Scientific and methodological conditions for adapting foreign experience of higher education internationalization

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Abstract


The paper presents an analysis of education internationalization as a leading direction in the development of higher education in the context of globalization. The author considers domestic and foreign theories of education internationalization, highlighting its political, economic, demographic and pedagogical aspects, which proves the multidimensional nature of this scientific and educational phenomenon. The need to strengthen Russia’s geopolitical influence in the world as well as strengthen the competitive advantages of Russian education actualizes research interest in the successful experience of foreign countries in the field of education internationalization and the possibility of its use in Russian universities. The scientific novelty and theoretical significance of the research lies in the substantiation and characterization of the scientific and methodological conditions for adapting the foreign experience of education internationalization. The author proves that scientific and methodological conditions for adapting foreign experience of education internationalization include theoretical and methodological conditions, organizational and methodological conditions, educational, methodological and psychological conditions. Comprehensive implementation of the identified conditions allows implementing of the international dimension in the educational, research and management activities of higher education institutions. The practical significance of the research is determined by the possibility of using the results obtained in the development of international activities of higher education institutions, in the integration of modern tools for higher education internationalization, taking into account Russian academic and scientific traditions.


Full Text

Introduction. Setting the research problem
In complex geopolitical conditions, researchers ' attention is drawn to the leading trends in the development of higher education in modern conditions, among which the internationalization of education occupies a special place.
The most common definition is the internationalization of education as "... a process in which the goals, functions and organization of educational services acquire an international dimension" [1, p. 2]. Internationalization of higher education in the most General form is defined as the process of including international, intercultural and global dimensions in the strategies and practical activities of universities [2, p. 353]. Internationalization of higher education in the modern context acts as a strategy for active implementation of the international dimension in all basic spheres of University life [3, p. 128].
The increasing importance of internationalization of education is reflected in its impact on the openness and interaction between national educational systems based on their value adaptation. This makes it possible not only to preserve the educational traditions of individual countries, but also to spread them in other countries [4, p.39].
Recent research has highlighted the importance of developing strategies for internationalization of national higher education systems [4, p. 40], and strategies for internationalization at the level of individual universities [5, p. 211; 6, p.6].
In the scientific literature examines the experience of several States that have adopted a national strategy of internationalisation of education: a national strategy for international education by 2025 (Australia); national education strategy (Canada), the national development plan and reform education in the medium and long term period (2010-2020) (China). Countries such as Germany, Malaysia, New Zealand, the USA, France, Sweden, and others have adopted and are implementing national strategies for internationalization of higher education [7, p. 21].
According to recent research, only 11% of countries have developed a national internationalization strategy over the past decade. Three-quarters of these countries are members of the Organization for economic cooperation and development [8].
Russian authors emphasize the need to develop a national strategy for internationalization of education [9, p. 77], since there is a lack of consistency and conscious use of internationalization mechanisms [10, p. 66].
The priority project "development of the export potential of the Russian education system", adopted in 2017, emphasizes the state significance and objective necessity of the strategy of internationalization of education, according to which it is expected to increase the number of foreign students in Russian universities from 220 thousand to 710 thousand in 2025 [11].
The analysis of the scientific literature allows us to identify the existing contradiction between the increasing role of internationalization of education in modern conditions, the need to use the experience accumulated in other countries, and insufficient scientific and methodological justification for adapting foreign experience of internationalization of education in Russian universities. The purpose of the research is to identify the scientific and methodological conditions for adapting foreign experience of internationalization of higher education.
Analysis of publications on the research topic
In foreign studies, the evolution of approaches to the internationalization of education as a developing concept that is significantly influenced by academic, political, socio-cultural and economic factors is considered in sufficient detail and comprehensively [Alsharari, 2018 [12]; Knight, 2003 [1]; De Wit, 2019 [13].
Researchers believe that the modern concept of internationalization of education is no more than 30 years old [13, p. 12-14]. During these years, the internationalization of education was situational, fragmented and did not acquire the features of a comprehensive strategy, especially at the level of national governments. This is reflected in the weak coherence of international activities in the field of education, research and implementation of the social mission of universities. The elitist nature of internationalization of education has been a barrier to the development of education in a number of countries. In the context of globalization, new trends in the internationalization of education have emerged due to socio-political changes in the world. In particular, we are talking about the universal nature and purposefulness of internationalization as a component of educational policy and its significant impact not only on improving the quality of education, but, which is of particular importance, on the achievement of sustainable development goals [14, p.5-7].
The multi-aspect nature of internationalization of education as an interdisciplinary phenomenon is also presented in Russian studies.
Analysis of the literature allows us to identify the following research aspects in the study of internationalization of education:
- political aspects: internationalization of education as a geopolitical resource of " soft power "[Antonova, Sushchenko, 2020 [15]; Arzhanova, Dydzinskaya, Musina, Seleznev, 2019 [16]; Kovba, Gribovod, 2019 [17]; Li J., 2018 [18]];
