion medicinal, sagebrush Artemisia compestris L., meadow bluegrass Poa pratensis L.) have a relatively sparse distribution. Additionally, the distribution of species depending on the exposure of slopes is described. The authors present species composition, projection coating and the number of plants and species per 1 m² for all dumps. The dependence of the coenotic composition of vegetation on the age of dumps is established.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):42-47
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The ecological-coenotic specters of the flora in the river Vyatka protected areas
Egorova N.Y., Egoshina T.L.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper presents the results of a comparative ecological-coenotic analysis of 6 floras of the river Vyatka (Kirov Region, Russia). The floras of the studied areas are boreal and include rare and relic species of all-European importance. As for ecological structure the floras of the studied protected areas do not differ significantly and refer to 7 ecological-coenotic groups. Meadow and meadow-opening groups dominate in the revealed complex (28,48% to 41,84%). This may be caused by a systematic and strong anthropogenic impact on the protected areas. For example, trampling contributes to the increased invasion of meadow and meadow-edge species in forest ecosystems, where they take a significant part in the living ground cover, often acting as codominants with constant species of the grass-shrub layer of boreal forests. Less presented are wetland (13,61% to 27,15%), boreal (9,63% to 16,33%), nemoral (8,16% to 14,79%) and nitrophilous (8,16% to 13,33%) groups. The share of coniferous group varies from 4,44% to 7,10%. The oligotrophic group is presented by solitary species. The authors have also detected the correlation between the ecological-coenotic structure of the flora of the studied areas and the latitudinal location within the river basin.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):48-53
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The state of vegetation in the landscaping system of Ulan-Ude
Ievskaya A.A., Korsunova T.M.
Abstract

Abstract. This paper presents the results of the study of squares vegetation ecological state in Ulan-Ude based on the results of green spaces inventory (2016–2018). The data were obtained on the species diversity and structure of urban green spaces. The families of Rosaceae (12) and Pinaceae (5) are represented to the greatest extent in the studied squares. In quantitative terms plantations of squat elm (Ulmus pumila L.), balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), ash maple (Acer negundo L.) and berry apple (Malus baccata (L.) Borkh.) predominated in the squares of Ulan-Ude. The analysis of the assortment composition of Ulan-Ude squares showed that it was quite poor. The age structure of existing plantations on the territory of the studied squares varies widely; a significant part of the plantations is approaching the age of its physiological old age. During the research period the quality of flower beds and lawns was assessed at landscaping facilities. At the present moment their condition is improving due to the improvement in the quality of nursing work. An indicator of the total projective cover was determined at the grassy layer. The obtained data on the vegetation state indicate that the state of plantings is weakening in most of the studied squares. The study results can serve as the basis for further monitoring of Ulan-Ude green areas.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):54-59
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Agropyron cristatum (L.) Beauv. as a possible indicator of heavy metal contamination
Kanibolotskaya Y.M., Krasnopyorova Y.F., Kalieva A.B., Zhumadina S.M.
Abstract

Abstract. Due to the increasing negative impact of anthropogenic factors on the state of the environment in man-made regions, the possibility of using Agropyron cristatum (L.) Beauv. to detect contamination of industrial areas Ti, Mn, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr is being considered. To achieve the research goal the authors have analyzed the content of these metals in vegetable (A. cristatum) and soil samples, taken in the suburbs of Pavlodar (the Pavlodar Region, Kazakhstan) at various distances from the operating industrial enterprises with application of the standard techniques. Geobotanic studies have been carried out using classical methods. Agropyron cristatum, being a digressive-active species, under human-induced conditions mostly becomes a dominant or subdominant in plant communities, including areas where it has historically been represented in little abundance. The underground organs of A. cristatum are characterized by high values of Zn biological absorption coefficient at most points; very high values of АCr and АPb at multiple points. For the above-ground organs of A. cristatum, Zn biological absorption coefficient is also quite high; it is appreciably lower for Mn, but higher than for Ni, Cu, Sr, Ti and Fe. A. cristatum can be used as an indicator of environmental pollution by Zn, Cr, Pb and Mn for the area under investigation and – in similar conditions – for other regions, especially those in the area of metallurgical enterprises.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):60-66
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A digital landscape map of I.I. Sprygin Zhiguli State Nature Biosphere Reserve as a basis for analyzing natural processes and their monitoring
Klimakov N.I., Aleinikova A.M., Aleinikov A.A., Vekhnik V.A., Borisova E.D., Khokhlov K.S.
Abstract

Abstract. This paper discusses the landscape features of I.I. Sprygin Zhiguli State Nature Biosphere Reserve based on the completed landscape map. The landscape map was created using the results of our own field observations, analysis of literature sources and interpretation of satellite images. Two landscapes and 34 tracts are presented on the map, which were distinguished by the nature of the relief and the characteristics of the vegetation and soil cover. Pine forests on the slopes of large and medium steepness on sod-carbonate soils, rocky mountain steppes with endemic red-book herbaceous plants growing on soil plaque from eluvial deposits are typical for the reserve. Broad-leaved forests are typical on the plateau and slopes, represented by linden heart-shaped, maple on the gray forest soils. Most of the reserve is occupied by plateau-like surfaces beneath the secondary birch and maple forests at the site of felling and logging on dark gray forest soils. When comparing the study and the cartographic materials of the 1980s, it can be concluded that aspen forests have almost completely disappeared and have been replaced with maple or birch forests. Anthropogenic landscapes occupy 280 hectares or 1,2% of the total area of the reserve and are cut through clearings under power lines, roads and paths with no tree vegetation. Dirt roads and power lines are located mainly on the plateau-like part of the reserve.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):67-72
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The effect of Pinus sylvestris L. plantings on the components activity of legumes antioxidant system
Kolmogorova E.Y., Tsandekova O.L.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper shows the content of some components of the antioxidant system (ascorbic acid and peroxidase) in the leaves of leguminous plants growing under Pinus sylvestris L. plantings during the growing season. The studies were conducted on the territory of the Kuzbass Botanical Garden (coordinates 55,366186, 86,190160). The objects of the research were Melilotus officinalis and Trifolium repens. The ascorbic acid content was determined by the titrimetric method, peroxidase activity was determined by spectrophotometry. The components activity of the antioxidant system in the leaves of leguminous plants growing under P. sylvestris plantings depended on the species characteristics and the period of plant vegetation. The activity of peroxidase during the growing season in the leaves of Trifolium repens is higher than in the leaves of the Melilotus officinalis. As plants grow and develop, peroxidase levels increase. The content of ascorbic acid in the leaves of leguminous plants revealed an inverse relationship. The studied samples were characterized by the least variability in the content of ascorbic acid, in comparison with the activity of peroxidase. In the Melilotus officinalis, the gap in the variability of ascorbic acid decreased by 1,4 times, compared with Trifolium repens. The closest negative relationship in legumes was found between the activity of peroxidase and organic matter, mobile phosphorus; a positive correlation was noted between peroxidase and the amount of absorbed bases, which indicates a possibility of using the obtained data as diagnostic signs of plant conditions for monitoring natural ecosystems.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):73-77
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Factors of soil and atmospheric air degradation and their influence on the state of plants in urban and suburban ecosystems
Larionov M.V., Larionov N.V., Gromova T.S., Siraeva I.S., Ermolenko A.S., Volodkin A.A., Levkina G.V.
Abstract

