No 1 (2018)

Articles
«EPISTOLAR» ANTHOLOGY OF OLD BELIEVERS AND FORMATION PECULIARITIES OF CYRILLIC COMPILATIONS AT THE TURN OF THE 19th CENTURY
Bytko S.S., Solodkin Y.G.
Abstract
The article deals with the topical issue of modern archeography i.e. the problem of structural «arrangement» of compilations composed by Priestless Old Believers. The research on how old believers compiled their books has been done since the middle of the 19th century. Despite this fact there are still no comprehensive works that would precisely describe the «organisation» rules of compilations; the alternation of individual chapters as well as their interrelationship within the composition as a whole. An attempt is being made to establish links between the «architectonics» of the compilations and the time they were formed as well as the religious affiliation of their compilers. For this purpose a Cyrillic manuscript with unclear dating and attribution was chosen for analysis from the collection of the National Library of Russia. The article shows that the book comes from the communities of Old Believer pilgrims and appeared in 1910-1917. The book was intended for internal use within the communities of Old Believers and, instead of the doctrine debate with other factions, its aim was to encourage religious enthusiasm in «runaway» Old Believers. It has been determined that the structure of the compilation was greatly affected by the social and political processes of the early 20th century. Thus, some texts were included in the set with the aim of «scientification» of the religious tradition of Old Believers. For more powerful effect on the audience, the compiler skillfully combined texts which used various forms of narration (literary-emotional and rational).The structure of the compilation was to illustrate the best model of religious life which would guarantee the Old Believer not only personal salvation but also the survival of their faith.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):3-8
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PECULIARITIES OF THE IDEOLOGY OF THE ANTI-SOVIET MOVEMENT IN THE EAST OF RUSSIA AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE POLITICAL FIGHT IN SIBERIA IN 1918
Vtorushin M.I.
Abstract
The paper sets up the nature problem of the anti-Soviet movement ideology in Eastern Russia in the epoch of the social and political cataclysms in 1918-1920 and its impact on the political struggle for power in the Siberian region. The purpose of the paper is to reveal the peculiarities of the anti-Soviet political factions’ ideological goals during the Civil War in Siberia and the reasons for the supporters of February Revolution to consolidate around the “white idea” of a unitary state. It was found that the anti-Soviet political bloc during the initial period of the Civil war included three main ideological movements that reflected an objective balance of socio class and political forces in Siberia. The interests of these political groups were in acute contradictions due to different understanding of the future state structure of Russia. The socialists upheld the principle of Federation, the officer-cadet groups defended the idea of a unitary state and the Siberian regionalists advocated a confederal state structure. Different ideological preferences resulted in a fierce struggle for power. In the end, the winners were the representatives of the movement, which defended the unitary state principle, marked as the «white idea». This political choice in favor of the military dictatorship of the Unitarians was backed by the fact that Siberian commercial and industrial circles and cooperators, who previously supported the regionalist movement in the anti-Soviet political bloc, fully understood the need to recreate the single Russian market. They required this to solve historical «Siberian issues» associated with overcoming the negative colonial legacy of the pre-revolutionary development of the region. The results of the study can be used when writing works on the history of Siberia, when teaching courses on the Russian history, courses on the history of the 1917 revolution and the Civil war.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):8-16
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ACTIVITIES OF PEASANT SELF-GOVERNMENT BODIES IN WESTERN SIBERIA (1898-1917)
Germizeeva V.V.
Abstract
The article analyzes the activities of peasant self-government bodies in Western Siberia in the early twentieth century. The following archival materials were used: documents of volost government and assemblies; the audit results of the bodies of peasants self-governments; reports of permanent members of the office of Peasant Affairs; various circulars and orders of higher authorities. In the research great importance was given to the study of laws, primarily «Regulations on the Reform of the Public Governance of State Peasants in Western Siberia», «Provisional Regulations on Peasant Superiors», etc. Specific information on the activities of peasant self-government bodies can be found in the local periodicals. All together these sources allow to highlight typical problems that existed at the lowest level of governance. The article draws special attention to the state of the volost and community administrations as well as the quality of the officials and the supervision functions of peasant superiors. The author presents information about main activities of volost governments, community and volost assemblies as well as about rights and responsibilities of their chiefs and elders. The range of issues under the jurisdiction of peasant self-government bodies was very wide. That is the supervision of the quality of roads, problem resolution in the field of public education and veterinary, combating infectious diseases, guardianship, etc. The article shows both positive and negative aspects of the activities of peasant self-government bodies.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):16-24
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«DAY OF RYE EAR» AS A FORM OF A CHARITABLE FESTIVAL IN EARLY 20th CENTURY (case study of small towns of Yaroslavl Province)
Yerokhina S.V.
