Vol 8, No 2 (2019)

03.02.00 – General Biology
Ecological adaptation of Astragalus mongholicus Bunge
Alekseeva E.V.
Abstract
One of the current research areas is a comprehensive study of plants that are widely used in traditional medicine, with the aim of possible further introduction. Astragalus mongholicus Bunge is a valuable promising medicinal plant used as a part of recipes for many diseases in the practice of Oriental and Tibetan medicine. Astragalus mongholicus is a species belonging to the large genus Astragalus in the family Fabaceae. It is included in the flora of Mongolia vascular plants. The basis of the work was the study of the morphological, physiological and anatomical features of Astragalus mongholicus Bunge, in order to identify the ecological adaptability of the species to the natural and climatic conditions of northern Mongolia. This is a typical long-stem herbaceous polycarpic, hemicryptophyte, has an underground caudex storage organ - for the supply of nutrients and replenishment of buds. It is reproduced by seeds only. The species belongs to the transitional group of plants - xeropetrophyte, which is resistant to water deficiency, populates mountainous steppes. It is a heliophyte that is well developed in conditions of increased solar insolation, with sharp temperature fluctuations during the period of spring growth, development and maturation of fruits and seeds. These adaptations are incorporated in the morphological structure of the biomorph, physiological and anatomical features of the Astragalus mongholicus leaf structure. Based on the conducted morphological and physiological analysis, as well as the anatomical study of the Mongolian Astragalus leaf, it can be concluded that in the course of a long evolutionary development the species is well adapted to the arid climatic conditions of northern Mongolia.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):10-13
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Association of small mammal’s spatial distribution and vegetation cover structure (on the example of Pustyn closed wood, Nizhny Novgorod Region)
Boryakova E.E.
Abstract
The following paper deals with the problem of spatial distribution of mouse-like rodents in connection with a vegetable cover character. Small mammals are studied as components of the whole system - biocenosis. The investigation was carried out during the summer of 2016 in the landscape protected area Pustyn located in the province of Nizhny Novgorod, Volga Upland. 6 sample plots were set up in different forest types. Micromammalia were trapped using a traditional method, over standard sample plots (20 × 20 m) in a random order. 226 animals were caught, they turned out to belong to 2 genera and 3 species: Cletrionomys glareolus Schreber, Apodemus flavicollis Melchior, Apodemus uralensis Pallas. Statistical analysis was fulfilled using Statistica 6.0 software suite. We used a nonparametric Spearman method for calculation of correlations. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used for detection of groups of similar objects, to reduce the number of dimensions and for visualization of the results. Positive and negative correlation dependences between the number of micromammalia and abundance of separate species of plants are revealed. The PCA analysis has shown that there is a significant factor for spatial distribution of small mammals, which is positively connected with nitrogen-loving plants. Rodents generally prefer places where projective cover degree of vegetation makes about 60%. This value is possibly optimum for movement and holes digging; the shortage of food is possible when the covering indicators are smaller and the density of animal’s population is big. The bank vole shows ecological plasticity in the choice of habitats more than mice. Based on results of our research, it is possible to conclude that heterogeneity of a vegetation cover has an influence on spatial structure of micromammalia communities.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):13-18
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Ecological assessment of regeneration abilities of microfaunistic complex soil invertebrates in conditions of recultivation to technogenic transformed light gray forest soils
Vershinina I.V., Kozlov A.V.
Abstract
The following paper presents the results of the ecological assessment of the technogenic impact on the number of microfaunistic complex of soil invertebrates in conditions of natural meadow biocenosis. The goal of the paper is to assess remediation actions impact on regeneration processes of microfauna community in conditions of technogenic transformed soils. The probes were carried out on gray forest sandy loamy soils of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. Micro arthropod was assessed according to methods admitted in soil zoology with subsequent extractions to laboratories by the Tulgrena-Berleze method with heating up by electro lamps. More than 4100 samples (125 cm³ each) have been analyzed to assess the total number of microfaunistic complex of broken soils. The results were the data reflecting dynamics of oribatides and collembols representatives population change in anthropogenically broken soils. The authors established that a mechanical violation of soil leads to sharp decrease of micro arthropod number. In conditions of technogenic influence the firmness of microfauna makes 17 pieces/m². The highest number of small soil invertebrates was established in 2018. The authors emphasize that the number of small terricolous most intensively increases when the soil is partially recultivated.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):18-23
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Ecological assessment of the territory, taking into account the functional heterogeneity of certain categories of lands
Glukhovskaya M.Y., Evstifeeva T.A., Grivko E.V.
Abstract
Widespread degradation of natural ecological systems dictates the need to establish their stability limits, which are largely reflected in the change of the environmental components properties as a result of various factors, primarily anthropogenic ones. Sustainability is expressed by a coefficient defined as the ratio of the areas of the territories under the elements of a favorable and negative impact. Determination of the coefficient of ecological stability implies taking into account the ecological significance of each of the biotechnical elements of the terrain. This methodology assumes several stages of research: analysis of the structure of the land fund of the region, identification of priority categories of land, assessment of the contribution of individual biotechnical elements within the categories in maintaining environmental sustainability and stability. The research was carried out on the territory of the Orenburg Region, where the agro-industrial sector prevails, characterized by a high rate of growth of disturbed lands. The assessment was carried out for the period from 2002 to 2016. The study showed that agricultural land is a priority area, accounting for 88,5% of the total area. They are divided into arable land (55,9%), fodder land (43,5%), perennial plantations (0,5%) and other lands (0,1%). The value of the stability coefficient during the whole period of the study is on average 0,36, which is 29,5% below the minimum norm and characterizes the territory as unstable. The maximum value of the stability index is 0,79 with an optimal value of at least 1, which allows us to classify the research area as «less stable». The obtained values of the parameters studied make it possible to draw conclusions about going beyond the limits of the stability of the ecosystems in the Orenburg Region and violating the stability of their development. Reducing the burden on the land fund of the region under study will allow a differentiated approach, based on the system of ecological zoning.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):23-28
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Ecomorfs analysis of the Samara flora
Matveeva T.B., Kazantsev I.V., Molchatsky S.L.
Abstract
During the conducted research it is revealed that suburban forests of Samara experience a considerable anthropogenic load. It is connected with the increase of the country site area, unauthorized building of the territory, deforestation, recreational loading. For the allocated associations the analysis of ecomorphs of flora is carried out. All species on coenomorphes, hygromorphes and trophomorphes are distributed. On the basis of the obtained data primary distribution of elements of flora was established. The main consequences of anthropogenic transformation are also revealed. It is possible to conclude that the structure of herbage of Samara suburban forests changes in the process of anthropogenic loading increase. It is reflected in ruderants, xeromesophytes and mesoxerophytes increase. It is not peculiar for forest communities. On the basis of the obtained data it is possible to define a disturbance degree of a vegetable cover under the anthropogenic influence. It is revealed that in suburban forests of Samara, despite high appeal and comfort, the vital condition of forest stands of an oak is weakened. It is necessary to carry out a complex of forestry and landscape actions for optimization of recreational forest exploitation that will improve a condition of forest plants and increase their stability in the conditions of anthropogenic loading. These materials can form a basis for a further study of the flora of the area.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):28-32
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Nutrition of the seven-spotted beetles Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) at different stages of the life cycle
Miniyarov F.T., Pavlov S.I., Yaitsky A.S.
Abstract
The paper presents the results of studies of the seven-spotted beetle ( Coccinella septempunctata L.) life cycle, which has 2 generations in the climatic zone of southern Russia. The main stages of the life cycle are the emergence of imago from winter diapause, the first generation from egg to imago, the second generation from egg to imago, the care of adults for wintering. The eating behavior of coccinellid was studied at each stage of the life cycle, which showed the presence of a small herbivorous period (phytophagous beetles), most of the cycle of the beetles had a predatory lifestyle (entomophage beetles). Experiments in the natural and artificial conditions of studying the nutrition of a seven-point beetle showed that adult beetles were more effective in consuming aphids than the larvae. It was also established that in the natural environment, the degree of palatability, both in the larva and in the imago, was directly dependent on the density of the aphids: as the aphid decreased, the feeding intensity of the beetles decreased. To increase the efficiency of aphid consumption, the joint content of two predatory beetles in the imago stage was used: a seven-spotted beetle ( Coccinella septempunctata L.) and ground beetle ( Tomocarabus bessarabicus concretus Fischer von Waldheim). With such simultaneous use (polyculture), a synergistic effect was observed in their consumption of rosan aphid ( Macrosiphum rosae L.).
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):32-38
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Ecological and coenotical structure of the Regional Natural Monument «Chelyabinsk city pine forest» vegetation
Nazarenko N.N., Novgorodova M.D.