Abstract. This paper presents data on characteristics and extent of degradation of soil quality, atmospheric air and plants in urban and suburban areas of the Lower and Middle Volga region, Central Chernozem region. The goal of the research is to analyze and present data of environmental monitoring of soil, atmosphere and plants. On the example of the Saratov, Voronezh and Penza Regions, the values of the state of terrestrial ecosystems on different types of soils are established. The predominant position in terms of area and economic use is occupied by soils transformed in the course of urban development, as well as artificial soils. Compaction, anthropogenic inclusions, littering and heavy metal contamination are of great importance in the degradation of the soil cover. In the air-technogenic pollution, the formation and deposition of dust on the leaf surface of plants plays a significant role. Bioindicative signs in the analysis of the state of the environment and ecological systems were indicators of the viability, condition and stability of trees and shrubs. They are obtained based on average data from the research and subsequent assessment of life status. Separately, the indicators of degradation of woody plants assimilation organs depending on the levels of unfavorable soil-ecological and aerogenic conditions in urban and suburban ecosystems of the studied regions are considered. The significance of degradation of environmental objects by analyzed anthropotechnogenic factors is reflected in the correlation analysis results.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):78-85
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Comparative ecological and physiological characteristics of Penicillium chrysogenum Thom 1910 strains found on the territory of Surgut
Mantrova M.V.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper deals with ecological and physiological properties of four strains of the species Penicillium chrysogenum Thom 1910, taken on the territory of Surgut from soil, water and the surface of synthetic polymers, depending on the source of carbon nutrition and temperature. The author also considers phytotoxic properties of these strains in relation to several test objects. The cultural and morphological characteristics of the strains are similar to each other in places with sucrose, lactose, mannitol, starch and cellulose, and are variable in places with sorbitol and glycerol. The highest average values of the radial growth rate were recorded in places with alcohols – sorbitol and glycerine. General cultural and morphological characteristics are typical for strains when cultivated in the same temperature regime; a low temperature of +5°C contributes more to the growth of colonies than a high temperature of +37°C, the optimal one is +25°C; the obtained data confirm that P. chrysogenum belongs to mesophilic (psychrotolerant) species. All strains are toxic to radish seedlings; variably toxic to wheat seedlings, Canada water weed and duckweed and non-toxic to wheat and radish seeds. The obtained results can be used for studying the ecology of P. chrysogenum strains, as well as for identifying this species.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):86-90
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Patterns in steppe grassland vegetation of Troitsky State Natural Complex Preserve
Nazarenko N.N., Malaev A.V., Pirozhenkova A.V., Bayda N.A.
Abstract

Abstract. The patterns (mosaicity) in the northern type of Southern Ural steppe vegetation were characterized by a hierarchical continuum concept theory for Troitsky State Natural Complex Preserve example. Multispecies patterns have been identified by blocks and principal components methods while a hierarchical patterns evaluation – by multivariate statistics (Cluster, Discriminant Analysis and Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling) and biotopes phytoindication. It has been established that three pattern levels – micro-patterns (0,8 and 1,8 m), parcels (6,0 m) and coenotics (11,0 m) are significantly identified in steppe vegetation. The two last levels correspond to levels specified for the southern type of Southern Ural steppe vegetation earlier. The authors have demonstrated that parcel and coenotic patterns are identified as ratio of four species abundance: Stipa lessingiana, S. pennata, S. tirsa and Festuca valesiaca. For natural and undisturbed steppe associations informative species are non-dominants or edificators. Vegetation plot size and the location in phytocatena can be determinative for floristic composition, phytodiversity indexes and syntaxon detection. There are several non-uniformly scaled factors of mosaicity identification. The most significant ones are coenotic interactions among species. Soil nitrogen regime and soil calcium regimes, soil moistening, aeration and acidity are significant for abiotic factors.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):91-97
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The determination of the nitrogen-containing ions concentrations dynamics in the oxbow of Ishimchik to assess the impact of 2016–2017 floods
Novik A.A., Shavnin A.A.
Abstract

Abstract. This paper presents the results of the ecological state study of oxbow Ishimchik, located in Ishim, Tyumen Region. The paper presents data on the nitrogen-containing ions concentrations dynamics in water samples of oxbow Ishimchik over the summer-autumn of 2017, the content of which is an important indicator of the water chemical composition. The presence of nitrate ions, nitrite ions and ammonia in high concentrations in the samples usually indicates that the reservoir suffers from contamination by household, agricultural and industrial waste. In 2016 and 2017 a large amount of water from heavy floods came to the oxbow, which could significantly increase the concentration of mineral forms of nitrogen. The main concern is the flood of 2016 as to stop the Ishim private sector flooding a channel was dug for discharge of floodwaters from the town-affected part into the oxbow. To determine the content of nitrogen-containing ions, the photometry method was used. The results of a chemical analysis show that the content of ammonium and ammonia cations (total), nitrite anions and nitrate anions is less than maximum permissible concentration as well as there is a change in the prevailing mineral form of nitrogen from redoxidized to oxidized.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):98-101
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Ecology and structure of Trifolium repens L. coenopopulations on the territory of Tatarstan
Prokhorenko N.B., Kadyrova L.R., Demina G.V.
Abstract