Abstract
The object of this research is the historical processes connected with the history of establishment and development of both medical societies in Russia and local charitable organizations in the province in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The subject of the research is the content and features of the formation and development of medical and charitable societies. The research is based on the sources and data from Yaroslavl province. The aim of the article is to consider in an integrated manner the history of population activities in small provincial towns. The solution of the research tasks was achieved both through the identification of the role of the above-mentioned societies in the education system and through depiction of the history of their activity. The study is based on the principles of historism and objectivity. The methodological basis for the research is the dialectical method, which deals with the basic principles of the study of reality in its development. The article considers reasons for the active development of socio-cultural charity in small provincial towns in Yaroslavl province in the early 20th century The author analyses the socio-cultural initiatives of voluntary medical and charitable organisations, their membership and participation in the cultural activity of the society. The article includes a short history of this new initiative («Day of Rye Ear») in various big cities of the country. The study characterises the ear of rye as a symbol of the festival. Historical data is provided on the famine in Russia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was proved that local intelligentsia played a key role in the development of new cultural environment in provincial towns. As a result, two models for the formation of medical and charitable societies in small provincial towns are represented in the article. First approach to the establishment of such associations is opening of branch offices in the province. The second is the formation of organisations due to the initiative of local population. The activity of these organisations was very important for the region, as the state policy in this field was insufficiently active.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):24-31
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REVISION OF M.M. SPERANSKY AND THE FIGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION IN SIBERIA IN THE FIRST QUARTER OF THE 19th CENTURY
Konovalov I.A.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the study of the fight against corruption in Siberia in the first quarter of the 19th century. The increased interest in the history of local government is connected not only with the desire of historians to look deeper into the past but with purely practical needs as well. Returning to the forgotten traditions of regional government, it is important to take a fuller account of the historical experience that has been developed over the centuries. The greater autonomy of the state apparatus as compared to the center of the country was the specific feature of the Siberian administration. A distinctive feature of the Siberian bureaucracy was its almost complete isolation from the local society.The main source of livelihood for most officials was the monetary allowance received for the service, which made them dependent on the state, thus fostering a loyal attitude to the existing political regime and the formation of the psychology of loyalty. Lack of self-government in the region, insufficient control over the state bodies by the population and almost complete absence of democratic freedoms laid the basis for the development of corruption; caused abuse of power, and even led to the merging of crime with the administrative-police system. The situation was exacerbated by the disparity of the high status in the local society, determined by the position in public service and relatively small salaries of Siberian officials.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):31-35
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LEAGUE «EDUCATION» AND ITS IMPACT ON THE GROWTH OF SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE PROVINCIAL INTELLIGENTSIA (on materials of the Yenisei province)
Tsenyuga I.N., Tsenyuga S.N.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the history of the establishment and development of a non-governmental organisation the «League of Education» with the purpose of celebrating its 100th anniversary. It was necessary not only to analyze the main areas of the organizational practice but also to compare its goals and objectives with the current «League of Education» which was founded in 2006. Therefore, the main tasks of this article were determined as follows: to identify the main national and regional socio-economical and socio-cultural factors and conditions that influenced the formation of the «League of Education»; to describe the socio-political composition of the governing bodies; to determine the directions and nature of work with the view of using this historical experience in the current conditions. The following principles were used in the research: historicism, systematic approach and objectivity. Attempts were made to reconstruct the activities of non-governmental organisations in the sphere of propaganda and development of mass public education in provincial towns. After reviewing the database and following the analysis of scientific literature which explicitly or implicitly depicts the role of the «League of Education», the necessity of reflexion on the historical heritage becomes reasonable. Comprehension of the historical heritage is essential to study the phenomena of civil initiatives of outstanding scholars, educators and representatives of political organisations of both the Central Russia and provinces, the Yenisei province in particular. The revival of the League of Education in the first quarter of the 21st century became possible due to the cooperation of the leading scientific institutions, universities and school leaders. Its aim is the formation of analytical skills, forecasting and modeling of citizens’ personal demands for education and comfortable educational environment, capable to change general attitude towards education.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):36-46
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«YUZHSIBREKI» PROJECT AND ITS PREDECESSORS
Shmygleva A.V.