Abstract
The following paper deals with the ecological and coenotical structure of the Regional Natural Monument «Chelyabinsk city pine forest» vegetation. The estimation was done by a cluster analysis with Sorensen-Chekanovsky (Bray-Curtis) distance measure and a flexible beta group linkage method - by non-metric multidimensional scaling, phytoindication and general discriminant analysis algorithms. The flora and coenotical structure of Chelyabinsk city pine forest plant communities are characterized by significant anthropogenic transformation. Forest-margin and meadow, ruderal and synanthropic species are insinuating and naturalizing in pine forest communities actively and supplanting typical pine forest species off communities. The studied pine forest flora synanthropic index is 32 percent. 15 plant associations were detected; its flora, dominant and constant species, coenotical structure and biotopes were characterized by principal ecological factors. The biotopes series of ecological factors replacement were identified. Biotopes series are specified by forest stand ecological structure, that determining ecological regime changes from semi-light to semi-shade and from more arid to more damp. Also biotopes form series from wet more variable moistening bad-aerated not-acid and salt enriched soils to acid aerated poor soils with contrast arid moistening. The detected Chelyabinsk city pine forest biotopes are characterized by not so fluctuation of principal ecological factors.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):38-44
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Reasons for the number of insects decrease of the Samara Region (on the example of leaf beetle populations)
Pavlov S.I., Yaitsky A.S., Miniyarov F.T.
Abstract
The survival mechanisms of leaf beetles (as typical phytophagous insects, surrounded by a «corrosive environment»: unstable, rapidly changing climate, «decreasing» forage, direct action of predators, ecto- and endoparasites, parasitoids, pathogens helminthiasis and entomophtorous, other pathogenic organisms) were studied during 1974-2016 in the Samara Region. 25 background species of chrysomelid beetles (approximately 240 individuals) were used as «model» objects. In addition to the natural fluctuations of the insect population, 21 causes of sudden increase in the number of local populations of leaf beetles were revealed, as a result of the influence of negative environmental agents, including abiotic (8), biotic (12) and anthropic (1 reason). From 5% to 90% of the leaf beetles population die as a result of unfavorable wintering conditions, sharp fluctuations in temperature and humidity, wind and precipitation; 2 reasons (concerning the resources of the forage base), 2 reasons (caused by the imbalance of the age and sexual structure of the population and therefore low reproductive potential), 2 reasons (determined by the fierce competition of insects and larval cannibalism) and 6 reasons (associated with the influence of predators, parasites and pathogens) are able to «withdraw» from 2% to 96% of the livestock (eggs, larvae, pupae and adults) of the population. It is concluded that many agents affects the number of insects.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):44-53
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Arsenic and selenium in shore soils and bottom sediments of Samara city ponds
Prokhorova N.V., Makarova Y.V., Bugrov S.V., Gerasimov Y.L., Platonov I.A., Goryunov M.G.
Abstract
Arsenic and selenium are included in the group of chemical elements of the first hazard class, which confirms the need to analyze their content in natural environments of natural and man-made ecosystems during ecological and biogeochemical monitoring. By their chemical properties, arsenic and selenium are metalloids or semimetals. In very low concentrations, they are necessary for the normal functioning of the organisms, but with increasing concentrations in the habitat or food they show high toxicity. Particularly dangerous is the accumulation of arsenic and selenium in accumulative environments and landscapes, which include soils and confined water bodies. For the urban ecosystems of the Samara Region, earlier monitoring of the content of arsenic and selenium in the components of their accumulative landscapes was not carried out, which confirms the relevance and practical significance of the presented materials. The authors carried out ecological and geochemical studies of the accumulation of arsenic and selenium in coastal soils and bottom sediments of twenty ponds located in the Samara city within the coastal slope of the Saratov reservoir (Volga slope) and on the watershed between the Saratov reservoir and the Samara River. The results analysis showed a relatively low level of arsenic accumulation in the analyzed substrates of the studied ponds. Compared with the level of regional background for the Middle Volga, the studied accumulative aqual landscapes are noticeably enriched in selenium (2-15 times). The technogenic influx of arsenic and selenium into the accumulative landscapes of the Samara city may be associated with the activities of metalworking and machine-building enterprises, as well as thermal power plants. The materials presented in the paper concerning the content of arsenic and selenium in coastal soils and bottom sediments of urban ponds in the Samara city can be considered as pioneering for the region and subsequently used in the ecological and geochemical monitoring of regional urban ecosystems.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):53-58
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Ecological and morphological analysis of the cardiac index seasonal dynamics of the Chuvash Republic sedentary and migratory birds
Repin D.V., Repina N.V.
Abstract
The following paper describes the results of seasonal dynamics study of the cardiac index of sedentary and migratory species of the Corvidae birds on the territory of the Chuvash Republic. The objects of the research were sedentary, nomadic and migratory species of the Corvidae birds: magpie, jackdaw, rook and gray crow. The work is based on the materials of the field and laboratory studies, which were conducted in the spring and autumn of 2016-2019 in the Chuvash Republic. The parameters of the cardiac index of grey crows, magpies, rooks and jackdaws were studied and birds with the lowest body mass and the most developed flying muscles, as well as migratory birds had the highest values of this indicator. When determining the cardiac index in spring and autumn, all the considered bird species had significant inter-seasonal differences of the studied parameter. It may be due to seasonal fluctuations in the activity and body mass of the birds. Of all the studied bird species only the rook had the highest seasonal variability of the cardiac index. The magpie had the smallest differences between spring and autumn values of the cardiac index, as they lead the most sedentary lifestyle compared to the rook, the crow and the jackdaw.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):59-62
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Assessment of the integrated reaction of onions of different types for the action of xenobiotics for use in ecological-genetic monitoring
Selezneva E.S., Saksonov S.V.
Abstract
The influence of many anthropogenic xenobiotics constantly falling into natural ecosystems is poorly understood, so laboratory experiments are needed to understand the consequences of such actions. It is especially important to study this effect on plants that are unable to avoid uncomfortable conditions. It is necessary to use a variety of test objects and screening tests that give an integral assessment of biological responses. Such tests include the Allium -test, which allows to evaluate toxicity at both the organismic and cellular levels, as well as mutagenicity of xenobiotics. We analyzed the response of three species of the genus Allium ( Allium cepa, Allium ramosum, Allium fistulosum ) to exposure to alcohol solutions of benzotriazole in extremely low concentrations. This heterocyclic compound is widely used in industry as a light stabilizer for polymers and as an anti-corrosion agent protecting various metals and alloys. The biological activity of two concentrations (0,0001; 0,001 mg/ml) was studied. The solvent was 0,5% isopropyl alcohol. Allium test was used to analyze a biological response of the selected onions. The duration of the experiment was 5 days. The effect of benzotriazole stimulated growth processes in A. cepa and A. ramosum in the lowest concentration and inhibited growth processes in a higher dose compared to the control. Benzotriazole had a stimulating effect on A. fistulosum in both of the concentrations studied, however, the stimulating effect in a high concentration was less pronounced. The solution in low concentration stimulates the proliferative activity in the cells of the root meristem of all species. However, cells of A. cepa and A. ramosum meristem are not sensitive to the action of a higher concentration of benzotriazole solution, unlike A. fistulosum , in which cell division is inhibited in comparison with the control. It was found that A. fistulosum , in which benzotriazole causes a block at the anaphase stage in both concentrations studied, is the most sensitive to the mitosis-modifying action of benzotriazole. In the other two species, only exposure to benzotriazole in high concentration led to inhibition of mitosis at the prophase stage. A. ramosum is resistant to the genotoxicity of model xenobiotics, and A. cepa is highly sensitive to benzotriazole mutagenicity. The paper discusses the relationship between the adaptive capabilities of a species and its resistance to anthropogenic xenobiotics, as well as the use of tolerant species as test objects for ecological genetic monitoring.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):62-66
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Features of copper accumulation in the soils of different functional areas of Novokuybyshevsk
Startsev A.I.
Abstract
The vegetation of the Samara Region is characterized by a relatively high content of copper. This biogeochemical feature is typical for natural and technogenic transformed ecosystems of the region. Copper is included in the group of elements of the 2nd hazard class. At certain concentrations it is necessary for the normal functioning of all organisms, but with increasing concentrations in the environment or in food it shows toxicity. The technogenic sources of copper include metalworking and machine-building enterprises, fertilizers, road and rail transport, wastewater, products of incomplete fuel combustion and refining characteristic of the Samara Region. The peculiarities of copper accumulation and distribution in soils of urban areas of the region are insufficiently studied. Previously, such studies were carried out only in certain areas of Samara. The paper analyzes in detail the level of technogenic copper pollution of the soil cover in Novokuybyshevsk. Ecological and geochemical studies in Novokuybyshevsk were carried out for 3 years (2016-2018) on 7 stationary test plots in its different functional areas and on 1 background test plot. The objects of research were soil samples taken from the upper humus horizon (layer 0-10 cm). The quantitative content of copper in soil samples was determined by the method of inversion voltammetry. A comparative analysis revealed territories of Novokuybyshevsk with relatively high, medium and low levels of copper in the soil. The first group included the Park «Dubki» in its elevated part, the old residential area on Kirov Street, the roadside area at the intersection of Pobeda Avenue and Dzerzhinsky Street (93,3-90,7 mg/kg). The second group with an average copper content (71,0-73,3 mg/kg) included the square «Elochki» and a new residential area on Ostrovsky Street. The third group with a relatively low copper content (38,3-54,7 mg/kg) included three sample areas: the lowland part of the Park «Dubki», the industrial zone and the background area. The concentration of copper in the soils of all studied functional zones in Novokuybyshevsk has not reached the level of approximate permissible concentration (APC), but more than the clark of the world soils and the background indicators. The downward trend in the concentration of copper in the soils of most of the studied functional zones of Novokuybyshevsk in 2018 compared with 2016 and 2017 at the relatively low level of copper content in soils of the industrial area of the city allows to exclude oil refineries from the list of its major anthropogenic sources.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):67-71
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The current ecological and biological state of the adventive flora of the Sviyaga River basin
Frolov D.A.