Abstract. This paper deals with the morphological variability of plants as well as the composition and structure of Trifolium repens L. coenopopulations as a valuable honey plant, an agricultural plant and the plant which is used in medicine. This plant is rich with ascorbic acid, carotene, contains alkaloids, glycosides and other substances. T. repens coenopopulations with difference in density and structure are formed under the influence of ecological and coenotic conditions. Eleven T. repens coenopopulations in various landscape regions in the Republic of Tatarstan were analyzed. Environmental factors characterizing habitats, plant morphological status by 9 parameters, density and vitality structure of coenopopulations were investigated. The results showed that slightly acidic, fresh soils with an above average mineral content are formed in the subtaiga subzone. In the composition of the broad-leaved subzone, the degree of soil moisture decreases to fresh and periodically dry, the content of mineral nitrogen increases from average in the north to higher than the average in the south, soil acidity, on the contrary, decreases from slightly acidic to neutral. The habitat conditions that developed in the north of the broad-leaved subzone are most optimal for the development of T. repens coenopopulations, because plants in these conditions have the largest biomass parameters. This allows us to recommend collecting T. repens coenopopulations in the north of the broad-leaved subzone for medical purposes.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):102-108
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The composition and state of native and introduced woody species in the zone of railway transport influence in the Kola Polar region
Sviatkovskaya E.A., Saltan N.V., Trostenyuk N.N.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper analyzes the state and the diversity of native and introduced woody plants used in landscaping railway stations in 5 cities of the Kola Polar region. The species composition is represented by 22 species, 16 genera, and 9 families. Sorbus gorodkovii (39%) is the most common among trees, Rosa rugosa (44%) is the most common among shrubs. The authors have observed two rare introduced woody species (Larix sibirica Ledeb., Syringa josikaea Jacq. fil.) included in Red Data Books of various ranks. 6 categories of plant state have been identified. Betula pubescens has the largest share of healthy plants among indigenous trees species, Malus baccata and Larix sibirica – among introduced species, Rosa pimpinellifolia, Caragana arborescens, Crataegus sanguinea – among shrubs in the station territories. Sorbus gorodkovii and Padus avium are in a critical state. The agrochemical soil study showed a low availability of nitrogen compounds and a high content of phosphorus and potassium exchange forms. It has been revealed that the main weakening causes are old age of plants, violation of maintenance technology, and failure to comply with environmental conditions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):109-114
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Ecological-coenotic characteristics of Cantharellus cibarius Fr. and its tolerance to human impact in southern taiga and sub-taiga forests of the Kirov Region
Sorokina A.A., Luginina E.A.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper analyzes plant communities with Cantharellus cibarius Fr. in southern taiga and sub-taiga forests in the Kirov Region. Golden chanterelle occurs mostly in pure pine forests and pine forests mixed with spruce and birch of green-moss, lichen and cowberry types in young to maturing stands; the crown density is low or medium. Species richness of herbaceous-shrub storey in the studied communities varied from 5 to 29. The ecological preferences of C. cibarius, defined with Ellenberg (1974) scales, allow to characterize the species in the following way: temperate climate species, shade-resistant, rarely found in conditions of total shading; mesophyte regarding soil humidity, prefers acidic soils with low nitrogen, but, as an exception, marked on neutral soils rich in nitrogen. The differences in the species ecological preferences in conditions of southern taiga and sub-taiga are insignificant. The hemeroby index varied from 0,05 to 0,33 for the studied communities. The average share of species tolerant to human impact was 13,23%, and the share of anthropophobic species – 86,77%. These data characterise C. cibarius as the species capable of tolerating moderate human impact in southern taiga subzone, but being less tolerant to human impact in sub-taiga areas and coniferous-broadleaved forests.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):115-120
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An overview of waste collection systems in anthropogenic ecosystems
Stepanova I.A., Stepanov A.S.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper discusses recent research and publications in Russian and foreign publications that study the application of solid municipal waste management systems in anthropogenic ecosystems. The analysis of the use of Russian and foreign digital technologies and Internet resources that manage municipal waste is carried out. The analysis of general aspects of solid waste management theory has shown that there is a problem of solid urban waste management (SWM) in various countries. Four main areas of waste management have been identified: collection and logistics, the use of machines and plants for waste treatment, business models and the use of data collection, storage, and processing tools. Logistics management of solid waste is a very complex and important job for any municipal corporation around the world. The use of various technologies and plants for waste treatment and sorting requires investment in each specific plant, but in the end it will help to optimize the management of solid waste. Innovative business models for solving environmental problems of waste accumulation require government incentives in the form of subsidies or tax incentives. The analysis of data collection, storage and processing tools that regulated waste flows revealed a promising possibility of using GIS technologies, the Internet of things and blockchain technologies for waste management. The paper proposes a new web-GIS technology (web application Garbage collector) for collecting large amounts of statistical data on the state of container sites in the city. Using the app will help you organize a waste management system within a locality by citizens, regardless of the management companies, together with the municipal authorities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):121-131
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Historical Sciences and Archaeology
Bone items of the Neolithic site Baibek
Grechkina T.Y., Malyutina A.A., Vybornov A.A., Lebedev Y.S.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper presents tools made from bones, antler and teeth from the Neolithic site Baibek, located in the semi-desert zone of the Northern Caspian Sea. The time of existence of the site dated back to the beginning of the first quarter of the VI mill. BC. Bone artifacts are of particular interest due to their discovery in a layer of sandy consistency. Bone artifacts were founded in the cultural layer of the site, in the pits, hearths and especially in the filling of the dwellings area. Special attention should be paid to the fact that different typological and functional tools can be considered as a single complex. Based on morphological, technological and functional features, the collection of artifacts was divided into 7 typological groups. The distribution of items by site area was indicated. Most of the preserved bone tools were discovered in the fill of the lower level of the dwelling, which is probably connected with better preservation of bone in the deep sediments than in the cultural layer, the upper part of which has been repeatedly previewing. Traceological analysis of the tool’s surface has determined the scope of their use – this is treatment of skins and processing abrasives. Single examples represent fishing equipment, tools for processing stone items and antler haft. There are also decorative items made of bone and teeth – pendants, piercing, and bones with ornaments.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):132-144
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The stone inventory on the Neolithic settlement Evstyunikha I (Middle Trans-Ural)
Serikov Y.B.
Abstract

Abstract. The place of the Evstyuninsky type ceramics in the early Neolithic materials of the Middle Trans-Ural has been one of the problem areas of interest to the Ural archeologists until today. The Evstyuninsky type of Neolithic ceramics is presented in the archeological literature of the Urals fairly good. But it is still unknown what kind of stone products accompanies ceramics of this type. This paper fills this gap. The site is situated 300 meters from the village Evstyunikha, which nowadays is a northern outskirt of the Nizhny Tagil (Sverdlovsk Region). The collection of finds contains more than 9000 items. Among them there are about 6000 fragments of ceramic and 3500 stone products. The complex is very indiscrete – 96% of ceramics refers to the Neolithic. The rest of the ceramics is presented by materials of later epochs. The use of stone tools in them was already limited. The full cycle of stone processing is presented at the site. The technology of splitting was used for obtaining knife-shaped plates from the butt nucleuses. They used large plates of 2–4 cm width and small ones of 0,5–1,0 cm width as well. In addition to the plates tiles processed by bilateral edge retouch were also widely used. Flat retouch was very rarely used – it was used for producing of arrowheads only. A large percentage (nearly 70%) of products with tile cork indicates the use of the local mineral raw. 77% of all products are made of siliceous slate. Then there are volcanotectonic sandstone products and products made of light grey layered siliceous rock – 6,5% each. Milky quartz and multi-colored jasper artifacts are 2% each. 6% are accounted for the other types of mineral raw (flint, chalcedony, slate carbonaceous, light grey slate, grey quartz, alevrotuf, sandstone, granodiorite, quartzite, serpentinite).