Abstract
One of the most important aspects of environmental history is the history of the development and transformation of aquatic ecosystems, which play an important role in human life and represent an essential condition for any stable state. In the USSR ideas for integral water resources management were studied for decades and various schemes of water resources reallocation were proposed. As the Aral-Caspian problem worsened/, specialists focused on the vast territory of the Ob-Irtysh interfluve which had the necessary characteristics. The article considers one of the most ambitious projects on the river runoff redistribution for economic purposes, i.e. the Yuzhsibreki project developed by A. Miller-Shulga. The project suggested a complex multi-stage water transfer scheme from the Ob, Irtysh, Ishim, Tom, Chulym, Yenisei, Angara and Lena to the Aral-Caspian region According to A. Miller-Shulga this project was to result in the creation of a «new socialist lake-river network». Most publications dealing with the Siberian rivers runoff redistribution have an emotional connotation and are often not based on primary sources. The author makes an attempt to compare different projects on the basis of published and unpublished materials in order to identify their similarities and differences. From the author’s point of view, it is important to track the dynamics in the process of setting and solving the problem of supplying the national economy with water recourses, as well as to consider the perception of river reversal problem by the project developers themselves.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):46-54
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THE INTERESTS AND DIVIDENDS OF THE WEST FROM THE COOPERATION IN THE ECONOMIC SPHERE WITH THE SOCIALIST COUNTRIES IN THE LATE 60s - 70s OF THE 20th CENTURY
Barabanov M.V.
Abstract
The article attempts to uncover the deep-seated interests of the West in the development of economic cooperation with socialist countries in the years of «detente», as well as to reveal the dividends that Western countries received from the intensification of ties with socialist countries in the economic sphere. It is emphasized that the «pivot» in the West-East cooperation was predetermined by severe circumstances that arose in the global market economy in the first half of the 1960s. The resolution of West economic problems was possible only in the atmosphere of security and cooperation on the European continent and in the world in general. Having set out on the path of ‘détente’, political and economic cooperation with the Eastern bloc, Western countries showed the world and their own community their positive attitude to this cooperation both as a «charity» and as a necessity, allegedly stemming from the objective process of the integration of two economic models, as well as an instrument for strengthening peace and security. At the same time they sought to hide their political interests. The authors reveal these deep interests, as well as the dividends that Western countries received from the intensification of economic ties with the socialist countries during the years of détente. The analysis was made on the basis of various articles and analytical materials of foreign researchers that appeared "hot on the trail" in the 1970s and early 1980s. The author draws conclusions, generalizations and historical parallels and speaks about the lessons emerging from the analysis of this page of the recent history.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):55-62
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THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION ON THE DISSEMINATION OF SOCIO-POLITICAL IDEAS IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE IN THE 19th CENTURY
Bespalova L.N.
Abstract
The article presents a discussion of scholars, public and political figures of Germany in the 18-19th centuries on the necessity of social reforms, which had began with the French Revolution in 1789. Special attention is paid to the process of industrialization, which certainly should be regarded as a modernization. At the same time, modernization processes have always been closely connected with sociocultural transformations. Social trends in Germany marked a qualitatively new stage in the socio-political and socio-economic development of this country and its regions. This stage was connected with the formation and further successful functioning of such a new state system as a ‘social state’. Meanwhile, the industrial revolution and urbanisation in the German Empire caused a sharp increase in the working class that was economically, legally and socially insecure. All these factors led to industrial revolutions. According to the author, the bloody events of 1848-1849 made the representatives of intelligentsia, including conservative circles, understand the inevitability of social changes and led to the development of the concepts of gradual and non-violent change of political and social relations. The article analyzes works of W. von Humboldt, J. G. Fichte, A. Müller, L. von Stein, K. I. Rodbertus-Jagetzow, etc.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):62-70
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IAMBLICHUS - THE SCHOLARCH OF THE APAMEA SCHOOL
Bolgova A.A.