- economic aspects: internationalization of education and export of educational services, strengthening the competitive advantages of educational organizations and national educational systems [Krolivetskaya, 2018 [9]; Makhotaeva, 2019 [6]; Nefedova, 2017 [19]; endovitsky, Korotkikh, Voronova, 2020 [20]; seroshtan, 2020 [21];
- demographic aspects: internationalization of education as a factor of educational migration [Imankulova, Moshlyak, 2019 [22]; Suvorova, Bronnikova, 2019 [23];
- pedagogical aspects: internationalization of the educational environment [Malkova, Maslennikova, 2018 [10]; internationalization of educational programs [Muraveva, Oleynikova, Viktorova, 2017 [24]; internationalization of academic disciplines [Kopus, 2019 [25].
It should be noted that despite the differences in the interpretation of the concepts of internationalization of education, most authors agree with the conclusion about the intensification of internationalization processes in the context of globalization.
The scientific literature presents a wide range of studies devoted to the analysis of internationalization of education in the context of globalization [Aleshina, 2017 [5]; Beregovaya, Kudashov, 2019 [4]; Monne Wihlborg, Sue Robson, 2018 [26].
The analysis of the processes of internationalization of education in different countries leads the authors to the logical conclusion that internationalization of education cannot be separated from globalization [2, p.352].
Globalization can be considered as a process that affects internationalization, since internationalization changes the world of education and globalization changes the world of internationalization [1, p. 3].
Main results
The intensification of globalization processes in the world actualizes the study of the successful experience of internationalization of education in Finland [Dobrynina, Babushkina, 2019 [27]; Italy [Krasilnikova, 2017 [28]; China [starygina, 2017 [29]; Germany [Patsukevich, 2018 [30] and other countries.
Summarizing the results of the research allows us to formulate a conclusion about the need for scientific and methodological support for the adaptation of foreign experience to the Russian academic environment, to the peculiarities of the national education system and individual universities.
From our point of view, the successful adaptation of international practices of internationalization of education implies the creation of a system of scientific and methodological conditions in Russian universities, which include theoretical and methodological conditions, organizational and methodological conditions, educational and methodological and psychological conditions.
Let's consider the selected conditions for adapting foreign experience of internationalization of education in more detail.
Theoretical and methodological conditions for adapting foreign experience of internationalization of education suggest:
- scientific substantiation of the directions of studying and adapting foreign experience of internationalization of education in the field of educational, research, and management activities in higher education;
- theoretical analysis of the multi-dimensionality, multi-level and multi-aspect internationalization of education as a scientific and practical phenomenon;
- scientific substantiation of criteria for evaluating foreign experience in internationalization of education and its significance for the higher education system;
- theoretical and methodological substantiation of mechanisms for integrating internationalization of education in the University development strategy, taking into account international experience;
- scientific substantiation of forms of integration of foreign experience of internationalization of education in the activities of the University;
- identification of possible barriers to the adaptation of foreign experience of internationalization of education, their systematization and classification;
- pedagogical justification for preventing and overcoming barriers in adapting foreign experience of internationalization of education.
Organizational and methodological conditions for adapting foreign experience of internationalization of education include:
- ensuring continuous methodological training of teachers and researchers of the University to use foreign experience of internationalization of education;
- organization of a systematic study of foreign experience of internationalization of education by teachers and researchers of the University, taking into account the training profile, regional characteristics, scientific and professional and personal interests of teachers and researchers;
- development and implementation of joint educational and research projects and programs at the University with foreign partners;
- organization of international accreditation of basic and additional educational programs;
- placement of University educational programs on international educational platforms;
- organization of exchange of teachers between Russian and foreign universities;
- intensification of international incoming and outgoing academic mobility of students, teachers, and researchers.
Conclusion
The analysis of the internationalization of higher education as a multidimensional scientific and practical phenomenon, a factor of increasing the geopolitical influence of Russian education in the modern world, allows us to formulate the following main conclusions.
1. Internationalization of education, being one of the leading trends in the development of higher education in the context of globalization and new geopolitical realities of our time, arouses active research interest of representatives of a wide range of scientific specialties.
2. the Objective need to strengthen the competitive advantages of Russian education at the international level actualizes the systematic study of the experience of internationalization of education in foreign leading countries and its adaptation to local socio-cultural conditions and national academic traditions.
3. successful adaptation of foreign experience of internationalization of education involves the creation of a system of scientific and methodological conditions in Russian universities, which include theoretical and methodological conditions, organizational and methodological conditions, educational and methodological and psychological conditions, which allows to ensure:
- system integration of modern tools for internationalization of education in the development strategies of universities, strengthening their international status and business reputation;
- an integrated approach to the implementation of the international dimension in the educational, research, and management activities of universities;
- the relationship between the focus on the best practices of the world's leading educational and research centers and the active dissemination of Russian academic and scientific achievements in the world.
4. further study of the scientific and methodological support of the system for monitoring the systematic use and adaptation of foreign experience in the internationalization of higher education is Required.

About the authors

Olga V. Aldakimova

Armavir State Pedagogical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: aldakimova.olga@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9218-901X

Russian Federation, Armavir, Krasnodar Region

candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor of Social, Special Pedagogy and Psychology Department

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