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):145-157
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A new view of the native revolts in Spanish Florida and the West Indies in the 16th century
Ashrafyan K.E.
Abstract

Abstract. This study is a more general research of the Christianization of Florida in the 16th and 18th centuries. This topic became a separate study since when compiling the chronology of Christianization and the foundation of settlements, there were revolts of local residents. When identifying the causes of these revolts, identical and recurring events were identified. To identify them we studied the cause-and-effect relationships between Spaniards and natives. We compared primary sources, their translations from various Spanish sources, as well as recent archaeological finds and research, reviewed data on the nature of the revolts, researchers’ work; we also compared the facts and the process of describing events during Christianization. To complete this work it was necessary to find the kinship and the root cause that gave rise to the prerequisites for the revolt. We decided to step over the theory of class struggle and apply the search for the cause of revolts in interpersonal relations (social psychology), studying the chronology of witnesses of that time. The author uses the «gender factor», i.e. the relationship between «man and woman», as a new concept when considering the processes of revolts of natives and introduces a new term «expectation formula», applied to the relations between the local chiefs (caciques) and Spaniards. The «gender factor» is important as an increase or, conversely, as a decrease in the «expectation formula», at a low or zero value when revolts begin. At the same time, the «expectation formula» has a clear dependence on the size of the «ego» of the local leaders, who assumed certain benefits for themselves and that can be seen in the formula of the cause-and-effect relationships that led to revolts against the Spanish crown. As a result, we came to the conclusion that socio-psychological and behavioral universal factors can explain both the acceptance and rejection of the union of aborigines with Europeans, without involving the study of the «theory of class struggle». When the «expectation factor» was lowered or dropped, the union broke up, and this led to a revolt of the natives on the Spanish territories.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):158-167
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Colonial experience of intercultural interaction on the example of Indian wars of the 17th century
Nesterov D.A.
Abstract

Abstract. This paper discusses European and American Indian responses to intercultural murders in colonial America in the seventeenth century. The main differences between the legal traditions of European settlers and American natives are identified. The main thing among them was the lack of institutionalized structures among Indian tribes and the existence of collective responsibility for the crime when the whole clan of the offender was punished. In this historical period many Indian tribes tried to replace the principle of blood feud by the cost of various commodities, arbitrage on the part of the sachems, «condolence ceremonies» etc. The main problem of responses to intercultural murders was the unwillingness of the parties to agree on one common jurisdiction. In this regard, any murder involving any Indian or European had an opportunity to turn into a mass conflict or even a war. The first case was the murder of the English captain John Stone, gave rise to the beginning of the Pequot War. The second case was the murder of the Indian Christian John Sassamon. In this case the colonists first declared that they had the right to judge and condemn the Indians in accordance with the English standards of justice. All this led directly to the conflict known as the King Philip’s War. These intercultural murders were one of the ways to expand the territories of the European colonies and strengthening of the settlers’ power in the region.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):168-171
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The image of the Russian province nuns based on visual sources of the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries
Eliseeva E.A.
Abstract

Abstract. Studying the history of the past, scientists created a certain cult of a written source. In this regard, visual images were perceived only as additional material to the text. Neglect of images led to the loss of a full historical source in the reconstruction of events and phenomena of the past. The visual turn at the end of the 20th century brought about a change in the research program. Visualism has expanded the source field of research, and enriched methods of data analysis. Photography is not only a fixator of cultural events of everyday life, but also a source of features of the studied region. This research attempts to study the images of the monastic cloisters of the Simbirsk diocese in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries based on photo sources presented in book editions, online resources, archives of nunneries. The photographs show both abbesses and the nuns of the city nunnery of the Simbirsk eparchy. When analyzing photo sources, the context of creating images was taken into account: design of the photo, background, pose, attributes and information about the authors. The photographs made it possible to construct the image of the nuns of the Russian province and to trace the connection of nunnery with sociocultural phenomena in the urban space at the turn of the 19th–20th centuries.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):172-177
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Professional education on the outlying territories of the Russian Empire in the 1880s – early 19th century
Rygalova M.V.
Abstract

Abstract. The development of professional educational institutions in Russia has become a necessary stage in the development of education. This is due to changes in the socio-economic sphere, the growth and development of trade relations, the development of technical knowledge, as well as the need for specialists in these areas. The Russian Empire underwent modernization processes. This required providing all spheres (economy, social sphere) with trained personnel. This led to the establishment of a network of professional educational institutions. On the outlying territories this happened several decades later and they had their own specifics, for example, the composition of the population (a large percentage of the indigenous population, peasant migrants), as well as the low level of literacy in general. In addition, the establishment of professional educational institutions on these territories was dictated by the private need for a particular area, often a city and a county. Mainly Russian settlers got professional education. However, by the beginning of the 20th century there were more and more students from the indigenous population who were aware of the need and importance of education, who wanted to participate in all-Russian modernization processes.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):178-183
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A gymnasium student who stepped into the revolution: the initial stage of revolutionary activity of the Bolshevik Serafima Ivanovna Deryabina (1904–1908)
Gorshenin A.V.
Abstract