Abstract
In transition from antiquity to the Middle Ages an important role was played by the sphere of education, high school in particular. It became one of the most important links of the cultural continuity between the epochs, ensuring translation of knowledge and classical heritage. High School of Early Byzantium comprised three levels: grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy. Special sciences, first of all medicine and jurisprudence, corresponded to the level of rhetoric. Christian theology was considered superior to philosophy, though it was not common, but intra- church. In general, higher education in Early Byzantium remained secular in the Christianized society. Even the content of teaching remained predominantly traditional classical, excluding pagan theurgic practices. The school of Iamblichus in Apamea became one of the first philosophical schools of Late Antiquity, where, in addition to studying Neoplatonism, a complex of theurgic practices emerged as a religious cult expression of the final phase of the existence of the classical philosophical higher school. Iamblichus (about 250-320 A.D.) was a key figure in the translation of Neoplatonism from Rome to the Eastern Mediterranean, the future Byzantium.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):70-80
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REFORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SLAVIC PEOPLE CULTURE
Galyamichev A.N.
Abstract
The article deals with the influence of the European Reformation on the cultural development of Slavic peoples; the conclusion is drawn that the Reformation was the source of powerful impulses to a radical renewal of the spiritual culture of the Slavic world on the threshold of a New time. It is shown that the Reformation played a key role in preserving the Sorb national identity, had a strong beneficial influence on the cultural development of the Bohemian kingdom in 16th - early 17th centuries and significantly affected the development of Polish culture (particularly, literature in the national language) in the sixteenth century. The article describes peculiarities of the Reformation cultural impact in the Slavic lands of the Hungarian Kingdom, reveals the reasons of its controversial impact in Slovakia and Croatia, and emphasizes the Reformation’s particularly significant impact on the development of Croatian culture. The author provides facts about the impact of the Reformation on the cultural life of the Slovene lands, the literary language formation in particular. The article concludes that the era of the Reformation was essential in the development of the identity and culture of Slavic peoples connected with the world of Western Christianity. It was the time when the preconditions for the Slavic National Revival were created.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):80-84
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INTELLECTUAL LIFE OF ALEXANDRIA (case study of the museion of Alexandria)
Zaytseva I.V.
Abstract
The purpose of the article is to analise the impact of the intellectual atmosphere of the Alexandrian museion on the intellectual life of the Alexandrian society. The subject of the research is the Alexandrian museion as a traditional form of museumification inherent in the classical Hellenistic culture. The methodological basis of the article were the general scientific methods such as analysis and synthesis, which allowed to integrate the traditions of Russian and international researchers on the issue. Such methods as the comparative historical method, method of systems analysis, the structural-diachronic method, statistical method, hermeneutical method and historical description were used. Currently there are plenty of scientific works dedicated to the largest educational center, i.e. the Alexandrian school, which is nor the case of Alexandrian museion. Some fragmentary information about the pundits whose practice took place in the Museion can be found in the works of Strabo, Diodorus Siculus and Diogenes Laertius. Description of certain aspects of the Museion development can be found in the works of such Russian researchers as A. A. Bondarenko and V. P. Porshnev. The general cultural analysis of the Alexandria life development can be checked in the works of the following foreign researchers: Harnack A., Kingsley C., Macleod R. M. and Parsons E. D. The article determines that the stages of the Alexandrian museion development were connected with the sociopolitical, cultural and religious changes typical for the Roman Empire in different historical periods. It was the Alexandrian museion that became an intellectual center which formed the cultural dimension of the city. This intellectual center represented the implemented idea of classical antiquity to put together the material and cultural values so that they could effectively influence the Alexandria society.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):84-90
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ANTIQUARIES ON THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLAND IN THE LATE 16TH CENTURY: NEW TRENDS AND HERITAGE OF THE MIDDLE AGES
Melihova P.V.