Abstract
The paper provides information about the adventive fraction of the flora of the Sviyaga River basin, the right-hand tributary of the Volga, which flows administratively through the territory of two constituent entities of the Russian Federation - the Ulyanovsk Region and the Republic of Tatarstan. Currently, according to the results of perennial floristic studies, 341 species of vascular plants belonging to 216 genera and 64 families are assigned to the adventive fraction of flora. The distribution of adventive flora species by time, method of introduction and degree of naturalization is analyzed, which showed that the majority of the adventive fraction of flora penetrated into the studied area over the past 100 years due to the expansion of the transport network, intensive trade and active urbanization, while «aliens» occupied mostly disturbed habitats, often becoming elements integrated into natural communities of nature. In addition to the distribution of adventist species over time, the method of introduction and the degree of naturalization, an important indicator is the adaptation of these plants to the local conditions of the Sviyaga River Basin in natural ecosystems, which is reflected in their distribution by cenomorphs in the study area. As part of the adventive flora, 9 ecological-cenotic groups were identified, indicating, on the one hand, which communities are most favorable for naturalization in accordance with the life strategy, and on the other, it indicates their disturbance.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):71-75
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A methodical approach to the ecological status evaluation of water bodies using the complex index of water quality on the example of the Middle Priobye
Shornikova E.A.
Abstract
The following paper deals with a methodical approach and experience of water quality complex index ( Iwq ) use for the evaluation of ecological status of surface water bodies by results of rivers monitoring within the Middle Ob basin during 2002-2018. This index allows to use such primary information as results of water chemistry analyses, parameters of structure of microbial community and other available data obtained for each sample site on various water bodies within the basin. The main evaluation criterion for calculating this index is a degree of a deviation of each controlled indicator from average value of this indicator for all explored water area within the basin. Water bodies (or their sites) can be classified to 5 various classes of water quality using the calculated values of the index. Such a methodical approach allows to carry out comparative estimation of an ecological condition of water bodies and their sites within the area, to map the obtained data, to analyze possible reasons of deterioration of water ecosystem state, to manage decisions on their restoration. The paper presents the results of the water quality complex index use for rivers within the Middle Ob basin, calculated on the base of indicators of the chemical composition of water and number of bacteria of various ecological and trophic groups in the structure of microbial community.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):75-80
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Some aspects of Scots pine forests monitoring in extreme conditions of the Kola North
Yarmishko V.T., Ignateva O.V., Evdokimov A.S.
Abstract
Forest ecosystems located at the Northern limit of distribution in the Kola North are chronically affected by a variety of natural and anthropogenic factors, among which industrial atmospheric pollution is currently the main one. The spatio-temporal dynamics of structural and functional parameters of undisturbed middle-aged pine forests ( Pinus sylvestris L.) and forests exposed to chronic industrial emissions, which contain highly aggressive sulfur compounds in combination with heavy metals (Cu, Ni) was studied. Long-term studies have established that the current trends in the state of Scots pine communities in the background conditions are due to natural processes and intra-population relationships. At the beginning of our research (1982) vitalitetnye spectra of the dominant part of the pine populations differed absolute dominance of healthy individuals, pronounced positive asymmetry and peaked. By the end of observations (2014-2017) vitality distribution of individuals of the pine was transformed into full member, assymetrique moderately positive and moderately peaked. Aerotechnogenic pollution in the considered conditions of the Kola North is a significant factor determining the vital state of individual trees and stands in general, and near a large copper-nickel plant, it is the main factor that has an oppressive effect on individual trees and stands, and in some cases leads to the destruction of young communities of Scots pine. A significant reduction in atmospheric emissions by «Severonikel» in recent years causes a noticeable improvement in the living condition of pine forests, even in the area of heavy pollution.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):81-86
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Personal archive of the archeologist M.E. Foss as a historical source
Yakushkina M.M., Kashina E.A.
Abstract
The archive materials of the notable archaeologist, which have both scientific and private character, give us a possibility to reveal the traits of M.E. Foss’s personality. Her main features were diligence and self-control, multiplied by the ability to overcome difficulties with optimism. We can follow these dignities by her field notes, for example during the extremely difficult search trip to the White Sea shore in 1926 with her colleagues, during the cold northern summer, surrounded by wild animals, without guns. Some notes and drawings witness her perfect sense of humor. Exchanging letters with colleagues, local historians and museum employees, she frequently demonstrated the ability to give kind advice and friendly support, paying no attention to person’s position whether it was a student or an honored academician. She usually tried to stay away from the Soviet ideology restrictions both in her behavior and studies, and loved nature with all her heart, which is evident from her lyric fieldwork footnotes.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):87-92
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07.00.00 – Historical Sciences and Archaeology
Central Chernozemie in the biography and researches of M.E. Foss
Akinshin A.N., Bessudnov A.N., Zakharova E.Y.
Abstract
The following paper deals with the research activity of Maria Evgenyevna Foss in Central Chernozemie. Considering the fact that Voronezh played a decisive role in the fate of M.E. Foss (she studied here, formed as a person, acquired the first experience of archaeological research, museum work, collected an extensive data bank on collections from the regional sites, to which subsequently repeatedly referred to herself and such famous archaeologists as T.B. Popova, O.A. Krivtsov-Grakov, V.P. Levenok, N.N. Gurina, A.D. Pryakhin, A.T. Sinyuk and others), special attention is paid to biographical information reflecting the connection of the Foss family with Voronezh. It’s the first time when the results of the analysis of documents from the SAVO funds with the additions of Margarita Foss - Maria Evgenyevna’s niece - are published. Without challenging the opinion that has been established in modern Neolithic studies that M.E. Foss prioritized sites and cultures of the forest zone, it is proved that her contribution to the study of the antiquities of the forest-steppe is much greater than it seems to the modern archaeological community. It was based on archival sources (from the funds of IA RAS, SA IHMC RAS, DFR SHM, Michurinsk Museum (Tambov Region)) and special literature. The results of her research of Shelaevo dunes (modern Belgorod Region), on settlements of different times in Voronezh (burial ground «Chastye kurgany», the site of Otrozhka, the site of Kostenki IV (Aleksandrovka)) and Tambov (sites of Podzorovo and Glinishche) regions have not lost their significance up to the present time.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):93-101
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The pottery traditions of Levshinskiy stage of the Kama Neolithic and Novoilyinskaya Eneolithic cultures
Andreeva O.V., Batueva N.S.
Abstract
The following paper deals with the complexes of the late (Levshin) stage of the Kama culture and the early Eneolithic ceramic complexes of the Novoilyinskaya culture of the Middle Prikamye within the framework of a historical-cultural approach to the study of pottery. In the course of the work, the most stable traditions of raw material selection were highlighted: silty clay was used for the Kama culture; clay and silty clay were used in equal shares for the manufacture of Novoilyinskaya ceramics. For the manufacture of Kama ceramics raw materials were initially dried and crushed; this tradition was absent in the Novoilyinskaya culture. In both cultures mostly unsprayed (ductile) raw materials were used. As a result, it turned out that the population of the Kama region of the early Eneolithic was formed on the basis of the genesis of the local Neolithic population - the Kama culture representatives with the new (Volga) population. This fact may be indicated by differences in the skills of preparing plastic raw materials, mineral impurities for the preparation of the molding material, as well as the methods of applying the ornament.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):101-106
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The role of the Globular Amphora Culture in the development of the Upper Neman communities
Vaitovich A.U.
Abstract
The paper discusses the problems of the Globular Amphora Culture (hereinafter the GAC) in the Upper Neman region. According to the proposition of M. Shmyt the sources related to the GAC have been divided in two groups. The first group is made up of the so-called pure sources i.e. the materials directly related to the GAC although hypothetically at times. It includes cemeteries, flint mines and workshops as well as finds of the quadrangular ground flint axes and chisels. The second group comprises so-called syncretic sources associated with the broad understood GAC traditions. The traits genetically linked to the GAC could be identified in materials of the Neman Culture as well as the local groups of the Corded Ware culture’s Range. The presence of the GAC people and traditions in the area in question is dated to the second quarter III - first quarter II BC. Two main forms of transfer the GAC traditions have been distinguished. Firstly, the Upper Neman region was the territory of the direct contacts between the GAC people and the local populations. Secondly, the GAC elements had been distributed in the synthesized forms. The major source of the synthesized GAC traits was the Rzucewo Culture as well as the Middle Dnieper Culture. The prospects of the archaeological research are discussed. On the current stage of the research, the issue of the chronology of the GAC traditions spreading in the area in question requires a more detailed study. Top priority should also be given to a thorough investigation of the GAC role in the socio-economic transformation of the Upper Neman population in the III - the beginning II mill. BC.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):106-114
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Ceramics making technology from the Eneolithic layers of Rakushechny Yar settlement
Vasilieva I.N.