Abstract. Serafima Ivanovna Deryabina (1888–1920) is known as a revolutionary who acted in the Ural-Volga region in the early 20th century, starting from the period of the first Russian revolution and ending with the events of the Civil war. The heyday of her revolutionary, organizational and party activities occurred at the Samara stage of life (1915–1918), but this was preceded by a significant period of formation of the revolutionary woman in the conditions of the first Russian revolution and then in the years of post-revolutionary political reaction. This paper attempts to analyze the conditions for the formation of revolutionary views and the beginning of the underground activities of S.I. Deryabina in 1904–1908. The author attempts to establish her role among the Bolshevik organizations of Yekaterinburg at that time and to consider the details of the arrests of the young Bolshevik woman. To achieve this goal documents from the Federal (the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History) and regional (the state archive of the Sverdlovsk Region, the center for documentation of public organizations in the Sverdlovsk Region and the Samara Regional State Archive of Socio-Political History) archives were used. These archives as well as published sources help the author to reconstruct the activity of the revolutionary woman within the framework of the historical period and region under study.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):184-187
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The protection of the urban landscape during the revolution of 1917: problems and ways to solve them (based on the example of Samara)
Semenova E.Y.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper examines the conditions existed during the revolutionary crisis, which affected the urban environment, including the violation of public order, discomfort for citizens, a threat to health, life and property. Changes have been identified in the possibilities of free movement of city residents and their use of landscape resources in urban space. The description of the work of garden and park complexes in the conditions of the transitional political process is given. Transformations in the leisure and entertainment landscape of the urban territory that arose in the conditions of the revolutionary period were analyzed: a change in the range of services and opportunities in the work of the city’s garden and park ensemble. The author has identified ways to eliminate the problems, ensure the safety of life and preserve a comfortable environment in the city. The manifestation in a specific urban environment of the all-Russian trend of the crisis in the work of government structures to establish order is correlated with the protection of the garden and park zone. The author has also identified the reasons of regional scale, which influenced the work of local management structures, which turned out to be ineffective in resolving this situation, as well as the activities of specific responsible people in countering the destruction of urban space. The study was carried out on the basis of materials about the provincial Volga city – Samara. The source base is office documentation as part of the city government fund.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):188-193
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Organization, state and activity of criminal investigation units intelligence work in the Middle Volga Region in the first half of the 1920s
Gazatulin S.T.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper reflects the issues of formation and development of the agency work of state security and law enforcement agencies in the first half of the 1920s. The author considers the process of operational work formation of the criminal investigation department. Legal documents regulating the secret work of the Cheka and NKVD bodies are also considered. The categories of criminal investigation agents, the requirements imposed on them, the rules for building and controlling covert work, and the amount of funding are specified. Development and formation of the secret work of central and local criminal investigation institutions is traced on the example of the provincial criminal investigation departments of the Middle Volga region. On the basis of archival documents, the complexity and unevenness of this process in the regions are noted; the main problems (organizational, personnel and material) and the measures taken to eliminate them and improve the secret work are reflected. Materials of all-Russian congresses of NKVD territorial bodies heads show that much attention was paid to the organization of intelligence and operational work. The practical significance of covert work on the activities of the criminal investigation department is considered. The author has analyzed the influence of the received agent information by the Penza provincial department of criminal investigation on the activity of solving crimes in the second half of 1922.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):194-198
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The historical experience of the state political program for the creation of Soviet centers for school education and culture in the Yenisei North in 1923–1930
Chursina A.S.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper aims to analyze the experiments of Soviet State to organize and develop educational centers for indigenous peoples at the villages of Yanov Stan and Tura of Turukhansk Territory. The paper discusses that, despite errors and problems in relations with indigenous peoples, a cultural center at Yanov Stan and Tura cultural base can be considered as a Soviet experiment aimed to find an acceptable form of organization of formal schooling and spread of ideological values and cultural policies of the Soviet government among indigenous peoples of the North. Soviet government’s policy on educating local children also included upbringing them as native speakers of the Russian language and culture, able to assist the authorities to transform the traditional way of life of the indigenous peoples of the North and involve them in socialism building. Additionally, the tax base of the northern regions was insignificant. The People’s Commissariat of Education of the RSFSR, responsible for organizing formal schooling, allocated funds for school construction on the leftover principle. The lack of financing hindered the development of educational centers and implementation of social programs. Altogether, the paper argues that the centers provided an opportunity to accumulate certain experience and to train teachers who were able to work with indigenous children.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):199-203
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The space of unfreedom: GULAG and its society
Udovenko I.V.
Abstract

Abstract. This paper analyzes the GULAG as a social phenomenon of the Soviet society and as a specific type of the Soviet unfree space. In particular, it considers social constructs and the relation between the camp administration, prisoners, hired workers and the local population. Paying close attention to the analysis of the social groups which a camp population was comprised of, their gender and social structure, this paper explores the living conditions, mode of life, customs and mores of the social environment in a camp. Based on the large database of various historical sources, such as governmental acts, statistical evidence, archival documents, publications in the camp press and memoirs, this paper also relies on the video interviews of former prisoners collected by the GULAG History Museum. Without denying the authoritarian nature of the corrective-labor camp system, the author came to the conclusion that the established organizational model of camp complexes determined the lack of distinct borders between the camp social space and the public space of the free world. Such «blurred» structure of corrective-labor camps leads to the fact that the camp culture with its archaic social principles dominated by the «thieves’ culture» extended its considerable influence over the whole society of the Soviet Union.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):204-209
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Theoretical questions of studying the «Fighting China» image in the USA
Buranok S.O., Selifontva D.Y.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper is devoted to the problem of approaches and assessments of the Chinese crisis of 1931–1949 in the US press. No research in China’s image during the Interbellum would be complete without studying the press of the participating parties. In order to give a detailed analysis of the international relationships in terms of the global transformations from the American point of view, the authors analyze relevant newspaper articles published after the 1931–1949. The paper is based on materials of democratic and republican editions of the USA press. The materials of the American press of 1931–1949, dedicated to the search for the most efficient optimal strategy of building relations with China and Japan, show that among other things there is a steady interest of American mass media towards negative and positive experience of Asian policy. All the complexity of the crisis perception was reflected in the press, which tried to form an understanding of the new process in which America was involved. In the course of a difficult search of an optimal way and a view on the crisis, several polar points of view were formulated in the American press. The image of China was an important factor in the US information policy. Thus, the study of the attitude of the major American press and the positions of the most prominent journalists is of interest to the analysis of how the USA after the Chinese crisis gradually realized the place of the country in the new system of international relations. In addition, the press shows how the United States planned to develop interaction with the warring states in the Pacific Ocean.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):210-212
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The asymmetry of Laos conflict in the views of the RAND Corporation experts (1960–1973)
Lyozin A.I.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper deals with analytical reports prepared by the experts of the RAND Corporation on the «Secret War» in Laos (1960–1973) between the Royal Laotian Army, tacit living in the United States, and the communist movement Patet Lao, which received assistance from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Initially, it was Laos, not Vietnam that was the strategic and important region of Southeast Asia in the concept of «domino theory» of the US policy. A vivid example is the study of Laos in the RAND Corporation, which began earlier than the study of Vietnam. Analyst reports were created on the basis of geography, demography, geology, economics, etc. The paper addresses reports on the development of the military-political situation in Laos by the experts of the corporation such as Joel Martin Halpern, Paul Langer and Joseph Zastoff. It is shown that a part of the research was carried out with the aim of developing the theory of counterinsurgency at the request of the Agency for Perspective Research under the Ministry of Defense of the USA for the development of a foreign policy strategy in the countries of the «Third world». Special attention is paid to the connection of research on the situation in Laos with the analysis of the prospects of the American policy in Vietnam in the 1960s and early 1970s.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):213-216
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The Turkish army at the turn of the 1960s and 1970s: from left-wing conspiracy to right-wing coup
Tovsultanova M.S., Tovsultanov R.A., Galimova L.N.
Abstract