Abstract
The article attempts to study the economic development of England in the late 16th - early 17th centuries. The research was made on the bases of such works by early English antiquaries as «A Description of Elizabethan England» by W. Harrison and «Britain» by W. Camden. The author focuses on the question of what heritage of the Middle Ages and what new trends were marked by antiquaries. The article shows that, being educated and wealthy the antiquaries paid attention to various aspects of everyday life which characterized the economic state of the country, i.e. agriculture, textile industry, mining and metallurgy, development of trade and fleet, rearmament of the army. The author comes to the conclusion that through the comments of antiquaries, their notes as well as the style and language of their presentations, we can say that in the late 16th century England a new type of economic management appeared, which co-existed with the old medieval traditions.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):90-99
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FROM THE HISTORY OF ENGLAND AT THE TURN OF THE EARLY AND THE BEGINNING OF THE CLASSICAL MIDDLE AGES: THE CONFRONTATION BETWEEN CNUT THE GREAT AND EDMUND IRONSIDE IN 1016
Poliakov S.A.
Abstract
This article presents the analysis of the confrontation between the Danish Prince Cnut and the Anglo-Saxon King Edmund Ironside in 1016. These events are an integral part of a long war of conquest, which was waged by the Kings of Denmark in England in the first decades of the 11th century. As a result of the conquest of England by Denmark, in 1013 King Sweyn Forkbeard took the throne of the Island Kingdom for a short time. King Ethelred II had to flee the country. Sudden death of the Danish ruler made it possible for the escaped sovereign to regain the power. However, in 1015 Cnut the son of Sven, later known as the Great, returned to England and continued the war. At the height of the military events in 1016 the aged King of the Anglo-Saxons died, and his son Edmund succeeded to the throne. He managed to give a decisive rebuff to the enemy and cast doubt on the success of the Danish expansion. The article also describes the main events of that time and analyzes the personality of Edmund Ironside, the King of England, whose brief reign is often forgotten in the general course of history. Nevertheless, making use of the available information we can say that he was a serious rival to Cnut because Edmund was an outstanding commander and politician. Despite his victories the outcome of the war was not in favor of Edmund Ironside as England was conquered by the Scandinavians and a peace treaty was concluded between the rulers. However, the execution of the treaty was unnecessary because of the unexpected death of Edmund. On the bases on the chronicles, we try to describe the course of events and make an attempt to characterize distinctive features of Edmund Ironside as well as to determine the historical significance of his activity.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):99-105
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THE ISSUE OF IMMIGRATION AND LEGISLATIVE REGULATION OF JEWISH PEOPLE IN THE UNITED STATES (the end of the 18th - the first quarter of 20th centuries)
Savelyeva A.V.
Abstract
This article deals with the most important aspects of Jewish immigration to the United States of America at the end of 18th - the first quarter of 20th centuries. The author analyzes the reasons and factors that influenced this process. Special attention is given to the comparative assessment of the three immigrant groups of Jewish origin: in terms of the attitudes of immigrants of different flows to each other and in terms of the attitudes of American society to them. On the basis of the analysis of the American immigration law the reasons for restricting the entry of Jews to the USA in the 1920s were revealed. The subject of the research is the Jews immigration to the United States of America at the end of 18th - the first quarter of 20th centuries, as well as the legislative regulation on the stay of Jews in this country at that period. The study is based on the materials from the digital Library of Congress such as immigration laws, verbatim records of the United States Congress, resolutions of the Congress, etc. These documents make it possible to determine the stages of Jewish immigration in the United States and to identify principles and causes for legal regulation of their stay on the US territory. Work with information sources was carried out with the help of general scientific research methods, i.e. description, analysis and comparative method, as well as special methods of historical study, such as historical-comparative method. When working with statistical data, the author used mathematical methods of research. The results of the study make it possible to reconstruct some aspects of the immigration policy of the United States of America in the late 18th - the first quarter of 20th centuries and to identify prospects for further work on the issues in question.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):105-111
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SCYTHIAN GRAVES FROM THE BARROW 4 OF THE «GARDEN» GROUP ON THE LEFT BANK OF THE LOWER DNIESTER
Sinika V.S., Telnov N.P., Lysenko S.D.