Abstract
The paper contains the results of the technical and technological analysis of ceramics from the Eneolithic layers of the Rakushechny Yar settlement. It is located on the Porechny Island (the Don River, Rostov Region, Russian Federation). The methodological basis of the conducted research is a historical and cultural approach to the study of ancient ceramics, developed in Russian archeology by A.A. Bobrinsky. The methods of the research are binocular microscopy, trasology and experiment (physical modeling). 141 samples of ceramics (conditionally separate vessels) from layers 5-2 of Rakushechny Yar were subjected to a microscopic examination. The obtained technological information allowed us to reconstruct techniques and methods of Eneolithic utensils manufacturing at all stages of production - preparatory, creative and fortifying stages of pottery technology. Based on these data, the paper presents a general description of the Eneolithic pottery. A comparative analysis was made of the pottery technology of the Neolithic and Eneolithic population that inhabited the Rakushechny Yar site. According to its results, the similarities and differences of the Eneolithic and Neolithic pottery traditions are highlighted. Particular attention is paid to the question of the possible origins of new traditions, which became widespread during the Eneolithic. These include silty clays selection traditions, the introduction of artificial additives into the molding composition: crushed shell, bird fluff and sand.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):114-125
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The beginning of the «early metal age» in Karelia: materials and research
Vasilyeva T.A.
Abstract
The paper presents the results of the archaeological study of the transition stage from the stone age to the «early metal age». On the territory of Karelia, this period is represented by cultures of comb-pit and rhomb-pit ceramics. The development of neolithic cultures is controversial. The objective of the study is to present materials and research. Special attention is paid to the monuments with rhomb-pit ceramics and signs of acquaintance of the population with metal. The sources are increased, the analysis of materials is carried out, the main provisions in the development of cultural processes are rethought. Ceramics is the first artificial material. Ceramics ornamentation is the main cultural-defining marker in the study of ancient cultures. According to morpho-typological features, rhomb-pit ceramics is similar to ceramics with a pit-comb ornamentation system. The author of the paper refers the monuments with rhomb-pit ceramics to the transition stage from the Neolithic to the Eneolithic. The researcher focuses on the features of the development of ancient pottery in the IV - early III mil BC.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):125-128
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The results of the Fatyanovo-Balanovo and the late Volosovo population contacts in pottery traditions
Volkova E.V.
Abstract
Due to the Historical-and-Cultural approach to ancient ceramics studies the development of mixed pottery traditions reflects the amalgamation of the very bearers of these traditions. Taken as a problem, the study of populations’ contacts with different levels of pottery production is specific for a wide variety of territories and chronological periods. In the Upper and Middle Volga region the problem manifests itself in appearance of the mixed pottery traditions (morphological as well as technological ones) as a result of contacts between the Fatyanovo-Balanovo population and the late Volosovo population. So-called «Fatyanoid» (or «Fatyanovo-like») pottery that demonstrates features of the Volosovo and the Fatyanovo-Balanovo cultural traditions emerges in the process of amalgamation. A.A. Spitsyn, M.E. Foss, N.N. Gurina, I.V. Gavrilova, O.S. Gadzyatskaya and other researchers paid their attention to the problem. Based on the study of pottery collected at a number of archeological monuments including pottery from unfortified settlements - Nikolo-Perevoz I and II, Sakhtysh I, II, IV, Dikarikha, Iberdus I, Lipovka I and Galankina Gora - the author distinguishes three groups of the Fatyanoid (Fatyanovo-like) pottery: group I includes pottery with mixed Fatyanovo and Oshpandino traditions, group II includes pottery with mixed Fatyanovo and late Volosovo traditions, and group III includes pottery with the Fatyanovo traditions mixed with traditions of the population that consisted of bearers of the Bronze Age culture which is hard to define. These groups are present nearly at all archeological monuments though Fatyanovo-like pottery predominates at every monument. The author distinguishes pottery traditions common to the second group and explains the reason of their differences found at different monuments.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):129-136
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The pottery of the final phase of sperrings culture
German K.E.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to the poorly studied final period of the existence of Early Neolithic Sperrings culture. There are few settlements of this period - Voynavolok XX, Sandermoha II, Pindushi and Sulgu Va, they are presented in mixed complexes with proscenium stone tools and the absence of radiocarbon dates. No transitional complexes between the developed and final stages of the sperrings culture have been identified. The ceramics of the final stage has a number of differences from the «classic» sperrings. This lack of ornamentation imprints fish vertebra and the retreating lines. At the same time there are imprints of the corded stamps and oval (rhomboid) pits, round-conical pits marked on the main pattern - characteristic features of the advanced stage of the sperrings culture. The main ornament is horizontal zones inclined right and left with a short-cut or corded stamps, comb stamp or oval (rhomboid) pits that form a vertical zigzag lines coated on top of horizontal belts of round-conical pits, sometimes arranged in a staggered manner. Such a change of pottery decoration hasn’t been noted by experts studying early Neolithic ceramics of Karelia due to a small number of vessels and their presence in mixed complexes. Therefore, the development of the sperrings culture is likely to have been continued in some areas of South Karelia, but it is poorly recorded due to the refusal of the ancient population to use a fish vertebra as ornamentation as well as the transition to comb stamps.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):137-144
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Periodization and chronology of Caspian culture
Doga N.S.
Abstract
For a long time the issues of periodization and chronology of the Caspian culture remained controversial. Some researchers attributed the culture to the Neolithic period, while others - to the Eneolithic. The paper presents all the available views on the periodization of the Caspian culture. Its brief characteristic is given. The paper also considers criteria for the allocation of the Eneolithic era and provides arguments in favor of the Eneolithic nature of the Caspian culture. The author substantiates the fact that the producing economy of the Neolithic population was absent in the region while it was present in the Caspian culture. The following factors say that the culture belonged to the era of the Eneolithic: changes in the technique of processing stone tools, ornamentation of dishes; the presence of pets. The author considers the concept of the neo-Eneolithic period existence in the Lower Volga region and the possibility of attributing the Caspian culture to it. The author analyzes researchers’ point of view on the chronological relationship of the Caspian and the Khvalyn cultures; the conclusion is made about the chronological priority of the Caspian culture over the Khvalyn culture. All available radiocarbon values on materials of culture are presented and the author concludes that the Caspian culture represents an early stage of the Eneolithic of the Lower Volga region.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):144-149
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Analysis of the material culture and new radiocarbon dating of the Early Neolithic site of Amnya I
Dubovtseva E.N., Kosinskaya L.L., Piezonka H.
Abstract

The ancient fortified settlement of Amnya I is a unique Early Neolithic site in the northern taiga zone of Western Siberia (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, the Amnya river). It is located on a promontory and has three lines of defense and ten dwelling depressions. The structures of the excavated dwellings are very similar, though the artifact assemblage appears rather heterogeneous. We carried out a technical and technological analysis of ceramics, which showed no correlation between the texture, on the one hand, and the morphology and ornamentation of pots on the other one. Planiographic analysis of ceramics showed that vessels with comb and incising patterns are found in different dwellings, although there are objects in which both groups lie together. Various categories of stone implements (bladelets and polished arrowheads) also appear on different parts of the settlement. Most likely, the observed differences in the artefact complexes of objects are associated with the stages of the functioning of the settlement. The absolute chronology does not yet clarify the sequence of erection and existence of objects. New AMS date is probably vulnerable to a significant reservoir effect. The abundance of unsolved issues of absolute and relative chronology makes the resumption of research on this unique site urgent.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):149-159
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Modern concepts of Neolithic cultures in northeastern Europe
Karmanov V.N., Nedomolkina N.G., Melnichuk A.F.
Abstract
The authors summarize and systematize data on Neolithic cultures in northeastern Europe. It is a modern territory of the Komi Republic, the northern part of the Perm Territory, the Vologda and Arkhangelsk Regions, and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Based on the critical analysis of evidences, their analysis and interpretation, the authors present their views on the features of the formation, development and fate of the Neolithic cultures of the region. It has been established that the studied region contains northern and northeastern provinces of the famous cultures of the early and middle Neolithic of Eastern Europe: Verkhnevolzhskaya, Kamskaya, Lyalovskaya and Kargopolskaya. In addition, fragments of some cultures were identified. Their initial areas of formation are not yet reliably determined. They are represented by early Neolithic sites such as Dutovo 1, Chernoborskaya III, Enty IА and Chyornaya Vadya. Some types of pottery without a specific context document the presence of population groups in northeastern Europe whose status has not been defined yet. The authors suggest that the formation of Neolithic cultures in the region is associated with the search for undeveloped feeding areas, their development and short-term exploitation by small groups of people commensurate with elementary or unified families. Until the Eneolithic in the greater territory of northeastern Europe the conditions for long-term residence of the Neolithic population were absent as well as the formation of local traditions.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):159-171
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Marine hunting and fishing on the coast of North Fennoscandia before Christ
Kiseleva A.M., Murashkin A.I.
Abstract
Archaeological evidence for marine hunting and fishing at the coast of the Barents Sea dates from 5000 cal BC to 0 cal BC/AD, encompassing the Neolithic, the Early Metal Period and the Early Iron Age. Among hunting and fishing equipment are bone and antler harpoon heads, fishhooks and leisters. Four periods of development of the tools were established on the basis of stable occurrence of the artefacts types in complexes (semi-subterranean houses, shell middens, burials). The chronological boundaries of the periods were defined by the radiocarbon dates of this complexes: A - 5000-2500 cal BC, B - 2500-1600 cal BC, C - 1500-1100 cal BC, D - 900 cal BC - 0 cal BC/AD. The primary marine taxa exploited were pinnipeds and cetacean. The marine hunting was supplemented by catching Atlantic Cod and codfishes. Percentage ratio of animal bones from dated complexes indicates that the role of the seal and whale hunting had increased considerably since about 2500 cal BC. This coincides with the appearance of toggling harpoons in hunting equipment. The exploitation of aquatic resources in the Early Iron Age (after 900 cal BC) remained important in the subsistence economy. The transition to a primary exploitation of terrestrial resources at coastal locations is not observed.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):171-179
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Novoilyinskaya Post-Neolithic culture in the Middle and Upper Kama River region
Lychagina E.L., Vybornov A.A., Zhukova O.V.