Abstract. This is the first paper in Russian historiography dedicated to the struggle of left and right groups in the Turkish army on the eve of a military coup on March 12, 1971. By 1970, an alliance of leftist intellectuals and officers was formed, led by the editor of the Devrim newspaper, Dogan Avjioglu and one of the organizers of the 1960 coup, a retired lieutenant general Jemal Madanoglu, received the conditional name of the organization of national revolutionaries. The members of the organization sought to approve the socialist system of the bassist type in the country and outlined the number of military coups – March 9, 1971. However, the death of one and the opportunist position of two other leaders of the military wing led to the failure of the attempt of a leftist coup. On the contrary, on March 12, 1971, a right-wing military coup took place in Turkey. In the course of subsequent repressions, a powerful blow was dealt to the left groups in the army and in Turkish society as a whole. In an effort to end the repression and achieve consensus in society, moderately leftist forces led by B. Ejevit entered into a coalition with their opponents – religious conservatives led by N. Erbakan.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):217-221
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Pedagogical Sciences
Facilitative orientation of continuing education courses as a means of preschool teachers’ professional competence development
Bakhicha E.E.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper discusses the features of implementation of additional professional training programs for preschool teachers. The author reveals a facilitative approach in organizing and teaching classes as models of a teacher and students relationship, based on care, organization and encouragement of teacher’s process of self-development. The paper describes two types of facilitation: social facilitation, which is seen as facilitating or reinforcing influence of social factors on the quality of the individual performance in the learning process, and pedagogical facilitation as a synergy (cooperation), the interdependence of the teacher and the group taking into account each student’s personal autonomy. The essence of pedagogical facilitation of additional professional education is presented as an active job in the group, as a result of which students will be able to analyze the problem and to make unconventional decision as professionals. In this regard, the task of the teacher is to involve students in the educational process and to share some managerial functions with the aim of creating conditions for a revival of deep interest to the subject (module) and promoting positive attitude to educational activity. Facilitative orientation of training courses for preschool teachers includes: creating conditions for a positive mood and understanding of prospects of professional improvement and personal growth; getting specific educational product that can «move» to a situation of professional activity (project, program, technology, etc.); providing prospects for further progress opportunities in the area of professional activities.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):222-226
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Dignity as a subject of pedagogical reflection (to the solution of a contemporary issue by means of analysis of foreign thinkers’ of the past thoughts on dignity)
Bezdukhov V.P.
Abstract

Abstract. The relevance of the paper is motivated by the importance of understanding the category of «dignity» as a category of pedagogical ethics. The author motivates the social relevance of solving a pedagogical plan of the issue of dignity by the fact that the value of dignity in current geopolitical and sociocultural conditions can become the basis of mutual understanding of peoples aspiring to preserve their cultural identity, to recognize the right to uphold traditional values for each of them. While developing a theoretical plan of the issue, the author proceeds from the idea that the basis for its solution should be an analysis of the ideas of thinkers and philosophers of the past that are of great importance to the present. The paper shows how the content of the «dignity» category, which is relevant for pedagogical ethics, is gradually being formed. Understanding of dignity by Plato is correlated with its understanding by Aristotle: for Plato, dignity is a virtue, which is manifested in the worthy behavior of a person, the quality of the soul (the dignity of the soul lies in wisdom); Aristotle connects dignity of a person with his/her deeds and actions, points to the importance of dignity in friendship based on equality, and not on superiority, on the inherent value of a person, and not on the choice of friends for benefit or pleasure. Summing up the analysis of the ancient thinkers’ ideas on dignity, the author draws special attention to the fact that it is the orientation to recognition of the dignity by each party of communication that is considered the basis of its adequacy. When analyzing ideas of T. Hobbes and I. Kant, the concept of «price» of a person becomes the key one. The author shows that T. Hobbes speaks of dignity as the superiority of some subjects over others (intellectual dignity, implying mental abilities, social value of a person, that is, the «price» given to him/her by the state) and emphasizes the social status of the phenomenon of dignity. I. Kant distinguishes between the concepts of «price» and «dignity», assuming that dignity has neither value nor equivalent, it is higher than price and evaluation, that a person is respected for dignity as an internal moral value, and not for the origin and social status. The author of the paper insists that the value of dignity has the supra-situational importance in teacher-students interaction, it is based on recognition of the equality of all people in moral terms, regardless of their level of morality, social status and social roles performed, determines not only equal attitude of the teacher to all students, but also his/her attitude to him/herself and the attitude of students to him/her.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):227-232
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The main ways of students’ activity assessment while training prospective Math teachers at a university
Evelina L.N., Kazeev A.E.
Abstract

Abstract. The authors of the paper pay attention to one of the mandatory structural components of the educational process – control and evaluation of educational results. Each prospective teacher of Mathematics should know all types of students’ educational achievements control, as well as have an idea of how to evaluate their results and independently carry out this type of activity at the stage of University training. Systematic work on this professional competence development is organized within the real educational process while studying methodical courses and during practical training. An important component of the professional competence of a future Mathematics teacher is considered to be first of all the ability to hear and understand the interlocutor, to establish the degree of his/her statements and actions compliance with the existing standards, to identify the level of mathematical training in general and within a specific section, to plan work on correcting noted errors and their prevention in the future. It is these areas of control and evaluation activities development of a Mathematics teacher the authors pay attention to in this paper.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):233-237
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Methods of disciplinary practice distortion elimination in the process of military education in everyday activities
Kasavtsev M.Y., Skorik A.G., Smirnov D.L., Dulishkin R.M.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper deals with problematic issues of conducting disciplinary practice by company commanders. The analysis of scientific publications and documents in the studied units showed that the existing system of maintaining and strengthening military discipline in the units is built on the basis of statutory requirements, but some military personnel allow violations of military discipline of various types. A priori research conducted by the authors has revealed that one of the main reasons for this contradiction is a phenomenon known as disciplinary practice distortion. The authors reviewed identified types of disciplinary practice distortion and analyzed possible causes of violations of this kind. As a suggestion for solving the problematic aspects of conducting disciplinary practice, a method was developed to eliminate disciplinary practice distortions in the process of military education in everyday activities. The presented method was tested in the work of the commander of the unit under study on the use of incentives and disciplinary penalties. As a result of the use of this technique, disciplinary practice distortions of all categories of company commanders were leveled, which in general had a positive impact not only on the use of disciplinary power by commanders, but also on the general state of military discipline of the unit.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):238-243
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Criteria and indicators of graduates’ readiness for professional activity
Kochetova N.G., Stelmakh Y.G., Kochetova T.N.
Abstract