Abstract
The article deals with the materials from the Scythian burials investigated in 2015 during the excavation of the barrow 4 from the «Garden» group, located to the north of the village Glinoe, Slobodzeya district, on the left bank of the Lower Dniester. The mound was created in the Early Bronze Age by the affiliates of the Usatovo archaeological culture. Three Cimmerian burials were let in it in the first half of the 1st millennium BC and in the 4th century BC four more Scythian graves (4/3, 4/6, 4/11, 4/18) were let in. The cup and the tools which were found in the burial 4/6 and are related to spinning and sewing, as well as the knife with a horn handle from burial 4/18 and the knife with a wooden handle from burial 4/6, demonstrate the succession of the burial rite of the Late Scythian and Classical Scythian cultures. These Scythian graves, as well as the other Scythian burial complexes from the "Garden" group, do not only testify to the transformation of the classical Scythian culture into the late Scythian culture. Moreover, they indicate the continued presence of the Scythian population in the region in the 4th-2nd centuries BC. The same applies to the Scythian barrows and graves, studied in the neighboring barrow group «Sluiceway», totally dating by the second half of the 4th - the first third of the 3rd centuries BC, as well as the barrow of the 3rd-2nd centuries BC, located at the northern edge of the Glinoe village, Slobodzeya district, on the left bank of the Lower Dniester.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):111-119
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ON THE QUESTION OF THE RELIGIOUS VIEWS OF AN EARLY-BYZANTINE ANTIQUARIAN JOHN LYDUS
Sinitca M.M.
Abstract
The theme of this work is the study of religious views of John Lydus who was an early-Byzantine administrator and writer on antiquarian subjects. The main methods of the study are content analysis, historical systematical analysis and historical-genetical approach. In his works John Lydus writes about pagan culture and values with such piety that many researchers consider him a priori a hidden pagan, at the same time, in the context of the epoch, others unreasonably think him to be a Christian. However, his long and successful career of a writer in the era of Justinian religious persecutions in addition to his interest in paganism requires a reconsideration of these points of view. Analyzing Lydus’ treatises, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the author positions himself as a Christian, though a rather vulgar one, who does not understand the nuances of Christian doctrine. Lydus perceived pagan doctrines through the prism of «science» rather critically. His interest in antiquity was of scholastic research nature. Nevertheless, the John Lydus’ outlook was based on the pagan, Neoplatonic in its essence, philosophy, which was the dominant scientific paradigm in the early Byzantine society. Thus, the analysis of John Lydus’ religious views show his dual belief, i.e. a combination of pagan and Christian beliefs, which reveals the ambivalent religious situation in the early Byzantine society.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):119-128
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ANTONINIANI OF PROCULUS AS A SOURCE OF HISTORICAL INFORMATION
Choref M.M.
Abstract
One of the most important tasks for historians is to criticize sources of information, first of all the written ones since their authors tended to be judgmental as a rule. To solve this problem, it is necessary to use alternative sources of information. This research was conducted in order to verify the «Augustan History», i.e. the information regarding the usurpation of Proculus. For this purpose two antoniniani series of his coinage are published. The very fact of their existence can convince us in the reality and relative duration of the Proculus’ reign. It can be assumed that the first series of his coins was mint in Lugdunum, in the early period of his usurpation. On the reverse of the Proculus coins the legend «VICTORIA AVG» was engraved. In such way the Emperor’s victory over the Alemanni was celebrated. The second coin series could be minted in the last period of his reign, when he left Gallia Lugdunensis and was seeking support from the Franks. The legend «PAX AVG» appeared on his coins. I suppose that at that time, Proculus was seeking reconciliation with Probus. Hence it is possible to conclude that the «Augustan History» information about Proculus is quite reliable. The results of the research are brought forward for scientific discussion.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2018;(1):128-136
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