Abstract
This paper deals with the analysis of the materials from the Novoilyinskaya culture monuments in the Middle Kama River region, traces the issue history and determines how much is known about it. The main sources of the issue are given and their reliability is determined here. The location of the sites and the characteristic parameters of dwellings are recorded. Their similarity with the Neolithic is stated. The ceramic and stone tools are described. The characteristic and special features are distinguished. A comparative analysis of the complexes with the materials of the late Neolithic is carried out, that reveals a certain similarity. The paper considers the issue of the metalwork residues presence at the Novoilyinskaya culture monuments. It is concluded that there is no evidence of the Eneolithic character of the Novoilyinskaya culture sites. The database on radiocarbon chronology of the Novoilyinskaya culture complexes is analyzed. The most valid values are highlighted. Their chronological interval of existence is determined: 5200-4500 BP. The issue of the genesis of the Novoilyinskaya culture in the Middle Kama River region is covered. The proximity with the culture of the local Neolithic is stated, as well as the role of cultures of adjacent territories is assumed. A comparative analysis with materials of the Krasnomostovsky type of the forest Middle Volga region is given. The conclusion about their chronological correlation is made. The authors also come to the conclusion about the Post-Neolithic age of the Novoilyinskaya culture. This culture is included in the range of the forest Middle and Upper Volga region cultures.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):179-186
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Novoilyinskaya culture sites of the Lower Kama region: current state of the research
Morozov V.V.
Abstract
The paper deals with the analysis of the Novoilyinskaya culture sites existed in the Lower Kama region between the Kama Neolithic culture collapse and the Copper Age cultures with porous (shell tempered) ceramics appearance. The analysis of the ceramic complex of the Novoilyinskaya culture shows its similarity with the comb ornamented pottery of the Kama Neolithic culture according to a number of indicators. A lack of clear data on stratigraphy and spatial distribution of finds as well as a small series of absolute dates do not give a clear idea of the formation time and the development of the Novoilyinskaya culture. Currently available data show that the Samara collar (Ivanovskaya) traditions disappeared until the last quarter of the 5th Millennium cal BC. Specific ceramics of the «Neolithic-type» shape is formed in the Lower Kama region. At the same time the Novoilyinskaya culture ceramics of the Ik and Belaya Rivers interfluve has some features which are the reminiscences of the Levshinskaya stage which are not characteristic for the Middle and Upper Kama region. These features are: thickening on the inner side of the rim; rows of pits and bulges (formed by pits imprinted from the inner side) under the rim; closed forms of the pots and an ornamentation - «stepping comb» impressions. The proximity of the ceramic complexes of the Novoilyinskaya culture sites to the Late Neolithic ceramics of the Kama culture as well as the radiocarbon dates and the absence of the metalworking evidences prove the functioning of the Novoilyinskaya culture sites of the Lower Kama region during the border of the Stone Age and the period of Early Metals. Another important question is - which southern components took part in the formation of the Novoilyinskaya type or influenced it. Researchers of the forest-steppe Copper Age cultures supposed that in the process of forest Copper Age cultures formation - the Garin and Bor cultures as well as the Middle Volga variant of the Volosovo culture - the Tok and even Altata elements took part. In our opinion, the influence of the Tok traditions is already clearly visible on the Novoilyinskaya culture ceramics. This conclusion is supported by the ¹⁴C dates which established the synchronicity of the Tok and Novoilyinskaya sites.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):186-199
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Early Neolithic of Trans-Urals: the contemporary view on historiographic problems
Mosin V.S., Yakovleva E.S.
Abstract
This paper is devoted to the critical issues of historiography and source study in the early Neolithic of the Trans-Urals. The authors consider basic dated monuments in the context of radiocarbon chronology; analyze the established criteria for identifying archaeological cultures and ceramic traditions and types of this period. Based on statistical processing of the ceramics of the forest-steppe Tobol region settlements: Tashkovo 1, Dolgovskoe 3, Kochegarovo 1, Ust-Suerka 4, the authors distinguish some stadial features in the evolving of the material culture of the early Neolithic in the first and second halves of 6 thousand BC. Attention is paid, firstly, to the co-existence of Koshkino and Kozlovo ancientries within the settlements, and, secondly, to the coincidence of a number of characteristics of Koshkino and Kozlovo material culture regarding the morphology of potteries, ornamentation techniques and basic decorative motifs. Within the framework of a sociocultural approach, it is proposed to consider the bodies of evidence as complexes of two coexisting and interacting traditions within one sociocultural space, understood in the source sense as an archaeological culture, instead of dividing them into two independent lines of development. Besides it is emphasized that the problem of the Neolithization of Trans-Urals, on the basis of the available data, at this time cannot be solved plausible.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):200-208
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The waterfowl image in the art of the Neo-Eneolithic population of the Urals
Serikov Y.B.
Abstract
The first generalizing work on waterfowl images in Neolithic art was presented by N.N. Gurina in 1972. Based on numerous findings the author defines their chronology and distribution area, characterizes the features of images and offers reconstruction of the overall picture of the world. At the same time Ural is the easternmost distribution area of waterfowl images marked by only a few finds. Nowadays the situation presented by N.N. Gurina has changed a lot. On the territory of Ural dozens of Neolithic and Eneolithic sculptural images of waterfowls made of stone, clay, bone, horn and wood were discovered. Even more known are the engraved images of birds on ceramic vessels. Practically all those vessels belong to the Eneolithic time. According to the Ural archeologists the image of the bird appeared in different symbolic meanings: the bird was considered to be the main character in the creation of the world; it could have been demiurge, ancestor and progenitor of the genus; the bird is associated with the development of craft cult; it could reflect the calendar symbols. The assumption of N.N. Gurina that the area of distribution of waterfowl images coincides with the area of residence of the population of the Finno-Ugric language group is confirmed.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):208-215
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Topical issues in the study of the early Aeneolithic of the Don forest-steppe (chronology, periodization, synchronization)
Skorobogatov A.M.
Abstract
For a long time, the Eneolithic of the Don forest-steppe remained one of the least studied epochs in the archaeological scheme of the region. However, since the late 1960s, sites with materials of the Eneolithic have been actively explored on the territory of the Voronezh and Lipetsk Regions. By the 1980s, researchers had a concept for the development of copper-stone age cultures within the system of the Mariupol cultural-historical region of the Dnieper-Don-Ural interfluve, which is still relevant today. The criteria for distinguishing the Eneolithic era in the steppe and forest-steppe spaces of the East European steppe and forest-steppe were substantiated. The idea of their synchronization with complexes of the Tripolye A period was designated. The early Eneolithic in the Don forest-steppe was marked by the appearance of a population with specific ceramics of Nizhnedonskaya culture. Questions of the chronology of the early Eneolithic were solved exclusively by methods of analogies with the materials of neighboring territories and synchronization with the local Neolithic complexes. The paper deals with the problems of chronology, periodization and synchronization of materials from the early Aeneolithic of the territory of the Don forest-steppe. The focus is on the absolute dating of the Nizhnedonskaya culture of the Mariupol cultural-historical region and its synchronization with the early Tripolye Culture. According to all the data available to date, the region’s early Eneolithic can be dated from 5300 to 4250 BC.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):215-220
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Materials of the early Neolithic of the Yarlukovskaya Protoka site (point 222) on the Upper Don
Smolyaninov R.V., Kulichkov A.A., Yurkina E.S.
Abstract
This paper analyzes materials located in the floodplain of the Matyra River (left tributary of the Voronezh River) of the Yarlukovskaya Protoka (point 222) in the Gryazinsky District of the Lipetsk Region. It was investigated in 1963, 1964, 1967 and 1968 by Vsevolod Levenok. The materials of three early Neolithic cultures of VI Millennium BC were revealed here. The materials of the Yelshanskaya culture are represented by corollas and bottoms of 12 vessels. Almost all dishes, except one bottom and several walls, have no ornament, with the exception of one or two rows of conical pit. All ceramics are well smoothed. Ceramics were made from silty clay. The location of materials in the cultural layer confirms the earlier occurrence of the Yelshanskaya culture ceramics. The ceramics of the Karamyshevo culture is represented by fragments from three vessels. The dishes are predominantly decorated with small oval pricks composed in horizontal and vertical rows. Ceramics were made from silty clay. Ceramics of the Srednedonskaya culture are represented by corollas and rounded bottoms of 15 vessels. It is decorated with triangular prick or small comb prints. Ceramics were made from silty clay. At Yarlukovskaya Protoka site 304 stone artifacts were discovered, mainly of flint. This industry could be described as flake-blade technique. The monument is a mixed complex - stratigraphic and planigraphic readable observations of stone inventory location could not be done.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):220-229
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The ratio of the Neolithic and Eneolithic complexes of the forest-steppe Volga region according to radiocarbon dating
Somov A.V., Shalapinin A.A.