Abstract. Based on the analysis of modern literature, the paper clarifies the concepts of readiness and readiness for professional activity. The considered concepts made it possible to identify criteria for technical university students’ readiness for future professional activity. The formulated criteria made it possible to determine students’ readiness indicators for future professional activities. A rating assessment of the student’s mathematical competence and the gross scientific product of the university were selected as indicators of readiness. The choice of these indicators is justified using statistical data of the Samara Region: gross regional product and the ratio of the selected industry wage to the average wage. The demand for technical university graduates’ labor is a function of the real wage rate. The results of the correlation analysis prove that the technical university graduates’ readiness for professional activity has a significant effect on the regional economic development degree, which affects the degree of social-economic development. The study was conducted on the basis of Samara State Technical University. The work presents pedagogical conditions for the organization of the educational process for the development of technical university students’ readiness for professional activity. The obtained materials can be used as the basis for further refinement of students’ readiness indicators for professional activities and in the content of the training.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):244-247
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Methodology for providing an integrated approach to the preparation of educational practice for prospective teachers of Geography and Biology
Lamekhova E.A., Lamekhov Y.G.
Abstract

Abstract. This paper discusses the methodology for providing an integrated approach to the preparation of educational practice «Introduction to Geography and Biology». The practice is a part of Geography and Biology teacher training process at a pedagogical university. The organization of practice is based on the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education. Bachelor graduates must be able to carry out professional activities in the education system. During the study period students must develop general cultural, general professional and professional competencies. To ensure the quality of students’ training, the curriculum provides educational and work practices. The effectiveness of educational practice depends on the use of an integrated approach methodology, which involves a combination of propaedeutical theoretical tasks, practical tasks performed by students in ecosystems accessible for educational purposes and individual student work in various ecotopes. The implementation of practical tasks is aimed at acquainting students with the species composition of plants and animals, as well as forming students’ ideas about the real existence of sets of organisms with a certain structure and group adaptations to the environment. The substantial aspect of educational practice allows students to update their theoretical knowledge in the field of general ecology, botany and zoology.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):248-253
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Mathematical modeling skills development among students of universities of economics
Makarov S.I.
Abstract

Abstract. This paper discusses approaches to economic and mathematical modeling skills development among students of universities of economics. The need for this competency among specialists in the digital economy is shown. The motivation of the student – the future specialist in the digital economy in mastering the basic techniques of economic processes and systems modeling – is outlined. The sections of the school course in mathematics are given, which are the basis for the development of these skills. Mathematical courses are examined; their study is considered to be the foundation for the development of the competence in economic processes modeling. The author describes the main types of mathematical models that are studied at the present stage at universities of economics and are widely used in the digital economy. The author also presents a classification of the models used in the educational process while studying mathematical courses. The main requirements for economic-mathematical models are discussed and substantiated. The author has listed necessary requirements for teachers of mathematical departments of universities. These requirements can help them to teach basic mathematics and its applied sections (e.g. mathematical modeling) to students successfully. The main conclusions and results of the study can be used in the practical work of teachers of mathematical departments at universities of economics when creating electronic teaching aids of economic and mathematical modeling and methods of their application in the educational process.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):254-257
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All-Russian English language school Olympiad tasks (based on Samara Region municipal stage)
Maksimchik O.A.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper considers the essential features of municipal stage of All-Russian English Language School Olympiad (ARELSO or Olympiad). The author views the Olympiad as a creative intellectual contest (subject Olympiad) aiming at revealing intellectually, linguistically, socioculturally and creatively gifted and talented in the sphere of foreign languages children and further developing their intellectual and creative potential. The author emphasizes the importance of ARELSO as an effective means of assessing students’ knowledge as well as its correspondence with CEFR; of stimulating students’ interest and encouraging their competitiveness, creative, analytical and research activity, readiness for self-study and independent learning; of helping them to identify their future vocational orientation. Outlining researchers’ contribution to the field of intellectual contests and work with gifted and talented children, the author has to admit the absence of comprehensive full-scale research into subject Olympiads, covering theoretical aspects of and practical guidelines for designing English language Olympiad tasks. The relevance of the study is determined by the author’s experience as an Olympiad tasks designer and an attempt to offer thorough guidance and practical tips to inexperienced teachers involved in the process of preparing students for ARELSO. The paper reveals how the regulations of All-Russian School Olympiad are observed in real municipal level tasks. The author comments on the task types and formats, their linguistic and intellectual complexity, thematic and sociocultural relevance. As a result of the study, the author emphasizes the necessity of designing for the Olympiad new original tasks with the aim of assessing students’ creative potential, foreign language competence and scope in the sphere of linguistics, country studies, linguocultural studies and cross-cultural communication.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):258-265
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The use of Lapbook-technology in the organization of academic and professional interaction with students of a technical university in a foreign language
Odaryuk I.V., Kotliarenko I.Y.
Abstract

Abstract. Federal State Educational Standards for Higher Education of the third generation are aimed at achieving harmonization between the needs of modern production and the tasks set by higher educational institutions for the training of highly qualified specialists. The paper discusses the need to find and apply new, interactive teaching methods and technologies in the educational process of higher education institutions. To solve practical problems or problems in the process of teaching foreign languages, a project methodology is proposed that promotes an independent acquisition of knowledge and their integration from various subject areas. Lapbook technology as one of many design techniques appeals to the creative activity of students’ personality. The main provisions of this technology are analyzed as a means of complex development of all types of speech activity in academic and professional interaction with students of a technical university in a foreign language. Characteristics (goal, tasks, developed competencies), basic parameters of students’ activities are described, an approximate structure for the development of subject and meta-subject skills at the stages of the lesson is developed. The development and application of training sessions using Lapbook technology in the framework of teaching a foreign language in higher educational institutions will undoubtedly contribute to the achievement of the tasks set by the new Federal State Educational Standards for Higher Education.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):266-269
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The problem of the individual’s active civil position development in pedagogical literature
Pets O.N.
Abstract

Abstract. The significance of educating students in the value attitude to a person, family, society, the state, the homeland, their readiness for social activity to act independently, actualizes the search for effective means of the student’s active civil position development. This paper discusses the features of school students’ active civil position development in pedagogical literature and practice. The author considers such concepts as «active citizenship», «citizenship» and «social activity». The paper emphasizes that the issues of educating a person who is interested in the fate of the Fatherland are highlighted in the works of various researchers, thinkers and teachers. Tracing the history of school students’ active civil position development in pedagogical science, the paper notes that in the 90s of the 20th century in Russia the society had to overcome a number of crisis situations in the socio-political and socio-economic life. As a result, an ideal of a free personality was created; it was believed to be «liberated» from habitual values, from national traditions and any obligations to society. The paper considers three types of civil position: passive, situational and active. Three main components of a civil position are distinguished: cognitive, active, and evaluative-emotional.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):270-273
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Practical issues of teaching discursive reading to foreign military personnel
Savinykh N.V.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper describes exercises for teaching discursive reading to foreign military personnel. A distinctive feature of the exercises is that they are aimed at forming cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies and skills in discourse reading. Each group of exercises creates a certain order of actions aimed at developing persistent skills. The method of teaching discursive reading is revealed on the example of special exercises for the educational text «The Russian Navy». The author has identified and justified the feasibility of using exercises in classes on Russian as a foreign language. The paper describes in detail the step-by-step work with the educational text, which involves performing a number of tasks aimed at developing all types of speech activity, as well as improving students’ vocabulary and grammar skills. The algorithm for working with text can be used with students of the first certification level and includes pre-text and post-text tasks for the development of discursive reading skills, as well as optimization of time spent on the acquisition of persistent skills. Special attention is paid to the ability to perceive the text from the position of a foreign language discourse, when the maximum result is determined by the culture of educational activity.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):274-278
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Distance learning: teacher competency (based on Mathematics)
Sevastyanova S.A.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper discusses the problems of the readiness of teachers to carry out distance educational activities. The main attention is paid to the structure of the concept. A model of teacher competency is proposed, reflecting technical, subject and methodological competencies in the technical, theoretical, practical and personal aspects. The system of competency descriptors is given. Specificity is revealed, goals and objectives are formulated, forms and methods of preparing a teacher for distance work are proposed. The necessity and relevance of remote pedagogical work, especially in conditions of forced isolation of students in 2020, is substantiated. The measures of state support for distance learning during the period of restrictive measures, some IT tools for organizing and supporting the educational process are described. The paper also analyzes some difficulties of teachers in the implementation of an indirect form of educational activity. It is proposed to use the electronic educational resource as a set of methodological tools providing all stages of the educational process as the main didactic tool for remote work. The development of the components of the resource, methods of its use in the educational process, ways of organizing the process and communication of participants are referred to the competence of the teacher. It is concluded that it is advisable to develop the competencies of teachers in organizing remote pedagogical work, and the subsequent development of the topic in scientific pedagogical research.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):279-283
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Axiological grounds for a prospective engineer training
Soboleva E.I.
Abstract

Abstract. The paper substantiates the urgency of the problem of an engineer’s personality development in the process of vocational training, which harmoniously combines the interests of technology and the environment. The author proposes development of a moral personality within the framework of technical education as one of the ways to solve this problem. The paper contains evidence of the relationship between the development of technological progress and a person’s professional moral development in the process of education. The author proves that spiritual culture is closely connected with the creation of objects of material culture by technical specialists, that introducing prospective engineers to moral values gives them an opportunity to control the world of technology without devastating consequences for the outside world. The paper also contains evidence that a technique created by human hands can subsequently live its own «life», but falling into the hands of an immoral specialist, it can be used for evil purposes, which causes disasters. The author reveals specifics of moral values as conscious meanings that determine a person’s relationship to the world, to people and to himself, as well as the place of relations in a moral culture and in a person’s technical culture is shown. It is proved that values are integral components of technical education, embodying the ideals and ideas about the standard not only of a highly qualified specialist, but also of a moral person (a standard of moral engineer). The ratio of moral values and values that are fundamental to the technical specialist is determined. Specific values are identified that determine technical and moral unity in the engineer’s training: «responsibility», «truth», «justice» and «freedom». The essence of the moral component of the prospective engineer’s professional training is revealed. In the process of such training, the technocratic thinking developed by the old school is a thing of the past, while the engineer’s personality that is morally sustained, tolerant and able to bear social responsibility is developed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):284-289
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The portrait of a competent (ideal) lecturer: students and lecturers’ point of view (based on the material of the language department of a non-linguistic university)
Tatarina T.M.
Abstract

Abstract. The author is interested in studying the portrait of a competent (ideal) teacher. Does the intensification of the pace of education and the growing demands on the quality of education affect the shift of emphasis in the personality of a specialist to greater pragmatism and rigidity? Or is it still, as in the days of Pestalozzi, humanity and morality determine the personality of the teacher? What personality traits of a teacher of Humanities are valuable to students? In this paper the author explores whether the points of view on personal competence of students and teachers coincide. The teacher must have knowledge of the subject, have communication skills, and be a charismatic personality in order to instill students with interest in learning the language, to encourage them to perform a large amount of work. First-year students, when adapting to studying at a university, evaluate university teachers’ effectiveness in teaching and communicating through the prism of school experience. Students’ opinions about the objectivity of teachers’ assessments depend on how interpersonal communication develops in the student-teacher paradigm. The adaptation of students to new forms of training largely depends on whether the teacher’s personality corresponds to the image of the competent (ideal teacher) that was formed at the previous stage of training (school years).

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):290-293
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Strategic guidelines for designing and implementing university students’ customized educational itinerary on the basis of artificial intelligence
Fedorov A.A., Budarina A.O., Polupan K.L., Zhitinevich D.G.
Abstract

Abstract. The study presents a new approach to building an educational program of higher education, taking into account the individual capabilities and characteristics of the student’s personality. The modern digital environment is changing the nature of the interaction between participants in the educational process and puts forward the requirement for the design of new educational standards, polyprogrammes and learning outcomes. An innovative model of designing and implementing a customized educational itinerary based on the integration with artificial intelligence technology is presented. It is aimed at the forward-looking development and the self-development of the student. Philosophical and pedagogical implications of conditioning the polyfurcation field of the student’s activity as the basis for organizing an individual educational process are substantiated. The idea of constructing an educational route in the context of individualization of the education system is underpinned by the concept of a customized educational itinerary, which is considered from two perspectives, being the changes in the educational process in the digital educational environment, and the changes in the interaction paradigm of the student and other educational actors involved. The mechanism for introducing elements of artificial intelligence for the effective construction and implementation of a customized educational route is briefly canvassed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):294-299
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The role of the anatomy museum in university education
Shilkova T.V., Efimova N.V., Sokolova T.L.
Abstract

Abstract. Museums of anatomy occupy an important place among museums, being a source of empirical knowledge in the field of biological science. However, most museums of anatomy are organized on the basis of medical and pharmaceutical universities as an additional educational space for students to get the most complete picture of the human body structure and the changes that occur in tissues and organs when exposed to various negative environmental factors. Museums of anatomy created on the basis of pedagogical universities are capable of performing educational and research functions for a wide range of students. The paper describes the experience of using the funds of the Museum «Human Anatomy» in the educational process of students and schoolchildren at General Biology and Physiology Department of South Ural State Humanitarian Pedagogical University. The authors consider some activity areas of the museum related to the implementation of educational and research activities. The paper presents methodical recommendations aimed at improving schoolchildren’s training for the practical part of the regional stage of the All-Russian Olympiad in Biology (grades 9–10), including an algorithm for performing practical tasks to determine and describe the humanorgans (bones of the skeleton), examples of Olympiad tasks with a matrix of answers.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(2):300-307
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