Abstract
The following paper provides a database of radiocarbon dating, which was obtained from the Srednevolzhskaya archaeological culture of the developed and late Neolithic, as well as on the Eneolithic materials of the forest-steppe Volga region. The key issue is the chronological ratio of the melon complexes, which is considered through the construction of graphs of the sums of calibrated radiocarbon dates. Verification of previously obtained definitions was carried out with the ratio of the absolute chronology of adjacent regions. As a result of definitions study for C14, the range of the Srednevolzhskaya Neolithic culture and the Eneolithic complexes coexistence was revealed, which begins with 5050 BC with a probability of 68,2% or 5250 BC with a probability of 95,4% and ends with 3900 BC (68,2%) or 4000 BC (95,4%). The results of radiocarbon dating confirm the genetic continuity between the Neolithic and Eneolithic complexes of the forest-steppe Volga region. In the light of data on the absolute chronology, the assumption of continuity between the Neolithic and Eneolithic can be extended to the basin of the Sok River, where there is a closure of a chronological range of comb Neolithic complexes and aneolithic materials of the Chekalinskiy type. The chronological interval of the late Neolithic ceramics partially coincides with the time of the existence of Tokskiy materials, as well as with the Gundorovskiy type and «with an internal edge» ceramics.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):229-239
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The question of «vestigial Neolithic» forest-steppe Don
Stavitsky V.V.
Abstract
The concept of «vestigial Neolithic» was presented by A.T. Sinyuk in his thesis and hasn’t undergone any significant changes. It was based on statistical and stratigraphic observations of Universitetskaya 3 settlement. Here three Neolithic stages and the fourth stage «vestigial Neolithic» were identified. Its beginning was connected with the appearance of the population of the lower Don Eneolithic culture on the Middle Don, which contacted with the tribes of fish culture. The findings were based on the assumption that the economy of the Rybnoserskaya culture was appropriating, while the economy of the Nizhnedonskaya culture was producing. The possibility of their coexistence was explained by the rich ecological resources of the forest-steppe Don, as well as the focus on the extraction of different food resources. New materials have not confirmed the Neolithic nature of the Nizhnedonskaya culture. The topography of the settlements indicates that both local and alien tribes occupied the same ecological niche. The beginning of the Eneolithic period on the Middle Don should be associated with the Middle Eastern culture, the population of which displaced or assimilated the aborigines. There wasn’t any period of coexistence of Eneolithic and Neolithic (survivable) cultures either on the Middle Don, or in the forest-steppe Volga region.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):239-243
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Middle-Don Neolithic culture: problems of selection, chronology and periodization
Surkov A.V.
Abstract
The paper deals with the main results of the Middle-Don Neolithic culture study. The contribution of A.T. Sinyuk is noted. The paper also contains some evolution of his views on the content of the early stage of the culture. So, the first periodization, done in 1971 as a result of Universitetskaya III site study, was then adjusted, especially after the excavations of Monastyrskaya I site. The culture chronology according to modern concepts fits into the IV-V millennium BC. The origin of the Middle-Don culture is debatable. New absolute dating allows us to consider the early stage in the first half of the VI - third quarter of the VI millennium BC and associate it with the first monuments with stroke ceramics and plate stone inventory. The author notes that there was an interaction of the Middle Don population with the Karamyshevsky population at the early stage. During the last quarter of the VI - first quarter of V millennium BC stroke-ornamented-comb ware spread, ornament completely filled the outer surface of the vessels. Late stage - second quarter V - end V millennium BC, the syncretic types were formed. Vestigial stage - the beginning of IV millennium BC, there was an end of Middle-Don traditions, they were rare in the Rybnoozersky type of ceramics.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):243-250
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Revision of the materials from the Riigiküla I Stone Age settlement site (Estonia)
Khrustaleva I.Y., Kriiska A., Kholkina M.A.
Abstract
The Riigiküla I settlement site in northeast Estonia, which was found and excavated at the beginning of 1950s, is an important source of information about the life and households of the Stone Age population in the Eastern Baltic and one of the few settlement sites in Estonia that includes the remains of dwellings. Besides two pit-houses, a few fireplaces, two entire human skeletons and the disarticulated bones of at least three more individuals, as well as a rich inventory comprised of pottery fragments, tools and waste from the production of quartz, bone, antler, flint, etc., were discovered here. At first, the site was interpreted as a single long-term dwelling site. Nevertheless, the discovery of new data at other sites in the region, as well as a partial re-analysis of the pottery and new AMS dates obtained from the human bones, indicated the necessity to revise all the materials. The preliminary results of this work are presented in our paper. It was established that at least four buildings correlated to Narva and Comb Ware cultures existed on the settlement site, indicating that, at least partially, they existed at different times. Find materials in the occupation layer are obviously mixed vertically because of the existence of multi-temporal settlement sites in this area, but they are also clearly correlated to objects horizontally. For a while, this place was apparently visited by the representatives of the Corded Ware culture (judging by the few fragments of pottery). And in the middle of the Bronze Age, people buried their dead here.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):250-262
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Neolithic complexes of the Koksharovsky hill: genesis, stages of development and cultural continuity
Shorin A.F., Shorina A.A.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to the problems of evolution and cultural continuity of the Neolithic complexes of archaeological site «Koksharov Hill - Yurynskoye settlement». The basis for solving these problems is the presence of all types of Neolithic ceramics from the Trans-Ural region in the cultural strata of this complex: Koshkinskaya, Koksharovsko-Yuryinskaya (Kozlovskaya), Poludenskaya, Basyanovskaya (Boborykinskaya). Each of them has a reliable time reference, based on both stratigraphic observations and a solid base of radiocarbon dates including 54 received dates. The beginning of the Neolithic epoch on the monument is connected with the formation of the complexes of the Koshkinskaya archaeological culture no later than the third - the last quarter of the 7th millennium BC. At the same time, not later than the very beginning of the 6th millennium BC, complexes of the Koksharovsko-Yuryinskaya archaeological culture appeared. The indented strokes technique of ornamentation dominates in the design of ceramic ware of these cultures. But in the ornamentation of the vessels of the Koksharovsko-Yuryinskaya culture there are more features that go back to the local Mesolithic basis. A distinctive feature of both cultures is the presence of vessels with relief to stick. The population of these cultures existed, often in the framework of exogamous groups, during the early stage of the Neolithic region, before the 6th-5th, and even the first quarter of the 5th millennium BC, when they were re-registered in the Late Neolithic Poludenskaya and Basyanovkaya. Radiocarbon dates obtained from fragments of ceramics of the Ayatskaya culture, which fit into the interval of the third - last quarter of the 5th millennium BC, mark the beginning of the Eneolithic epoch on the monument.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):262-268
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The role of the Seitov Posad Tatars in the development of the Orenburg Region
Lyubichankovskiy S.V.
Abstract
The paper analyzes the role of the Seitov Posad Tatars in the development of the Orenburg Region from the moment of its foundation until the beginning of the 19th century. The reasons for the establishment of the Seitov Posad (Tatar Kargaly) near Orenburg even before the official establishment of the Orenburg province are shown. The author reviewed the resettlement process that attracted Tatars from Kazan province to the Orenburg Region. The census data are presented, indicating a consistent increase in the number of Tatars among the population of the Orenburg province. The paper shows some peculiarities of the mentality traditionally inherent to Tatar merchants, contributing to the effective implementation of trade projects. The privileges granted by the state to the residents of the Seitov Posad are noted. An explanation of the reasons that led to the endowment of the Tatar residents of the Orenburg province with a number of benefits is given. Cases of the conscious relocation of merchants from Orenburg to Seitov Posad for the purpose of supporting their own commercial projects are shown. The author notes specific historical examples that indicate the existence within the framework of state policy of integration of suburbs into a single socio-cultural space of the Russian empire of a special Tatar factor, which was important both for stabilizing the economic position of the Russian empire in the south-eastern suburbs and for acculturation of the nomadic Kazakh population.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):268-271
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New estates and social policy of the Russian Empire in the Kazakh steppe in the 19th century
Tuleshova U.Z.
Abstract
In empire-building of the 19th century the Russian power had a priority task that was to build a uniform political and social system across all imperial territory which included absolutely different regions. The Kazakh steppe as a part of the empire represented a cultural type distinctive from the center, based on nomadic lifestyle. In the background of difficult methods of construction of the unified empire, one of important questions was the state policy promoting creation of a socio-political system in the Kazakh steppe which would be most approximate to the empire model. This paper investigates the nature of social changes and process of new estates formation (the nobility and honorable citizens) in the Steppe in the context of administrative, social policy of the Russian government. Social changes on the Kazakh lands began with transformation of the administrative-territorial structure of the region at the beginning of the 19th century. With introduction of new legally fixed form of political management and inclusion of the Kazakh region in the rang system of the empire traditional social order of Kazakhs was transformed, and new estates on an imperial sample as officials, noblemen and honorable citizens began to form. Actually the process of formation and character of these estates among Kazakh nomads differed from social groups of the settled and agricultural people. The symbiosis of traditional nomadic and imperial social features was observed, at that time the imperial government maintained distinctions among the incorporated groups. The important aspect in social transformation of the Kazakh steppe was incorporation of the Kazakh elite in privileged estates (the nobility and honorable citizens) of the Russian Empire. In this connection, the paper represents the process of entry of the Kazakh sultans into nobility of the empire and features of the Kazakh nobility. The paper also considers the process of adaptation of local population to new social transformations. Their study will allow to reveal characteristics of imperial methods in the region and perceptions of the new social system by the Kazakh population, extent of their identification with imperial estates.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):272-281
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Samara landowner and liberal Georgy Nikolaevich Kostromitinov
Barinova E.P., Kabytov P.S., Kabytova N.N.
Abstract
Based on the analysis of archival documents, periodicals, memoirs the paper reconstructs the biography of an outstanding political figure - a member of the constitutional democratic party, one of the organizers of the provincial branch of the cadet party in the Samara province, deputy of the 1st State Duma G.N. Kostromitinov. The authors have defined stages of his life and work as well as the main directions of his economic activity. The authors also emphasize the importance of G.N. Kostromitinov’s participation in the work of Zemstvo institutions. It contributed to the development of his political views and had a significant impact on development of the Samara nobleman as a prominent regional public figure. During the revolutionary events of 1905, he became one of the leaders of the Samara cadets, which led to the election of G.N. Kostromitinov to the 1st State Duma. The authors have recreated the process of the constitutional democratic party branch establishment in the Samara province, G.N. Kostromitinov’s place and role in the leadership and activities of the Samara branch of the party of the cadets. The authors have also established his relationships with the provincial leaders A.A. Chemodurov and A.N. Naumov. The paper presents biographical data about G.N. Kostromitinov’s son - M.G. Kostromitinov before and after the Great Russian revolution and Civil war, it also considers his tragic death during Stalin’s repressions. The results can serve as a basis for further reconstruction of the socio-political portrait of the Russian nobility.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):282-287
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Animal husbandry of the Urals regions in the conditions of the great Patriotic war
Bakhtiyarov R.S., Fedorova A.V.
Abstract
This paper deals with the role of animal husbandry in the history of the Ural economic region as the most important economic base of Russia, especially during the great Patriotic war of 1941-1945. The study contains materials characterizing the situation in the industry in the prewar period, estimates the processes taking place in the main areas of animal husbandry in the transition from the sole of the peasant way of organizing production to industrial technologies in the late 30s of XX century. During the collectivization in the Urals, as throughout the country, the number of productive animals suffered heavy losses. Only the number of small cattle in 1928-1935 decreased from 9,1 million heads to 3 million heads, i.e. 3 times. Realizing the harmfulness of such a policy, the Soviet leadership took vigorous measures to correct the situation. They allowed to significantly correct the situation, but in general by the beginning of the great Patriotic war, the full transition to the new principles of work in agriculture hadn’t been carried out. When the war broke out the role of animal husbandry in the Urals in the USSR increased. At the beginning of 1941 the farms of the region contained from 5,1 to 8,3% of the population of the main agricultural animals of the country, then during the most difficult years of 1942-1943 this figure increased to 10,8 and even 18,6% of the total productive herd of the USSR. During this period, the livestock of the region gave up to 15% of all dairy products of the country and 13-14% of meat. Thus, the workers of animal husbandry of the Urals in the most difficult conditions of war time were able to save the bulk of the livestock and provide the army and defense industry of the region with the necessary food and raw materials.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):287-291
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The position of women in the Far East villages in the period of «late» socialism
Grinko A.A.
Abstract
The paper analyzes the transformation of the female rural population position of the Far East in the USSR in 1970 - the first half of 1980 under the influence of a set of factors. The peculiarities of the geographical location of the region, its level of development, acceleration of life processes in rural areas, rapid dissemination of information and other factors had a significant impact on rural women. This influence was controversial and ambiguous. On the one hand, the role of a woman in the family changed, her activity as an employee increased, her well-being, cultural and educational level increased. On the other hand, becoming more independent, the woman aspired to better working and living conditions, career growth, free time increase, but in rural areas it was difficult. Despite the special attention of the state to the Far East and the activities aimed at the development of rural areas, life in the villages did not meet the «urban» views of local residents. The result of this transformation was a focus on childlessness for a large part of young people and moving to urban areas. Against the background of the village it was perceived as an incomparably better place of residence.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):292-295
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The state of the craft activity on the territory of Mordovia (at the present stage)
Kandrina E.V.
Abstract
In the following paper the author analyzes the state, prospects and problematic aspects of folk arts and crafts existence in the Republic of Mordovia on the examples of the most significant traditional places of their existence. The author uses her own field data analysis as well as archival documents and researchers’ materials. The author analyzes transformation of the understanding of the essence and structure of fishing activity in the framework of various historical stages. The place, role, features of folk arts and crafts development in the conditions of an innovative market economy are determined. The main forms of arts and crafts activities for income generation, in which crafts continue to exist are considered. At the present stage, such forms are developed in family contracts, dynasties of craftsmen, among self-employed persons, craftsmen engaged in some kind of applied arts and crafts besides their professional activities. Attention is paid to the production of souvenirs with national symbols as a special type of products in the structure of folk crafts. The paper reflects the main factors which have an effect on the state of various kinds of folk arts and crafts. The fundamental principles that allow to increase the effectiveness of measures aimed at reviving, preserving and developing various types of traditional folk arts and crafts on the territory of Mordovia are formulated.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):295-304
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Legal state and «state of the truth» in the works of M.V. Shakhmatov
Bystryukov V.Y.
Abstract
In the early 1920s, the Eurasian movement emerged in the Russian emigration. Its representatives tried to explain the causes of the Russian revolution, re-evaluating the historical path of the country and its cultural characteristics development. In the first half of the 1920s, the movement loudly declared itself and quickly gained popularity among the Russian «intelligentsia». Its leaders began to attract new authors for publication in Eurasian publications, including Mstislav Vyacheslavovich Shakhmatov, a graduate of the law faculty of St. Petersburg University. He published only two articles in Eurasian publications. However, its role and importance in the Eurasian movement in modern historiography is estimated differently: from being ranked among the founders of Eurasianism to denying any significant role in its history. M.V. Shakhmatov considered the features of the ideal state doctrine of the old Russian principalities and the Moscow Kingdom based on Chronicles and other works of ancient Russian script in his works published in the Eurasian Periodicals. M.V. Shakhmatov thought that the right to the content was super-conscious and followed from religious premises, from the truth of God. Ancient people spread these ideals to the area of state-legal phenomena. In his opinion, the state set three main tasks: the protection of Orthodoxy, the establishment of the truth on earth and protection of the physical existence of the people. The idea of «podvigopolozhnichestvo» of the Supreme power of the early history of Christianity came from Byzantium. M.V. Shakhmatov noted that the political reality of the life of the old Russian principalities and council cities was very different from the ideals laid down in the chronicles and other works of ancient Russian script. However, the ideal of the «state of the truth» is remained in the works of Slavophiles, F.M. Dostoevsky, P.I. Novgorodtsev, and individual manifestations in the practice of the Russian Empire.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):304-309
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Asymmetric conflicts in the British Empire in the writings of W. Churchill
Golosova A.A.
Abstract
This paper analyzes the materials of Winston Churchill of the first third of the XX century, dedicated to his participation in asymmetric military conflicts on the periphery of the British colonial empire. First, it allows us to consider the concept of asymmetric conflict in relation to the British army at the turn of the century and after the First World War. Secondly it allows us to analyze methods, forms and ways of waging war in the conditions of unequal power capabilities, which help to get to know the way of the colonial margins, which was formed by the British in the context of ongoing conflicts. The paper traces a clear chronology in accordance with the works of Winston Churchill: the Cuban War of Independence, the uprising of the Pashtun tribes in Malakand, the Mahdist uprising in Sudan, the second Anglo-Boer War, and the Irish War of Independence. Winston Churchill served in the British Army personally, at the same time he served as a war correspondent covering military events from the front line. Only the Irish War of Independence is knocked out of the chain of events. It was an asymmetric military conflict, perceived by W. Churchill from a completely different perspective: through the prism of political experience and from the height of his position of a Minister of Colonies. In the paper we conclude that the colonial era is the basis for the formation of the theoretical component of the asymmetric conflict concept.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):309-313
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Legacy of empires: academic expertise and USA policy in Afghanistan and Iraq in 2001-2014
Malkin S.G.
Abstract
The heritage of the European colonial empires should be perceived as «missing dimension» while studying the history of the USA foreign policy at the beginning of the XXI century. The comparative-historical analysis as well as transfers of colonial experience of the European powers should be discussed. It promotes making a fuller picture of imperialism as a phenomenon in the history of international relations as well as a certain style of thinking during a decolonization era. At the same time the American case became the most striking example of reception of the European powers colonial experience in political practice of the 2000th. The main characteristic feature of the USA foreign policy decisions examination was its realization in the form of historical modeling of the asymmetric conflicts - the analysis of Washington policy prospects in Afghanistan and Iraq in a wide context of experience of global colonial empires. While working with such researches a constant methodological reflection caused by their political involvement as well as restrictions of disciplinary character is necessary. At the same time a special role in this case belonged to the academic world representatives who professionally studied colonial experience of the European. It is them who were the most serious competitors to the Pentagon representatives with academic degrees as well as to «think tanks» analysts who cooperated with the military in fight for their own expert opinion domination about historical modeling of the asymmetric conflicts in the Middle East. It is this aspect of the academic examination of the USA policy in Iraq and Afghanistan in 2001-2014 that the following paper deals with.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):313-318
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Is a class approach to learn history out of date? Or... (invitation to a discussion)
Ippolitov G.M.
Abstract
In the following paper the author disclosures some aspects of a complex problem. It is a class approach to the assessment of events and phenomena as one of the approaches to learn history. The style is lapidary, with conciseness elements. The author considers fundamental postulates of the Marxist-Leninist concept of a class approach to the assessment of events and phenomena as one of the approaches to learn history. The emphasis is placed here on Lenin’s understanding of the methodological phenomenon stated above and its development by ideologists of the Communist Party governing the Soviet state. Development of the studied concept in the Soviet historical science is traced. At the same time it is emphasized that eclecticism elements were allowed when scientists confused the concepts «principles of a historical research» and «approaches to learn history». The author considers how the problem of a class approach to assessment of events and phenomena is treated in a Post-Soviet and modern historiography. The author says that this approach hasn’t become outdated in historical science as many representatives of so-called liberal historical school consider (don’t confuse with V.O. Klyuchevsky) and continues to function. However, it changed manifestation forms and receded a little into the background.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):318-324
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Transformations of historical events and facts assessments in the context of socio-cultural influence of modernity
Ippolitova A.G.
Abstract

The paper shows the transformation of attitudes towards historical events, facts and personalities due to the influence of the thinking paradigms of the modern socio-cultural environment. Objectivity of historical science is a moving thing, because history itself is an organic part of culture, reflecting in its interpretations its mentality and value orientations important for society at a certain period of time. The historical process is a lively cultural stream, filled with unique signs and symbols, ways of demonstration in culture. Modernity determines the attitude of society to the historical process, the importance of personalities and their popularity. Here the historical assessment becomes a reflection of modern realities. We cannot fully feel the influence of the historical character, we can just imagine. We try on the images of the past, fantasize a bit, we give emotions and feelings, «including» the subjectivity of perception of historical events in modern times. The society draws historical parallels, evaluates the «past» from the standpoint of the paradigm of thinking that it understands, which leads to the transformation of historical assessments in different historical periods. All of the above, of course, is characteristic of the transformational process of national history, as shown in a number of examples. They reflect the interpretation characteristic of modern society rather than the position of the author. Particular attention is paid to the assessment of the Great Patriotic War, which is necessary to remember to strengthen the unity of the society and to broadcast patriotic values.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):324-329
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13.00.00 – Pedagogical Sciences
The study of senior preschoolers’ readiness for social orientation in the organizations of additional education
Barcaeva E.V.
Abstract
The paper presents a technique of defining the level of development of senior preschoolers’ readiness for social orientation in the organizations of additional education. It contains diagnostic tools that determine the level of development of senior preschoolers’ readiness for social orientation in these organizations. The paper presents the level characteristics of the main structural components of readiness for social orientation in relation to the senior preschool age (personal, cognitive and activity): high, medium, low and unformed. To identify the level of each component development, criteria and evaluation indicators are identified, as well as methods of study, including a method of problem situations, a survey, practice-oriented tasks. With the help of the developed method the author carried out an experiment (ascertaining experiment), its results are presented in the paper. The paper describes in detail one of the components of senior preschoolers’ readiness for social orientation - a personal one, including value orientations; motivational orientation; emotional well-being; integrative qualities of the individual. This component was found to be at a low level that testifies that it is necessary to develop senior preschoolers’ readiness for social orientation in the organizations of additional education.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):330-334
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Improving the content of schoolchildren training for the practical round of the regional stage of the All-Russian Biological Olympiad
Efimova N.V., Shilkova T.V., Sokolova T.L.
Abstract
One of the tasks of the modern educational system is to develop and support talented young people. One way of it could be the subject Olympiads for schoolchildren, which contribute to the professional orientation of students and their future success in life increasing students’ interest in science as well as developing their creative potential and cognitive activity. The experience of carrying out various stages of the All-Russian Biological Olympiad for schoolchildren in Biology showed that in order to achieve high results, participants of the Olympiad need a methodically sound system of training camps and advice from specialists in various fields of Biology. The paper summarizes long-term experience of organizing a practical tour of the regional stage of the All-Russian Olympiad for schoolchildren in Biology at the department of General biology and Physiology of the South Ural State Humanitarian Pedagogical University. The authors present methodological recommendations aimed at improving schoolchildren training for a practical tour of the regional stage of the All-Russian Olympiad in Biology (room «Human Biology», grade 9), including a description of typical mistakes made by participants in the Olympiad, an algorithm for performing practical tasks on microscopy of histological preparations, criteria for differentiating histological objects, examples of Olympiad tasks with a matrix of answers.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):334-341
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A systematic approach to schoolchildren’s environmental thinking development and prospective teachers’ training for this work organization
Lamekhova E.A.
Abstract
The following paper discusses one of the aspects of environmental education. It is related to the necessity to use a systematic approach for schoolchildren’s environmental thinking development. The process of environmental thinking development is linked with environmental education implementation. For a long time, environmental education was considered as an integral part of biological education, but now an interdisciplinary approach to this work is considered. Different models of cognition are also considered, the recognition or denial of which influenced the nature of science development and the content of the educational process. Cognitive models in varying degrees, depending on specific conditions, determined the level and nature of ecological knowledge system development. A systematic approach for schoolchildren’s environmental thinking development should be based on the main positions, which are the basis of cognitive models that act as paradigmatic methodological guidelines. The implementation of a systematic approach to environmental thinking development proceeds more successfully when using the practice-oriented approach, which lies at the basis of the lesson and students’ extracurricular activities organization. The above mentioned approach can be now implemented in the form of project development. While working with students - prospective teachers, ecologization of disciplines is widely implemented.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):342-349
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Ecological parks educational environment usage at Biology lessons in schools (on the example of N.A. Avrorin Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute)
Mitina E.G., Ishchenko A.V.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to the search of alternative ways to update school Biology curriculum. Creation of educational environment at the premises of ecological parks is considered to be an innovative and promising prospective approach that meets contemporary demands and follows central developmental trends of society. Based on the results of practicing Biology teachers’ poll, we give an expediency analysis of engaging ecological parks educational opportunities for school lessons. According to available data as well as based on the structure and the content of biological education prescribed for secondary school, the author’s program «Kola Land nature» has been developed. The content of our program is an addition to the General program line «Biology for 6-9 classes» created by V.V. Pasetchnik, it matches the themes of a school Biology course: «Biology as a science of vital nature», «Cellular structure of organisms», «Plant kingdom», «Diversity of fauna», «Ecosystems». Effectiveness evaluation of the author’s educational program «Kola Land nature» was realized in the ecological park of N.A. Avrorin Polar Alpine Botanical Garden & Institute. The obtained data confirm that the program usage as an addition to the basic school Biology course improves the level of its mastering by students.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):349-355
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The global goal of media education in the information society
Pozdnyakova O.K., Krylova E.L.
Abstract
The following paper actualizes the problem of media education in the conditions of modern Russian society, allowing to master the skills and abilities to work effectively with information. It is substantiated that media education contributes to training the younger generation, first of all, for life in modern conditions, for effective perception of information and its comprehension, for understanding the impact of various types of information on the psyche, as well as for mastering modern technical means of nonverbal communication. The role of media education in the transformation of young people into creators of their own content, their development as harmonious individuals - development of emotions, intelligence, development of worldview, familiarization with moral values. The role of mass media in the development of media culture and information literacy of the population in general and of children and young people in particular is indicated. It is substantiated that the global goal of media education in the conditions of the information society is to build an ideological foundation of society. It is argued that one of the important tasks aimed at achieving the global goal of media education is the formation of patriotism, as one of the basic Russian values. The relationship between patriotic education and the media education process is indicated. The content of the multimedia patriotic media education project (festival) of the federal scale, the First All-Russian Media Competition «Russian Cosmos», promotes development of the individual through media, acquires historical knowledge of local lore and familiarizes with the greatest pages of the history of his/her native country. The conclusion is made about the important role of media education for training children, adolescents and young people to live in a new technological structure, to work in conditions of the multipolarity of the virtual world and an endless stream of multidirectional information.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):355-361
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University students’ behavioral culture development by means of personality-oriented education technologies
Tsepkova A.N.
Abstract
The paper substantiates that one of the ways to solve the problem of university students’ behavioral culture development is to use technologies of personality-oriented education. The specificity of actions-words and deeds-actions in human behavior is indicated. The distinction between the action-operation (considered without regard to its moral and moral significance) and the action-action (considered from the point of view of moral and moral value) is revealed. It justifies the effectiveness of technologies of personality-oriented education to form a culture of student behavior through an appeal to the main provisions of the paradigm of personality-oriented education: a statement on the values of personality-oriented education (personality, culture, creativity), a statement on the goal of a personality-oriented education (education of a culture person whose natural, social and cultural essence is interrelated); position about the functions of personality-oriented education (humanitarian, cultural, integrating). The specificity of personality-oriented education is shown. The triad «Task - Dialogue - Game» is considered as a base of technologies of personality-oriented education. The author gives examples of games built using the technologies of personality-oriented education and contributing to students’ behavioral culture development (the game «Verbal behavior (confident, uncertain and rude)»; the game «Non-verbal forms of confident, uncertain, rude behavior»; the game «Self-esteem»; discussion game «Be able to feel a person next to you»; a game-metaphor, a game of self-criticism, a game - the choice of tactics).
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(2):361-365
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